herpes zoster

Summary

Summary: An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi [Infections caused by Varicella Zoster virus in children with cancer aged less than 15 years old]
    Isabel Folatre
    Instituto de Hematología R Virchow, Instituto de Pediatria, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567 Valdivia
    Rev Med Chil 131:759-64. 2003
  2. ncbi What does epidemiology tell us about risk factors for herpes zoster?
    Sara L Thomas
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 4:26-33. 2004
  3. doi Risk of herpes zoster in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with anti-TNF-alpha agents
    Anja Strangfeld
    Epidemiology Unit, German Rheumatism Research Center, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    JAMA 301:737-44. 2009
  4. doi Herpes zoster incidence among insured persons in the United States, 1993-2006: evaluation of impact of varicella vaccination
    Jessica Leung
    National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases NCIRD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 52:332-40. 2011
  5. doi VZV T cell-mediated immunity
    Adriana Weinberg
    University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 342:341-57. 2010
  6. ncbi Systemic absorption of topical lidocaine in normal volunteers, patients with post-herpetic neuralgia, and patients with acute herpes zoster
    Bryan J Campbell
    Division of Drug Delivery and Disposition, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Pharm Sci 91:1343-50. 2002
  7. pmc The impact of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia on health-related quality of life: a prospective study
    Melanie Drolet
    Unité de recherche en santé des populations, Centre Hospitalier Affilie Universitaire De Quebec, Quebec, Que
    CMAJ 182:1731-6. 2010
  8. ncbi Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: incidence and risk indicators using a general practice research database
    Wim Opstelten
    Julius Center for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85060, 3500 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Fam Pract 19:471-5. 2002
  9. ncbi Insulin degrading enzyme is a cellular receptor mediating varicella-zoster virus infection and cell-to-cell spread
    Qingxue Li
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Medical Virology Section, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892 USA
    Cell 127:305-16. 2006
  10. pmc Varicella-zoster virus transfer to skin by T Cells and modulation of viral replication by epidermal cell interferon-alpha
    Chia Chi Ku
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Exp Med 200:917-25. 2004

Detail Information

Publications267 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi [Infections caused by Varicella Zoster virus in children with cancer aged less than 15 years old]
    Isabel Folatre
    Instituto de Hematología R Virchow, Instituto de Pediatria, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567 Valdivia
    Rev Med Chil 131:759-64. 2003
    ..Infections caused by Varicella Zoster virus in children with cancer have a high rate of complications and mortality...
  2. ncbi What does epidemiology tell us about risk factors for herpes zoster?
    Sara L Thomas
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 4:26-33. 2004
    Reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus as herpes zoster is thought to result from waning of specific cell-mediated immunity, but little is known about its determinants in individuals with no underlying immunosuppression...
  3. doi Risk of herpes zoster in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with anti-TNF-alpha agents
    Anja Strangfeld
    Epidemiology Unit, German Rheumatism Research Center, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    JAMA 301:737-44. 2009
    ..The risk of bacterial infection is increased in patients treated with drugs that inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Little is known about the reactivation of latent viral infections during treatment with TNF-alpha inhibitors...
  4. doi Herpes zoster incidence among insured persons in the United States, 1993-2006: evaluation of impact of varicella vaccination
    Jessica Leung
    National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases NCIRD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 52:332-40. 2011
    b>herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus and is often associated with substantial pain and disability...
  5. doi VZV T cell-mediated immunity
    Adriana Weinberg
    University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 342:341-57. 2010
    ..these responses decline, as occurs with aging or iatrogenic immune suppression, reactivation of VZV leads to herpes zoster. Similarly, the magnitude of these responses early after the onset of herpes zoster correlates with the extent ..
  6. ncbi Systemic absorption of topical lidocaine in normal volunteers, patients with post-herpetic neuralgia, and patients with acute herpes zoster
    Bryan J Campbell
    Division of Drug Delivery and Disposition, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Pharm Sci 91:1343-50. 2002
    ..and gel formulations in normal volunteers, patients with post-herpetic neuralgia, and patients with acute herpes zoster. The bioavailability of lidocaine from the patch formulation averaged 3%, and was similar after single and ..
  7. pmc The impact of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia on health-related quality of life: a prospective study
    Melanie Drolet
    Unité de recherche en santé des populations, Centre Hospitalier Affilie Universitaire De Quebec, Quebec, Que
    CMAJ 182:1731-6. 2010
    Vaccination against herpes zoster is being considered in many countries. We conducted a multicentre prospective study to describe the impact of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia on health-related quality of life.
  8. ncbi Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: incidence and risk indicators using a general practice research database
    Wim Opstelten
    Julius Center for General Practice and Patient Oriented Research, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85060, 3500 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Fam Pract 19:471-5. 2002
    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a frequent complication of herpes zoster (HZ). Treatment results of this severe and long-lasting pain syndrome are often disappointing...
