Genomes and Genes
Summary: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Publications283 found, 100 shown here
- Major increase in human monkeypox incidence 30 years after smallpox vaccination campaigns cease in the Democratic Republic of CongoAnne W Rimoin
University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16262-7. 2010..population that is immunologically naïve to orthopoxviruses has increased significantly due to cessation of mass smallpox vaccination campaigns...
- Proteome-wide analysis of the serological response to vaccinia and smallpoxD Huw Davies
Center for Virus Research, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Proteomics 7:1678-86. 2007The eradication of smallpox by vaccination with vaccinia virus was probably one of the greatest achievements of vaccinology. However, the immunological basis of this protection is not fully understood...
- On the origin of smallpox: correlating variola phylogenics with historical smallpox recordsYu Li
Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Coordinating Centers for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15787-92. 2007Human disease likely attributable to variola virus (VARV), the etiologic agent of smallpox, has been reported in human populations for >2,000 years. VARV is unique among orthopoxviruses in that it is an exclusively human pathogen...
- Modified vaccinia Ankara: potential as an alternative smallpox vaccineLewis H McCurdy
Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3017, USA
Clin Infect Dis 38:1749-53. 2004Despite the declaration of smallpox eradication in 1980, the existence of variola stockpiles and the threat of bioterrorism demand that immunity to smallpox through vaccination be maintained...
- Smallpox vaccines: targets of protective immunityBernard Moss
Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3210, USA
Immunol Rev 239:8-26. 2011The eradication of smallpox, one of the great triumphs of medicine, was accomplished through the prophylactic administration of live vaccinia virus, a comparatively benign relative of variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox...
- Inhibition of NK cell activity by IL-17 allows vaccinia virus to induce severe skin lesions in a mouse model of eczema vaccinatumYuko Kawakami
Division of Cell Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
J Exp Med 206:1219-25. 2009..have renewed efforts to better understand poxvirus pathogenesis and to develop a safer vaccine against smallpox. Individuals with atopic dermatitis are excluded from smallpox vaccination because of their propensity to develop ..
- Safety, immunogenicity, and surrogate markers of clinical efficacy for modified vaccinia Ankara as a smallpox vaccine in HIV-infected subjectsRichard N Greenberg
Infectious Diseases Division, University of Kentucky School of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0093, USA
J Infect Dis 207:749-58. 2013..immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons are at higher risk for serious complications associated with traditional smallpox vaccines. Alternative smallpox vaccines with an improved safety profile would address this unmet medical need.
- Daniel Bernoulli's epidemiological model revisitedKlaus Dietz
Department of Medical Biometry, University of Tubingen, Westbahnhofstr 55, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
Math Biosci 180:1-21. 2002The seminal paper by Daniel Bernoulli published in 1766 is put into a new perspective. After a short account of smallpox inoculation and of Bernoulli's life, the motivation for that paper and its impact are described...
- Smallpox: anything to declare?Geoffrey L Smith
Department of Virology, The Wright Fleming Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1P6, UK
Nat Rev Immunol 2:521-7. 2002b>Smallpox was eradicated in 1977, but it remains a concern owing to the potential use of the causative agent variola virus in bioterrorism...
- Nonhuman primates are protected from smallpox virus or monkeypox virus challenges by the antiviral drug ST-246John Huggins
U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2620-5. 2009..The data indicate that oral dosing once per day with ST-246 protects animals from poxvirus disease, as measured by reductions in viral load and numbers of lesions and enhancement of survival...
- Cowpox virus infection of cynomolgus macaques as a model of hemorrhagic smallpoxReed F Johnson
Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Virology 418:102-12. 2011Hemorrhagic smallpox was a rare but severe manifestation of variola virus infection that resulted in nearly 100% mortality...
- One time intranasal vaccination with a modified vaccinia Tiantan strain MVTT(ZCI) protects animals against pathogenic viral challengeWenbo Yu
AIDS Center and Modern Virology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, PR China
Vaccine 28:2088-96. 2010..Based on the vaccinia Tiantan (VTT) strain, which was historically used to eradicate the smallpox in China, we generated a modified VTT (MVTT(ZCI)) by removing the hemagglutinin gene and an 11,944bp genomic ..
- Smallpox vaccines for biodefenseRichard B Kennedy
Mayo Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN 55905, USA
Vaccine 27:D73-9. 2009Few diseases can match the enormous impact that smallpox has had on mankind. Its influence can be seen in the earliest recorded histories of ancient civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia...
- Control of vaccinia virus skin lesions by long-term-maintained IFN-gamma+TNF-alpha+ effector/memory CD4+ lymphocytes in humansBénédicte Puissant-Lubrano
INSERM U945, Paris, France
J Clin Invest 120:1636-44. 2010Vaccinia virus (VV) vaccination is used to immunize against smallpox and historically was considered to have been successful if a skin lesion formed at the vaccination site...
- Safety and immunogenicity of IMVAMUNE, a promising candidate as a third generation smallpox vaccineJens Vollmar
Bavarian Nordic GmbH, Fraunhoferstrasse 13, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
Vaccine 24:2065-70. 2006A Phase I trial was performed to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of the third generation smallpox vaccine MVA-BN (IMVAMUNE), a highly attenuated clone derived from the Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara strain 571, in naive and pre-..
- Individual-based computational modeling of smallpox epidemic control strategiesDonald S Burke
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room E5527, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Acad Emerg Med 13:1142-9. 2006..bioterrorism, the authors developed an individual-based (or "agent-based") computational model of smallpox epidemic transmission and control...
- The effectiveness of contact tracing in emerging epidemicsDon Klinkenberg
Theoretical Epidemiology, Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands
PLoS ONE 1:e12. 2006..With these insights we explain why contact tracing was and will be effective for control of smallpox and SARS, only partially effective for foot-and-mouth disease, and likely not effective for influenza.
