smear layer

Summary

Summary: Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Shear bond strength of glass-ionomer adhesive to dentin: effect of smear layer thickness and different dentin conditioners
    Farid S El-Askary
    Conservative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Egypt
    J Adhes Dent 10:471-9. 2008
  2. ncbi Effects of rotary instrumentation and different etchants on removal of smear layer on human dentin
    M F Ayad
    College of Dentistry, University of Tanta, Tanta, Egypt
    J Prosthet Dent 85:67-72. 2001
  3. ncbi Conditioning effect on dentin, resin tags and hybrid layer of different acidity self-etch adhesives applied to thick and thin smear layer
    Silvia Kenshima
    University of Sao Paulo, FOUSP, Dental Materials Department, Av Professor Lineu Prestes, 2227, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508 000, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    J Dent 34:775-83. 2006
  4. ncbi A new solution for the removal of the smear layer
    Mahmoud Torabinejad
    Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA
    J Endod 29:170-5. 2003
  5. doi The smear layer in endodontics - a review
    D R Violich
    Private Endodontic Practice, Tauranga, New Zealand
    Int Endod J 43:2-15. 2010
  6. ncbi The effect of various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on the ability of MTAD to remove the smear layer
    Mahmoud Torabinejad
    Endodontic Residency Program, School of Dentistry, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA
    J Endod 29:233-9. 2003
  7. doi Comparison of the efficacy of maleic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in smear layer removal from instrumented human root canal: a scanning electron microscopic study
    Nidambur Vasudev Ballal
    Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Karnataka, India
    J Endod 35:1573-6. 2009
  8. ncbi Leakage along apical root fillings with and without smear layer using two different leakage models: a two-month longitudinal ex vivo study
    H Shemesh
    Department of Cariology Endodontology Pedodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam ACTA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Int Endod J 39:968-76. 2006
  9. doi Effect of chelating solutions on the microhardness of root canal lumen dentin
    Antonio M Cruz-Filho
    Department of Endodontics, Ribeirao Preto Dental School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Endod 37:358-62. 2011
  10. ncbi Clinical implications of the smear layer in endodontics: a review
    Mahmoud Torabinejad
    Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 94:658-66. 2002

Detail Information

Publications213 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Shear bond strength of glass-ionomer adhesive to dentin: effect of smear layer thickness and different dentin conditioners
    Farid S El-Askary
    Conservative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Egypt
    J Adhes Dent 10:471-9. 2008
    To investigate the effect of two different smear layer thicknesses treated with different dentin conditioners on the bond strength of glass-ionomer adhesive to dentin.
  2. ncbi Effects of rotary instrumentation and different etchants on removal of smear layer on human dentin
    M F Ayad
    College of Dentistry, University of Tanta, Tanta, Egypt
    J Prosthet Dent 85:67-72. 2001
    ..Various methods of rotary preparation and conditioning of teeth affect surface topography and may affect the retention of dental restorations...
  3. ncbi Conditioning effect on dentin, resin tags and hybrid layer of different acidity self-etch adhesives applied to thick and thin smear layer
    Silvia Kenshima
    University of Sao Paulo, FOUSP, Dental Materials Department, Av Professor Lineu Prestes, 2227, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508 000, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    J Dent 34:775-83. 2006
    to assess the conditioning effect (CE) of self-etch adhesives of different acidity applied to thick and thin smear layer (SL), the corresponding resin tags (RT) and hybrid layer (HL).
  4. ncbi A new solution for the removal of the smear layer
    Mahmoud Torabinejad
    Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA
    J Endod 29:170-5. 2003
    Various organic acids, ultrasonic instruments, and lasers have been used to remove the smear layer from the surface of instrumented root canals...
  5. doi The smear layer in endodontics - a review
    D R Violich
    Private Endodontic Practice, Tauranga, New Zealand
    Int Endod J 43:2-15. 2010
    Root canal instrumentation produces a layer of organic and inorganic material called the smear layer that may also contain bacteria and their by-products...
  6. ncbi The effect of various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on the ability of MTAD to remove the smear layer
    Mahmoud Torabinejad
    Endodontic Residency Program, School of Dentistry, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA
    J Endod 29:233-9. 2003
    Various organic acids, ultrasonic instruments, and lasers have been used to remove the smear layer from the surface of instrumented root canals...
  7. doi Comparison of the efficacy of maleic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in smear layer removal from instrumented human root canal: a scanning electron microscopic study
    Nidambur Vasudev Ballal
    Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Karnataka, India
    J Endod 35:1573-6. 2009
    The aim of this study was to assess, by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis, the ability of 17% EDTA and 7% maleic acid in the removal of the smear layer from the human root canal system.
  8. ncbi Leakage along apical root fillings with and without smear layer using two different leakage models: a two-month longitudinal ex vivo study
    H Shemesh
    Department of Cariology Endodontology Pedodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam ACTA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Int Endod J 39:968-76. 2006
    To compare two different experimental models when measuring leakage along root fillings with or without smear layer.