  9. ncbi Insulin degrading enzyme is a cellular receptor mediating varicella-zoster virus infection and cell-to-cell spread
    Qingxue Li
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Medical Virology Section, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892 USA
    Cell 127:305-16. 2006
    ..These studies indicate that IDE is a cellular receptor for both cell-free and cell-associated VZV...
  10. pmc Varicella-zoster virus transfer to skin by T Cells and modulation of viral replication by epidermal cell interferon-alpha
    Chia Chi Ku
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Exp Med 200:917-25. 2004
    ..Modulation of VZV replication by cutaneous innate immunity may avoid an incapacitating infection of the host that would limit opportunities for VZV transmission...
  11. ncbi Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: prevention and management
    Julia Fashner
    Saint Joseph Family Medicine Residency Program, South Bend, IN 46617, USA
    Am Fam Physician 83:1432-7. 2011
    b>Herpes zoster (shingles) is diagnosed clinically by recognition of the distinctive, painful vesicular rash appearing in a unilateral, dermatomal distribution...
  12. doi The incidence and clinical characteristics of herpes zoster among children and adolescents after implementation of varicella vaccination
    Rachel Civen
    Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90011, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:954-9. 2009
    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine strain may reactivate to cause herpes zoster. Limited data suggest that the risk of herpes zoster in vaccinated children could be lower than in children with naturally acquired varicella...
  13. ncbi A study of shingles and the development of postherpetic neuralgia in East London
    Fiona T Scott
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Medical and Dental School, Queen Mary College, 25 29 Ashfield Street, London E1 1BB, England, UK
    J Med Virol 70:S24-30. 2003
    ..More accurate prediction of which subset of elderly patients are most at risk of PHN may enable targeted prescribing of the most potent drugs to those most likely to benefit...
  14. pmc Epidemiology and economic burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Italy: a retrospective, population-based study
    Leonardo Emberti Gialloreti
    Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Roma, Italy
    BMC Infect Dis 10:230. 2010
    Data on the epidemiology and cost of herpes zoster (HZ) and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in Italy are limited...
  15. doi Assessment of transcriptomal analysis of Varicella-Zoster-virus gene expression in patients with and without post-herpetic neuralgia
    G H Ashrafi
    Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
    Virus Genes 41:192-201. 2010
    ..a human herpes virus that reactivates from a latent state in human trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia to cause herpes zoster (shingles) which is a painful vesicular dermatomal skin eruption...
  16. ncbi [Herpes zoster: incidence study among "sentinel" general practitioners]
    S Czernichow
    , , Paris, France
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 128:497-501. 2001
    INTRODUCTION: Herpes zoster is a frequent disease but its incidence in France is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a postal survey among the general practitioners of the "Sentinel" network...
  17. doi Patient perspective on herpes zoster and its complications: an observational prospective study in patients aged over 50 years in general practice
    Didier Bouhassira
    Inserm U987, Centre d Evaluation et de Traitement de la Douleur, Hopital Ambroise Pare, Boulogne Billancourt F 92100, France
    Pain 153:342-9. 2012
    Understanding the effect of herpes zoster and zoster-related pain should inform care to improve health-related quality of life in elderly patients...
  18. doi Does monastic life predispose to the risk of Saint Anthony's fire (herpes zoster)?
    Jacques Gaillat
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Annecy General Hospital, Pringy, France
    Clin Infect Dis 53:405-10. 2011
    ..We therefore compared the frequency of herpes zoster in an adult population with virtually no varicella zoster virus (VZV) exposure with that in the general ..
  19. pmc Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia surveillance using structured electronic data
    Michael Klompas
    Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Mayo Clin Proc 86:1146-53. 2011
    To develop electronic algorithms for rapid, automated surveillance for herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) using codified electronic health data.
  20. doi Cutaneous metastatic rectal carcinoma masquerading as herpes zoster
    Jessica Eichinger
    San Antonio Military Medical Center South, San Antonio, TX 78236, USA
    South Med J 104:233-5. 2011
    ..Physicians providing care to patients with a history of cancer should maintain a high clinical suspicion for cutaneous metastases in patients with new or evolving skin conditions...
  21. ncbi Extensive cutaneous larva migrans with folliculitis mimicking multimetameric herpes zoster presentation in an adult traveler returning from Thailand
    Denis Malvy
    Travel Clinics and Tropical Disease Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital Center, Bordeaux, France
    J Travel Med 13:244-7. 2006
    ..Simple anamnestic information--often revealing beach activities--and clinical aspect of the creeping eruption allow to prevent diagnosis delay and to avoid aggressive or inadequate intervention...
  22. ncbi Herpes zoster in HIV-1-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective observational study
    Chien Ching Hung
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 7 Chung Shan South Road, Taipei, Taiwan
    Int J STD AIDS 16:673-6. 2005
    ..differentiation CD4+ count of 61 x 10(6) cells/L (range, 1-1206 x 10(6) cells/L) developed 103 episodes of herpes zoster [HZ], with an incidence of 5.67 per 100 person-years (PY)...
