eastern equine encephalomyelitis

Summary

Summary: A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in a horse from California
    Robert P Franklin
    Humphrey, Giacopuzzi and Associates Equine Hospital, Somis, CA, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:283-8. 2002
  2. pmc Evolutionary patterns of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North versus South America suggest ecological differences and taxonomic revision
    Nicole C Arrigo
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 84:1014-25. 2010
  3. ncbi Clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and virologic findings of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in two horses
    F del Piero
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pathobiology, Kennett Square, USA
    Vet Pathol 38:451-6. 2001
  4. ncbi Diagnosis of eastern equine encephalitis by immunohistochemistry in two flocks of Michigan ring-neck pheasants
    S M Williams
    Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA
    Avian Dis 44:1012-6. 2000
  5. pmc Identification of reptilian and amphibian blood meals from mosquitoes in an eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus focus in central Alabama
    Eddie W Cupp
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 5413, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:272-6. 2004
  6. pmc Transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central Alabama
    Eddie W Cupp
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 5413, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:495-500. 2003
  7. pmc Early events in the pathogenesis of eastern equine encephalitis virus in mice
    Peter Vogel
    Lexicon Genetics, Inc, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381 1160, USA
    Am J Pathol 166:159-71. 2005
  8. ncbi Susceptibility of Peruvian mosquitoes to eastern equine encephalitis virus
    M J Turell
    Virology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter St, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:720-5. 2008
  9. ncbi Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus from crows during increased arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut, 2000
    William H Beckwith
    Connecticut Department of Public Health Laboratory, Biological Sciences, Hartford 06144, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 66:422-6. 2002
  10. ncbi Avian host preference by vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus
    Hassan K Hassan
    Division of Geographic Medicine, and Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:641-7. 2003

Detail Information

Publications172 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in a horse from California
    Robert P Franklin
    Humphrey, Giacopuzzi and Associates Equine Hospital, Somis, CA, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:283-8. 2002
    ..which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed...
  2. pmc Evolutionary patterns of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North versus South America suggest ecological differences and taxonomic revision
    Nicole C Arrigo
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 84:1014-25. 2010
    ....
  3. ncbi Clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and virologic findings of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in two horses
    F del Piero
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pathobiology, Kennett Square, USA
    Vet Pathol 38:451-6. 2001
    ..The detailed description of the encephalic and spinal EEEV localization and the findings of EEEV in extraneural tissues contribute to the understanding of this important multisystemic zoonotic disease...
  4. ncbi Diagnosis of eastern equine encephalitis by immunohistochemistry in two flocks of Michigan ring-neck pheasants
    S M Williams
    Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA
    Avian Dis 44:1012-6. 2000
    ..IHC is a rapid, sensitive test for confirming and differentiating a histopathologic diagnosis of EEE in avian species and should be considered as an alternative test to VI or HI...
  5. pmc Identification of reptilian and amphibian blood meals from mosquitoes in an eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus focus in central Alabama
    Eddie W Cupp
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 5413, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:272-6. 2004
    Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culex erraticus, and Cx. peccator were collected in an enzootic eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus focus in central Alabama (Tuskegee National Forest) from 2001 to 2003 and analyzed for virus as well as ..
  6. pmc Transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central Alabama
    Eddie W Cupp
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 5413, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:495-500. 2003
    A site near Tuskegee, Alabama was examined for vector activity of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in 2001...
  7. pmc Early events in the pathogenesis of eastern equine encephalitis virus in mice
    Peter Vogel
    Lexicon Genetics, Inc, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381 1160, USA
    Am J Pathol 166:159-71. 2005
    ....
  8. ncbi Susceptibility of Peruvian mosquitoes to eastern equine encephalitis virus
    M J Turell
    Virology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter St, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:720-5. 2008
    ..This study, combined with the repeated isolation of strains of EEEV from Cx. pedroi captured in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, suggests that Cx. pedroi may be the primary enzootic vector of EEEV in this region...
  9. ncbi Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus from crows during increased arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut, 2000
    William H Beckwith
    Connecticut Department of Public Health Laboratory, Biological Sciences, Hartford 06144, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 66:422-6. 2002
    ..Taken together, these data illustrate the distribution of avian borne EEEV and WNV in 2000 and support the need for ongoing avian arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut...
  10. ncbi Avian host preference by vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus
    Hassan K Hassan
    Division of Geographic Medicine, and Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:641-7. 2003
    ..To analyze this interaction in detail, blood-fed mosquitoes that were confirmed vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus were collected in 2002 from an enzootic site in central Alabama during the time this ..