  9. doi Effect of chelating solutions on the microhardness of root canal lumen dentin
    Antonio M Cruz-Filho
    Department of Endodontics, Ribeirao Preto Dental School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Endod 37:358-62. 2011
    ..The use of chelating agents during biomechanical preparation of root canals removes smear layer, increasing the access of the irrigant into the dentin tubules to allow adequate disinfection, and also reduces ..
  10. ncbi Clinical implications of the smear layer in endodontics: a review
    Mahmoud Torabinejad
    Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 94:658-66. 2002
    It has been recognized for many years that root canal instrumentation produces a smear layer that covers the surfaces of prepared canal walls...
  11. ncbi The influence of the smear layer on dentinal tubule penetration depth by three different root canal sealers: an in vitro study
    Andreas B Kokkas
    Department of Endodontology, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
    J Endod 30:100-2. 2004
    The effect of the smear layer on the penetration depth of three different root canal sealers into the dentinal tubules was examined in 64 recently extracted single-rooted teeth...
  12. ncbi Effect of smear layer on sealing ability of canal obturation: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Arash Shahravan
    Department of Endodontics, Kerman School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Services, Iran
    J Endod 33:96-105. 2007
    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether smear layer removal reduces leakage of obturated human teeth in vitro...
  13. doi The effect of QMix, an experimental antibacterial root canal irrigant, on removal of canal wall smear layer and debris
    Lin Dai
    Department of Stomatology, the First Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, China
    J Endod 37:80-4. 2011
    ..This study examined the ability of two versions of QMix, an experimental antimicrobial irrigant, on removal of canal wall smear layers and debris using an open canal design...
  14. ncbi The effect of application time of EDTA and NaOCl on intracanal smear layer removal: an SEM analysis
    C S Teixeira
    Dental School, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil
    Int Endod J 38:285-90. 2005
    To verify, under the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the influence of irrigation time with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on intracanal smear layer removal.
  15. ncbi Shear bond strength of three resin based sealers to dentin with and without the smear layer
    Ayce Unverdi Eldeniz
    Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Selcuk, Konya, Turkey
    J Endod 31:293-6. 2005
    ..The coronal two thirds of ninety extracted human third molars were removed. The smear layer of the exposed dentin surfaces were removed using 17% EDTA followed by 5...
  16. ncbi Evaluation of microleakage following application of a dentin bonding agent as root canal sealer in the presence or absence of smear layer
    Saeed Moradi
    Department of Endodontics, Dental Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
    J Oral Sci 51:207-13. 2009
    ..resin sealer (AH26) or a dual cure dentin binding agent (Excite DSC) as sealer in the presence or absence of smear layer with fluid filtration method...
  17. doi Antimicrobial action of intracanal medicaments on the external root surface
    Brenda P F A Gomes
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Endodontic Division, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
    J Dent 37:76-81. 2009
    ..To assess in vitro the antimicrobial action of intracanal medicaments in the external root surface, with or without of cementum...
  18. doi Smear layer removal with passive ultrasonic irrigation and the NaviTip FX: a scanning electron microscopic study
    Shweta Goel
    Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 108:465-70. 2009
    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of continuous, intermittent passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and active scrubbing of irrigants with NaviTip FX (Ultradent, South Jordan, UT) in removing smear layer.
  19. ncbi Smear layer removal capacity of disinfectant solutions used with and without EDTA for the irrigation of canals: a SEM study
    Ana Carolina Silveira Cardoso de Menezes
    School of Dentistry of São José dos Campos, Sao Paulo State University
    Pesqui Odontol Bras 17:349-55. 2003
    ..of this study was to carry out a scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of the cleaning qualities and smear layer removal from root canal walls, instrumented and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl, 2...
  20. doi Effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic, etidronic and peracetic acid irrigation on human root dentine and the smear layer
    S Lottanti
    Department of Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Cariology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Int Endod J 42:335-43. 2009
    ..etidronic (EA) and peracetic acid (PA) when used in conjunction with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants on calcium eluted from canals, smear layer, and root dentine demineralization after instrumentation/irrigation.
  21. ncbi The influence of the dentin smear layer on adhesion: a self-etching primer vs. a total-etch system
    Sofia S A Oliveira
    Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, 707 Parnassus Avenue D2246, San Francisco, CA 94143 0758, USA
    Dent Mater 19:758-67. 2003
    ..To determine the effect of dentin smear layers created by various abrasives on the adhesion of a self-etching primer (SE) and total-etch (SB) bonding systems...
  22. ncbi The effect on coronal leakage of liquid adhesive application over root fillings after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser
    Fabricio Dias de Souza
    University of São Paulo Faculty of Dentistry, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 99:125-8. 2005
    ..To evaluate coronal microleakage in filled root canals that received different biomechanical preparations and application of liquid adhesives over the root filling and the pulp chamber walls...
  23. ncbi Efficacy of EDTA-T gel for smear layer removal at root surfaces
    Luiz Henrique Carvalho Batista
    Department of Periodontology, Dental School of Araraquara, State University of Sao Paulo UNESP, Araraquara, SP, Brazil
    Quintessence Int 36:551-8. 2005
    The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the efficacy of EDTA gel preparation, associated with texapon detergent (EDTA-T), for removing the smear layer at human root surfaces.
