eastern equine encephalomyelitis

Summary

Summary: A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Evolutionary patterns of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North versus South America suggest ecological differences and taxonomic revision
    Nicole C Arrigo
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 84:1014-25. 2010
  2. ncbi Clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and virologic findings of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in two horses
    F del Piero
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pathobiology, Kennett Square, USA
    Vet Pathol 38:451-6. 2001
  3. pmc Identification of reptilian and amphibian blood meals from mosquitoes in an eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus focus in central Alabama
    Eddie W Cupp
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 5413, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:272-6. 2004
  4. pmc Transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central Alabama
    Eddie W Cupp
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 5413, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:495-500. 2003
  5. ncbi Seroprevalence of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in birds and larval survey of Culiseta melanura Coquillett during an interepizootic period in central Ohio
    Mary C Garvin
    Department of Biology, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074, USA
    J Vector Ecol 29:73-8. 2004
  6. ncbi Arboviral infection in two species of wild jays (Aves: Corvidae): evidence for population impacts
    Mary C Garvin
    Archbold Biological Station, 123 Main Dr, Venus, FL 33960, USA
    J Med Entomol 41:215-25. 2004
  7. pmc Early events in the pathogenesis of eastern equine encephalitis virus in mice
    Peter Vogel
    Lexicon Genetics, Inc, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381 1160, USA
    Am J Pathol 166:159-71. 2005
  8. ncbi Susceptibility of Peruvian mosquitoes to eastern equine encephalitis virus
    M J Turell
    Virology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter St, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:720-5. 2008
  9. ncbi Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus from crows during increased arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut, 2000
    William H Beckwith
    Connecticut Department of Public Health Laboratory, Biological Sciences, Hartford 06144, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 66:422-6. 2002
  10. ncbi Avian host preference by vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus
    Hassan K Hassan
    Division of Geographic Medicine, and Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:641-7. 2003

Detail Information

Publications147 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Evolutionary patterns of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North versus South America suggest ecological differences and taxonomic revision
    Nicole C Arrigo
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 84:1014-25. 2010
    ....
  2. ncbi Clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and virologic findings of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in two horses
    F del Piero
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pathobiology, Kennett Square, USA
    Vet Pathol 38:451-6. 2001
    ..The detailed description of the encephalic and spinal EEEV localization and the findings of EEEV in extraneural tissues contribute to the understanding of this important multisystemic zoonotic disease...
  3. pmc Identification of reptilian and amphibian blood meals from mosquitoes in an eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus focus in central Alabama
    Eddie W Cupp
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 5413, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:272-6. 2004
    Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culex erraticus, and Cx. peccator were collected in an enzootic eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus focus in central Alabama (Tuskegee National Forest) from 2001 to 2003 and analyzed for virus as well as ..
  4. pmc Transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central Alabama
    Eddie W Cupp
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 5413, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:495-500. 2003
    A site near Tuskegee, Alabama was examined for vector activity of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in 2001...
  5. ncbi Seroprevalence of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in birds and larval survey of Culiseta melanura Coquillett during an interepizootic period in central Ohio
    Mary C Garvin
    Department of Biology, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074, USA
    J Vector Ecol 29:73-8. 2004
    From June through August in 1999 and 2000, we conducted an avian serosurvey for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus at Killbuck Marsh Wildlife Area (KMWA), a focus of infection in central Ohio...
  6. ncbi Arboviral infection in two species of wild jays (Aves: Corvidae): evidence for population impacts
    Mary C Garvin
    Archbold Biological Station, 123 Main Dr, Venus, FL 33960, USA
    J Med Entomol 41:215-25. 2004
    ..Survival of adult blue jays seropositive to EEE was significantly lower than that of seronegative birds based on resight rates, but infection did not seem to affect survival of adult or juvenile Florida scrub-jays...
  7. pmc Early events in the pathogenesis of eastern equine encephalitis virus in mice
    Peter Vogel
    Lexicon Genetics, Inc, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381 1160, USA
    Am J Pathol 166:159-71. 2005
    ....
  8. ncbi Susceptibility of Peruvian mosquitoes to eastern equine encephalitis virus
    M J Turell
    Virology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter St, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:720-5. 2008
    ..This study, combined with the repeated isolation of strains of EEEV from Cx. pedroi captured in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, suggests that Cx. pedroi may be the primary enzootic vector of EEEV in this region...
  9. ncbi Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus from crows during increased arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut, 2000
    William H Beckwith
    Connecticut Department of Public Health Laboratory, Biological Sciences, Hartford 06144, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 66:422-6. 2002
    ..Taken together, these data illustrate the distribution of avian borne EEEV and WNV in 2000 and support the need for ongoing avian arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut...