  11. ncbi Response to and efficacy of vaccination against eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in emus
    L A Tengelsen
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 218:1469-73. 2001
    ..responses of emus vaccinated with commercially available equine polyvalent or experimental monovalent eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus and western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus vaccines and to determine whether ..
  12. ncbi Seroprevalence of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in birds and larval survey of Culiseta melanura Coquillett during an interepizootic period in central Ohio
    Mary C Garvin
    Department of Biology, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074, USA
    J Vector Ecol 29:73-8. 2004
    From June through August in 1999 and 2000, we conducted an avian serosurvey for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus at Killbuck Marsh Wildlife Area (KMWA), a focus of infection in central Ohio...
  13. ncbi Arboviral infection in two species of wild jays (Aves: Corvidae): evidence for population impacts
    Mary C Garvin
    Archbold Biological Station, 123 Main Dr, Venus, FL 33960, USA
    J Med Entomol 41:215-25. 2004
    ..Survival of adult blue jays seropositive to EEE was significantly lower than that of seronegative birds based on resight rates, but infection did not seem to affect survival of adult or juvenile Florida scrub-jays...
  14. ncbi Eastern equine encephalitis in a free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    Cynthia M Tate
    Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA
    J Wildl Dis 41:241-5. 2005
    ..Most antibody-positive deer originated from the Coastal Plain physiographic region. Eastern equine encephalitis virus should be considered a possible cause of neurologic disease in white-tailed deer where it may occur...
  15. ncbi Isolation of EEE virus from Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culiseta melanura in coastal South Carolina
    Diana I Ortiz
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Center for Tropical Diseases, Department of Pathology, Room 4 142, Keiller Building, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 19:33-8. 2003
    ..b>Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) was isolated from 2 pools collected in August, 1997; one pool of Oc...
  16. ncbi Nested multiplex RT-PCR for detection and differentiation of West Nile virus and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in brain tissues
    Donna J Johnson
    USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 15:488-93. 2003
    A traditional nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay specific for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus was designed to multiplex with a previously described West Nile (WN) virus nested RT-PCR assay...
  17. ncbi Abundance and temporal distribution of Ornithonyssus sylviarum Canestrini and Fanzago (Acarina: Mesostigmata) in gray catbird (Dumatella carolinensis) nests
    Mary C Garvin
    Department of Biology, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074, USA
    J Vector Ecol 29:62-5. 2004
    ..We therefore suggest that O. sylviarum may contribute to the transmission of EEE virus among gray catbirds at KMWA...
  18. ncbi Mosquito-borne viral infections and the traveller
    Jane Chiodini
    The Village Medical Centre, Bedfordshire
    Nurs Stand 22:50-7; quiz 58. 2008
    ..It provides advice on symptoms, diagnosis and preventive strategies to inform nursing practice during pre-travel consultations...
  19. doi Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 22-2008. A 52-year-old woman with fever and confusion
    Martin S Hirsch
    Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:294-303. 2008
  20. ncbi Tracking eastern equine encephalitis virus perpetuation in the northeastern United States by phylogenetic analysis
    Philip M Armstrong
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:291-6. 2008
    ..These results provide additional evidence for independent episodes of EEEV overwintering in northern foci...
  21. ncbi Serologic responses to eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis vaccination in previously vaccinated horses
    Bryan M Waldridge
    Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tuskegee, AL 36088, USA
    Vet Ther 4:242-8. 2003
    ..Except for one horse, EEE:WEE titer ratios ranged from 0.25 to 2.0. Regular vaccination against EEE and WEE did not interfere with testing for Saint Louis encephalitis...
  22. ncbi Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatus j. japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Michael R Sardelis
    Virology Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 39:480-4. 2002
    ....
  23. ncbi Complete sequence of the genomic RNA of O'nyong-nyong virus and its use in the construction of alphavirus phylogenetic trees
    R S Levinson
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125
    Virology 175:110-23. 1990
    ....
  24. pmc Development of human antibody fragments using antibody phage display for the detection and diagnosis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)
    Martina Inga Kirsch
    Abteilung Biotechnologie, Institut für Biochemie und Biotechnologie, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Spielmannstrabetae 7, 38106, Braunschweig, Germany
    BMC Biotechnol 8:66. 2008
    ..The objective of this work was the generation of recombinant antibodies for the detection of VEEV after a potential bioterrorism assault or an natural outbreak of VEEV...
  25. ncbi Health evaluation of free-ranging and captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) in the Gran chaco, Bolivia
    Sharon L Deem
    Field Veterinary Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York 10460, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 36:598-605. 2005
    ..3%). All three of the birds that tested antibody positive for Aspergillus spp. were captive, whereas six of the eight and 15 of the 33 birds that tested positive for psittacine herpesvirus and S. pullorum, respectively, were wild...