  23. doi Willingness to pay for a QALY based on community member and patient preferences for temporary health states associated with herpes zoster
    Tracy A Lieu
    Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Pharmacoeconomics 27:1005-16. 2009
    ..had the opportunity to evaluate WTP per QALY using data from a survey on temporary health outcomes related to herpes zoster. Our aims were to (i) describe how much community members are willing to pay to save a QALY based on scenarios ..
  24. pmc Comparing shingles incidence and complication rates from medical record review and administrative database estimates: how close are they?
    Barbara P Yawn
    Research Department, Olmsted Medical Center, 210 Ninth Street SE, Rochester, MN 55904, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 174:1054-61. 2011
    Accurate rates of herpes zoster incidence and complication have become of greater interest as studies have suggested an increasing temporal trend in incidence rates across all age groups and long-term follow-up studies of vaccine ..
  25. doi Seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus in Korea
    Won Suk Choi
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    J Med Virol 82:2123-6. 2010
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and herpes zoster. Korea is assumed to have a high seroprevalence of VZV, although data are scant...
  26. doi Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of herpes zoster vaccine in persons aged 50-59 years
    Kenneth E Schmader
    Duke University, North Carolina, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:922-8. 2012
    b>Herpes zoster (HZ) adversely affects individuals aged 50-59, but vaccine efficacy has not been assessed in this population...
  27. ncbi The incidence of, risk factors for, and sequelae of herpes zoster among HIV patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era
    Kelly A Gebo
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 40:169-74. 2005
    Whereas the incidence, risk factors, and clinical sequelae of herpes zoster have been studied in the general population and in HIV patients in the era before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), they have yet to be fully ..
  28. pmc Burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain during a seven-year period (1998-2004)
    Angel Gil
    Department of Health Sciences, Rey Juan Carlos University, Avda de Atenas s n, 28922 Alcorcon, Madrid, Spain
    BMC Infect Dis 9:55. 2009
    ..A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain was conducted.
  29. pmc Wet cupping therapy for treatment of herpes zoster: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    Huijuan Cao
    Beijing University of Chinese Medicine
    Altern Ther Health Med 16:48-54. 2010
    Wet cupping is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy commonly used in treating herpes zoster in China, and clinical studies have shown that wet cupping may have beneficial effect on herpes zoster compared with Western medication.
  30. pmc Productive varicella-zoster virus infection of cultured intact human ganglia
    Kavitha Gowrishankar
    Center for Virus Research, Westmead Millenium Institute, and Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Sydney, Blackburn Building, 2006 NSW, Australia
    J Virol 81:6752-6. 2007
    ..This model enables VZV infection of ganglionic cells to be studied in the context of intact DRG...
  31. doi Modelling the impact of a combined varicella and zoster vaccination programme on the epidemiology of varicella zoster virus in England
    Albert Jan van Hoek
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Vaccine 29:2411-20. 2011
    This study updates previous work on modelling the incidence of varicella and Herpes Zoster (HZ) following the introduction of childhood vaccination...
  32. ncbi The comparative sero-epidemiology of varicella zoster virus in 11 countries in the European region
    A Nardone
    Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infections, London, UK
    Vaccine 25:7866-72. 2007
    ..There are substantial differences in VZV sero-epidemiology within the European region, which will need to be taken into account in designing national policies regarding VZV vaccination...
  33. pmc Varicella-zoster virus
    A M Arvin
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305 5119, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 9:361-81. 1996
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles)...
  34. pmc Herpes zoster risk factors in a national cohort of veterans with rheumatoid arthritis
    Jay R McDonald
    St Louis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St Louis, Missouri 63106, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:1364-71. 2009
    b>Herpes zoster occurs more commonly in patients taking immunosuppressive medications, although the risk associated with different medications is poorly understood.
  35. ncbi The role of sympathetic nerve blocks in herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia
    C L Wu
    The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pain Medicine, 550 N Broadway, Suite 301, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Pain 87:121-9. 2000
    The most common complication of herpes zoster in immunocompetent patients is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN)...
  36. pmc Predictors of pain intensity and persistence in a prospective Italian cohort of patients with herpes zoster: relevance of smoking, trauma and antiviral therapy
    Giustino Parruti
    Infectious Disease Unit, Pescara General Hospital, Pescara, Italy
    BMC Med 8:58. 2010
    b>Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common disease, characterized by rash-associated localized pain. Its main complication, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), is difficult to treat and may last for months to years in the wake of rash resolution...
  37. doi Varicella-zoster virus-specific immune responses to herpes zoster in elderly participants in a trial of a clinically effective zoster vaccine
    Adriana Weinberg
    University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA
    J Infect Dis 200:1068-77. 2009
    ..were to evaluate the association between varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to herpes zoster (HZ) and protection against HZ morbidity and to compare immune responses to HZ and zoster vaccine.