- Genome sequence diversity and clues to the evolution of variola (smallpox) virusJoseph J Esposito
Biotechnology Core Facility Branch, Division of Scientific Resources, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
Science 313:807-12. 2006Comparative genomics of 45 epidemiologically varied variola virus isolates from the past 30 years of the smallpox era indicate low sequence diversity, suggesting that there is probably little difference in the isolates' functional gene ..
- Smallpox vaccination and bioterrorism with pox virusesAnton Mayr
Institute of Microbiology, Infectious and Epidemic Diseases of the Veterinary, Faculty of the Ludwig Maximilian, University of Munich, Weiheimer Strasse 1, 823 19, Starnberg, Germany
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 26:423-30. 2003..Apart from the variola virus, the agent responsible for smallpox in humans, the monkeypox virus and numerous other animal pox viruses pose potential risks for humans and animals...
- Genome-wide association study of antibody response to smallpox vaccineInna G Ovsyannikova
Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Vaccine 30:4182-9. 2012We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of antibody levels in a multi-ethnic group of 1071 healthy smallpox vaccine recipients...
- Forecasting the geographical spread of smallpox cases by air travelR F Grais
Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
Epidemiol Infect 131:849-57. 2003Instituting air travel restrictions to slow the geographical spread of smallpox cases would have significant consequences and present serious logistical concerns...
- Outbreaks of human monkeypox after cessation of smallpox vaccinationMary G Reynolds
Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop G 43, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Trends Microbiol 20:80-7. 2012..in human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) prompts the question of whether cessation of smallpox vaccination is driving the phenomenon, and if so, why is re-emergence not universal throughout the historic ..
- Smallpox vaccine with integrated IL-15 demonstrates enhanced in vivo viral clearance in immunodeficient mice and confers long term protection against a lethal monkeypox challenge in cynomolgus monkeysRafal J Zielinski
Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 1374, USA
Vaccine 28:7081-91. 2010Despite the eradication of smallpox, there is heightened concern that it could be reintroduced as a result of intentional release of Variola major virus through an act of bioterrorism...
- Emergence and reemergence of smallpox: the need for development of a new generation smallpox vaccineSergei N Shchelkunov
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
Vaccine 29:D49-53. 2011The review summarizes the archive data on smallpox, history of ancient civilizations, and the most recent data on the genome organization of orthopoxviruses, their evolutionary relationships, and the time points of smallpox emergence...
- A model for a smallpox-vaccination policySamuel A Bozzette
RAND Center for Domestic and International Health Security, Santa Monica, Calif, USA
N Engl J Med 348:416-25. 2003The new reality of biologic terrorism and warfare has ignited a debate about whether to reintroduce smallpox vaccination.
- Age-dependent susceptibility to a viral disease due to decreased natural killer cell numbers and traffickingMin Fang
Immune Cell Development and Host Defense Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
J Exp Med 207:2369-81. 2010..We show that mice genetically resistant to mousepox (the mouse parallel of human smallpox) lose resistance at mid-age...
- Modeling potential responses to smallpox as a bioterrorist weaponM I Meltzer
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atalnta, Georgia 30333
Emerg Infect Dis 7:959-69. 2001We constructed a mathematical model to describe the spread of smallpox after a deliberate release of the virus...
- Analyzing bioterror response logistics: the case of smallpoxEdward H Kaplan
Yale School of Management, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, Box 208200, New Haven, CT 06520 8200, USA
Math Biosci 185:33-72. 2003To evaluate existing and alternative proposals for emergency response to a deliberate smallpox attack, we embed the key operational features of such interventions into a smallpox disease transmission model...
- What was the primary mode of smallpox transmission? Implications for biodefenseDonald K Milton
Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland College Park, MD, USA Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health Boston, MA, USA
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2:150. 2012..The mode of smallpox transmission was never conclusively established...
- An attenuated LC16m8 smallpox vaccine: analysis of full-genome sequence and induction of immune protectionShigeru Morikawa
Department of Virology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Tokyo, Japan
J Virol 79:11873-91. 2005The potential threat of smallpox bioterrorism has made urgent the development of lower-virulence vaccinia virus vaccines...
- LC16m8: an attenuated smallpox vaccineJulie Kenner
VaxGen Inc, USA
Vaccine 24:7009-22. 2006The frequency of moderate to severe adverse reactions associated with smallpox vaccines currently stockpiled in the US, and the continued threat of bioterrorism have prompted the development of effective vaccines with improved safety ..
- Rapid protection in a monkeypox model by a single injection of a replication-deficient vaccinia virusPatricia L Earl
Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3210, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10889-94. 2008The success of the World Health Organization smallpox eradication program three decades ago resulted in termination of routine vaccination and consequent decline in population immunity...
- Safety and immunogenicity of LC16m8, an attenuated smallpox vaccine in vaccinia-naive adultsJeffrey S Kennedy
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA
J Infect Dis 204:1395-402. 2011LC16m8 is an attenuated cell culture-adapted Lister vaccinia smallpox vaccine missing the B5R protein and licensed for use in Japan.
- Tecovirimat for smallpox infectionsT C Bolken
SIGA Technologies, Inc, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA
Drugs Today (Barc) 46:109-17. 2010..Currently, there is a need to develop safe and effective inhibitors for poxvirus-induced diseases such as smallpox caused by variola, which is a potential biological warfare agent...
- Immunity from smallpox vaccine persists for decades: a longitudinal studyDennis D Taub
Laboratory of Immunology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224 6825, USA
Am J Med 121:1058-64. 2008The threat of smallpox resulting from bioterrorist action has prompted a reassessment of the level of immunity in current populations.
- Variola virus immune evasion proteinsLance R Dunlop
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 220 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Microbes Infect 5:1049-56. 2003Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, encodes approximately 200 proteins. Over 80 of these proteins are located in the terminal regions of the genome, where proteins associated with host immune evasion are encoded...
- SmallpoxSarah D Nafziger
Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 619 19th Street South Jefferson Tower North 266, Birmingham, AL 35249 7013, USA
Crit Care Clin 21:739-46, vii. 2005b>Smallpox is a highly infectious disease, which, in 1980, was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization as a result of successful vaccination campaigns...