  26. ncbi [Epidemiology of encephalitis caused by arbovirus in the Brazilian Amazonia]
    P F Vasconcelos
    Instituto Evandro Chagas, Centro Colaborador da OMS em Arboviroses, Fundação SESP, Belem, Para, Brasil
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 33:465-76. 1991
    ..2% died. On the other hand, SLE has caused four epizootics in a forest near Belem. Wild birds and sentinel monkeys were infected, but no human cases were reported...
  27. pmc Comparison of two aquatic alphaviruses, salmon pancreas disease virus and sleeping disease virus, by using genome sequence analysis, monoclonal reactivity, and cross-infection
    Jonathan Weston
    Department of Veterinary Sciences, The Queen s University of Belfast, United Kingdom
    J Virol 76:6155-63. 2002
    ....
  28. ncbi [Serological survey on arbovirus infection in residents of an ecological reserve]
    N S Romano-Lieber
    Departamento de Prática de Saúde Pública da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Rev Saude Publica 34:236-42. 2000
    ..The goal was to verify the prevalence of arboviral infections in people living at the local ecological, and its potential association with these population' individual and familiar characteristics...
  29. ncbi Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru
    M J Turell
    Virology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter St, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 42:891-8. 2005
    ..In total, 164 virus isolations were made and included members of the Alphavirus (eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Trocara, Una, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses), ..
  30. ncbi Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses and discrimination between antibodies to eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses in rabbit sera using a recombinant antigen and virus-specific monoclonal antibodies
    S Pässler
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Infectious and Epidemic Diseases, Veterinary Faculty, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 50:265-9. 2003
    ..Thus, this assay may prove useful in the serological screening of a variety of animal species during an outbreak investigation...
  31. pmc Recombinational history and molecular evolution of western equine encephalomyelitis complex alphaviruses
    S C Weaver
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555, USA
    J Virol 71:613-23. 1997
    ..WEE) virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) was shown previously to have arisen by recombination between eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE)- and Sindbis-like viruses (C. S. Hahn, S. Lustig, E. G. Strauss, and J. H. Strauss, Proc. Natl...
  32. pmc Transmission potential of two chimeric western equine encephalitis vaccine candidates in Culex tarsalis
    Joan L Kenney
    Department of Pathology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0428, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:354-9. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that both vaccine candidates are less competent than the parental strains to be transmitted by the primary mosquito vector, Cx. tarsalis, and are unlikely to be reintroduced into a natural WEEV transmission cycle...
  33. ncbi West Nile virus transmission and ecology in birds
    R G McLean
    United States Geologic Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 951:54-7. 2001
    ..Inoculated crows were viremic before death, and high titers of virus were isolated from a variety of tissues. The significance of the experimental direct transmission among captive crows is unknown...
  34. ncbi Aura virus is a New World representative of Sindbis-like viruses
    T Rumenapf
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125, USA
    Virology 208:621-33. 1995
    ....
  35. ncbi Health assessment of free-ranging three-banded (Tolypeutes matacus) and nine-banded (Dasypus novemcinctus) armadillos in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia
    Sharon L Deem
    Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York, 10460, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 40:245-56. 2009
    ..Results from this study support the possibility that the handling and consumption of these species by the local Isoseño-Guarani people may have a public health impact...
  36. ncbi Identification of bloodmeals in Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Anopheles punctipennis from eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in northeastern U.S.A
    G Molaei
    Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Med Vet Entomol 23:350-6. 2009
    ..An isolate of EEEv was recovered from the head and thorax of an An. punctipennis mosquito collected in NY...
  37. pmc Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) as a nonhuman primate model to assess the virulence of eastern equine encephalitis virus strains
    A Paige Adams
    Department of Pathology and Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    J Virol 82:9035-42. 2008
    ....
  38. ncbi Antibodies to arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses in small mammals from southern Florida
    J F Day
    Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, University of Florida, Vero Beach 32962, USA
    J Wildl Dis 32:431-6. 1996
    ..Blood samples from 512 mammals were tested for virus. Isolations of one EVE virus and two unidentified arenaviruses were made from P. gossypinus and one EVE virus isolate was made from a S. hispidus...
  39. pmc Seco-pregnane steroids target the subgenomic RNA of alphavirus-like RNA viruses
    Yanmei Li
    State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:8083-8. 2007
    ....
  40. ncbi Effect of triethylamine on the recovery of selected South American alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and bunyaviruses from mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) pools
    Monica L O'Guinn
    Virology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 39:806-8. 2002
    ..on the recovery of infectious virus from pools of mosquitoes for two South American alphaviruses (eastern equine encephalomyelitis and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis subtypes IIIC and ID), one flavivirus (Ilheus) and two ..