  38. doi Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of herpes zoster
    Anne A Gershon
    Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Clin Virol 48:S2-7. 2010
    ..root ganglia during varicella and, when reactivated, travels along the sensory nerve axons to cause shingles (herpes zoster [HZ])...
  39. ncbi Herpes simplex virus-1 and varicella-zoster virus latency in ganglia
    Bradley M Mitchell
    Department of Ophthalmology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
    J Neurovirol 9:194-204. 2003
    ..For each virus, remaining questions and future studies to understand the mechanism of latency are discussed with respect to prevention of serious cutaneous, ocular, and neurologic disease produced by virus reactivation...
  40. ncbi Herpes zoster pathogenesis and cell-mediated immunity and immunosenescence
    Michael N Oxman
    University of California, San Diego, Staff Physician Infectious Diseases, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161 0001, USA
    J Am Osteopath Assoc 109:S13-7. 2009
    b>Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a localized disease characterized by unilateral radicular pain and a vesicular rash limited to the area of skin innervated by a single dorsal root or cranial sensory ganglion...
  41. doi Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: optimizing management in the elderly patient
    Robert W Johnson
    Bristol Royal Infirmary and University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    Drugs Aging 25:991-1006. 2008
    b>Herpes zoster (HZ) results from reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that has been persistent and clinically dormant in spinal ganglia or cranial sensory nerves since primary infection with VZV...
  42. pmc Prevalence of postherpetic neuralgia after a first episode of herpes zoster: prospective study with long term follow up
    S Helgason
    Arbaer Health Care Centre, IS 110 Reykjavik, Iceland S Helgason
    BMJ 321:794-6. 2000
    To estimate the frequency, duration, and clinical importance of postherpetic neuralgia after a single episode of herpes zoster.
  43. ncbi Postherpetic neuralgia: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management
    Robert W Johnson
    Bristol Royal Infirmary, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Expert Rev Neurother 7:1581-95. 2007
    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a neuropathic pain syndrome and is the most common complication of herpes zoster (HZ; shingles)...
  44. doi Varicella zoster virus: review of its management
    M B Mustafa
    Oral Medicine Section, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
    J Oral Pathol Med 38:673-88. 2009
    ..The first choice of any of these medications should be guided by the patient's medical health, the likely adverse effects of the drug and the patient's preference...
  45. ncbi The epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster in The Netherlands: implications for varicella zoster virus vaccination
    Hester de Melker
    Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, P O Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 24:3946-52. 2006
    We studied the epidemiology of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in The Netherlands to assess the desirability to implement routine varicella zoster virus vaccination in The Netherlands...
  46. doi Increased risk of Guillain-Barré Syndrome following recent herpes zoster: a population-based study across Taiwan
    Jiunn Horng Kang
    Departments of 1Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and 2Neurology, 3Neuroscience Research Center, and 4School of Health Care Administration, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Clin Infect Dis 51:525-30. 2010
    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has been sporadically reported to be associated with herpes zoster reactivation. However, the risk for developing GBS after herpes zoster reactivation remains unknown...
  47. doi Herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged 60 years or older in the United States, 2007: uptake of the first new vaccine to target seniors
    Peng Jun Lu
    National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Vaccine 27:882-7. 2009
    Approximately one million new cases of shingles (herpes zoster [HZ]), a severely painful and debilitating disease caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), occur in the United States each year...
  48. pmc Herpes zoster
    David W Wareham
    Centre for Infectious Disease, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry
    BMJ 334:1211-5. 2007
  49. ncbi Spinal cord stimulation in postherpetic neuralgia and in acute herpes zoster pain
    Henning Harke
    Department of Anesthesia and Pain Therapy, Klinikum Krefeld, Krefeld, Germany
    Anesth Analg 94:694-700; table of contents. 2002
    ..In addition, four patients with acute herpes zoster (HZ) pain were studied simultaneously...
  50. ncbi Herpes Zoster mimicking recurrence of lymphoma on PET/CT
    Judith M Joyce
    Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Clin Nucl Med 31:104-5. 2006
  51. ncbi Herpes zoster guidelines of the German Dermatological Society
    G Gross
    J Clin Virol 27:308-9. 2003
  52. ncbi Successful IL-2 therapy for relapsing herpes zoster infection in a patient with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia
    K Warnatz
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg, Germany
    Immunobiology 202:204-11. 2000
    ..Here we describe a 65-year old patient with relapsing generalized herpes zoster infection due to ICL and a severe panlymphocytopenia...
  53. doi Herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged 60 years and older, in the U.S., 2008
    Peng Jun Lu
    National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Am J Prev Med 40:e1-6. 2011
    Shingles (herpes zoster [HZ]) is a localized, generally painful and debilitating disease that occurs most frequently among older adults. It is caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus...