  24. ncbi Influence of smear layer pretreatments on bond strength to dentin
    Patricia Chaves
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
    J Adhes Dent 4:191-6. 2002
    To evaluate the tensile bond strength of two self-etching adhesive systems and one one-bottle system applied on dentin surfaces after different smear layer treatments.
  25. ncbi Effects of rotary instruments and ultrasonic irrigation on debris and smear layer scores: a scanning electron microscopic study
    B E Mayer
    Department of Preventive Dentistry, Cariology and Periodontology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Int Endod J 35:582-9. 2002
    This study evaluated debris and smear layer scores after two types of instruments manufactured from different alloys were used to ultrasonically activate irrigants during canal preparation...
  26. doi In vitro antibacterial action of Tetraclean, MTAD and five experimental irrigation solutions
    F G Pappen
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry of Araraquara, State University of Sao Paulo, Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Int Endod J 43:528-35. 2010
    ..To investigate the antibacterial effect of Tetraclean, MTAD and five experimental irrigants using both direct exposure test with planktonic cultures and mixed-species in vitro biofilm model...
  27. doi Effectiveness of different final irrigant activation protocols on smear layer removal in curved canals
    Gregory Caron
    Department of Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University, Paris, France
    J Endod 36:1361-6. 2010
    A final flush with chelating agents and antiseptic irrigating solutions is needed to remove the smear layer. The improvement of these protocols is possible by using specific delivery and agitation techniques...
  28. ncbi Effect of smear layer and chlorhexidine treatment on the adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis to bovine dentin
    Seung Eun Yang
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seodaemun gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    J Endod 32:663-7. 2006
    The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effects of a smear layer and chlorhexidine (CHX) treatment on the adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis to bovine dentin...
  29. doi Efficacy of different final irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal
    Shehab El Din Saber
    Endodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Endod 37:1272-5. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to compare smear layer removal after final irrigant activation with apical negative pressure (ANP), manual dynamic agitation (MDA), ..
  30. doi Evaluation of smear layer removal after use of a canal brush: an SEM study
    Yildiz Garip
    Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 110:e62-6. 2010
    The objective of this study was to evaluate smear layer removal after using the new CanalBrush (Coltene/Whaledent GmbH+Co. KG, Germany).
  31. ncbi Effects on smear layer and debris removal with varying volumes of 17% REDTA after rotary instrumentation
    Brent J Crumpton
    Endodontics Department, Naval Postgraduate Dental School, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Endod 31:536-8. 2005
    ..was to quantify the volume of 17% ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) needed to efficiently remove the smear layer after rotary instrumentation, and to determine if additional irrigation has any effect on debris removal...
  32. ncbi Effectiveness of 1 mol L-1 citric acid and 15% EDTA irrigation on smear layer removal
    R Di Lenarda
    Institute of Odontology and Stomatology, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
    Int Endod J 33:46-52. 2000
    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the cleansing and smear layer removal capability of alternate canal irrigation with citric acid and NaOCl.
  33. ncbi Hybridization effectiveness of a two-step versus a three-step smear layer removing adhesive system examined correlatively by TEM and AFM
    B Van Meerbeek
    BIOMAT Department of Operative Dentistry and Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillo Facial Surgery, Catholic University of Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 7, B 3000, Leuven, Belgium
    J Adhes Dent 1:7-23. 1999
    ....
  34. doi Qualitative analysis of the removal of the smear layer in the apical third of curved roots: conventional irrigation versus activation systems
    Luciana Magrin Blank-Gonçalves
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Endod 37:1268-71. 2011
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigant agitation techniques on smear layer removal in curved root canals.
  35. doi A comparative evaluation of smear layer removal using two rotary instrument systems with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in different states: a SEM study
    K K Wadhwani
    Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University earlier KGMC, Lucknow, India
    Indian J Dent Res 22:10-5. 2011
    ..aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution and 19% EDTA gel to remove debris, and smear layer produced during root canal preparation with two NiTi files systems, Mtwo and Protaper.
  36. ncbi Effect of ultrasonication with EDTA or MTAD on smear layer, debris and erosion scores
    Bahareh Dadresanfar
    Department of Endodontics, Dental Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
    J Oral Sci 53:31-6. 2011
    ..EDTA) and a mixture of tetracycline isomer, an acid, and a detergent (MTAD) as final canal irrigants on the smear layer, debris and erosion scores...
  37. ncbi Ultrastructure of smear layer-covered intraradicular dentin after irrigation with BioPure MTAD
    Franklin R Tay
    Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China
    J Endod 32:218-21. 2006
    ..However, the potential consequences of compaction of hydrophobic sealers against air-dried, collapsed collagen matrices, and hydrolytic degradation of incompletely infiltrated matrices remain unresolved...
  38. doi Scanning electron microscopic investigation of the effectiveness of phosphoric acid in smear layer removal when compared with EDTA and citric acid
    Maíra Prado
    Department of Metallurgic and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    J Endod 37:255-8. 2011
    The smear layer adheres to dentinal surface, thus occluding the dentinal tubules. Because this layer disfavors the penetration of irrigant solutions and root canal fillings, it should be removed...
  39. doi Effect of smear layer and root-end cavity thickness on apical sealing ability of MTA as a root-end filling material: a bacterial leakage study
    Tahsin Yildirim
    Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 109:e67-72. 2010
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cavity thickness and smear layer on apical sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root-end filling material.
  40. ncbi The influence of smear layer on coronal leakage of Roth 801 and AH26 root canal sealers
    Akbar Khayat
    Department of Endodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz, Iran
    Aust Endod J 31:66-8. 2005
    The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of removal of smear layer on the coronal seal of two commonly used root canal sealers: Roth 801, a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer and AH26, an epoxy resin-based sealer...
  41. ncbi Efficacy of various concentrations of citric acid at different pH values for smear layer removal
    Faruk Haznedaroglu
    Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 96:340-4. 2003
    The efficacy of various concentrations of citric acid at different pH values for the removal of the superficial smear layer from dentinal surfaces was examined through the use of scanning electron microscopy...
  42. ncbi Effect of EDTA with and without surfactants or ultrasonics on removal of smear layer
    Jeen Nee Lui
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, National Dental Centre, 5 Second Hospital Avenue, Singapore 168938, Republic of Singapore
    J Endod 33:472-5. 2007
    ..acid (EDTA) solution with surfactants, to 17% EDTA, with and without the use of ultrasonics, in removal of the smear layer. Seventy-five extracted teeth, randomly distributed into 5 test groups, were prepared by using ProFile rotary ..
  43. doi Effectiveness of the EndoActivator System in removing the smear layer after root canal instrumentation
    David Uroz-Torres
    Department of Dental Pathology and Therapeutics, School of Dentistry, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
    J Endod 36:308-11. 2010
    Elimination of the smear layer after root canal instrumentation requires the use of irrigating solutions. This cleaning can be completed with passive ultrasonic or sonic irrigation...
  44. doi A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the effectiveness of the F-file versus ultrasonic activation of a K-file to remove smear layer
    Sonia Chopra
    Department of Endodontics, College of Dental Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328 2018, USA
    J Endod 34:1243-5. 2008
    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of F-files and ultrasonics to remove the smear layer from instrumented root canals when irrigated with sodium hypochlorite and EDTA...
  45. ncbi Effect of smear layer characteristics on dentin bonding durability of HEMA-free and HEMA-containing one-step self-etch adhesives
    Yuko Shinoda
    Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Department of Restorative Sciences, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University
    Dent Mater J 30:501-10. 2011
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer characteristics on the dentin bonding durability of HEMA-free and HEMA-containing one-step self-etch adhesives...
  46. doi Scanning electron microscopic preliminary study of the efficacy of SmearClear and EDTA for smear layer removal after root canal instrumentation in permanent teeth
    Lea Assed Bezerra da Silva
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Preventive and Community Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
    J Endod 34:1541-4. 2008
    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SmearClear (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and EDTA for smear layer removal from root canals of permanent teeth after instrumentation...
  47. doi A comparative study of smear layer removal and erosion in apical intraradicular dentine with three irrigating solutions: a scanning electron microscopy evaluation
    Manuele Mancini
    Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
    J Endod 35:900-3. 2009
    This study compared the efficacy of BioPure MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa, Tulsa, OK), 17% EDTA, and 42% citric acid in endodontic smear layer removal and degree of erosion in the apical third of endodontic canals.
  48. doi Does a final rinse to remove smear layer interfere on dentin permeability of root canals?
    Isabel Mello
    Faculty of Dentistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 107:e47-51. 2009
    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different final irrigating solutions on dentin permeability and smear layer removal using the same specimens and relate the results obtained.
  49. ncbi Effect of 17% EDTA and MTAD on intracanal smear layer removal: a scanning electron microscopic study
    Mohammad Ali Mozayeni
    Department of Endodontics, Iranian Center for Endodontic Research, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Dental School, Tehran, Iran
    Aust Endod J 35:13-7. 2009
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of MTAD as the final irrigant to remove the smear layer, compared with that of 17% EDTA, both following root canal irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)...
  50. ncbi A comparative SEM investigation of the smear layer following preparation of root canals using nickel titanium rotary and hand instruments
    Vahid Zand
    Department of Endodontic, Tabriz Dental School, Tabriz, Iran
    J Oral Sci 49:47-52. 2007
    ..After each instrument, the root canals were flushed with 5 ml of 0.5% NaOCl solution. The amount of debris and smear layer was quantified on the basis of Hulsmann method using a scanning electron microscope...
  51. ncbi A scanning electron microscopic study of debris and smear layer remaining following use of GT rotary instruments
    G Gambarini
    Department of Periodontics Endodontics, University of Rome, La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    Int Endod J 35:422-7. 2002
    The aim of the present study was to assess debris and smear layer remaining following canal preparation with GT rotary instruments.
  52. ncbi Smear layer removal and collagen fiber exposure using tetracycline hydrochloride conditioning
    Eduardo de Paula Ishi
    Department of Diagnostic and Surgery, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, Sãu Paulo State University, UNESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Contemp Dent Pract 9:25-33. 2008
    b>Smear layer removal and collagen fiber exposure may improve periodontal treatment and regeneration...
  53. ncbi Tetracycline at subcytotoxic levels inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 but does not remove the smear layer
    Yao Wang
    Departments of Periodontics and Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    J Periodontol 76:1129-39. 2005
    ..properties of tetracycline (TCN) are valuable in periodontal therapy, and TCN treatment can remove the smear layer following root instrumentation...
  54. ncbi The effect of German chamomile (Marticaria recutita L.) extract and tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia L.) oil used as irrigants on removal of smear layer: a scanning electron microscopy study
    M S Sadr Lahijani
    Research School of Biological Science, Australian National University
    Int Endod J 39:190-5. 2006
    To compare the cleaning effectiveness of chamomile hydroalcoholic extract and tea tree oil to 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution as an intracanal irrigant for the removal of the smear layer.
  55. ncbi Effect of smear layer thickness and pH of self-etching adhesive systems on the bond strength and gap formation to dentin
    Silvia Kenshima
    Department of Dental Materials, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Adhes Dent 7:117-26. 2005
    To measure the buffering capacity of self-etching adhesive systems and to evaluate the effect of smear layer thickness on the mean gap width (GW) and microtensile bond strength (microBS) to dentin of these self-etching adhesives.
  56. doi Effect of shortened irrigation times with 17% ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid on smear layer removal after rotary canal instrumentation
    Koichi Saito
    Naval Postgraduate Dental School, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Endod 34:1011-4. 2008
    ..times of 1 minute or less with 1 mL of 17% ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) effectively removed the smear layer from root canals after rotary instrumentation...
  57. doi Long-term evaluation of the influence of smear layer on the apical sealing ability of MTA
    Tahsin Yildirim
    Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey
    J Endod 34:1537-40. 2008
    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of the smear layer on apical microleakage in teeth obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Fifty single-rooted central maxillary teeth were used in this study...
  58. ncbi Smear layer production by 3 rotary reamers with different cutting blade designs in straight root canals: a scanning electron microscopic study
    In Soo Jeon
    Yonsei University, Department of Endodontics, College of Dentistry, Oral Science Research Center, Seoul, South Korea
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 96:601-7. 2003
    ..The aim of this scanning electron microscopic study was to compare the quality and amount of smear layer generated in the apical third of straight root canals by 2 rotary nickel-titanium reamers and 1 rotary steel ..
  59. ncbi The effect of two different root canal sealers and smear layer on resistance to root fracture
    Funda Kont Cobankara
    Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey
    J Endod 28:606-9. 2002
    ..test the effect of Ketac-Endo (KE) and AH 26 on resistance to root fracture and also to evaluate the effect of smear layer. Seventy-two human maxillary canine teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12) and were prepared ..
  60. doi Influence of final rinse technique on ability of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of removing smear layer
    Isabel Mello
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Endod 36:512-4. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to verify the impact of the final rinse technique on smear layer removal ability of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).
  61. ncbi Bacterial penetration along different root canal filling materials in the presence or absence of smear layer
    I M Saleh
    Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    Int Endod J 41:32-40. 2008
    To study the effect of the smear layer on the penetration of bacteria along different root canal filling materials and to examine the dentine/sealer and sealer/core material interfaces for the presence of bacteria.
  62. ncbi Effect of removal of the smear layer on apical microleakage
    S Timpawat
    Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Endod 27:351-3. 2001
    It has been shown previously that the smear layer created during instrumentation of the root canal promotes apical microleakage...
  63. doi Effect of different irrigation on smear layer removal after post space preparation
    Xin Hua Gu
    Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China
    J Endod 35:583-6. 2009
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigating solutions on smear layer removal and dentinal tubule opening on root canal surfaces after post space preparation and to study whether additional ultrasonic ..
  64. doi The effect of EDTA with and without ultrasonics on removal of the smear layer
    Hong Guan Kuah
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, National Dental Centre of Singapore, Singapore
    J Endod 35:393-6. 2009
    This study evaluated in vitro effectiveness of 17% EDTA with and without ultrasonics on smear layer removal...
  65. ncbi Light and scanning electron microscopic evaluation of Glyde File Prep in smear layer removal
    T S Lim
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore
    Int Endod J 36:336-43. 2003
    To evaluate the effectiveness of Glyde File Prep used in conjunction with sodium hypochlorite irrigation in the removal of smear layer produced during root canal instrumentation.
  66. ncbi Effect of smear layer thickness on bond strength mediated by three all-in-one self-etching priming adhesives
    Chihiro Tani
    Department of Operative Dentistry, Showa University, School of Dentistry, Tokyo, Japan
    J Adhes Dent 4:283-9. 2002
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dentin smear-layer thickness on the bond strength of three all-in-one adhesives of different acidity...
  67. ncbi Evaluation of smear layer removal by EDTAC and sodium hypochlorite with ultrasonic agitation
    D M Z Guerisoli
    Ribeirao Preto Dental School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil
    Int Endod J 35:418-21. 2002
    To evaluate smear layer removal by different irrigating solutions under ultrasonic agitation.
  68. ncbi Evaluation of the influence of smear layer on the apical and coronal sealing ability of two sealers
    Funda Kont Cobankara
    Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya, Turkey
    J Endod 30:406-9. 2004
    The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of the smear layer on apical and coronal leakage in root canals obturated with AH26 or RoekoSeal sealers...
  69. doi Wettability and bonding of self-etching dental adhesives. Influence of the smear layer
    Jose A Aguilar-Mendoza
    Biocolloid and Fluid Physics Group, Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Spain
    Dent Mater 24:994-1000. 2008
    To evaluate dentin wettability and bonding of self-etching and total-etch adhesives on smear layer-covered and smear layer-free dentin.
  70. doi Evaluation of the interaction between sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate and its effect on root dentin
    Tung B Bui
    Department of Endodontology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Endod 34:181-5. 2008
    ..The NaOCl/CHX precipitate tends to occlude the dentinal tubules. Until this precipitate is studied further, caution should be exercised when irrigating with NaOCl and CHX...
  71. ncbi Smear layer removal and chelated calcium ion quantification of three irrigating solutions
    Andre Augusto Franco Marques
    School of Dentistry, University of Ribeirao Preto, Rua Pau Brasil 310, 14040 220 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
    Braz Dent J 17:306-9. 2006
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), smear layer removal and quantify, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the amount of calcium ion present in the chelating solutions after their use...
  72. ncbi The influence of smear layer in lateral channels filling
    Angelica Bertacci
    Endodontics Unit, Department of Oral Sciences, University of Bologna, Via San Vitale 59, 40125 Bologna, Italy
    Clin Oral Investig 11:353-9. 2007
    ..the ability of a warm gutta-percha obturation system Thermafil to fill lateral channels in presence/absence of smear layer. Forty single-rooted extracted human teeth were randomly divided into two groups for which different irrigation ..
  73. ncbi Effectiveness in cleaning oval-shaped root canals using Anatomic Endodontic Technology, ProFile and manual instrumentation: a scanning electron microscopic study
    O Zmener
    Department of Adult Dental Care, Section of Endodontics, Faculty of Odontology University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Int Endod J 38:356-63. 2005
    ..To compare in vitro the cleanliness of root canal walls in oval-shaped root canals following automated or manual instrumentation...
  74. ncbi Dentin demineralization when subjected to BioPure MTAD: a longitudinal and quantitative assessment
    Gustavo De-Deus
    Veiga de Almeida University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    J Endod 33:1364-8. 2007
    ..3 mm thick disks were obtained at the root cervical third from 9 maxillary human molars, and a standardized smear layer was produced. Cosite images of the dentin surface were obtained after several cumulative demineralization times...
  75. ncbi The effect of high-frequency electrical pulses on organic tissue in root canals
    M Lendini
    Private Practice, Turin, Italy
    Int Endod J 38:531-8. 2005
    To evaluate debris and smear layer scores after application of high-frequency electrical pulses produced by the Endox Endodontic System (Lysis Srl, Nova Milanese, Italy) on intact pulp tissue and organic and inorganic residues after ..
  76. ncbi Push-out bond strengths: the Epiphany-Resilon endodontic obturation system compared with different pairings of Epiphany, Resilon, AH Plus and gutta-percha
    M Ungor
    Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey
    Int Endod J 39:643-7. 2006
    ..To assess the bond strength of the new resin-based Epiphany-Resilon root canal filling system, and to compare this with bond strengths of different pairings of AH Plus, gutta-percha, Epiphany and Resilon...
  77. ncbi Evaluation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution and gel for smear layer removal
    Sidney Ricardo Dotto
    Centro de Pesquisas Odontologicas Sao Leopoldo Mandic, Rua José Rocha Junqueira 13, CEP 13045 755 Campinas, SP, Brazil
    Aust Endod J 33:62-5. 2007
    ..The presence of a smear layer was analysed after instrumentation using scanning electron microscopy...
  78. doi Dentine demineralization when subjected to EDTA with or without various wetting agents: a co-site digital optical microscopy study
    G De-Deus
    Department of Endodontics, Veiga de Almeida University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Int Endod J 41:279-87. 2008
    ..To analyse quantitatively the chelating ability of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and three common EDTA-based associations with wetting agents...
  79. ncbi Evaluation of the surface free energy on root canal dentine walls treated with chelating agents and NaOCl
    H Dogan Buzoglu
    Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
    Int Endod J 40:18-24. 2007
    ..To evaluate ex vivo the effects of combined and single use of EDTA, RC-Prep and NaOCl on the surface free energy of canal wall dentine using the captive bubble technique...
  80. doi Decalcifying effect of 15% EDTA, 15% citric acid, 5% phosphoric acid and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite on root canal dentine
    M Pérez-Heredia
    Department of Dental Pathology and Therapeutics, School of Dentistry, University of Granada, Spain
    Int Endod J 41:418-23. 2008
    ..To evaluate and compare ex vivo the decalcifying effect of 15% EDTA, 15% citric acid, 5% phosphoric acid and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite on root canal dentine...
  81. doi Longitudinal and quantitative evaluation of dentin demineralization when subjected to EDTA, EDTAC, and citric acid: a co-site digital optical microscopy study
    Gustavo De-Deus
    Department of Endodontics, Veiga de Almeida University UVA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 105:391-7. 2008
    ..In the present study the chelating power of EDTA, EDTAC, and 1% citric acid (CA) on radicular dentin was quantitatively analyzed...
  82. ncbi Comparative study of the sealing ability of a polydimethylsiloxane-based root canal sealer
    Nickolaos Economides
    Department of Endodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
    Braz Dent J 16:145-8. 2005
    ..polydimethylsiloxane sealer), Endion (glass-ionomer sealer) and Topseal (epoxy resin sealer), with and without smear layer removal...
  83. ncbi An ex vivo evaluation of a new root canal irrigation technique with intracanal aspiration
    Y Fukumoto
    Pulp Biology and Endodontics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 5 45 Yushima 1 chome, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8549, Japan
    Int Endod J 39:93-9. 2006
    To evaluate the effectiveness of a new root canal irrigation technique with intracanal aspiration in removing the smear layer and to assess irrigant extrusion ex vivo.
  84. ncbi Root canal irrigants
    Matthias Zehnder
    Department of Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology, and Cariology, Division of Endodontology, University of Zürich Center for Dental Medicine, Switzerland
    J Endod 32:389-98. 2006
    ..In addition, chelating solutions are recommended as adjunct irrigants to prevent the formation of a smear layer and/or remove it before filling the root canal system...
  85. ncbi Assessment of a gel-type chelating preparation containing 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate
    S Girard
    Department of Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology, and Cariology, University of Zürich Center for Dental Medicine, Zurich, Switzerland
    Int Endod J 38:810-6. 2005
    ..1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) regarding its interactions with sodium hypochlorite, its calcium binding capacity, and its potential in preventing the formation of a smear layer when used in conjunction with rotary root canal preparation.
  86. ncbi Ultrastructure of intraradicular dentin after irrigation with BioPure MTAD. II. The consequence of obturation with an epoxy resin-based sealer
    Franklin R Tay
    Department of Oral Biology and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, 30912, USA
    J Endod 32:473-7. 2006
    ..Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the reduction in irrigation time did not compromise the smear layer removing capacity of these two irrigants when 1.3% NaOCl was employed as the initial rinse...
  87. ncbi A scanning electron microscopy evaluation of different root canal irrigating solutions
    María Luisa de la Casa
    Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Tucuman, Argentina
    Acta Odontol Latinoam 18:57-61. 2005
    The efficacy of solutions to remove the smear layer from human teeth was evaluated. One and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, 1 and 5% calcium hydroxide, 0...
  88. ncbi Real-time atomic force microscopy of root dentine during demineralization when subjected to chelating agents
    G De-Deus
    Department of Endodontics, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Int Endod J 39:683-92. 2006
    ..To explore the potential of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the examination of changes to dentine surfaces during demineralization and evaluate qualitatively the effect of EDTA, EDTAC and citric acid...
  89. ncbi The effectiveness of different acid irrigating solutions in root canal cleaning after hand and rotary instrumentation
    Mercedes Pérez-Heredia
    Department of Dental Pathology and Therapeutics, School of Dentistry, University of Granada Spain, Campus de Cartuja, Granada, Spain
    J Endod 32:993-7. 2006
    ..A scoring system for debris and smear layer was used. Acid solutions with 2...
  90. ncbi The influence of canal curvature on the mechanical efficacy of root canal irrigation in vitro using real-time imaging of bioluminescent bacteria
    Donald Nguy
    Department of Cariology, Restorative Sciences and Endodontics, University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48409 1078, USA
    J Endod 32:1077-80. 2006
    ..Irrigation was significantly less effective in 24 to 28 degrees curvature canals prepared to size 27/.04 compared to 46/.04 (p < 0.007, repeated-measures ANOVA)...
  91. ncbi A scanning electron microscopic study of debris and smear layer remaining following use of AET instruments and K-flexofiles
    Saulius Drukteinis
    Institute of Odontology, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Zalgirio 115, 08217 Vilnius, Lithuania
    Stomatologija 8:70-5. 2006
    ..To compare in vitro the cleanliness of root canal walls following automated or manual instrumentation...
  92. ncbi The efficacy of ultrasonic irrigation to remove artificially placed dentine debris from human root canals prepared using instruments of varying taper
    L W M van der Sluis
    Department of Cariology Endodontology Pedodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam ACTA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Int Endod J 38:764-8. 2005
    ..To investigate the influence of the taper of root canals on the effectiveness of ultrasonic irrigation to remove artificially placed dentine debris...
  93. doi The effect of treatment of radicular dentin on colonization patterns of C. albicans
    B Tugba Turk
    Assistant Professor, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, School of Dentistry, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 106:457-62. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to observe the colonization pattern of C. albicans on treated and untreated radicular dentin...
  94. ncbi Shear bond strength of AH-26 root canal sealer to dentine using three dentine bonding agents
    Christos Gogos
    Department of Endodontology, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
    J Dent 31:321-6. 2003
    ..The materials used were AH-26 sealer, two one-bottle bonding agents (Single Bond, Bond-1) and one self-etching bonding agent (Clearfill SE Bond)...
  95. ncbi A comparative study of root canal preparation using FlexMaster and HERO 642 rotary Ni-Ti instruments
    M Hulsmann
    Department of Operative Dentistry, Preventive Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Gottingen, Germany
    Int Endod J 36:358-66. 2003
    ..To compare several parameters of root canal preparation using two different rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments: FlexMaster (VDW, Munich, Germany) and HERO 642 (Micro-Mega, Besançon, France)...
  96. ncbi Evaluation of Glyde File Prep in combination with sodium hypochlorite as a root canal irrigant
    Simone Grandini
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Siena, Italy
    J Endod 28:300-3. 2002
    ..After scanning electron microscopic evaluation at three different levels, debris, smear layer, and dentinal tubules were scored...
  97. ncbi Comparative in-vitro evaluation of three chelator pastes
    M Hulsmann
    Department of Operative Dentistry, Preventive Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Gottingen, Germany
    Int Endod J 35:668-79. 2002
    ..To compare the effect of three paste chelating agents on the root dentine of extracted teeth: Calcinase-Slide (lege artis, Dettenhausen, Germany), Glyde-File (DeTrey/Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), RC-Prep (Premier, Norristown, USA)...
  98. ncbi Obturation of accessory canals after four different final irrigation regimes
    Juan Camilo Villegas
    Pulp Biology and Endodontics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan
    J Endod 28:534-6. 2002
    ..05). The use of sodium hypochlorite alone or in combination with EDTA in final irrigation flushes may enhance a better obturation material penetration into the accessory canals...
  99. ncbi The demineralizing effects of EDTA at different concentrations and pH
    Ahmet Serper
    Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
    J Endod 28:501-2. 2002
    ..0. The pH of the EDTA solutions did not display any significant alterations during the demineralization process...
  100. ncbi Penetration of propylene glycol into dentine
    E V Cruz
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics and Oral Microbiology, Cariology Research Unit, Niigata University School of Dentistry, Niigata, Japan
    Int Endod J 35:330-6. 2002
    ..This study aimed to evaluate penetration of propylene glycol into root dentine...
  101. ncbi Application of biologically-oriented dentin bonding principles to the use of endodontic irrigants
    Franklin Garcia-Godoy
    Biosciences Research Center, Department of Endodontics, College of Dental Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA
    Am J Dent 18:281-90. 2005
    To compare the removal of smear layer and the structure of the hybrid layer formed after the use of EDTA or MTAD solutions when used as a final flush.

Research Grants31

  1. Dentin/Adhesive Interface Structure/Property Imaging
    Yong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  2. Molecular/Mechanical Imaging of Dentin Bonding Substrate
    Yong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Results from this work will provide critical, new insight into failure mechanisms at the dentin/adhesive interface; failure that can ultimately lead to premature breakdown of the composite restoration. ..
  3. Reasons for poor durability of resin-dentin bonds
    David Pashley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This comprehensive approach to improving the durability of resin-dentin bonds should ultimately save billions of dollars in health care and much human suffering. ..
  4. Radiation Therapy Impact on Structure/Mechanics of Teeth
    Mary Walker; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A key strength of this project is the associated feedback mechanism that relates the clinical problem to both clinical and laboratory data, the integration of scientific principles into clinical practice. ..
  5. RESIN-BASED REMINERALIZING CEMENTS AND COMPOSITES
    SABINE DICKENS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Completion of this research will lead to Ca- PO4 cements and composites with improved adhesion to dentin and improved strength for ART and the treatment of root caries. ..
  6. Reasons for poor durability of resin-dentin bonds
    David Pashley; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Their successful use in adhesive resins could potentially save billions of dollars currently spent on the replacement of tooth-colored resin composites. ..
  7. Reasons for poor durability of resin-dentin bonds
    David H Pashley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Their successful use in adhesive resins could potentially save billions of dollars currently spent on the replacement of tooth-colored resin composites. ..
  8. IMPROVED PREVENTIVE/RESTORATIVE RESINS AND COMPOSITES
    SABINE DICKENS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The data gathered in these experiments will serve to support a larger R01 grant application with the long-term objectives of developing improved durable materials for adhesives and adhesive composites. ..
  9. Determinants of the Durability of Resin-Dentin Bonds
    David Pashley; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This should provide important new insight into designing more durable resin-dentin bonds that can justify the placement of resin-based posterior composites. ..
  10. REMINERALIZING PULP-CAPPING CEMENTS & BONDING AGENTS
    SABINE DICKENS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The proposed studies will also provide a valuable comparison of in vivo test results to pulp cell response in vitro. ..
  11. Understanding the mechanism of radiotherapy-induced dentition breakdown
    Yong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, future improvements for preventing and treating post-radiation dentition breakdown depend on new knowledge of the underlying mechanism of radiation-induced damage at the tooth level. ..