  10. ncbi Avian host preference by vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus
    Hassan K Hassan
    Division of Geographic Medicine, and Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:641-7. 2003
    ..To analyze this interaction in detail, blood-fed mosquitoes that were confirmed vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus were collected in 2002 from an enzootic site in central Alabama during the time this ..
  11. ncbi Response to and efficacy of vaccination against eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in emus
    L A Tengelsen
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 218:1469-73. 2001
    ..responses of emus vaccinated with commercially available equine polyvalent or experimental monovalent eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus and western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus vaccines and to determine whether ..
  12. ncbi Diagnosis of eastern equine encephalitis by immunohistochemistry in two flocks of Michigan ring-neck pheasants
    S M Williams
    Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA
    Avian Dis 44:1012-6. 2000
    ..IHC is a rapid, sensitive test for confirming and differentiating a histopathologic diagnosis of EEE in avian species and should be considered as an alternative test to VI or HI...
  13. ncbi Abundance and temporal distribution of Ornithonyssus sylviarum Canestrini and Fanzago (Acarina: Mesostigmata) in gray catbird (Dumatella carolinensis) nests
    Mary C Garvin
    Department of Biology, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074, USA
    J Vector Ecol 29:62-5. 2004
    ..We therefore suggest that O. sylviarum may contribute to the transmission of EEE virus among gray catbirds at KMWA...
  14. ncbi Isolation of EEE virus from Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culiseta melanura in coastal South Carolina
    Diana I Ortiz
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Center for Tropical Diseases, Department of Pathology, Room 4 142, Keiller Building, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 19:33-8. 2003
    ..b>Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) was isolated from 2 pools collected in August, 1997; one pool of Oc...
  15. ncbi Serologic responses to eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis vaccination in previously vaccinated horses
    Bryan M Waldridge
    Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tuskegee, AL 36088, USA
    Vet Ther 4:242-8. 2003
    ..Except for one horse, EEE:WEE titer ratios ranged from 0.25 to 2.0. Regular vaccination against EEE and WEE did not interfere with testing for Saint Louis encephalitis...
  16. ncbi Eastern equine encephalitis in a free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    Cynthia M Tate
    Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA
    J Wildl Dis 41:241-5. 2005
    ..Most antibody-positive deer originated from the Coastal Plain physiographic region. Eastern equine encephalitis virus should be considered a possible cause of neurologic disease in white-tailed deer where it may occur...
  17. ncbi Tracking eastern equine encephalitis virus perpetuation in the northeastern United States by phylogenetic analysis
    Philip M Armstrong
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:291-6. 2008
    ..These results provide additional evidence for independent episodes of EEEV overwintering in northern foci...
  18. ncbi Five-year surveillance of West Nile and eastern equine encephalitis viruses in Southeastern Virginia
    Karin C Loftin
    Norfolk Public Health Laboratory, Commonwealth of Virginia, Norfolk, VA 23510, USA
    J Environ Health 68:33-40. 2006
    ..In 2004, the highest IgM seroconversions to EEE occurred later in August. The overall trend of arbovirus activity was greater in 2003 than in 2004...
  19. ncbi Nested multiplex RT-PCR for detection and differentiation of West Nile virus and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in brain tissues
    Donna J Johnson
    USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 15:488-93. 2003
    A traditional nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay specific for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus was designed to multiplex with a previously described West Nile (WN) virus nested RT-PCR assay...
  20. pmc Molecular epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus, New York
    David S Young
    New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:454-60. 2008
    ..This study provides molecular evidence for the introduction of southern EEEV strains to New York, followed by local amplification, perpetuation, and overwintering...
  21. ncbi Mosquito-borne viral infections and the traveller
    Jane Chiodini
    The Village Medical Centre, Bedfordshire
    Nurs Stand 22:50-7; quiz 58. 2008
    ..It provides advice on symptoms, diagnosis and preventive strategies to inform nursing practice during pre-travel consultations...
  22. pmc Chimeric Sindbis/eastern equine encephalitis vaccine candidates are highly attenuated and immunogenic in mice
    Eryu Wang
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    Vaccine 25:7573-81. 2007
    ..Upon challenge with EEEV, mice vaccinated with >10(4) PFU of the chimeric viruses were completely protected from disease. These findings support the potential use of these SIN/EEEV chimeras as safe and effective vaccines...
  23. pmc Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in a horse from California
    Robert P Franklin
    Humphrey, Giacopuzzi and Associates Equine Hospital, Somis, CA, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:283-8. 2002
    ..which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed...