  54. ncbi Cutaneous multifocal melanoma metastases clinically resembling herpes zoster
    K Kondras
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 20:470-2. 2006
  55. doi Predictors of postherpetic neuralgia among patients with herpes zoster: a prospective study
    Melanie Drolet
    URESP, Centre de Recherche FRSQ du CHA Universitaire de Québec, QC, Canada
    J Pain 11:1211-21. 2010
    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of herpes zoster (HZ). The main objectives of this study were to: 1) estimate the severity and duration of PHN; and 2) identify the predictors of PHN...
  56. ncbi Prodromal herpes zoster--a diagnostic challenge in endodontics
    I Fristad
    Department of Odontology Endodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Int Endod J 35:1012-6. 2002
    This case report highlights the diagnostic challenge that herpes zoster represents if pain develops in the prodromal stage. A 58-year-old male presented with pain in the left maxilla. The symptoms had lasted for 7 months...
  57. doi [Burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: Incidence, proportion, and associated costs in the French population aged 50 or over]
    G Mick
    Centre d Evaluation et de Traitement de la Douleur, Hopital Neurologique, Lyon, France
    Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 58:393-401. 2010
    Despite the perspective of vaccination against herpes zoster, there are few recent data available on the incidence of this disease, the proportion of postherpetic neuralgia cases, and associated disease management costs...
  58. ncbi Complex regional pain syndrome-like symptoms during herpes zoster
    James D Berry
    UCSF Pain Clinical Research Center, University of California, San Francisco 94115, USA
    Pain 110:e1-12. 2004
    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) associated with herpes zoster (HZ) was first reported by Sudeck in 1901 (Sudeck, 1901) and is recognized clinically...
  59. doi A population-based case-control analysis of the association between herpes zoster and erectile dysfunction
    Yi Hua Chen
    School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Infect 65:150-6. 2012
    To date, the occurrence of erectile dysfunction (ED) associating with herpes zoster (HZ) is only based on limited case reports...
  60. ncbi Varicella zoster virus vaccination policies and surveillance strategies in Europe
    A Pinot de Moira
    Immunisation Department, Health Protection Agency, CDSC, London, United Kingdom
    Euro Surveill 10:43-5. 2005
    ..of the eight countries with or considering introducing childhood VZV immunisation, only six have case-based mandatory notification of varicella, and only two countries have primary care surveillance data available for herpes zoster.
  61. ncbi Clinical correlates of prolonged pain in Japanese patients with acute herpes zoster
    I Kurokawa
    Department of Dermatology, Hyogo Prefectural Tsukaguchi Hospital, Hyogo, Japan
    J Int Med Res 30:56-65. 2002
    ..which risk factors are relevant to the occurrence of post-herpetic neuralgia in Japanese patients with acute herpes zoster, correlations between the prolongation of pain and various disease factors were examined in 263 adult patients ..
  62. ncbi Laboratory diagnosis of herpes zoster
    A Sauerbrei
    Institute for Antiviral Chemotherapy, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Erfurt, Germany
    J Clin Virol 14:31-6. 1999
    ..These findings suggest that PCR is the method of choice for rapid laboratory diagnosis of zoster...
  63. doi [Impact of routine pediatric varicella vaccination on the epidemiology of herpes zoster]
    S Alain
    Service de Bactériologie Virologie Hygiène, CHRU, Limoges, France
    Med Mal Infect 39:698-706. 2009
    ..This literature review addresses the following question: what elements point to an impact of routine chicken pox vaccination of children on the incidence of shingles?..
  64. doi Later onset of herpes zoster-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    E Espinosa
    Centre for Infectious Diseases Research, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City 4502, 14080 Mexico
    HIV Med 10:454-7. 2009
    The aim of the study was to determine whether immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) associated with herpes zoster occurs on a different time frame from other instances of IRIS.
  65. ncbi Genomic analysis of varicella-zoster virus: primers for individual open reading frames
    T R Wagenaar
    Departments of Microbiology and Pediatrics, University of Iowa Hospital 2501 JCP, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Virol 28:104-10. 2003
    ..Additionally, this report will facilitate the selection of VZV primers by which to distinguish clinical VZV isolates from vaccinia virus isolates...
  66. doi Contacts with children and young people and adult risk of suffering herpes zoster
    M Salleras
    Dermatology Department, Sagrado Corazón Hospital, Barcelona, Spain
    Vaccine 29:7602-5. 2011
    ..Cases of herpes zoster in immunocompetent healthy patients aged ≥ 25 years seen in the dermatology department of the Sagrado Corazó..
  67. doi Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia
    Robert W Johnson
    Bristol, England, UK
    Expert Rev Vaccines 9:21-6. 2010
    b>Herpes zoster (HZ; shingles) results from reactivation of varicella-zoster virus that has been dormant in the spinal and cranial sensory ganglia following primary infection with varicella (chickenpox), usually during childhood...
  68. ncbi European seroepidemiology network 2: Standardisation of assays for seroepidemiology of varicella zoster virus
    Fernando de Ory
    Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Virol 36:111-8. 2006
    ..The aim of the European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN2) is to harmonise the serological surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe...