- The cause of death in smallpox: an examination of the pathology recordDavid Barrett Martin
Francis E Warren Air Force Base, WY 82005, USA
Mil Med 167:546-51. 2002Because the cause of death in smallpox remains controversial, the human pathology record was examined.
- Protective immunity following vaccination: how is it defined?Ian J Amanna
Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
Hum Vaccin 4:316-9. 2008..breakthrough pioneered by Edward Jenner over 200 years ago when he developed the world's first vaccine against smallpox. To this day, vaccination remains the most effective means available for combating infectious disease...
- Can postexposure vaccination against smallpox succeed?Philip P Mortimer
Virus Reference Division, Central Public Health Laboratory, London, United Kingdom
Clin Infect Dis 36:622-9. 2003What can be achieved by the vaccination of individuals exposed to smallpox virus after release of the virus by bioterrorists? There exist several past sources of information on postexposure vaccination failures from which it may be ..
- Postexposure immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara or conventional Lister vaccine provides solid protection in a murine model of human smallpoxNir Paran
Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, Israel
J Infect Dis 199:39-48. 2009Decades after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, the potential of the deliberate release of pathogenic orthopoxviruses has forced a reconsideration of using these extremely efficient human vaccines...
- Transmission potential of smallpox: estimates based on detailed data from an outbreakMartin Eichner
Department of Medical Biometry, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
Am J Epidemiol 158:110-7. 2003..of variola virus by bioterrorists have rekindled interest in the parameters that govern the transmissibility of smallpox. Here, the authors estimate by maximum likelihood the parameters of the spread of smallpox from historical data ..
- A randomized, double-blind, dose-finding Phase II study to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of the third generation smallpox vaccine candidate IMVAMUNEAlfred von Krempelhuber
Bavarian Nordic GmbH, Fraunhoferstrasse 13, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
Vaccine 28:1209-16. 2010IMVAMUNE is a Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-based virus that is being developed as a safer 3rd generation smallpox vaccine...
- Protective immunity against secondary poxvirus infection is dependent on antibody but not on CD4 or CD8 T-cell functionVijay Panchanathan
Infection and Immunology Group, Division of Immunology and Genetics, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Mills Road, Acton, ACT 0200, Australia
J Virol 80:6333-8. 2006Renewed interest in smallpox and the need for safer vaccines have highlighted our lack of understanding of the requirements for protective immunity...
- Developing new smallpox vaccinesS R Rosenthal
CBER Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 7:920-6. 2001New stockpiles of smallpox vaccine are required as a contingency for protecting civilian and military personnel against deliberate dissemination of smallpox virus by terrorists or unfriendly governments...
- Smallpox vaccination: comparison of self-reported and electronic vaccine records in the millennium cohort studyCynthia A LeardMann
Department of Defense, Center for Deployment Health Research, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California, USA
Hum Vaccin 3:245-51. 2007..the US Government implemented policy to immunize health workers, first responders, and military personnel against smallpox in preparation for a possible bioterrorist attack...
- Transmission potential of smallpox in contemporary populationsR Gani
Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Porton, Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, UK
Nature 414:748-51. 2001Despite eradication, smallpox still presents a risk to public health whilst laboratory stocks of virus remain. One factor crucial to any assessment of this risk is R0, the average number of secondary cases infected by each primary case...
- Immunogenicity and protection efficacy of subunit-based smallpox vaccines using variola major antigensPavlo Sakhatskyy
Laboratory of Nucleic Acid Vaccines, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
Virology 371:98-107. 2008The viral strain responsible for smallpox infection is variola major (VARV)...
- The smallpox vaccine induces an early neutralizing IgM responseJuan E Moyron-Quiroz
Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Vaccine 28:140-7. 2009..after immunization with vaccinia virus (VacV) is known to be sufficient to confer host protection against VacV or smallpox. In humans it has been shown that such anti-VacV antibody production can be sustained for decades...
- Clinical efficacy of intramuscular vaccinia immune globulin: a literature reviewRobert J Hopkins
DynPort Vaccine Company, Frederick, Maryland, USA
Clin Infect Dis 39:819-26. 2004..reports describe clinical efficacy of intramuscular vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) for complications of smallpox vaccination, prophylaxis of individuals with contraindications to vaccination, and prevention of smallpox among ..
- Activity of vaccinia virus-neutralizing antibody in the sera of smallpox vaccineesKendra M Viner
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 502 Johnson Pavilion, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6073, USA
Microbes Infect 7:579-83. 2005Individuals vaccinated against smallpox maintain substantial antiviral antibody responses for many years after vaccination...
- Recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in a pre-event vaccination program. Supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)Melinda Wharton
Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, National Center for Infectious Diseases, USA
MMWR Recomm Rep 52:1-16. 2003..Vaccinia [smallpox] vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP], 2001. MMWR 2001;50[No...
- The immunology of smallpox vaccinesRichard B Kennedy
Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Curr Opin Immunol 21:314-20. 2009In spite of the eradication of smallpox over 30 years ago; orthopox viruses such as smallpox and monkeypox remain serious public health threats both through the possibility of bioterrorism and the intentional release of smallpox and ..
- Discovery of antivirals against smallpoxStephen C Harrison
Harvard Medical School, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seeley Mudd Building, Room 130, 250 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:11178-92. 2004
- Modelling responses to a smallpox epidemic taking into account uncertaintyJ Legrand
Epidemiology and Information Sciences, INSERM U444, CHU Saint Antoine, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 27 rue Chaligny, 75012 Paris, France
Epidemiol Infect 132:19-25. 2004..In order to assess the key parameters for the control of a smallpox outbreak in a large city (2 million inhabitants), we built a stochastic model to simulate the course of an ..
- Population-level differences in disease transmission: a Bayesian analysis of multiple smallpox epidemicsBret D Elderd
Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Electronic address
Epidemics 5:146-56. 2013..method, we fit spatial and non-spatial susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) models to a series of 13 smallpox outbreaks...
- Looking back at smallpoxMike Bray
Biodefense Clinical Research Branch, Office of Clinical Research, Office of the Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Clin Infect Dis 38:882-9. 2004b>Smallpox apparently arose through transfer of variola virus to humans from another animal species...
- Smallpox research activities: U.S. interagency collaboration, 2001James W Leduc
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 8:743-5. 2002
- Clinical responses to undiluted and diluted smallpox vaccineSharon E Frey
Department of Medicine, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Unit, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, USA
N Engl J Med 346:1265-74. 2002To evaluate the potential to increase the supply of smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus), we compared the response to vaccination with 10(8.1), 10(7.2), and 10(7.0) plaque-forming units (pfu) of vaccinia virus per milliliter.
- Critical role of perforin-dependent CD8+ T cell immunity for rapid protective vaccination in a murine model for human smallpoxMelanie Kremer
Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, University of Munich LMU, Munich, Germany
PLoS Pathog 8:e1002557. 2012..mechanism(s) of rapidly protective vaccinia virus immunization using mousepox as surrogate model for human smallpox. We found that fast protection against lethal systemic poxvirus disease solely depended on CD4 and CD8 T cell ..
- In vitro characterization of a nineteenth-century therapy for smallpoxWilliam Arndt
Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e32610. 2012In the nineteenth century, smallpox ravaged through the United States and Canada...
- Dose-related effects of smallpox vaccineSharon E Frey
Department of Medicine, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Unit, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, USA
N Engl J Med 346:1275-80. 2002....
- Mousepox, a small animal model of smallpoxDavid Esteban
Biology Department, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA
Methods Mol Biol 890:177-98. 2012....
- Biological agents as weapons 1: smallpox and botulismMichael Whitby
Infection Management Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD
Med J Aust 176:431-3. 2002..2. The four biological agents of most concern are smallpox virus, botulinum toxin, and anthrax and plague bacteria. 3...
- The use of smallpox virus as a biological weapon: the vaccination situation in FranceD Levy-Bruhl
Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice, France
Euro Surveill 6:171-8. 2001..Even in the case of a real threat, the vaccination of frontline healthcare personnel, and in particular of contacts of cases, must be given priority...
- Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scarRobert A Pol
Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, P, O, Box 30 001, Groningen RB 9700, The Netherlands
World J Surg Oncol 10:148. 2012..Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar...
- The threat of smallpox and bioterrorismP Berche
INSERM U411, , 156 rue de Vaugirard, 75015 Paris, France
Trends Microbiol 9:15-8. 2001b>Smallpox (variola) was a devastating disease with a high case-fatality rate. Although the disease was eradicated in 1977, the remaining stocks of smallpox virus constitute one of the most dangerous threats to humanity...
- Comparative pathology of smallpox and monkeypox in man and macaquesJ A Cann
Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, Division of Clinical Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD, USA
J Comp Pathol 148:6-21. 2013In the three decades since the eradication of smallpox and cessation of routine vaccination, the collective memory of the devastating epidemics caused by this orthopoxvirus has waned, and the human population has become increasingly ..
- Smallpox eradication: lessons learnt from a success storyR N Basu
National Institute of Communicable Diseases, New Delhi, India
Natl Med J India 19:33-6. 2006
- Smallpox vaccination: a review, part I. Background, vaccination technique, normal vaccination and revaccination, and expected normal reactionsVincent A Fulginiti
Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA
Clin Infect Dis 37:241-50. 2003Because smallpox could be a factor in bioterrorism, the United States has provided guidelines for smallpox vaccination of certain members of the population, including health care workers and first responders, as well as military personnel...
- Third-generation smallpox vaccines: challenges in the absence of clinical smallpoxClement A Meseda
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, USFDA, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
Future Microbiol 5:1367-82. 2010b>Smallpox, a disease caused by variola virus, is estimated to have killed hundreds of millions to billions of people before it was certified as eradicated in 1980...
- Lessons from the eradication of smallpox: an interview with D. A. HendersonD A Henderson
Center for Health Security, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368:20130113. 2013It has been more than 35 years since the last naturally occurring case of smallpox. Sufficient time has passed to allow an objective overview of what were the key factors in the success of the eradication effort and what lessons smallpox ..
- Logistics in smallpox: the legacyJohn Wickett
World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
Vaccine 29:D131-4. 2011Logistics, defined as "the time-related positioning of resources" was critical to the implementation of the smallpox eradication strategy of surveillance and containment...
- Smallpox transmission risks: how bad?Laura H Kahn
Science 297:50-1. 2002
- Antiviral prophylaxis of smallpoxMike Bray
Biodefense Clinical Research Branch, Office of Clinical Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Antimicrob Chemother 54:1-5. 2004Proof-of-concept studies suggest that current defences against smallpox could be strengthened by supplementing vaccination with antiviral drug prophylaxis, based on aerosolized or orally available forms of the long-acting medication ..
- Expected adverse events in a mass smallpox vaccination campaignAlex R Kemper
Division of General Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
Eff Clin Pract 5:84-90. 2002Recent anthrax attacks in the United States have raised concern about the nation's vulnerability to a smallpox attack...
- Ocular complications of smallpox vaccinationJay S Pepose
Pepose Vision Institute, Chesterfield, Missouri 63017, USA
Am J Ophthalmol 136:343-52. 2003To describe the ocular complications of smallpox vaccination and to discuss potential therapeutic options.
- Contingency planning for a deliberate release of smallpox in Great Britain--the role of geographical scale and contact structureThomas House
Warwick Mathematics Institute and Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
BMC Infect Dis 10:25. 2010In the event of a release of a pathogen such as smallpox, which is human-to-human transmissible and has high associated mortality, a key question is how best to deploy containment and control strategies...
- Smallpox: clinical and epidemiologic featuresD A Henderson
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
Med Health R I 85:107-8. 2002
- Countering the posteradication threat of smallpox and polioD A Henderson
The Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies, Baltimore, MD, USA
Clin Infect Dis 34:79-83. 2002After eradication, there is a small but finite risk that smallpox and/or poliomyelitis viruses could accidentally escape from a laboratory or be released intentionally...
- [Biohazards due to Orthopoxvirus: should we re-vaccinate against smallpox?]A J Georges
Centre International de Recherche Medicale de Franceville, Gabon
Med Trop (Mars) 59:483-7. 1999Although the WHO declared global smallpox eradication in 1980, the Orthopoxvirus remains a source of concern for several reasons...
- Diagnosis, management, and containment of smallpox infectionsTener Goodwin Veenema
Center for High Risk Children and Youth, University of Rochester School of Nursing, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box SON, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Disaster Manag Response 1:8-13. 2003..b>Smallpox poses a serious bioterrorist threat to the US population at this time...
- Smallpox vaccination policy--the need for dialogueAnthony S Fauci
N Engl J Med 346:1319-20. 2002
- Bioterrorism. How devastating would a smallpox attack really be?Martin Enserink
Science 296:1592-5. 2002
- Smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon: myth or menace?Dennis J Cleri
Department of Medicine, Seton Hall University School of Graduate Medical Education, South Orange, NJ 07079, USA
Infect Dis Clin North Am 20:329-57, ix. 2006
- Mass vaccination and surveillance/containment in the eradication of smallpoxJ M Lane
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 304:17-29. 2006The Smallpox Eradication Program, initiated by the WHO in 1966, was originally based on mass vaccination...
- Smallpox virus destruction and the implications of a new vaccineD A Henderson
Center for Biosecurity of UPMC, Baltimore, Maryland 21202, USA
Biosecur Bioterror 9:163-8. 2011The World Health Assembly is scheduled to decide in May 2011 whether the 2 known remaining stockpiles of smallpox virus are to be destroyed or retained...
- Shared modes of protection against poxvirus infection by attenuated and conventional smallpox vaccine virusesIgor M Belyakov
Molecular Immunogenetics and Vaccine Research Section, Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:9458-63. 2003The concern about bioterrorism with smallpox has raised the possibility of widespread vaccination, but the greater prevalence of immunocompromised individuals today requires a safer vaccine, and the mechanisms of protection are not well ..
- Stamping out fires! Controlling smallpox with targeted mass vaccinationJoseph R Egan
Health Protection Agency, Salisbury, UK
Med Decis Making 31:69-78. 2011More than 30 years have now passed since the last naturally occurring case of smallpox; however, the variola virus still exists in at least 2 locations...
- Public health, culture, and colonial medicine: smallpox and variolation in Palestine during the British MandateNadav Davidovitch
Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Scicences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
Public Health Rep 122:398-406. 2007
- Smallpox: a disease and a weaponKen Alibek
George Mason University, National Center for Biodefense, 10900 University Blvd MSN 4E3, Manassas, Virginia 20110, USA
Int J Infect Dis 8:S3-8. 2004
- Serological responses in humans to the smallpox vaccine LC16m8Benjamin F Johnson
Section of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
J Gen Virol 92:2405-10. 2011In response to potential bioterrorism with smallpox, members of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces were vaccinated with vaccinia virus (VACV) strain LC16m8, an attenuated smallpox vaccine derived from VACV strain Lister...
- Biodefense. Smallpox vaccines: looking beyond the next generationMartin Enserink
Science 304:809. 2004
- Smallpox vaccines induce antibodies to the immunomodulatory, secreted vaccinia virus complement control proteinJoan E Adamo
Laboratory of DNA Viruses, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research CBER, US Food and Drug Administration FDA, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Gen Virol 90:2604-8. 2009..immune globulin was used to screen the secreted proteins from cells infected with Dryvax or the candidate smallpox vaccine LC16m8 to determine whether the protective humoral response included antibodies against secreted viral ..
- A review of the smallpox vaccine adverse events active surveillance systemTracy N Thomas
National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Clin Infect Dis 46:S212-20. 2008In response to concern about smallpox possibly being used as a biological weapon, the President of the United States launched the National Smallpox Pre-Event Vaccination Program on 13 December 2002...
- Smallpox virus plaque phenotypes: genetic, geographical and case fatality relationshipsVictoria A Olson
Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
J Gen Virol 90:792-8. 2009b>Smallpox (infection with Orthopoxvirus variola) remains a feared illness more than 25 years after its eradication...
- Phenotypic and genetic diversity of the traditional Lister smallpox vaccineAude Garcel
Laboratoire de Virologie, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées Emile Pardé, 24 Avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, BP87, Grenoble 38702, France
Vaccine 27:708-17. 2009As an initial step in the development of a second-generation smallpox vaccine derived from the Lister strain, to be prepared for a variola virus threat, diversity of the traditional vaccine was examined by characterizing a series of ten ..
- Preventing second-generation infections in a smallpox bioterror attackEdward H Kaplan
Yale School of Management and the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8200, USA
Epidemiology 15:264-70. 2004..model for the prevention of second-generation infections by different vaccination strategies in the event of a smallpox bioterror attack...
- The strategic use of novel smallpox vaccines in the post-eradication worldJoseph W Golden
Department of Molecular Virology, Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
Expert Rev Vaccines 10:1021-35. 2011..is a need to maintain a comprehensive defense strategy to counter the low-probability, high-impact threat of smallpox, as well as the ongoing threat of naturally occurring orthopoxvirus disease...
- Mucosal immunization induces a higher level of lasting neutralizing antibody response in mice by a replication-competent smallpox vaccine: vaccinia Tiantan strainBin Lu
AIDS Center and Modern Virology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Hubei 430072, China
J Biomed Biotechnol 2011:970424. 2011The possible bioterrorism threat using the variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, has promoted us to further investigate the immunogenicity profiles of existing vaccines...
- Responses to smallpox vaccineJeffrey A Frelinger
N Engl J Med 347:689-90; author reply 689-90. 2002
- Pheresis Treatment of Bioterrorism-Induced SepsisStephen Ash; Fiscal Year: 2005..Viral bioterrorism agents such as smallpox can also induce Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and septic shock because of secondary bacterial ..
- CFI Pathogen Inactivation TechnologyTrevor P Castor; Fiscal Year: 2010..such as West Nile and the breaking Mexican swine flu, and a number of potential bioterrorism pathogens such as smallpox that are of concern to the safety of the human plasma supply chain...
- N-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) for the Treatment of Herpes and Pox Virus InfectiAquilur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2010..Papillomaviridae and Poxviridae genera of Class I dsDNA viruses, which include HSV-1, HSV-2, HSV-8, VZV, EBV, smallpox, Vaccinia, cowpox, and HPV...
- VACCINE INDUCED IMMUNITY IN THE YOUNG AND AGEDRafi Ahmed; Fiscal Year: 2013..the elucidation of: (i) the dynamics of antigen-specific T cell responses in humans vaccinated with YFV-17D and smallpox, (ii) innate immune mechamisms by which YFV-17D acts to launch a broad and robust T cell immunity, (iii) genomic ..
- N-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) for the Treatment of Herpes and Pox Virus InfectiAquilur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Diseases associated with the Poxviridae (smallpox, vaccinia and cowpox viruses), and Herpesviridae (HSV-1, HSV-2, HSV-8, VZV, EBV) dsDNA viruses represent major worldwide public health problems...
- Salmonella Vaccines Against Bacterial EnteropathogensRoy Curtiss; Fiscal Year: 2013..If successful, this vaccine(s) should have a societal public health benefit of a magnitude similar to the impact of the smallpox vaccine.
- Programming of Protective CD8 T-Cell Memory by Live and Adjuvanted Subunit VaccinMarulasiddappa Suresh; Fiscal Year: 2013..by applicant): Live attenuated vaccines have been highly effective in controlling human infections such as smallpox, yellow fever, measles, mumps, rubella, and chicken pox...
- Rapid point-of-care diagnostic for bioterrorism "A" agents and Pandemic influenzaKelly J Henrickson; Fiscal Year: 2010..Infectious agents identified to pose the greatest potential threat (Category "A" agents) include Variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Francisella ..
- Protective orthopox immunization in normals and patients with cancer or eczemaEllis Reinherz; Fiscal Year: 2009While worldwide eradication of smallpox represents a major accomplishment of medicine in the 20th century, use of this virus as a bioterrorism agent against our largely disease-susceptible civilian population could result in unprecedented ..
- Development of an effective genital herpes vaccineWilliam P Halford; Fiscal Year: 2010..Live vaccinia virus (the original vaccine) was used to end smallpox epidemics...
- Immune Mechanisms That Control Ectromelia Virus InfectionLuis J Sigal; Fiscal Year: 2013..Second, mousepox disease is remarkably similar to that of human monkeypox and smallpox. Third, some mouse strains are resistant to ECTV while others are highly susceptible, analogous to natural ..
- Host defense against poxviruses and viral immune evasionLiang Deng; Fiscal Year: 2011..pathogenesis and its interface with the host immune system are of importance because of the threat of using smallpox as a bioterror weapon, the need for improved vaccination strategies to minimize vaccine-associated complications, ..
- Encapsidation of the poxvirus genomePaula Traktman; Fiscal Year: 2012..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The fear that smallpox might be used as a bioterrorist weapon, and the recognition that monkeypox virus is a cause of human morbidity ..
- The Pox Virion Molecular InteractomePaul D Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Smallpox has, historically, been one of the great killers of mankind...
- ASM Conference on Viral Genome ReplicationSean P J Whelan; Fiscal Year: 2011..Viral vaccines have proved effective in controlling many diseases and have resulted in the global eradication of smallpox. Rinderpest, will shortly be the second infection eradicated by vaccination and this will hopefully be followed ..
- CFI Inactivation of Human PlasmaTREVOR CASTOR; Fiscal Year: 2009..are also a number of emerging viruses such as West Nile and a number of potential bioterrorism pathogens such as smallpox that are of concern to the safety of the human plasma supply...
- Mechanisms of pox virus motility and releaseDaniel Kalman; Fiscal Year: 2012..magnitude and promotes survival in lethally infected mice, suggesting a possible utility of this drug in treating smallpox or complications associated with vaccination...
- Identification of New Antigens for a Plague VaccineAshok K Chopra; Fiscal Year: 2013..Historically, plague is one of the most devastating epidemic diseases known to mankind (second only to smallpox), resulting overall in more than 200 million deaths related to three recorded plague pandemics. Since Y...
- Skin Defense by Antimicrobial Peptides Richard L Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2012..The later impacts the capacity to administer live viral vaccines such as the smallpox vaccine...
- Dermatotropic cellular immune responses induced by a novel smallpox vaccineStephen R Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2013..We further hypothesize that vaccination with the experimental smallpox vaccine modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) by the ID, subcutaneous (SC), and epicutaneous routes has a similar ..
- Stage-Specific Inhibitors of OrthopoxvirusesJohn H Connor; Fiscal Year: 2012..Orthopoxviruses are a genus of viruses that include monkeypox, variola (the causative agent of smallpox) and vaccinia...
- Study of gamma interferon agonists/mimeticsHoward M Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2012..of mice against vaccinia and ectromelia viruses with a view toward an IFN and SOCS-1 antagonist drug against smallpox. We hypothesize that our small peptide IFN mimetics and SOSC-1 antagonist represent novel antivirals against ..
- Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Poxvirus Type I Interferon Binding ProteinLuis J Sigal; Fiscal Year: 2013..and the mouse pathogen Ectromelia virus (ECTV) that causes mousepox in mice and is an outstanding model for human smallpox. All OPVs encode a highly conserved (~87% identical residues) Type 1 interferon (T1-IFN) binding protein (herein ..
- Mechanisms of humoral immunity development and function to the smallpox vaccineSHANE P CROTTY; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We have spent substantial effort demonstrating that the smallpox vaccine elicits lifelong immunological memory in human (JI 2003, Clin Vaccine Imm 2007) and the human neutralizing antibody response is ..
- Therapeutics that target processivity complex proteins of pox and other virusesROBERT PAUL RICCIARDI; Fiscal Year: 2013Novel and safe therapeutics that block infection by variola, the causative agent of smallpox, are essential for a rapid response to bioterrorism...
- Clinical Development of Combination Plague/Smallpox VaccineCHARALAMBOS PARTIDOS; Fiscal Year: 2011..Plague and smallpox could be devastating bioweapons if intentionally released. A release of 50 kg of Y...
- Mechanisms of vaccinia virus disseminationHERVE F AGAISSE; Fiscal Year: 2013..provided by applicant): The Orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae includes both the causative agent of smallpox, variola virus, and the vaccine strain used for smallpox eradication, Vaccinia virus...
- XVII International Poxvirus, Asfivirus and Indorviurs SymposiumBertram L Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2010..through NIH, has mobilized efforts to develop an effective response to the public health concerns regarding smallpox and monkeypox and the need to rapidly translate the recent advances in poxvirus molecular biology into new, safe ..
- Evasion of antiviral protection by poxvirus-encoded interferon antagonistsSergei V Kotenko; Fiscal Year: 2010..designed to study molecular mechanisms of IFN inhibition by IFN antagonists from YLDV, Vaccinia virus, and Variola virus, the causative agent of a devastating smallpox disease, and to develop improved treatment for poxviral infections.
- Structure-function studies on IL-18, IL-18 binding proteins and receptorsJunpeng Deng; Fiscal Year: 2012..Poxviruses, including the smallpox (variola) virus, also express functional IL-18BP homologues to evade IL-18-mediated host immune responses...
- Poxvirus Modulation of Immune ResponsesJanice S Blum; Fiscal Year: 2010Description: The potential for widespread dissemination of lethal poxviruses such as smallpox during bioterrorism has led to renewed scientific efforts to understand the pathogenesis of this virus and related orthopoxviruses...
- Development of a therapy for Smallpox, Vaccinia, and MonkeypoxAlexander Rich; Fiscal Year: 2010This collaboration has as its goal the development of therapies for three different poxvirus diseases, including smallpox, perhaps the most dreaded agent in bioterrorism...
- Ontology-based Information Network to Support Vaccine ResearchYongqun He; Fiscal Year: 2012Project Summary (Abstract): Since the introduction of Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine in 1796, vaccines have proven invaluable for their ability to stimulate the immune system and to confer protection against pathogenic organisms...
- Vaccine Renaissance Conference at the Institute for Immunology and InformaticsANNE SEARLS DEGROOT; Fiscal Year: 2013..Diseases such as polio, measles, mumps, tetanus and smallpox have nearly been eradicated by the use of vaccines...
- Poxvirus interface with skin immune system, development of anti-poxvirus drugsLiang Deng; Fiscal Year: 2010..infection (molluscum contagiosum) to a catastrophic systemic illness signaled by a generalized pustular rash (smallpox)...
- Characterization of the Molecular Mechanism of MVA-induced NF-kappaB ActivationStefani Martin; Fiscal Year: 2012..the properties of the MVA virus is important as MVA is currently being studied as a safe vaccine vector for smallpox and additional viruses, including HIV and malaria...
- Cross-reactive HERV immunity to combat HIV-1 infectionDonald E Mosier; Fiscal Year: 2010..The result will be "cross-protective" immunity, as best exemplified by the eradication of smallpox by vaccination with the related cowpox virus.
- Machine Learning Analysis of Genetic Modulators of Vaccine Immune ResponseBRETT MCKINNEY; Fiscal Year: 2009..strategy to identify interacting susceptibility loci in polygenic biological endpoints, with a focus on smallpox and anthrax vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) and variation in serologic antibody response...
- SNPs in Handling of Small Pox Antivirals and Other DrugsSanjay Nigam; Fiscal Year: 2009..they mediate nephrotoxicity of the antivirals cidofovir and adefovir, drugs which could be used in the event of a smallpox epidemic...
- Negative regulation of Plasma cells by CD28 and B7 moleculesJoshy Jacob; Fiscal Year: 2012..For instance, humans immunized with smallpox vaccine exhibit stable levels of neutralizing antibodies in their serum for over 75 years...
- Smallpox vaccine and vaccinia complement control proteinSTUART ISAACS; Fiscal Year: 2009..poxvirus genes that encode complement control proteins (CCP) are ideal candidates with which to further attenuate smallpox vaccines...
- INNATE IMMUNE RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM BY ORTHOPOXVIRUS PROTEINSAnthony R French; Fiscal Year: 2011..Unlike smallpox, these viruses cannot be eradicated by vaccination;their animal vectors have ongoing contact with humans;and they ..
- Cytokine Signaling Network Response to Smallpox VaccineBRETT MCKINNEY; Fiscal Year: 2010The identification of the molecular and cellular basis for adverse events observed in patients immunized against smallpox is of great public health interest. This is especially true today given efforts to defend the U.S...
- EMERGEncy ID Net StudyDAVID ANDREW TALAN; Fiscal Year: 2010..acute pyelonephritis;specific host gene responses to infections;emergency physicians'(EPs) attitudes towards smallpox vaccination and perceived risk of a bioterrorist threat;and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant ..
- Sustainable Air Disinfection Technology Innovations for Resources Limited SettingSTEPHEN NORMAN RUDNICK; Fiscal Year: 2010..including smallpox and anthrax.
- Pathogenesis of Vaccinia virus keratitisCurtis R Brandt; Fiscal Year: 2013Project Summary Although Smallpox no longer naturally circulates it remains a potential threat as a biological weapon. Currently, Smallpox is listed as the most important viral bioweapon by the United States...
- Identifying the role of 4-1BB in generation and persistence of VACV-CD8 memoryYuan Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2010..by applicant): Vaccinia virus (VACV) affords long-lasting protection against variola virus, the agent of smallpox. VACV- specific CD8 memory T cells contribute to protection but their molecular control is not fully understood...
- Mechanisms for NK Cell Activation in Vaccinia Virus ControlYiping Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Vaccinia virus (VV) is the live smallpox vaccine responsible for the successful eradication of smallpox worldwide...
- ST-246 treatment of smallpox vaccine-related adverse eventsDouglas W Grosenbach; Fiscal Year: 2011Naturally occurring smallpox has been eradicated but remains a credible threat to the security of the United States due to its potential use as an agent of terror or biowarfare...
- Behavioral Epidemiology: Applications of Agent-Based Modeling to Infectious DiseaJoshua M Epstein; Fiscal Year: 2011..pioneer in this innovative field, and has directed successful multi-disciplinary agent modeling projects on Smallpox, Archaeology, Economics, and Civil Violence, as recounted in his book, Generative Social Science: Studies in ..
- The Birth of VaccinationANDREA A RUSNOCK; Fiscal Year: 2013..The result will be a definitive r-interpretation of the early history of smallpox vaccination and a new understanding of one of the major revolutions in medicine.
- Behavioral Epidemiology: Applications of Agent-Based Modeling to Infectious DiseaJoshua M Epstein; Fiscal Year: 2013..pioneer in this innovative field, and has directed successful multi-disciplinary agent modeling projects on Smallpox, Archaeology, Economics, and Civil Violence, as recounted in his book, Generative Social Science: Studies in ..
- Uncovering poxvirus proteins involved in regulating the IMV to EV transitionBrian M Ward; Fiscal Year: 2013..While the most notorious member variola, the causative agent of smallpox, was eradicated from natural infection, there are still concerns about a clandestine release during a biological ..
- Evolutionary potential of a model poxvirusNels C Elde; Fiscal Year: 2013..Aim 2 investigates the evolution of K3L from smallpox, a devastating human pathogen...
- Emergence of Human Monkeypox in Central AfricaANNE WALSH RIMOIN; Fiscal Year: 2012Human monkeypox(MPX) is a smallpox-likedisease primarily reported in the rainforestsof CentralAfrica...
- Vaccinia Proteome Affinity Reagents From Phage DisplayPhilip Felgner; Fiscal Year: 2005..high affinity binding partner, or "Artificial Antibody" (ArtAb), for each protein in the vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccine) proteome...
- Optimizing the formulation of a protein based smallpox vaccineStuart N Isaacs; Fiscal Year: 2012This proposal, in response to RFA AI-07-003, is for the development of a future generation smallpox vaccine that can be safely administered to a diverse population...
- Bioinformatics Strategies: Biodefense Vaccine ResearchJason H Moore; Fiscal Year: 2012Infectious bioterrorism agents such as smallpox and anthrax represent a critical public health concern...
- Vidarabine Prodrugs as Anti-Pox Virus AgentsJohn Hilfinger; Fiscal Year: 2007unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Working Group for Civilian Biodefense has identified smallpox as one of the most serious biological agents that could cause disease and deaths in sufficient numbers to cripple a city ..
- Study of monkeypox virus in rodentsR Buller; Fiscal Year: 2005..Unlike smallpox, person-to-person transmission of monkeypox virus is very inefficient, and there is rarely more than three ..
- DEVELOPMENT OF AN ORAL DRUG FOR SMALLPOX TREATMENTGeorge Painter; Fiscal Year: 2007An orally active antiviral drug for the treatment of smallpox infection resulting from biowarfare or bioterrorism is needed as an alternative therapy for the estimated 40 million Americans who cannot be safely vaccinated...
- Genetic variants associated with smallpox vaccine immune response heterogeneityGregory Poland; Fiscal Year: 2013..This contract will study the genetic variants associated with smallpox vaccine immune response heterogeneity
- Genetic Risk for Smallpox Vaccine Related to MyocarditisDeborah A Nickerson; Fiscal Year: 2010..This contract will study the genetic risk for smallpox vaccine related to myocarditis
- ANALOGS OF HPMPA FOR TREATMENT OF SMALLPOXKarl Hostetler; Fiscal Year: 2005Antiviral drugs for smallpox are urgently needed because vaccination with "Dryvax" is unsafe for many people and because IL-4-containing poxviruses can subvert vaccine-induced protection...
- Poxvirus adverse effects on cardiac cells and the heartBarbara Sherry; Fiscal Year: 2005In response to concerns that bioterrorists may release smallpox virus in the United States, the government has implemented a multi-stage vaccination program...
- Adjuvants for Agile Vaccine DevelopmentPhilip Felgner; Fiscal Year: 2006..For example the live attenuated smallpox and F...
- Development of an VEE Replicon Vaccine Against SmallpoxKurt Kamrud; Fiscal Year: 2005The objective of the proposed research is to develop a safe and effective vaccine for smallpox using a single-cycle, alphavirus replicon vaccine vector that has been derived from attenuated strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) ..
- Host proteins in Vaccinia viral membrane biogenesisVictor Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2004..as it represents the model system to understand poxviruses that include variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. A key phase of viral replication involves the acquisition of membranes, as this event transforms non-infectious ..
- Bacterial Commensal Vector Delivery/Smallpox VaccineDennis Hruby; Fiscal Year: 2006unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Smallpox is widely considered to be the most serious threat for use as a potential agent of biowarfare...
- Dose Optimization, Production & Tox Testing of Replicon-Vaccines for SmallpoxKurt Kamrud; Fiscal Year: 2009..applicant): The objective of the proposed research is to optimize a safe and effective multi-antigen vaccine for smallpox using a single-cycle, replication-incompetent, alphavirus replicon vaccine vector that has been derived from ..
- Improving Absorption and Targeting of Antiviral DrugsJohn Hilfinger; Fiscal Year: 2009..has targeted research and development of therapeutics, vaccines, adjuvants/immunostimulants, and diagnostics for smallpox (variola)...
- Risk Factors for Eczema Vaccinatum in Atopic DermatitisWalter Holleran; Fiscal Year: 2009DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Renewed concern that smallpox virus might be employed as a bioterrorism agent has led to an early implementation of a limited vaccination program...