  24. doi Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 22-2008. A 52-year-old woman with fever and confusion
    Martin S Hirsch
    Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:294-303. 2008
  25. ncbi Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatus j. japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Michael R Sardelis
    Virology Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 39:480-4. 2002
    ....
  26. ncbi Complete sequence of the genomic RNA of O'nyong-nyong virus and its use in the construction of alphavirus phylogenetic trees
    R S Levinson
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125
    Virology 175:110-23. 1990
    ....
  27. pmc Development of human antibody fragments using antibody phage display for the detection and diagnosis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)
    Martina Inga Kirsch
    Abteilung Biotechnologie, Institut für Biochemie und Biotechnologie, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Spielmannstrabetae 7, 38106, Braunschweig, Germany
    BMC Biotechnol 8:66. 2008
    ..The objective of this work was the generation of recombinant antibodies for the detection of VEEV after a potential bioterrorism assault or an natural outbreak of VEEV...
  28. ncbi Health evaluation of free-ranging and captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) in the Gran chaco, Bolivia
    Sharon L Deem
    Field Veterinary Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York 10460, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 36:598-605. 2005
    ..3%). All three of the birds that tested antibody positive for Aspergillus spp. were captive, whereas six of the eight and 15 of the 33 birds that tested positive for psittacine herpesvirus and S. pullorum, respectively, were wild...
  29. ncbi [Epidemiology of encephalitis caused by arbovirus in the Brazilian Amazonia]
    P F Vasconcelos
    Instituto Evandro Chagas, Centro Colaborador da OMS em Arboviroses, Fundação SESP, Belem, Para, Brasil
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 33:465-76. 1991
    ..2% died. On the other hand, SLE has caused four epizootics in a forest near Belem. Wild birds and sentinel monkeys were infected, but no human cases were reported...
  30. pmc The Old World and New World alphaviruses use different virus-specific proteins for induction of transcriptional shutoff
    Natalia Garmashova
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
    J Virol 81:2472-84. 2007
    ....
  31. ncbi [Serological survey on arbovirus infection in residents of an ecological reserve]
    N S Romano-Lieber
    Departamento de Prática de Saúde Pública da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Rev Saude Publica 34:236-42. 2000
    ..The goal was to verify the prevalence of arboviral infections in people living at the local ecological, and its potential association with these population' individual and familiar characteristics...
  32. pmc Comparison of two aquatic alphaviruses, salmon pancreas disease virus and sleeping disease virus, by using genome sequence analysis, monoclonal reactivity, and cross-infection
    Jonathan Weston
    Department of Veterinary Sciences, The Queen s University of Belfast, United Kingdom
    J Virol 76:6155-63. 2002
    ....
  33. ncbi Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru
    M J Turell
    Virology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter St, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 42:891-8. 2005
    ..In total, 164 virus isolations were made and included members of the Alphavirus (eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Trocara, Una, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses), ..
  34. ncbi Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses and discrimination between antibodies to eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses in rabbit sera using a recombinant antigen and virus-specific monoclonal antibodies
    S Pässler
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Infectious and Epidemic Diseases, Veterinary Faculty, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 50:265-9. 2003
    ..Thus, this assay may prove useful in the serological screening of a variety of animal species during an outbreak investigation...
  35. doi Non-infectious plasmid engineered to simulate multiple viral threat agents
    Monica Carrera
    Laboratory of the Association of Biochemists and Pharmacists COFYB, Argentina, Buenos Aires CP 1184, Argentina
    J Virol Methods 159:29-33. 2009
    ....
  36. ncbi Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil
    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa
    Laboratorio de Enterovirus, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 105:829-33. 2010
    ....
  37. pmc Recombinational history and molecular evolution of western equine encephalomyelitis complex alphaviruses
    S C Weaver
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555, USA
    J Virol 71:613-23. 1997
    ..WEE) virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) was shown previously to have arisen by recombination between eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE)- and Sindbis-like viruses (C. S. Hahn, S. Lustig, E. G. Strauss, and J. H. Strauss, Proc. Natl...
  38. pmc Transmission potential of two chimeric western equine encephalitis vaccine candidates in Culex tarsalis
    Joan L Kenney
    Department of Pathology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0428, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:354-9. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that both vaccine candidates are less competent than the parental strains to be transmitted by the primary mosquito vector, Cx. tarsalis, and are unlikely to be reintroduced into a natural WEEV transmission cycle...