  69. ncbi Varicella zoster virus infection associated with erythema multiforme in children
    D Prais
    Dept of Pediatrics C, Schneider Children s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva
    Infection 29:37-9. 2001
    ..Varicella zoster virus (VZV) has rarely been reported as an etiological agent, despite its high incidence as a pathogen in childhood...
  70. ncbi [Herpes zoster in Germany. A retrospective analyse of SHL data]
    J Schiffner-Rohe
    Sanofi Pasteur MSD GmbH, Leimen
    MMW Fortschr Med 151:193-7. 2010
    The incidence of herpes zoster in the elderly (50 years and older) 2004 in Germany was determined by retrospectively analysing representative treatment data of the statutory health insurance sample of AOK Hesse/KV Hesse...
  71. doi Unusual oral complications of herpes zoster infection: report of a case and review of literature
    Manoj Kumar Jain
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sri Hasanamba Dental College and Hospital, Vidyanagar, Karnataka, India
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 110:e37-41. 2010
    A case of herpes zoster infection with unusual oral complications involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve is presented...
  72. ncbi Herpes zoster of the head and limbs: electroneuromyographic and clinical findings in 158 consecutive cases
    Mauro Mondelli
    Servizio di EMG, ASL 7, Siena, Italy
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83:1215-21. 2002
    To quantify electromyographic and neurographic changes and to correlate them with the clinical data of outpatients with herpes zoster.
  73. pmc Assessing the potential effects and cost-effectiveness of programmatic herpes zoster vaccination of elderly in the Netherlands
    Alies van Lier
    Department of Epidemiology and Surveillance, Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    BMC Health Serv Res 10:237. 2010
    b>Herpes zoster (HZ) is a painful disease affecting a considerable part of the elderly. Programmatic HZ vaccination of elderly people may considerably reduce HZ morbidity and its related costs, but the extent of these effects is unknown...
  74. pmc Acupuncture in acute herpes zoster pain therapy (ACUZoster) - design and protocol of a randomised controlled trial
    Johannes Fleckenstein
    Multidisciplinary Pain Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    BMC Complement Altern Med 9:31. 2009
    Acute herpes zoster is a prevalent condition. One of its major symptoms is pain, which can highly influence patient's quality of life. Pain therapy is limited...
  75. ncbi Herpes zoster in the immunocompetent patient: management of post-herpetic neuralgia
    Robert W Johnson
    Pain Management Clinic, University of Bristol and Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, UK
    Herpes 10:38-45. 2003
    Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of herpes zoster (HZ, shingles), particularly in the elderly and those with severe acute phase symptoms...
  76. ncbi A single dose of gabapentin reduces acute pain and allodynia in patients with herpes zoster
    James D Berry
    UCSF Pain Clinical Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Neurology 65:444-7. 2005
    ..study measured the effect of a single dose of oral gabapentin (900 mg) on pain and allodynia associated with herpes zoster. Pain severity decreased by 66% with gabapentin compared to 33% with placebo...
  77. ncbi [Evaluation of literature quality of acupuncture for treatment of herpes zoster and approach to the laws of treatment]
    Wei Na Peng
    Section of Acupuncture, Guang anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China
    Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 28:147-50. 2008
    To assess the quality of literature of clinical studies on acupuncture in treatment of herpes zoster.
  78. doi Varicella-zoster virus-specific immune responses in elderly recipients of a herpes zoster vaccine
    M J Levin
    University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:825-35. 2008
    ..The trial included an immunology substudy to determine the relationship of VZV-specific immune responses to vaccination and clinical outcome...
  79. doi Mechanisms of pain and itch caused by herpes zoster (shingles)
    Anne Louise Oaklander
    Departments of Neurology and Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 275 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Pain 9:S10-8. 2008
    ..Further human study, by electrophysiological recording, by structural and functional imaging, and by autopsy, should continue to provide much-needed insights...
  80. ncbi Herpes zoster in immunocompromised patients: incidence, timing, and risk factors
    Peter K Wung
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Med 118:1416. 2005
    To evaluate the risk factors for herpes zoster as well as the incidence and timing of this complication in patients who were treated with immunosuppression because of active Wegener's granulomatosis.
  81. ncbi The incidence of recurrent herpes simplex and herpes zoster infection during treatment with arsenic trioxide
    Keyvan Nouri
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA
    J Drugs Dermatol 5:182-5. 2006
    ..In this report, we discuss the effects of arsenic on immune system, and suggest arsenic compounds as a possible predisposing factor for viral reactivation in these patients...
  82. ncbi Granuloma annulare on herpes zoster scars in a Hodgkin's disease patient following autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation
    H E Sanli
    Department of Dermatology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 20:314-7. 2006
    Various cutaneous lesions including granulomatous reactions may occur at sites of resolved herpes zoster infection...
  83. doi Herpes zoster: Burden of disease in France
    S Gonzalez Chiappe
    INSERM, U707, F 75012 Paris, France
    Vaccine 28:7933-8. 2010
    ..b>Herpes zoster data was obtained from the Sentinelles surveillance general practitioners (GPs) network, the PMSI Data ..