  41. pmc Capsid protein of eastern equine encephalitis virus inhibits host cell gene expression
    Patricia V Aguilar
    Department of Microbiology, Box 1124, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Virol 81:3866-76. 2007
    ....
  42. pmc A duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of St. Louis encephalitis and eastern equine encephalitis viruses
    Rene Hull
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 62:272-9. 2008
    ..The assay is specific and detected all strains of SLEV (69) and EEEV (12) that were tested. An internal control ensures detection of efficient nucleic acid extraction and possible PCR inhibition...
  43. pmc Variation in interferon sensitivity and induction among strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus
    Patricia V Aguilar
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 79:11300-10. 2005
    ..However, further studies using a better model of human disease are needed to confirm the results of differential human IFN sensitivity obtained in our in vitro experiments...
  44. ncbi Evaluation of outbreaks of disease attributable to eastern equine encephalitis virus in horses
    W A Ross
    Population Medicine Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824 1314, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 208:1988-97. 1996
    ....
  45. ncbi Host-feeding patterns of potential mosquito vectors in Connecticut, U.S.A.: molecular analysis of bloodmeals from 23 species of Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Psorophora, and Uranotaenia
    Goudarz Molaei
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntingon St, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:1143-51. 2008
    ..Occasional feeding on avian hosts suggests that some of these mosquito species, such as Cq. perturbans, also could facilitate transmission of West Nile and eastern equine encephalitis viruses from viremic birds to mammalian hosts...
  46. pmc Pathogenesis of aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus infection in guinea pigs
    Chad J Roy
    Division of Microbiology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, Louisiana, USA
    Virol J 6:170. 2009
    ..These results indicate that guinea pigs experimentally infected by aerosolized EEEV recapitulate several key features of fatal human infection and thus should serve as a suitable animal model for aerosol exposure to EEEV...
  47. ncbi Experimental infection of young broiler chickens with eastern equine encephalitis virus and Highlands J virus
    J S Guy
    Department of Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606
    Avian Dis 38:572-82. 1994
    ..These findings indicate that both EEE virus and HJ virus are pathogenic for young chickens...
  48. ncbi Surveillance of mosquito-borne viruses in Alberta using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with generic primers
    Kanti Pabbaraju
    Provincial Laboratory for Public Health Microbiology, Calgary site, 3030 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4W4
    J Med Entomol 46:640-8. 2009
    ....
  49. ncbi Prevalence of antibodies to West Nile virus and other arboviruses among Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in Florida
    Nicole M Nemeth
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    J Wildl Dis 45:817-22. 2009
    ..Knowledge of arboviral infection among Florida's Crested Caracara, which is both state and federally threatened, is valuable considering increasing pressure on this population from rapid and extensive habitat alterations...
  50. ncbi Comparative analysis of distribution and abundance of West Nile and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus vectors in Suffolk County, New York, using human population density and land use/cover data
    I Rochlin
    Division of Vector Control, Suffolk County Department of Public Works, 335 Yaphank Ave, Yaphank, NY 11980 9744, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:563-71. 2008
    ..Although HPD classification was readily available and had some predictive value, LUC classification resulted in higher spatial resolution and better ability to develop location specific predictive models...
  51. ncbi Eastern equine encephalitis transmission to emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Volusia County, Florida: 1992 through 1994
    J F Day
    Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Vero Beach 32962, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12:429-36. 1996
    ..Emus vaccinated against EEE virus showed evidence of short-term HI antibody acquisition. Evidence of EEE antibody transfer from naturally infected hens to their offspring is reported...
  52. ncbi Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru
    Patricia V Aguilar
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:293-8. 2007
    ..Our results suggest that humans are exposed but do not develop apparent infection with EEEV because of poor infectivity and/or avirulence of South American strains...
  53. ncbi Comparison of chickens and pheasants as sentinels for eastern equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in Florida
    C D Morris
    Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, University of Florida, Vero Beach 32962, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 10:545-8. 1994
    ..Although both bird species can be used to monitor EEE and SLE viruses, pheasants are more sensitive than chickens as sentinels for EEE virus and as sensitive as chickens as sentinels for SLE virus...
  54. ncbi Virus-dependent mortality in Rift Valley fever, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and chikungunya virus-inoculated mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae
    M J Turell
    Department of Epidemiology, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702
    J Med Entomol 29:792-5. 1992
    ..There was also poor survival to the adult stage of Ae. taeniorhynchus inoculated with either eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) or chikungunya (CHIK) virus...
  55. ncbi Experimental infection of young turkeys with eastern equine encephalitis virus and highlands J virus
    J S Guy
    Department of Microbiology, Pathology, and Parasitology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606
    Avian Dis 37:389-95. 1993
    ..The findings indicate that EEE virus and HJ virus are pathogenic for young turkeys...