  39. ncbi West Nile virus transmission and ecology in birds
    R G McLean
    United States Geologic Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 951:54-7. 2001
    ..Inoculated crows were viremic before death, and high titers of virus were isolated from a variety of tissues. The significance of the experimental direct transmission among captive crows is unknown...
  40. ncbi Aura virus is a New World representative of Sindbis-like viruses
    T Rumenapf
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125, USA
    Virology 208:621-33. 1995
    ....
  41. ncbi Health assessment of free-ranging three-banded (Tolypeutes matacus) and nine-banded (Dasypus novemcinctus) armadillos in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia
    Sharon L Deem
    Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York, 10460, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 40:245-56. 2009
    ..Results from this study support the possibility that the handling and consumption of these species by the local Isoseño-Guarani people may have a public health impact...
  42. ncbi A rapid dot immunoassay for the detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in sentinel chickens
    J J Oprandy
    Naval Medical Research Institute, Department of the Navy, Bethesda, Maryland 20814
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 38:181-6. 1988
    ..This assay was developed for the rapid detection of serum antibodies to eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus in sentinel chickens...
  43. doi Identification of bloodmeals in Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Anopheles punctipennis from eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in northeastern U.S.A
    G Molaei
    Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, USA
    Med Vet Entomol 23:350-6. 2009
    ..An isolate of EEEv was recovered from the head and thorax of an An. punctipennis mosquito collected in NY...
  44. pmc Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) as a nonhuman primate model to assess the virulence of eastern equine encephalitis virus strains
    A Paige Adams
    Department of Pathology and Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    J Virol 82:9035-42. 2008
    ....
  45. ncbi Antibodies to arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses in small mammals from southern Florida
    J F Day
    Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, University of Florida, Vero Beach 32962, USA
    J Wildl Dis 32:431-6. 1996
    ..Blood samples from 512 mammals were tested for virus. Isolations of one EVE virus and two unidentified arenaviruses were made from P. gossypinus and one EVE virus isolate was made from a S. hispidus...
  46. pmc Seco-pregnane steroids target the subgenomic RNA of alphavirus-like RNA viruses
    Yanmei Li
    State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:8083-8. 2007
    ....
  47. ncbi Effect of triethylamine on the recovery of selected South American alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and bunyaviruses from mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) pools
    Monica L O'Guinn
    Virology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 39:806-8. 2002
    ..on the recovery of infectious virus from pools of mosquitoes for two South American alphaviruses (eastern equine encephalomyelitis and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis subtypes IIIC and ID), one flavivirus (Ilheus) and two ..
  48. pmc Capsid protein of eastern equine encephalitis virus inhibits host cell gene expression
    Patricia V Aguilar
    Department of Microbiology, Box 1124, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Virol 81:3866-76. 2007
    ....
  49. pmc Variation in interferon sensitivity and induction among strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus
    Patricia V Aguilar
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 79:11300-10. 2005
    ..However, further studies using a better model of human disease are needed to confirm the results of differential human IFN sensitivity obtained in our in vitro experiments...
  50. ncbi Evaluation of outbreaks of disease attributable to eastern equine encephalitis virus in horses
    W A Ross
    Population Medicine Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824 1314, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 208:1988-97. 1996
    ....
  51. pmc A duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of St. Louis encephalitis and eastern equine encephalitis viruses
    Rene Hull
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 62:272-9. 2008
    ..The assay is specific and detected all strains of SLEV (69) and EEEV (12) that were tested. An internal control ensures detection of efficient nucleic acid extraction and possible PCR inhibition...
  52. ncbi Host-feeding patterns of potential mosquito vectors in Connecticut, U.S.A.: molecular analysis of bloodmeals from 23 species of Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Psorophora, and Uranotaenia
    Goudarz Molaei
    The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntingon St, P O Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:1143-51. 2008
    ..Occasional feeding on avian hosts suggests that some of these mosquito species, such as Cq. perturbans, also could facilitate transmission of West Nile and eastern equine encephalitis viruses from viremic birds to mammalian hosts...
  53. ncbi Differential reactivity of immune sera from human vaccinees with field strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus
    J M Strizki
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 53:564-70. 1995
    ....
  54. ncbi Cross-protective immunity between equine encephalomyelitis viruses in equids
    T E Walton
    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Laramie, WY 82071 3965
    Am J Vet Res 50:1442-6. 1989
    Eighteen equids were inoculated with eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) and 18 equids with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) viruses to produce EEE virus- and WEE virus-immunized equids...
  55. ncbi Surveillance of mosquito-borne viruses in Alberta using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with generic primers
    Kanti Pabbaraju
    Provincial Laboratory for Public Health Microbiology, Calgary site, 3030 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4W4
    J Med Entomol 46:640-8. 2009
    ....
  56. pmc Pathogenesis of aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus infection in guinea pigs
    Chad J Roy
    Division of Microbiology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, Louisiana, USA
    Virol J 6:170. 2009
    ..These results indicate that guinea pigs experimentally infected by aerosolized EEEV recapitulate several key features of fatal human infection and thus should serve as a suitable animal model for aerosol exposure to EEEV...
  57. ncbi Experimental infection of young broiler chickens with eastern equine encephalitis virus and Highlands J virus
    J S Guy
    Department of Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606
    Avian Dis 38:572-82. 1994
    ..These findings indicate that both EEE virus and HJ virus are pathogenic for young chickens...
  58. ncbi Comparative analysis of distribution and abundance of West Nile and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus vectors in Suffolk County, New York, using human population density and land use/cover data
    I Rochlin
    Division of Vector Control, Suffolk County Department of Public Works, 335 Yaphank Ave, Yaphank, NY 11980 9744, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:563-71. 2008
    ..Although HPD classification was readily available and had some predictive value, LUC classification resulted in higher spatial resolution and better ability to develop location specific predictive models...
  59. ncbi Prevalence of antibodies to West Nile virus and other arboviruses among Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in Florida
    Nicole M Nemeth
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    J Wildl Dis 45:817-22. 2009
    ..Knowledge of arboviral infection among Florida's Crested Caracara, which is both state and federally threatened, is valuable considering increasing pressure on this population from rapid and extensive habitat alterations...
  60. ncbi Eastern equine encephalitis transmission to emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Volusia County, Florida: 1992 through 1994
    J F Day
    Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Vero Beach 32962, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12:429-36. 1996
    ..Emus vaccinated against EEE virus showed evidence of short-term HI antibody acquisition. Evidence of EEE antibody transfer from naturally infected hens to their offspring is reported...
  61. ncbi Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru
    Patricia V Aguilar
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:293-8. 2007
    ..Our results suggest that humans are exposed but do not develop apparent infection with EEEV because of poor infectivity and/or avirulence of South American strains...
  62. ncbi Comparison of chickens and pheasants as sentinels for eastern equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in Florida
    C D Morris
    Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, University of Florida, Vero Beach 32962, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 10:545-8. 1994
    ..Although both bird species can be used to monitor EEE and SLE viruses, pheasants are more sensitive than chickens as sentinels for EEE virus and as sensitive as chickens as sentinels for SLE virus...
  63. ncbi Virus-dependent mortality in Rift Valley fever, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and chikungunya virus-inoculated mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae
    M J Turell
    Department of Epidemiology, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702
    J Med Entomol 29:792-5. 1992
    ..There was also poor survival to the adult stage of Ae. taeniorhynchus inoculated with either eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) or chikungunya (CHIK) virus...
  64. pmc Chimeric alphavirus vaccine candidates for chikungunya
    Eryu Wang
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, and Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, United States
    Vaccine 26:5030-9. 2008
    ..Vaccinated mice were fully protected against disease and viremia after CHIKV challenge...
  65. ncbi Experimental infection of young turkeys with eastern equine encephalitis virus and highlands J virus
    J S Guy
    Department of Microbiology, Pathology, and Parasitology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606
    Avian Dis 37:389-95. 1993
    ..The findings indicate that EEE virus and HJ virus are pathogenic for young turkeys...
  66. ncbi Direct broad-range detection of alphaviruses in mosquito extracts
    Mark W Eshoo
    Ibis Biosciences, 1891 Rutherford Rd, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA
    Virology 368:286-95. 2007
    ..The assay we have developed provides a rapid, accurate, and high-throughput assay for surveillance of alphaviruses...
  67. ncbi [Identification of the encephalitis equine virus, Parana, Brazil]
    Z Fernandez
    Instituto Nacional de Higiene Rafael Rangel, Caracas, Venezuela
    Rev Saude Publica 34:232-5. 2000
    ..To identify the etiologic agent associated with this illness, mosquitoes and serum samples were collected in the endemic area...
  68. pmc Eastern equine encephalitis in Quebec and Connecticut, 1972: introduction by infected mosquitoes on the wind?
    R F Sellers
    Agriculture Canada, Health of Animals Laboratory Division, Ottawa, Ontario
    Can J Vet Res 53:76-9. 1989
    ..The arrival on August 8, 1972 coincided with a cold front moving from the northwest through Connecticut. Culiseta melanura is regarded as the mosquito species most likely to have been involved in the transmission of infection...
  69. pmc Risk of exposure to eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus increases with the density of northern cardinals
    Laura K Estep
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e57879. 2013
    ..The highest-ranking model also included Culiseta melanura abundance as a predictor variable. These results suggest that mosquito preferences for vertebrate hosts influence pathogen transmission...
  70. ncbi Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE): a description of the 1989 outbreak, recent epidemiologic trends, and the association of rainfall with EEE occurrence
    G W Letson
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 49:677-85. 1993
    ..The sensitivity and specificity of these measures varied, depending on the model used, but the positive predictive value was no better than 50%, regardless of the rainfall model applied...
  71. ncbi Ticks, Lyme disease spirochetes, trypanosomes, and antibody to encephalitis viruses in wild birds from coastal Georgia and South Carolina
    L A Durden
    Institute of Anthropodology and Parasitology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro 30460, USA
    J Parasitol 83:1178-82. 1997
    ..burgdorferi...
  72. ncbi Detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus in infected mosquitoes using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
    T M Brown
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 65:208-13. 2001
    ..The conversion of this ELISA to a monoclonal antibody-based format should result in a readily standardizable and transferable assay that will permit laboratories lacking virus isolation facilities to conduct EEE virus surveillance...
  73. ncbi Seasonal abundance of Culex nigripalpus Theobald and Culex salinarius Coquillett in north Florida, USA
    Michael Zyzak
    Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Preventative Medicine and Biometrics, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    J Vector Ecol 27:155-62. 2002
    ..nigripalpus in a region where this species is normally not abundant. A seasonal shift in population structure may increase the transmission risk of arboviruses for which Cx. nigripalpus is a competent vector, including SLE, WN, and EEE...
  74. pmc Development of human-murine chimeric immunoglobulin G for use in the serological detection of human flavivirus and alphavirus antibodies
    Brett A Thibodeaux
    Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention U S DHHS, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:1617-23. 2010
    ..The IgG cMAbs secreted from plasmid-transformed Sp2/0-Ag14 cells had serological activity identical to that of the parent mMAbs, as measured by ELISA using multiple flaviviruses or alphaviruses...
  75. pmc An eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) outbreak in Quebec in the fall of 2008
    Sonia Chénier
    Laboratoire d épidémiosurveillance animale du Québec, Institut national de santé animale, Ministère de l agriculture, des pêcheries et de l alimentation du Québec, 3220 Sicotte, St Hyacinthe, Quebec
    Can Vet J 51:1011-5. 2010
    b>Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) was diagnosed in 19 horses and a flock of emus in the province of Quebec in fall 2008. The EEE virus caused unusual gross lesions in the central nervous system of one horse...
  76. pmc Natural variation in the heparan sulfate binding domain of the eastern equine encephalitis virus E2 glycoprotein alters interactions with cell surfaces and virulence in mice
    Christina L Gardner
    Center for Vaccine Research and Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Virol 87:8582-90. 2013
    ..Together, these results suggest that natural variation in the EEEV HS binding domain may arise during EEEV sylvatic cycles and that this variation may influence receptor interaction and the severity of EEEV disease. ..
  77. ncbi Protection of pigs by vaccination of pregnant sows against eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus
    F Elvinger
    Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Tifton 31793, USA
    Vet Microbiol 51:229-39. 1996
    ..serum and colostrum of sows vaccinated during pregnancy with commercially available vaccines against eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), and antibodies were detected in serum from nearly all pigs from vaccinated sows ..
  78. ncbi Winter biology of wetland mosquitoes at a focus of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus transmission in Alabama, USA
    Nathan D Burkett-Cadena
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
    J Med Entomol 48:967-73. 2011
    ..overwintering females lends support to this hypothesis, but for other arboviruses, in particular Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, EEEV), overwintering of the virus in mosquito hosts as ..
  79. ncbi Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and Culiseta melanura activity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 1985-90
    B B Pagac
    U S Army Environmental Hygiene Activity North, Entomological Sciences Division, Fort George G Meade, MD 20755
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 8:328-30. 1992
    ..population densities, virus isolations and seroconversion in sentinel quail were used to monitor eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) activity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, from 1985 through ..
  80. doi Repellent effect of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) essential oils against the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Barbara Conti
    Department of Tree Science, Entomology and Plant Pathology G Scaramuzzi, University of Pisa, Via San Michele Degli Scalzi 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy
    Parasitol Res 111:291-9. 2012
    ..2 min, respectively. Our findings clearly reveal that these EOs have a good repellent activity against A. albopictus, therefore they can be proposed to improve the efficacy of repellent formulations against the Asian tiger mosquito...
  81. pmc Genetic and fitness changes accompanying adaptation of an arbovirus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells
    S C Weaver
    Center for Tropical Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA
    J Virol 73:4316-26. 1999
    ..Our results suggest that alternating host transmission cycles constrain the evolutionary rates of arboviruses but not their fitness for either host alone...
  82. ncbi Serologic survey of domestic animals for zoonotic arbovirus infections in the Lacandón Forest region of Chiapas, Mexico
    Armando Ulloa
    Centro de Investigacion de Paludismo, Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 3:3-9. 2003
    ..viruses, and selected alphaviruses (family Togaviridae), including Western equine encephalitis (WEE), Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses...
  83. ncbi Simultaneous detection of three mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses (eastern equine, La Crosse, and St. Louis) with a single-tube multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay
    Joon Hak Lee
    Division of Geographic Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294 2170, USA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 18:26-31. 2002
    ....
  84. doi Analysis of murine B-cell epitopes on Eastern equine encephalitis virus glycoprotein E2
    Sun Encheng
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 427 Maduan Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150001, People s Republic of China
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:6359-72. 2013
    ..The generation of EEEV E2-specific MAbs with defined specificities and binding epitopes will inform the development of differential diagnostic approaches and structure study for EEEV and associated alphaviruses. ..
  85. pmc An epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis virus, Maine, USA in 2009: outbreak description and entomological studies
    Charles Lubelczyk
    Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Vector Borne Disease Laboratory, South Portland, Maine 04106, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 88:95-102. 2013
    ..This outbreak represents a substantial expansion of the range of EEEv activity in northern New England...
  86. pmc Molecular determinants of mouse neurovirulence and mosquito infection for Western equine encephalitis virus
    Eric C Mossel
    Arthropod Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e60427. 2013
    ....
  87. pmc A chimeric Sindbis-based vaccine protects cynomolgus macaques against a lethal aerosol challenge of eastern equine encephalitis virus
    Chad J Roy
    Division of Microbiology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, United States
    Vaccine 31:1464-70. 2013
    ..These results demonstrate that the chimeric SIN/NAEEEV vaccine candidate protects against an aerosol EEEV exposure...
  88. doi Eastern equine encephalitis in moose (Alces americanus) in northeastern Vermont
    John Paul Mutebi
    Division of Vector Borne Diseases DVBD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    J Wildl Dis 48:1109-12. 2012
    ..Six (29%) were antibody positive. This is the first evidence of EEEV activity in Vermont, and the second report of EEEV antibodies in moose...
  89. pmc Species' life-history traits explain interspecific variation in reservoir competence: a possible mechanism underlying the dilution effect
    Zheng Y X Huang
    Resource Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 8:e54341. 2013
    ....
  90. ncbi Host preference of the arbovirus vector Culex erraticus (Diptera: Culicidae) at Sonso Lake, Cauca Valley Department, Colombia
    I H Mendenhall
    Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, 1440 Canal St, Suite 2210, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    J Med Entomol 49:1092-102. 2012
    ..This study shows that while Cx. erraticus is an opportunistic feeder, using diverse vertebrate hosts in the environment, certain avian species are targeted preferentially for bloodmeals...
  91. ncbi Eastern equine encephalitis in Tennessee: 2002-2008
    Sudeshna Mukherjee
    Vector Borne Disease Section, Communicable and Environmental Diseases, Tennessee Department of Health, 630 Hart Lane, Nashville, TN 37216, USA
    J Med Entomol 49:731-8. 2012
    Human and equine outbreaks caused by eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) typically occur in North America adjacent to coastal wetlands associated with the presence of Culiseta melanura (Coquillet) mosquitoes...
  92. pmc Development of an ELISA-array for simultaneous detection of five encephalitis viruses
    Xiaoping Kang
    Department of Virology, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing 100071, China
    Virol J 9:56. 2012
    ..The results demonstrated that the developed ELISA-array is sensitive and easy to use, which would have potential for clinical use...
  93. pmc Susceptibility of the Aotus nancymaae owl monkey to eastern equine encephalitis
    Benjamin J Espinosa
    Naval Medical Research Center Detachment Lima, Peru
    Vaccine 27:1729-34. 2009
    ..This study demonstrates that the Aotus nancymaae can be reproducibly infected with EEE virus and can serve as a suitable model for infection and immunogenicity for the evaluation of candidate vaccines against EEEV...
  94. pmc Transmission potential of two chimeric Chikungunya vaccine candidates in the urban mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus
    Justin R Darwin
    Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, Center for Tropical Diseases, and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:1012-5. 2011
    ..These results indicate a low potential for transmission of these vaccine strains in the event that a vaccinee became viremic...
  95. pmc Estimation of dispersal distances of Culex erraticus in a focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus in the southeastern United States
    Laura K Estep
    Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849, USA
    J Med Entomol 47:977-86. 2010
    ..The model that we develop for estimating the dispersal distance of Cx. erraticus from collections of adult mosquitoes could be applicable to other mosquito species that emerge from discrete larval sites...
  96. pmc Heparan sulfate binding by natural eastern equine encephalitis viruses promotes neurovirulence
    Christina L Gardner
    Center for Vaccine Research and Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:16026-31. 2011
    ..Therefore, reinvestigation of HS binding by this and other arboviruses is warranted...
  97. doi Eastern equine encephalitis: an emerging arboviral disease threat, Maine, 2009
    Katherine B Gibney
    Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Arboviral Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11:637-9. 2011
    ..Before 2009, limited nonhuman EEE virus activity had been reported in Maine, all from the southernmost area of the state. No human case has been reported in a Maine resident...
  98. ncbi Fecundity of wild-caught gravid Culiseta morsitans (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Joanne Oliver
    New York State Department of Health, 217 S Salina Street, 3rd Floor, Syracuse, NY 13202, USA
    J Med Entomol 48:196-201. 2011
    ..Wing length was used as a measure of mosquito size. The mean wing length for 154 females was 4.37 +/- 0.02 mm (range, 3.8-4.9 mm)...
  99. doi Alphavirus antiviral drug development: scientific gap analysis and prospective research areas
    Erin Reichert
    Biological Therapeutics, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060 6201, USA
    Biosecur Bioterror 7:413-27. 2009
    ..These efforts will increase the probability of the successful development of a pharmaceutical intervention against these viral threat agents...
  100. doi Eastern equine encephalitis virus infection and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a 5-month-old infant
    Mary Y Mancao
    Department of Pediatrics, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, AL, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:543-5. 2009
    ..Many viruses are known to trigger primary, as well as secondary, HLH. We report a pediatric case of eastern equine encephalitis virus-associated HLH which caused severe neurologic injury and death...
  101. pmc A duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for detecting western equine and eastern equine encephalitis viruses
    Xiaoping Kang
    State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China
    Virol J 7:284. 2010
    ..Compared with virus isolation, the gold standard, the duplex real time RT-PCR assay we developed was 10-fold more sensitive for both WEEV and EEEV detection...

Research Grants69

  1. Innate immune evasion and/or antagonism by eastern equine encephalitis virus
    KATHERINE RYMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  2. Replicon-based screening for inhibitors of alphaviruses
    PAUL OLIVO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These efforts will contribute to the goal of finding therapeutic modalities to control these important pathogens. ..
  3. Modeling and empirical studies of arboviruses in Florida
    CYNTHIA LORD; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. RNA REPAIR AND RECOMBINATION--AN ALPHAVIRUS MODEL
    RAMASAMY RAJU; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  5. VENUE OF AMPLIFICATION OF EEE OUTBREAKS
    Andrew Spielman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The research seeks a general definition of reservoir capacity and anticipates contributing to improved suppression of EEEV outbreaks. ..
  6. Ecology of Encephalitis Viruses in the USA
    Thomas R Unnasch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is a serious infection of humans, and is listed as a high- consequence select agent...
  7. Ecology of Encephalitis Viruses in the USA
    THOMAS UNNASCH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    b>Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is a serious infection of humans, and is listed as a high- consequence select agent...
  8. ECOLOGY OF ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN USA
    THOMAS UNNASCH; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Several arboviral encephalomyelitis viruses, most importantly Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis and Saint Louis Encephalomyelitis virus (EEE and SLE) cause sporadic epidemics in the human populations of the Southeastern US...
  9. Interaction of Sindbis Virus with Cellular Processes
    Ilya Frolov; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These viruses will contain irreversible changes in their genomes that will reduce pathogenicity, but retain the antigenic structure of the wild-type ancestors. ..
  10. Ecology of West Nile Virus in the Southeastern US
    THOMAS UNNASCH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of this proposal have collaborated closely over the past four years in a study of the ecology of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis(EEE) virus...
  11. Mechanisms of sylvatic dengue emergence
    Scott C Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  12. ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This information will be invaluable in targeting prevention and control resources, especially for obtaining maximum benefit in developing countries with limited resources. ..
  13. Mechanisms of sylvatic dengue emergence
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  14. Biodefense Training Program
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..An external advisory committee composed of outstanding, internationally recognized biodefense scientists and experienced research mentors will periodically review and guide the program through site visits. ..