  84. ncbi Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: diagnosis and therapeutic considerations
    Mario Roxas
    Thorne Research, PO Box 25, Dover, ID 83825, USA
    Altern Med Rev 11:102-13. 2006
    b>Herpes zoster (HZ), also known as shingles, is a painful vesicular rash resulting from reactivation of the virus that also causes chickenpox - Varicella zoster virus (VZV). Typically, the rash runs its course in a matter of 4-5 weeks...
  85. ncbi [Systematic assessment of acupuncture for treatment of herpes zoster in domestic clinical studies]
    Xian Min Yu
    Acupuncture Department, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated TCM and Western Medicine Affiliated to Shanghai University of TCM, China
    Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 27:536-40. 2007
    To assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of herpes zoster.
  86. ncbi Herpes zoster: risk categories for persistent pain
    R J Whitley
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    J Infect Dis 179:9-15. 1999
    Acute neuritis and persistent pain are the most significant clinical manifestations of herpes zoster and are end points for clinical trials therapy...
  87. ncbi Comparative study of transfer factor and acyclovir in the treatment of herpes zoster
    S Estrada-Parra
    Department of Immunology, National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute, Prol Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Mexico, D F
    Int J Immunopharmacol 20:521-35. 1998
    ..of varicella herpes virus (VHV), latent in individuals who have previously suffered varicella, gives rise to herpes zoster and in some cases leads to a sequela of post herpetic neuritis with severe pain which is refractory to ..
  88. doi National survey of primary care physicians regarding herpes zoster and the herpes zoster vaccine
    Laura P Hurley
    Department of General Internal Medicine, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, The Children s Hospital, Denver, Colorado, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:S216-23. 2008
    This study describes physicians' perception of burden associated with herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), intentions for recommending the HZ vaccine, and perceived barriers to vaccination.
  89. ncbi Estimating the number needed to vaccinate to prevent herpes zoster-related disease, health care resource use and mortality
    Marc Brisson
    Départemente de médecine sociale et préventive, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC
    Can J Public Health 99:383-6. 2008
    A clinical trial has shown that a live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine is effective against herpes zoster (HZ) and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN)...
  90. ncbi Efficacy of intravenous magnesium in neuropathic pain
    S Brill
    Department of Anaesthetics and Pain Management, University Hospital Lewisham, Lewisham High Street, London SE13 6LH, UK
    Br J Anaesth 89:711-4. 2002
    Postherpetic neuralgia is a complication of acute herpes zoster characterized by severe pain and paraesthesia in the skin area affected by the initial infection...
  91. doi Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of Herpes zoster in systemic lupus erythematosus
    Eduardo F Borba
    Rheumatology Division, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    J Clin Rheumatol 16:119-22. 2010
    The incidence and outcome of Herpes zoster (HZ) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are not completely defined as well as the relevance to HZ of disease and therapy factors.
  92. ncbi Herpes zoster during treatment with arsenic trioxide
    Douglas J Lanska
    Ann Hematol 83:408. 2004
  93. doi A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oxycodone and of gabapentin for acute pain in herpes zoster
    Robert H Dworkin
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 604, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Pain 142:209-17. 2009
    Although acute pain in patients with herpes zoster can be severe and has a substantial impact on health-related quality of life, there have been no randomized clinical trials of oral medications specifically for its ongoing treatment...
  94. doi Zoster vaccine (Zostavax): a review of its use in preventing herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults
    Mark Sanford
    Adis, a Wolters Kluwer Business, Auckland, New Zealand
    Drugs Aging 27:159-76. 2010
    Individuals who have been infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) are at risk for developing herpes zoster and this risk appears to be related to a decline in VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI)...
  95. doi Epidemiological features and costs of herpes zoster in Taiwan: a national study 2000 to 2006
    Jaw Shyang Jih
    Department of Dermatology, National Yang Ming University, Department of Dermatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Acta Derm Venereol 89:612-6. 2009
    To analyse the epidemiological characteristics and related costs of herpes zoster in Taiwan, a nationally representative cohort of 1,000,000 individuals from the National Health Insurance register was followed up from 2000 to 2006 and ..
  96. pmc Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: past, present and future
    Gary J Bennett
    Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Dentistry, and The Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Pain Res Manag 14:275-82. 2009
    ..Data from recent work in virology, neuroanatomy and epidemiology are reviewed, as is work using varicella-zoster virus-infected animals. The recent data largely confirm Hope-Simpson's hypothesis and extend it significantly...
  97. doi Pure motor Herpes Zoster induced brachial plexopathy
    A Ismail
    Department of Neurology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Glossop Road, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
    J Neurol 256:1343-5. 2009
    Brachial plexus neuritis in the presence of herpes zoster infection is uncommon...