  56. ncbi Direct broad-range detection of alphaviruses in mosquito extracts
    Mark W Eshoo
    Ibis Biosciences, 1891 Rutherford Rd, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA
    Virology 368:286-95. 2007
    ..The assay we have developed provides a rapid, accurate, and high-throughput assay for surveillance of alphaviruses...
  57. ncbi [Identification of the encephalitis equine virus, Parana, Brazil]
    Z Fernandez
    Instituto Nacional de Higiene Rafael Rangel, Caracas, Venezuela
    Rev Saude Publica 34:232-5. 2000
    ..To identify the etiologic agent associated with this illness, mosquitoes and serum samples were collected in the endemic area...
  58. pmc Eastern equine encephalitis in Quebec and Connecticut, 1972: introduction by infected mosquitoes on the wind?
    R F Sellers
    Agriculture Canada, Health of Animals Laboratory Division, Ottawa, Ontario
    Can J Vet Res 53:76-9. 1989
    ..The arrival on August 8, 1972 coincided with a cold front moving from the northwest through Connecticut. Culiseta melanura is regarded as the mosquito species most likely to have been involved in the transmission of infection...
  59. ncbi Phage display identifies an Eastern equine encephalitis virus glycoprotein E2-specific B cell epitope
    J Zhao
    The Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Ministry of Agriculture, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001, PR China
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 148:364-8. 2012
    ..The knowledge and reagents generated in this study may have potential applications in differential diagnosis and the development of epitope-based marker vaccines against EEEV...
  60. ncbi Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for Eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissue of horses
    Kate E Pennick
    Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48910, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 24:333-8. 2012
    ..Both IHC and ISH are highly specific and sensitive diagnostic methods to detect EEEV in equine FFPE brain tissues, although neither appear effective for the diagnosis of WNV in equine neurologic cases...
  61. pmc Differential evolution of eastern equine encephalitis virus populations in response to host cell type
    L A Cooper
    Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Genetics 157:1403-12. 2001
    ....
  62. ncbi A rapid dot immunoassay for the detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in sentinel chickens
    J J Oprandy
    Naval Medical Research Institute, Department of the Navy, Bethesda, Maryland 20814
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 38:181-6. 1988
    ..This assay was developed for the rapid detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus in sentinel chickens...
  63. ncbi High mortality of domestic turkeys associated with Highlands J virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus infections
    M D Ficken
    Department of Food Animal and Equine Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606
    Avian Dis 37:585-90. 1993
    ..Based on the above observations, it is suspected that these alphaviruses were the cause of the clinical syndrome...
  64. pmc Chimeric alphavirus vaccine candidates for chikungunya
    Eryu Wang
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, and Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, United States
    Vaccine 26:5030-9. 2008
    ..Vaccinated mice were fully protected against disease and viremia after CHIKV challenge...
  65. ncbi Cross-protective immunity between equine encephalomyelitis viruses in equids
    T E Walton
    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Laramie, WY 82071 3965
    Am J Vet Res 50:1442-6. 1989
    Eighteen equids were inoculated with eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) and 18 equids with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) viruses to produce EEE virus- and WEE virus-immunized equids...
  66. ncbi Five-year surveillance of West Nile and eastern equine encephalitis viruses in Southeastern Virginia
    Karin C Loftin
    Norfolk Public Health Laboratory, Commonwealth of Virginia, Norfolk, VA 23510, USA
    J Environ Health 68:33-40. 2006
    ..In 2004, the highest IgM seroconversions to EEE occurred later in August. The overall trend of arbovirus activity was greater in 2003 than in 2004...
  67. ncbi Neuropathology of viral infections
    Kimmo J Hatanpaa
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Electronic address
    Handb Clin Neurol 123:193-214. 2014
    ....
  68. pmc The Old World and New World alphaviruses use different virus-specific proteins for induction of transcriptional shutoff
    Natalia Garmashova
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
    J Virol 81:2472-84. 2007
    ....
  69. ncbi Eastern equine encephalitis virus in Ohio during 1991
    R S Nasci
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control, Fort Collins, CO 80522
    J Med Entomol 30:217-22. 1993
    ..It is unlikely that these species were involved in epizootic transmission. IgM antibody to EEE virus was detected in three bird species collected in the swamp...
  70. ncbi Vector-host interactions and epizootiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus in Massachusetts
    Goudarz Molaei
    Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 13:312-23. 2013
    ..Infrequent blood feeding of Cs. melanura on mammalian hosts, including humans, also indicates that this mosquito may occasionally contribute to epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEE virus in this region...
  71. ncbi Host feeding patterns of potential vectors of eastern equine encephalitis virus at an epizootic focus in Tennessee
    Sara B Cohen
    Vector Borne Diseases Section, Communicable and Environmental Diseases, Tennessee Department of Health, Nashville, Tennessee 37216, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 81:452-6. 2009
    ..By incorporating this study with flight range, vector competence, and virus field isolation data, we assessed certain aspects of the enzootic and epizootic vectorial capacity of the mosquito species present at this outbreak site...
  72. ncbi Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil
    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa
    Laboratorio de Enterovirus, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 105:829-33. 2010
    ....
  73. ncbi Detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus antibodies in moose (Alces americana), Maine, 2010
    Charles Lubelczyk
    1 Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Vector Borne Disease Laboratory, South Portland, Maine
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 14:77-81. 2014
    ..Select mosquito species were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of EEEV. None were positive. This is the first report of EEEV in moose from Maine...
  74. pmc Eastern equine encephalitis in Latin America
    Jean Paul Carrera
    Department of Research in Virology and Biotechnology, Gorgas Memorial Institute of Health Studies, Panama City, Panama
    N Engl J Med 369:732-44. 2013
    ..Outbreaks of neurologic disease in humans and horses were reported in Panama from May through early August 2010...
  75. ncbi Quadraplex qRT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus
    Steven D Zink
    Arbovirus Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New State Department of Health, Slingerlands, NY 12159, USA Electronic address
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 77:129-32. 2013
    ..The multiplex assay resulted in savings in both time and resources for the lab and faster turn-around of results. ..
  76. ncbi Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae)
    T N Tully
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 70803
    Avian Dis 36:808-12. 1992
    ..No nervous system lesions were observed. This outbreak occurred concurrently with EEE in horses and was attributed to unseasonably heavy rainfall with an abundance of arthropod vectors and proximity to free-living reservoir host species...
  77. ncbi Non-infectious plasmid engineered to simulate multiple viral threat agents
    Monica Carrera
    Laboratory of the Association of Biochemists and Pharmacists COFYB, Argentina, Buenos Aires CP 1184, Argentina
    J Virol Methods 159:29-33. 2009
    ....
  78. ncbi Differential reactivity of immune sera from human vaccinees with field strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus
    J M Strizki
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 53:564-70. 1995
    ....
  79. pmc Molecular epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus, New York
    David S Young
    New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:454-60. 2008
    ..This study provides molecular evidence for the introduction of southern EEEV strains to New York, followed by local amplification, perpetuation, and overwintering...
  80. pmc Chimeric Sindbis/eastern equine encephalitis vaccine candidates are highly attenuated and immunogenic in mice
    Eryu Wang
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    Vaccine 25:7573-81. 2007
    ..Upon challenge with EEEV, mice vaccinated with >10(4) PFU of the chimeric viruses were completely protected from disease. These findings support the potential use of these SIN/EEEV chimeras as safe and effective vaccines...
  81. ncbi Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus from Aedes sollicitans during an epizootic in southern New Jersey
    W J Crans
    Mosquito Research and Control, Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2:68-72. 1986
    ..sollicitans is capable of functioning as an epidemic vector in the coastal areas of New Jersey where human cases of EEE have been most common...
  82. ncbi Arbovirus surveillance in Rhode Island: assessing potential ecologic and climatic correlates
    Tsutomu Takeda
    Center for Vector Borne Disease, University of Rhode Island, 9 East Alumni, Suite 7, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 19:179-89. 2003
    ..These included 109 Highlands J, 71 eastern equine encephalomyelitis, 1 California encephalitis serogroup, 2 Jamestown Canyon, 3 Cache Valley, and 9 Flanders viruses...
  83. ncbi [Viral encephalitis caused by biowarfare agents]
    Shmuel Stienlauf
    Harefuah 141:51-6, 121. 2002
    ..The WEE virus, which is hybridization between the Sindbis virus and the EEE virus, causes encephalitis mainly in children. The severity of the disease caused by WEE and the sequel rate is much lower than that of EEE...
  84. ncbi Immune interference in the setting of same-day administration of two similar inactivated alphavirus vaccines: eastern equine and western equine encephalitis
    Ronald B Reisler
    United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, United States
    Vaccine 30:7271-7. 2012
    ..These findings combined with the findings of others regarding immune interference would argue for a renewed emphasis on studying the immunological mechanisms of induction of inactivated viral vaccine protection...
  85. pmc Characterization of Farmington virus, a novel virus from birds that is distantly related to members of the family Rhabdoviridae
    Gustavo Palacios
    Center for Genomic Sciences, United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Frederick, MD 10032, USA
    Virol J 10:219. 2013
    ..Farmington virus (FARV) is a rhabdovirus that was isolated from a wild bird during an outbreak of epizootic eastern equine encephalitis on a pheasant farm in Connecticut, USA...
  86. ncbi Effect of salt concentration in larval rearing water on susceptibility of Aedes Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to eastern equine and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses
    M J Turell
    Virology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 35:670-3. 1998
    ..of adult Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) and Aedes sollicitans (Skuse) to infection with eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus was tested in the laboratory. Ae...
  87. ncbi Detection of West Nile virus in mosquitoes by RT-PCR
    T L Hadfield
    Division of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC 20306, USA
    Mol Cell Probes 15:147-50. 2001
    ..Analytic sensitivity and specificity were 100%. This assay offers an efficient and rapid method of identifying West Nile virus in infected mosquitoes or cell culture...
  88. pmc Serosurveillance of eastern equine encephalitis virus in amphibians and reptiles from Alabama, USA
    Sean P Graham
    Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Alabama, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 86:540-4. 2012
    ..The cottonmouth, the most abundant ectotherm sampled, displayed a high prevalence of seropositivity, indicating its possible role as an amplification and/or over-wintering reservoir for EEEV...
  89. ncbi Alphaviruses: Semliki forest virus and Sindbis virus vectors for gene transfer into neurons
    Markus U Ehrengruber
    Department of Biology, Kantonsschule Hohe Promenade, Zurich, Switzerland
    Curr Protoc Neurosci . 2011
    ..Alphavirus vectors have been successfully used not only in neuroscience, but also for other applications including drug discovery, structural biology, vaccine development, and cancer therapy...
  90. pmc Use of sindbis/eastern equine encephalitis chimeric viruses in plaque reduction neutralization tests for arboviral disease diagnostics
    B W Johnson
    Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:1486-91. 2011
    ..Considering their benefits in increased safety and reduced regulatory requirements, these chimeric viruses should be highly useful in diagnostic laboratories throughout the Americas...
  91. ncbi DNA shuffling and screening strategies for improving vaccine efficacy
    Christopher P Locher
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Maxygen, Inc, Redwood City, California 94063, USA
    DNA Cell Biol 24:256-63. 2005
    ..Thus, DNA shuffling and screening technology is a promising strategy to facilitate vaccine efficacy...
  92. ncbi Hematology, serum chemistry, and serology of Galápagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
    Erika K Travis
    Saint Louis Zoo, One Government Drive, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Wildl Dis 42:625-32. 2006
    ..Seventy-five of 84 (89%) penguins had antibodies to Chlamydophila psittaci but chlamydial DNA was not detected via polymerase chain reaction in samples from 30 birds...
  93. ncbi Building a picture: Prioritisation of exotic diseases for the pig industry in Australia using multi-criteria decision analysis
    V J Brookes
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, Australia Electronic address
    Prev Vet Med 113:103-17. 2014
    ..The prioritisation lists will be used by industry stakeholders to identify diseases for further risk analysis and disease spread modelling to understand biosecurity risks to this industry...
  94. pmc Development of human-murine chimeric immunoglobulin G for use in the serological detection of human flavivirus and alphavirus antibodies
    Brett A Thibodeaux
    Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention U S DHHS, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:1617-23. 2010
    ..The IgG cMAbs secreted from plasmid-transformed Sp2/0-Ag14 cells had serological activity identical to that of the parent mMAbs, as measured by ELISA using multiple flaviviruses or alphaviruses...
  95. ncbi Winter biology of wetland mosquitoes at a focus of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus transmission in Alabama, USA
    Nathan D Burkett-Cadena
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
    J Med Entomol 48:967-73. 2011
    ..overwintering females lends support to this hypothesis, but for other arboviruses, in particular Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, EEEV), overwintering of the virus in mosquito hosts as ..
  96. pmc An eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) outbreak in Quebec in the fall of 2008
    Sonia Chénier
    Laboratoire d épidémiosurveillance animale du Québec, Institut national de santé animale, Ministère de l agriculture, des pêcheries et de l alimentation du Québec, 3220 Sicotte, St Hyacinthe, Quebec
    Can Vet J 51:1011-5. 2010
    b>Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) was diagnosed in 19 horses and a flock of emus in the province of Quebec in fall 2008. The EEE virus caused unusual gross lesions in the central nervous system of one horse...
  97. ncbi Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and Culiseta melanura activity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 1985-90
    B B Pagac
    U S Army Environmental Hygiene Activity North, Entomological Sciences Division, Fort George G Meade, MD 20755
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 8:328-30. 1992
    ..population densities, virus isolations and seroconversion in sentinel quail were used to monitor eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) activity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, from 1985 through ..
  98. pmc Genetic and fitness changes accompanying adaptation of an arbovirus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells
    S C Weaver
    Center for Tropical Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA
    J Virol 73:4316-26. 1999
    ..Our results suggest that alternating host transmission cycles constrain the evolutionary rates of arboviruses but not their fitness for either host alone...
  99. ncbi Seasonal abundance of Culex nigripalpus Theobald and Culex salinarius Coquillett in north Florida, USA
    Michael Zyzak
    Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Preventative Medicine and Biometrics, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    J Vector Ecol 27:155-62. 2002
    ..nigripalpus in a region where this species is normally not abundant. A seasonal shift in population structure may increase the transmission risk of arboviruses for which Cx. nigripalpus is a competent vector, including SLE, WN, and EEE...
  100. ncbi Detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus in infected mosquitoes using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
    T M Brown
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 65:208-13. 2001
    ..The conversion of this ELISA to a monoclonal antibody-based format should result in a readily standardizable and transferable assay that will permit laboratories lacking virus isolation facilities to conduct EEE virus surveillance...
  101. ncbi Repellent effect of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) essential oils against the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Barbara Conti
    Department of Tree Science, Entomology and Plant Pathology G Scaramuzzi, University of Pisa, Via San Michele Degli Scalzi 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy
    Parasitol Res 111:291-9. 2012
    ..2 min, respectively. Our findings clearly reveal that these EOs have a good repellent activity against A. albopictus, therefore they can be proposed to improve the efficacy of repellent formulations against the Asian tiger mosquito...

Research Grants18

  1. Genomics of Antiviral Responses of Anopheles gambiae Against O'nyong-nyong Virus
    Young S Hong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Considering there exist overlapping immune responses against bacterial and malaria infections in An. gambiae, our findings may also provide information applicable to Plasmodium infection. ..
  2. Viral and Host Determinants of New World Alphaviral Entry
    ASIM AMINSHARIF AHMED; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Children's Hospital Boston is committed to this career development plan and has assured the candidate will be able to devote at least 85% full-time effort to the activities described in this proposal. ..
  3. Control of alphavirous replacation in the nervous system
    Diane E Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  4. The role of indolamine2,3-dioxygenase in the host response/pathogenesis of Venezu
    Robert Seymour; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..They have the potential to cause epidemics which could impact public health. There are currently no treatments for these illnesses and our goal is to discover specific treatments for these viral illnesses. ..
  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Pathogenesis
    William B Klimstra; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  6. Environmental Health Programs through the Environmental Health Specialists Networ
    Guthrie S Birkhead; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) is seeking continued support for the Environmental Health Specialist Network cooperative agreement. Funding is requested for the food and water safety components. ..
  7. Innate immune evasion and/or antagonism by eastern equine encephalitis virus
    KATHERINE RYMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  8. Replicon-based screening for inhibitors of alphaviruses
    PAUL OLIVO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These efforts will contribute to the goal of finding therapeutic modalities to control these important pathogens. ..
  9. Delineating EEEV Over-Wintering and Early Season Amplification Mechanisms
    Thomas R Unnasch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is the most pathogenic arbovirus endemic to the USA...
  10. RNA REPAIR AND RECOMBINATION--AN ALPHAVIRUS MODEL
    RAMASAMY RAJU; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  11. VENUE OF AMPLIFICATION OF EEE OUTBREAKS
    Andrew Spielman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The research seeks a general definition of reservoir capacity and anticipates contributing to improved suppression of EEEV outbreaks. ..
  12. Ecology of Encephalitis Viruses in the USA
    Thomas R Unnasch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is a serious infection of humans, and is listed as a high- consequence select agent...
  13. TOGAVIRUS--VECTOR INTERACTIONS
    Thomas Scott; Fiscal Year: 1992
    Recent unique findings from our laboratory suggest that the togavirus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus, causes significant cytopathology in the midgut of its mosquito vector, Culiseta melanura...
  14. MOLECULAR INVESTIGATION OF THE ECOLOGY OF EEE VIRUS
    PATRICIA REPIK; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..This information may also serve as a model for defining the ecology of other important arboviruses...
  15. Ecology of West Nile Virus in the Southeastern US
    THOMAS UNNASCH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of this proposal have collaborated closely over the past four years in a study of the ecology of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis(EEE) virus...
  16. ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This information will be invaluable in targeting prevention and control resources, especially for obtaining maximum benefit in developing countries with limited resources. ..
  17. Broad Detection System for Tick-Borne Pathogens
    Mark Eshoo; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Results of this work will lead to a commercially available diagnostic to detect and identify tick-borne diseases in humans for improved medical treatment and public health surveillance. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..