  98. ncbi Clinical and genetic risk factors of herpes zoster in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
    Tae Young Kang
    Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Hanyang University Hospital, 17 Haengdang dong, Seong Dong ku, Seoul 133 792, Republic of Korea
    Rheumatol Int 25:97-102. 2005
    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and genetic risk factors that influence herpes zoster occurrence in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
  99. ncbi Herpes zoster overview: natural history and incidence
    Bethany A Weaver
    Armor Correctional Health Services in Tampa, Fla, USA
    J Am Osteopath Assoc 109:S2-6. 2009
    ..The primary VZV infection, known as chickenpox, typically occurs during childhood. Herpes zoster infection results later in life from reactivation of VZV in the dorsal root ganglia...
  100. doi Diabetes as a risk factor for herpes zoster infection: results of a population-based study in Israel
    A D Heymann
    Medical Division, Maccabi Healthcare Services, 27 HaMered St, Tel Aviv, 68125, Israel
    Infection 36:226-30. 2008
    ..by impaired cell-mediated immunity, which potentially may increase the risk for infectious diseases, including herpes zoster (HZ). However, data on the relation between DM and HZ are scarce...
  101. pmc Influence of systemic immune and cytokine responses during the acute phase of zoster on the development of postherpetic neuralgia
    Sheng Mei Zhu
    Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 10:625-30. 2009
    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a severe sequela of herpes zoster (HZ). Until now, only age and pain severity were considered predisposing factors for the development of PHN...

Research Grants85

  1. VZV BACs: New Tools for Pathogenesis Research
    Nikolaus Osterrieder; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (herpes zoster)...
  2. Cdk inhibitors: novel antivirals for VZV
    Jennifer Moffat; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Immunocompromised individuals are at high risk for herpes zoster caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV)...
  3. ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS OF VARICELLA VIRUS
    Charles Grose; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the cause of chickenpox and herpes zoster. VZV infection is a recurrent problem in both transplant and cancer patients...
  4. STUDY & TREATMENT OF RETINOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH AIDS
    William Freeman; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..will include antiviral therapy with ganciclovir for that due to cytomegalovirus and with acyclovir for herpes zoster or varicella zoster retinitis. Newer drugs will be used as they are developed...
  5. Varicella zoster virus-Induced Pain in a Rat Model of Post-Herpetic Neuralgia
    PAUL KINCHINGTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) is a common and exceedingly painful complication of herpes zoster that is debilitating, intractable, long-lasting and difficult to treat...
  6. Varicella zoster virus-Induced Pain in a Rat Model of Post-Herpetic Neuralgia
    Paul R Kinchington; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) is a common and exceedingly painful complication of herpes zoster that is debilitating, intractable, long-lasting and difficult to treat...
  7. Impact of immune senescence on herpes zoster in a nonhuman primate model
    Ilhem Messaoudi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) leads to herpes zoster (HZ, also known as shingles), a disease that causes major morbidity and occasionally mortality in older individuals. The incidence of HZ increases from 3...
  8. Novel Topical Treatment for Postherpetic Neuralgia
    Charles Gauntt; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..PHN is defined as pain in the affected dermatome that persists or appears after the rash of herpes zoster (HZ) has healed...
  9. ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS OF VARICELLA VIRUS
    Charles Grose; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..of both the common childhood illness chickenpox and, upon reactivation, the dermatomal exanthem shingles (herpes zoster)...
  10. BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION FOR HERPES ZOSTER RISK IN AGING
    Michael Irwin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Description (adapted from investigator's abstract): The incidence and severity of herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles increase markedly with increasing age due to a decline in varicella zoster virus (VZV) specific immunity...
  11. Zeiss LSM 510-NLO multiphoton laser scanning microscope
    Joseph Mazurkiewicz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..cutaneous innervation in normal and pathologic skin to study pain and neural dysfunction resulting from Herpes Zoster using mutiply-fluorescent-labeled thick samples of human skin. Dr...
  12. DEPRESSION AND TRIAL OF VARICELLA VACCINE IN THE ELDERLY
    Michael Irwin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..much evidence indicates that cell mediated immunity plays a critical role in limiting the occurrence of herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications, the effect of major depression on VZV-specific cellular immunity will be examined...
  13. PAIN & NEURAL DYSFUNCTION FROM ACUTE HERPES ZOSTER
    Karin Petersen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Pain, nerve trunk inflammation, and neuronal injury are hallmarks of acute herpes zoster (AHZ or 'shingles')...
  14. PAIN & NEURAL DYSFUNCTION FROM ACUTE HERPES ZOSTER
    Michael Rowbotham; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Pain, nerve trunk inflammation, and neuronal injury are hallmarks of acute herpes zoster (AHZ or 'shingles')...
  15. ALTERED SENSIBILITY FOLLOWING PERIPHERAL NERVE DAMAGE
    CLIFFORD WOOLF; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Peripheral nerve lesions (e.g. trauma, Herpes Zoster, diabetic and AIDs neuropathy) can lead to a loss of sensation as a result of the degeneration or death of primary sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion...