body weight

Summary

Summary: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue
    Stuart P Weisberg
    Division of Moleuclar Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1796-808. 2003
  2. pmc Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance
    Haiyan Xu
    Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1821-30. 2003
  3. ncbi A comparison of direct vs. self-report measures for assessing height, weight and body mass index: a systematic review
    S Connor Gorber
    Physical Health Measures Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Obes Rev 8:307-26. 2007
  4. ncbi The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity
    A Must
    Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    JAMA 282:1523-9. 1999
  5. ncbi Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals
    J M Friedman
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 395:763-70. 1998
  6. pmc Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation
    Cristen J Willer
    Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits Consortium
    Nat Genet 41:25-34. 2009
  7. ncbi Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight
    G J Morton
    Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Nature 443:289-95. 2006
  8. ncbi Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistance
    Nicholas Houstis
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA
    Nature 440:944-8. 2006
  9. ncbi Effects of size and temperature on metabolic rate
    J F Gillooly
    Department of Biology, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Science 293:2248-51. 2001
  10. ncbi AMP-kinase regulates food intake by responding to hormonal and nutrient signals in the hypothalamus
    Yasuhiko Minokoshi
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 428:569-74. 2004

Detail Information

Publications361 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue
    Stuart P Weisberg
    Division of Moleuclar Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1796-808. 2003
    ..Adipose tissue macrophage numbers increase in obesity and participate in inflammatory pathways that are activated in adipose tissues of obese individuals...
  2. pmc Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance
    Haiyan Xu
    Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1821-30. 2003
    ..We propose that obesity-related insulin resistance is, at least in part, a chronic inflammatory disease initiated in adipose tissue...
  3. ncbi A comparison of direct vs. self-report measures for assessing height, weight and body mass index: a systematic review
    S Connor Gorber
    Physical Health Measures Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Obes Rev 8:307-26. 2007
    ....
  4. ncbi The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity
    A Must
    Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    JAMA 282:1523-9. 1999
    ..Overweight and obesity are increasing dramatically in the United States and most likely contribute substantially to the burden of chronic health conditions...
  5. ncbi Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals
    J M Friedman
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 395:763-70. 1998
    ..Leptin also signals nutritional status to several other physiological systems and modulates their function. Here we review the role of leptin in the control of body weight and its relevance to the pathogenesis of obesity.
  6. pmc Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation
    Cristen J Willer
    Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits Consortium
    Nat Genet 41:25-34. 2009
    ..Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity...
  7. ncbi Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight
    G J Morton
    Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Nature 443:289-95. 2006
    ..This new information provides a biological context within which to consider the global obesity epidemic and identifies numerous potential avenues for therapeutic intervention and future research...
  8. ncbi Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistance
    Nicholas Houstis
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA
    Nature 440:944-8. 2006
    ..Together, our findings suggest that increased ROS levels are an important trigger for insulin resistance in numerous settings...
  9. ncbi Effects of size and temperature on metabolic rate
    J F Gillooly
    Department of Biology, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Science 293:2248-51. 2001
    ..Temperature and body size are primary determinants of biological time and ecological roles...
  10. ncbi AMP-kinase regulates food intake by responding to hormonal and nutrient signals in the hypothalamus
    Yasuhiko Minokoshi
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 428:569-74. 2004
    ..Dominant negative AMPK expression in the hypothalamus is sufficient to reduce food intake and body weight, whereas constitutively active AMPK increases both...
  11. ncbi A general model for the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology
    G B West
    Theoretical Division, T 8, Mail Stop B285, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    Science 276:122-6. 1997
    ..More generally, the model predicts structural and functional properties of vertebrate cardiovascular and respiratory systems, plant vascular systems, insect tracheal tubes, and other distribution networks...
  12. pmc Obesity and metabolic syndrome in circadian Clock mutant mice
    Fred W Turek
    Department of Neurology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Science 308:1043-5. 2005
    ..These results suggest that the circadian clock gene network plays an important role in mammalian energy balance...
  13. pmc Liraglutide vs insulin glargine and placebo in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (LEAD-5 met+SU): a randomised controlled trial
    D Russell-Jones
    Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Guildford Hospital, UK
    Diabetologia 52:2046-55. 2009
    ..The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of liraglutide in type 2 diabetes mellitus vs placebo and insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin), all in combination with metformin and glimepiride...
  14. ncbi Loss-of-function mutation in Toll-like receptor 4 prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance
    Daniela M L Tsukumo
    Department of Internal Medicine, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Diabetes 56:1986-98. 2007
    ..Thus, TLR4 appears to be an important mediator of obesity and insulin resistance and a potential target for the therapy of these highly prevalent medical conditions...
  15. pmc Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Mu Chen
    Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 96:735-47. 2012
    Some intervention studies have suggested that dairy products may influence body weight, but the results remain controversial.
  16. ncbi Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic
    J O Hill
    Colorado Clinical Nutrition Research Unit, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Science 280:1371-4. 1998
    ..Although humans have evolved excellent physiological mechanisms to defend against body weight loss, they have only weak physiological mechanisms to defend against body weight gain when food is abundant...
  17. pmc Increased adipose tissue in male and female estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice
    P A Heine
    Departments of Veterinary Biosciences and Kinesiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:12729-34. 2000
    ..These results are evidence that estrogen/ERalpha signaling is critical in female and male WAT; obesity in alphaERKO males involves a mechanism of reduced energy expenditure rather than increased energy intake...
  18. pmc Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates
    Frank M Sacks
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA
    N Engl J Med 360:859-73. 2009
    ..The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year...
  19. ncbi Validity of self-reported height and weight in 4808 EPIC-Oxford participants
    Elizabeth A Spencer
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, The Radcliffe Infirmary, UK
    Public Health Nutr 5:561-5. 2002
    ....
  20. ncbi Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance
    Arnaud Chiolero
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP, University of Lausanne, 17 rue du Bugnon, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:801-9. 2008
    Our aim was to critically evaluate the relations among smoking, body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance as reported in the literature...
  21. ncbi Effect of fructose on body weight in controlled feeding trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    John L Sievenpiper
    Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Ann Intern Med 156:291-304. 2012
    ..The contribution of fructose consumption in Western diets to overweight and obesity in populations remains uncertain...
  22. ncbi Genetic and environmental factors in relative body weight and human adiposity
    H H Maes
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
    Behav Genet 27:325-51. 1997
    ..These results are consistent with other studies in suggesting that genetic factors play a significant role in the causes of individual differences in relative body weight and human adiposity.
  23. ncbi Fibroblast growth factor 21 corrects obesity in mice
    Tamer Coskun
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
    Endocrinology 149:6018-27. 2008
    ..report that systemic administration of FGF21 for 2 wk in diet-induced obese and ob/ob mice lowered their mean body weight by 20% predominantly via a reduction in adiposity...
  24. pmc Life course variations in the associations between FTO and MC4R gene variants and body size
    Rebecca Hardy
    MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, 33 Bedford Place, London, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 19:545-52. 2010
    ..Studies of the aetiology of obesity spanning different age groups may identify age-specific determinants of weight gain...
  25. ncbi British 1990 growth reference centiles for weight, height, body mass index and head circumference fitted by maximum penalized likelihood
    T J Cole
    MRC Dunn Nutrition Centre, Cambridge, UK
    Stat Med 17:407-29. 1998
    ..The ability to express anthropometry as SDS greatly simplifies growth assessment...
  26. ncbi A self-regulation program for maintenance of weight loss
    Rena R Wing
    Brown Medical School, Providence, RI, USA
    N Engl J Med 355:1563-71. 2006
    ..We developed a maintenance program based on self-regulation theory and tested the efficacy of delivering the program face to face or over the Internet...
  27. ncbi Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment
    Stephen R Daniels
    Circulation 111:1999-2012. 2005
    ..In addition, treatment approaches are presented, including behavioral, pharmacological, and surgical treatment. Childhood and adolescent overweight is one of the most important current public health concerns...
  28. pmc Effect of weight loss with lifestyle intervention on risk of diabetes
    Richard F Hamman
    Diabetes Prevention Program Coordinating Center, The Biostatistics Center, George Washington University, 6110 Executive Blvd, Suite 750, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Diabetes Care 29:2102-7. 2006
    ..We explored the contribution of changes in weight, diet, and physical activity on the risk of developing diabetes among ILS participants...
  29. ncbi Inactivation of the Fto gene protects from obesity
    Julia Fischer
    Institute for Animal Developmental and Molecular Biology, Heinrich Heine University, Universitatsstr 1, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Nature 458:894-8. 2009
    ..Taken together, these experiments provide, to our knowledge, the first direct demonstration that Fto is functionally involved in energy homeostasis by the control of energy expenditure...
  30. ncbi Extended longevity in mice lacking the insulin receptor in adipose tissue
    Matthias Bluher
    Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, One Joslin Place, Boston, MA, 02215 USA
    Science 299:572-4. 2003
    ..Thus, a reduction of fat mass without caloric restriction can be associated with increased longevity in mice, possibly through effects on insulin signaling...
  31. ncbi Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activation
    Mitsuhiro Watanabe
    Institut de Génétique et Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch, France
    Nature 439:484-9. 2006
    ..The BA-TGR5-cAMP-D2 signalling pathway is therefore a crucial mechanism for fine-tuning energy homeostasis that can be targeted to improve metabolic control...
  32. ncbi Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents
    Gail C Rampersaud
    Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, SW 23rd Drive, FETL Building 685, Gainesville, FL 32611 0720, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 105:743-60; quiz 761-2. 2005
    ..of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents...
  33. ncbi Active transport, physical activity, and body weight in adults: a systematic review
    Miriam Wanner
    Physical Activity and Health Unit, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Am J Prev Med 42:493-502. 2012
    ..Active transport can contribute to total physical activity and thus affect body weight because of increased energy expenditure...
  34. pmc Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: a systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes
    L M Powell
    Health Policy and Administration, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
    Obes Rev 14:110-28. 2013
    ..beverages (SSBs), fast food, and fruits and vegetables, as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes...
  35. pmc Fibroblast growth factor 21 reverses hepatic steatosis, increases energy expenditure, and improves insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice
    Jing Xu
    Department of Metabolic Disorders, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, California, USA
    Diabetes 58:250-9. 2009
    ..The aims of the current study are to evaluate the role of FGF21 in energy metabolism and to provide mechanistic insights into its glucose and lipid-lowering effects in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) model...
  36. ncbi Bioelectrical impedance analysis--part I: review of principles and methods
    Ursula G Kyle
    Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland
    Clin Nutr 23:1226-43. 2004
    ..ESPEN guidelines for the clinical use of BIA measurements are described in a paper to appear soon in Clinical Nutrition...
  37. pmc Loss of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 function protects mice against adiposity
    James M Ntambi
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11482-6. 2002
    ..These observations suggest that a consequence of SCD1 deficiency is an activation of lipid oxidation in addition to reduced triglyceride synthesis and storage...
  38. ncbi Role of brain insulin receptor in control of body weight and reproduction
    J C Bruning
    Klinik II und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin and Center of Molecular Medicine ZMMK der Universität zu Köln, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50931 Cologne, Germany
    Science 289:2122-5. 2000
    ..Thus, IR signaling in the CNS plays an important role in regulation of energy disposal, fuel metabolism, and reproduction...
  39. pmc Being big or growing fast: systematic review of size and growth in infancy and later obesity
    Janis Baird
    MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD
    BMJ 331:929. 2005
    ..To assess the association between infant size or growth and subsequent obesity and to determine if any association has been stable over time...
  40. pmc Gestational weight gain and child adiposity at age 3 years
    Emily Oken
    Obesity Prevention Program, Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 196:322.e1-8. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of gestational weight gain with child adiposity...
  41. ncbi Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and Russia
    Youfa Wang
    Carolina Population Center, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27516 3997, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 75:971-7. 2002
    ..Few studies have used the same references across countries to examine the trends of over- and underweight in older children and adolescents...
  42. ncbi Acute toxicity and biodistribution of different sized titanium dioxide particles in mice after oral administration
    Jiangxue Wang
    Laboratory for Bio Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, National Center for NanoScience and Technology and Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100080, PR China
    Toxicol Lett 168:176-85. 2007
    ..Due to the low toxicity, a fixed large dose of 5g/kg body weight of TiO(2) suspensions was administrated by a single oral gavage according to the OECD procedure...
  43. pmc Methyl donor supplementation prevents transgenerational amplification of obesity
    R A Waterland
    Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, USDA Children s Nutrition Research Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:1373-9. 2008
    ..concern that maternal obesity before and during pregnancy and lactation impairs developmental establishment of body weight regulatory mechanisms in the fetus or infant, causing transgenerational amplification of obesity prevalence and ..
  44. pmc Diet-induced obese mice develop peripheral, but not central, resistance to leptin
    M van Heek
    Department of CNS and Cardiovascular Research, Schering Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, USA
    J Clin Invest 99:385-90. 1997
    ..Serum leptin increased in proportion to body weight (P < 0.00001)...
  45. ncbi Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis
    D S Ludwig
    Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Lancet 357:505-8. 2001
    ..The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks. Our aim was to examine this relation...
  46. ncbi Novel adipose tissue-mediated resistance to diet-induced visceral obesity in 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-deficient mice
    Nicholas M Morton
    Endocrinology Unit, Molecular Medicine Centre, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    Diabetes 53:931-8. 2004
    ..These data provide the first in vivo evidence that adipose 11 beta-HSD-1 deficiency beneficially alters adipose tissue distribution and function, complementing the reported effects of hepatic 11 beta-HSD-1 deficiency or inhibition...
  47. ncbi Obesity wars: molecular progress confronts an expanding epidemic
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cell 116:337-50. 2004
    ....
  48. ncbi Validity of body mass index compared with other body-composition screening indexes for the assessment of body fatness in children and adolescents
    Zuguo Mei
    Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 75:978-85. 2002
    ..Validation studies of height- and weight-based indexes of body fatness in children and adolescents have examined only small samples of school-age children...
  49. ncbi Leptin receptor signaling in POMC neurons is required for normal body weight homeostasis
    Nina Balthasar
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Avenue RN, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuron 42:983-91. 2004
    ..In summary, leptin receptors on POMC neurons are required but not solely responsible for leptin's regulation of body weight homeostasis.
  50. pmc Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity
    Ruth J F Loos
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
    Nat Genet 40:768-75. 2008
    ....
  51. pmc Effect of canagliflozin on renal threshold for glucose, glycemia, and body weight in normal and diabetic animal models
    Yin Liang
    Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, Spring House, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e30555. 2012
    ..Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
  52. ncbi Rapid rewiring of arcuate nucleus feeding circuits by leptin
    Shirly Pinto
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 304:110-5. 2004
    ..These data suggest that leptin-mediated plasticity in the ob/ob hypothalamus may underlie some of the hormone's behavioral effects...
  53. pmc Changes in gene expression foreshadow diet-induced obesity in genetically identical mice
    Robert A Koza
    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
    PLoS Genet 2:e81. 2006
    ..We propose that C57BL/6J mice have the phenotypic characteristics suitable for a model to investigate epigenetic mechanisms within adipose tissue that underlie diet-induced obesity...
  54. pmc Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traits
    Angelo Scuteri
    Unità Operativa Geriatria, Istituto per la Patologia Endocrina e Metabolica, Rome, Italy
    PLoS Genet 3:e115. 2007
    ..common genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with substantial changes in BMI, hip circumference, and body weight. These changes could have a significant impact on the risk of obesity-related morbidity in the general ..
  55. ncbi Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire: a measure of parental attitudes, beliefs and practices about child feeding and obesity proneness
    L L Birch
    Department of Human Development and Family Studies and Graduate Program in Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Appetite 36:201-10. 2001
    ..The CFQ is designed for use with parents of children ranging in age from about 2 to 11 years of age...
  56. ncbi Leptin levels reflect body lipid content in mice: evidence for diet-induced resistance to leptin action
    R C Frederich
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Hospital Research North, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nat Med 1:1311-4. 1995
    The regulation of body weight and composition involves input from genes and the environment, demonstrated, for example, by the variable susceptibility of inbred strains of mice to obesity when offered a high-fat diet...
  57. pmc A mouse model for the metabolic effects of the human fat mass and obesity associated FTO gene
    Chris Church
    MRC Harwell, Metabolism and Inflammation, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Harwell, UK
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000599. 2009
    ..Our model suggests that a search for human coding mutations in FTO may be informative and that inhibition of FTO activity is a possible target for the treatment of morbid obesity...
  58. pmc Rates and determinants of repeated participation in a web-based behavior change program for healthy body weight and healthy lifestyle
    Marieke W Verheijden
    TNO Quality of Life, CE Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Med Internet Res 9:e1. 2007
    ..However, because of the known dose-response relationship between the intensity and frequency of counseling and the behavior change outcomes, selective retention may also be a concern...
  59. ncbi Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on plasma lipoproteins
    William E Kraus
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:1483-92. 2002
    ..However, the amount of exercise training required for optimal benefit is unknown. In a prospective, randomized study, we investigated the effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on lipoproteins...
  60. ncbi Long-term weight-loss maintenance: a meta-analysis of US studies
    J W Anderson
    VA Medical Center, Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky Health Management Resources Weight Management Program, Lexington, KY, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 74:579-84. 2001
    ..Current perception is that participants of a structured weight-loss program regain all of their weight loss within 5 y...
  61. pmc Fetuses of obese mothers develop insulin resistance in utero
    Patrick M Catalano
    Department of Reproductive Biology, Case Western Reserve University at Metro Health Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    Diabetes Care 32:1076-80. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether fetuses of obese women have increased obesity, insulin resistance, and markers of inflammation, supporting the concept of fetal programming...
  62. pmc Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes
    Serena Tonstad
    Department of Health Promotion and Education, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA
    Diabetes Care 32:791-6. 2009
    ..We assessed the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in people following different types of vegetarian diets compared with that in nonvegetarians...
  63. ncbi STAT3 signalling is required for leptin regulation of energy balance but not reproduction
    Sarah H Bates
    Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, 1 Joslin Place, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 421:856-9. 2003
    ..LRb-STAT3 signalling thus mediates the effects of leptin on melanocortin production and body energy homeostasis, whereas distinct LRb signals regulate NPY and the control of fertility, growth and glucose homeostasis...
  64. ncbi NPY/AgRP neurons are essential for feeding in adult mice but can be ablated in neonates
    Serge Luquet
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Box 357370, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Science 310:683-5. 2005
    ..Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) are thought to be critical regulators of feeding behavior and body weight. To determine whether NPY/AgRP neurons are essential in mice, we targeted the human diphtheria toxin receptor ..
  65. pmc Bisphenol A: Perinatal exposure and body weight
    Beverly S Rubin
    Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, United States
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 304:55-62. 2009
    ..6% of the US population examined. The potential for BPA to influence body weight is suggested by in vitro studies demonstrating effects of BPA on adipocyte differentiation, lipid accumulation, ..
  66. ncbi Size at birth and early childhood growth in relation to maternal smoking, parity and infant breast-feeding: longitudinal birth cohort study and analysis
    Ken K L Ong
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Pediatr Res 52:863-7. 2002
    ..The sequence of fetal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth may predispose to obesity risk in this contemporary population...
  67. ncbi Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight, and breast cancer risk
    P A van den Brandt
    Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
    Am J Epidemiol 152:514-27. 2000
    ..The association between BMI and breast cancer varies by menopausal status. Weight control may reduce the risk among postmenopausal women...
  68. ncbi Active school transport, physical activity levels and body weight of children and youth: a systematic review
    Guy E J Faulkner
    Faculty of Physical Education and Health, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
    Prev Med 48:3-8. 2009
    ..Before implementing such solutions, it is important to demonstrate that active school transport is associated with health-related outcomes...
  69. ncbi Diabetes, a new mutation in the mouse
    K P Hummel
    Science 153:1127-8. 1966
    ..Abnormal deposition of fat at 3 to 4 weeks of age is followed shortly by hyperglycemia, polyuria, and glycosuria. Accompanying morphological changes in the islets of Langerhans suggest neogenesis to compensate for insulin depletion...
  70. pmc Preclinical drug trials in the mdx mouse: assessment of reliable and sensitive outcome measures
    Christopher F Spurney
    Research Center for Genetic Medicine, Children s National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20010, USA
    Muscle Nerve 39:591-602. 2009
    ..power calculations for expected effect sizes in mdx preclinical drug trials across different ages showed that body weight, normalized grip strength, horizontal activity, rest time, cardiac function measurements, blood pressure, total ..
  71. ncbi Region-specific leptin resistance within the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese mice
    Heike Munzberg
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Endocrinology 145:4880-9. 2004
    ..Defects in leptin action in the ARC may play a role in the pathogenesis of leptin-resistant obesity...
  72. pmc If started early in life, metformin treatment increases life span and postpones tumors in female SHR mice
    Vladimir N Anisimov
    N N Petrov Research Institute of Oncology, Pesochny 2, St Petersburg, Russia
    Aging (Albany NY) 3:148-57. 2011
    ..Thus, in female SHR mice, metformin increased life span and postponed tumors when started at the young and middle but not at the old age. In contrast, metformin improves reproductive function when started at any age...
  73. ncbi Genome-wide association yields new sequence variants at seven loci that associate with measures of obesity
    Gudmar Thorleifsson
    deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland
    Nat Genet 41:18-24. 2009
    ..6 x 10(-7). This includes previously identified variants close to or in the FTO, MC4R, BDNF and SH2B1 genes, in addition to variants at seven loci not previously connected with obesity...
  74. ncbi Body weight and mortality among men and women in China
    Dongfeng Gu
    Cardiovascular Institute and Fu Wai Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, and Chinese National Center for Cardiovascular Disease Control and Research, Beijing, China
    JAMA 295:776-83. 2006
    ..The effect of underweight and obesity on mortality has not been well characterized in Asian populations...
  75. ncbi The metabolic state of diabetic monkeys is regulated by fibroblast growth factor-21
    Alexei Kharitonenkov
    Lilly Research Laboratories, A Division of Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
    Endocrinology 148:774-81. 2007
    ..These data support the development of FGF-21 for the treatment of diabetes and other metabolic diseases...
  76. pmc Relationship of obesity with osteoporosis
    Lan Juan Zhao
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Missouri Kansas City, 2411 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1640-6. 2007
    ..Previous analyses, however, did not control for the mechanical loading effects of total body weight on bone mass and may have generated a confounded or even biased relationship between obesity and osteoporosis.
  77. pmc Accuracy and usefulness of BMI measures based on self-reported weight and height: findings from the NHANES & NHIS 2001-2006
    Manfred Stommel
    College of Nursing, Michigan State University, W 149 Owen Graduate Center, East Lansing, MI 48825 1109, USA
    BMC Public Health 9:421. 2009
    ....
  78. pmc Genome-wide association study of body weight in chicken F2 resource population
    Xiaorong Gu
    State Key Laboratory for Agro Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 6:e21872. 2011
    Chicken body weight is an economically important trait and great genetic progress has been accomplished in genetic selective for body weight...
  79. ncbi Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces body weight with regulation of multiple genes expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice
    Mak Soon Lee
    Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea
    Ann Nutr Metab 54:151-7. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in diet-induced obese mice...
  80. pmc Central role of ceramide biosynthesis in body weight regulation, energy metabolism, and the metabolic syndrome
    Guang Yang
    Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E211-24. 2009
    ..This study highlights a novel role for ceramide biosynthesis in body weight regulation, energy expenditure, and the metabolic syndrome.
  81. ncbi Gut hormone PYY(3-36) physiologically inhibits food intake
    Rachel L Batterham
    Imperial College Faculty of Medicine at Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    Nature 418:650-4. 2002
    ..Thus, postprandial elevation of PYY(3-36) may act through the arcuate nucleus Y2R to inhibit feeding in a gut-hypothalamic pathway...
  82. ncbi Oleylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight through activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alpha
    Jin Fu
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 4625, USA
    Nature 425:90-3. 2003
    Oleylethanolamide (OEA) is a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety and body weight. Although structurally related to the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, OEA does not bind to cannabinoid receptors and its molecular targets ..
  83. ncbi The role of gut hormones in the regulation of body weight and energy homeostasis
    Efthimia Karra
    Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 316:120-8. 2010
    ..endocrine organ in the body producing hormones that have important sensing and signaling roles in regulating body weight and energy expenditure...
  84. ncbi Fibroblast growth factor 19 increases metabolic rate and reverses dietary and leptin-deficient diabetes
    Ling Fu
    Genentech Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Endocrinology 145:2594-603. 2004
    ..Thus, FGF19 is able to increase metabolic rate concurrently with an increase in fatty acid oxidation...
  85. ncbi Defining high-fat-diet rat models: metabolic and molecular effects of different fat types
    R Buettner
    Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, 93042 Regensburg, Germany
    J Mol Endocrinol 36:485-501. 2006
    ..Diets based on LC-SFA and MUFA induced hepatic steatosis with SREBP1c activation. This points to an intact transcriptional hepatic insulin effect despite resistance to insulin's metabolic actions...
  86. ncbi Leptin directly activates SF1 neurons in the VMH, and this action by leptin is required for normal body-weight homeostasis
    Harveen Dhillon
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Program in Neuroscience, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Neuron 49:191-203. 2006
    ..that lack LEPRs on SF1-positive neurons, that leptin action at this site plays an important role in reducing body weight and, of note, in resisting diet-induced obesity...
  87. pmc Polychlorinated biphenyl-77 induces adipocyte differentiation and proinflammatory adipokines and promotes obesity and atherosclerosis
    Violeta Arsenescu
    Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:761-8. 2008
    ..However, the effects of PCBs on adipocytes, obesity, and obesity-associated cardiovascular disease are unknown...
  88. pmc Mice lacking ghrelin receptors resist the development of diet-induced obesity
    Jeffrey M Zigman
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:3564-72. 2005
    ..ghrelin levels rise following food deprivation, and ghrelin administration stimulates feeding and increases body weight and adiposity...
  89. ncbi Beyond body mass index
    A M Prentice
    MRC International Nutrition Group, Public Health Nutrition Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 49 51 Bedford Square, London, WC1B 3DP, UK
    Obes Rev 2:141-7. 2001
    ..We argue that BMI continues to serve well for many purposes, but that the time is now right to initiate a gradual evolution beyond BMI towards standards based on actual measurements of body fat mass...
  90. ncbi Ghrelin in the regulation of body weight and metabolism
    T R Castaneda
    Dept of Physiology and Pharmacology, Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA
    Front Neuroendocrinol 31:44-60. 2010
    ..This review summarizes the current knowledge on ghrelin synthesis, secretion, mechanism of action and biological functions with an additional focus on potential for ghrelin-based pharmacotherapies...
  91. ncbi Ghrelin causes hyperphagia and obesity in rats
    A M Wren
    Endocrine Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Diabetes 50:2540-7. 2001
    ..2 +/- 3.8 g, P < 0.05) and adiposity. These data provide evidence that ghrelin is important in long-term control of food intake and body weight and that circulating ghrelin at fasting concentrations may stimulate food intake.
  92. pmc Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is essential for growth hormone-mediated survival of calorie-restricted mice
    Tong Jin Zhao
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7467-72. 2010
    ..When subjected to 60% calorie restriction, WT and Goat(-/-) mice both lost 30% of body weight and 75% of body fat within 4 days. In both lines, fasting blood glucose initially declined equally...
  93. pmc Beneficial effects of subcutaneous fat transplantation on metabolism
    Thien T Tran
    Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cell Metab 7:410-20. 2008
    ..The group with SC fat transplanted into the VIS cavity exhibited decreased body weight, total fat mass, and glucose and insulin levels...
  94. ncbi Nocturnal hypertension in mice consuming a high fructose diet
    Vera Farah
    Boonshoft School of Medicine of Wright State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dayton, OH 45401, USA
    Auton Neurosci 130:41-50. 2006
    ..To investigate the effect of fructose consumption on the light/dark pattern of blood pressure, heart rate and autonomic neural function in mice...
  95. pmc Metabolic impact of sex hormones on obesity
    Lynda M Brown
    Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27412, USA
    Brain Res 1350:77-85. 2010
    ..others have previously demonstrated that activation of ERalpha by estrogens reduces food intake and increases body weight. This review focuses on the relative contribution of activation of ERalpha by estrogens in the ARC and the VL ..
  96. ncbi Hypothalamic thyroid hormone catabolism acts as a gatekeeper for the seasonal control of body weight and reproduction
    Perry Barrett
    Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Buckburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 148:3608-17. 2007
    ..ependyma of the third ventricle, prevented the onset of short-day physiology: hamsters maintained a long-day body weight phenotype and failed to undergo testicular and epididymal regression...
  97. pmc Genome-wide effects of long-term divergent selection
    Anna M Johansson
    Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    PLoS Genet 6:e1001188. 2010
    ..a single trait selection experiment, where 50 generations of selection have resulted in a 9-fold difference in body weight. Analyses of nearly 60,000 SNP markers showed that the effects of selection on the genome are dramatic...
  98. ncbi Long-lasting suppression of hippocampal cell proliferation and impaired cognitive performance by methotrexate in the rat
    Riejanne Seigers
    Department of Behavioral Physiology, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands
    Behav Brain Res 186:168-75. 2008
    ..5-300 mg/kg). Animals treated with MTX also showed a dose-dependent transient decrease in body weight gain. In the second study, the effect of MTX (250 mg/kg) on two spatial learning tasks was examined...
  99. pmc Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome
    Shigetada Furukawa
    Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Organismal Biosystems, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Clin Invest 114:1752-61. 2004
    ....
  100. ncbi Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    R E Andersen
    Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    JAMA 279:938-42. 1998
    ..Physical inactivity contributes to weight gain in adults, but whether this relationship is true for children of different ethnic groups is not well established...
  101. ncbi The regulation of seasonal changes in food intake and body weight
    F J P Ebling
    School of Biomedical Sciences and Institute of Neuroscience, University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 20:827-33. 2008
    Seasonal rhythms of body weight, reflecting altered food intake, energy storage and expenditure, are a common feature of mammals inhabiting temperate and arctic latitudes...

Research Grants74

  1. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with a total of about 2 tablespoons from patients ages 10 and older and about 1 teaspoon for each 5 pounds of body weight for younger patients...
  2. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with a total of about 2 tablespoons from patients ages 10 and older and about 1 teaspoon for each 5 pounds of body weight for younger patients...
  3. The gastric X/A-like (ghrelin) cell: A peripheral regulator of food intake
    NILS WG LAMBRECHT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cachexia, LPS BRIEF STATEMENT OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES (Do not use continuation sheets) Chronic changes in body weight result in significant health problems...
  4. Regulation of thyroid hormone levels by central and peripheral pathways
    KRISTEN RACHEL VELLA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) by both thyroid hormone and pathways important in the regulation of body weight. My work detailing the transcriptional regulation of TRH by thyroid hormone was published in Endocrinology...
  5. Response to and signals of caloric restriction and intermittent feeding regimens
    MARC KOPEL HELLERSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..First, a life-time of food deprivation and reduced body weight is not practical for most people;and, second, it has not been easy to identify the underlying metabolic and ..
  6. MOLECULAR BASIS OF INSULIN RESISTANCE
    Maureen J Charron; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Additional studies are proposed to test the response of high fat IU offspring to diets that alter body weight and metabolism including a high fat diabetogenic diet or a weight loss ketogenic diet during their adult life...
  7. Mechanisms of action of ghrelin in muscle and adipose tissue in cancer-related ca
    Jose M Garcia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Currently there is no effective way to treat cachexia. The novel hormone ghrelin increases appetite and body weight. This proposal will determine its effects and mechanisms of action in muscle and fat in the setting of cachexia...
  8. Skeletal Muscle. Ca Release Control Inside the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.
    Eduardo Rios; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..motion, thus influencing multiple aspects of our life, including physical conditioning, metabolism, and even body weight. Because calcium is used for many tasks, including killing cells, the signals are dangerous and must be kept ..
  9. Prostate cancer chemoprevention by penta-galloyl-glucose
    Junxuan Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..significantly inhibited the in vivo growth of human DU145 PCa xenografts in nude mice without adverse effect on body weight. In work accomplished by our collaborator Sung-Hoon Kim, PGG possesses potent anti-angiogenic activities and ..
  10. Central Action of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Male and Female Rats
    Haifei Shi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..There is increasing evidence that regulation of energy balance and body weight is not the same for both genders...
  11. Arcuate nucleus glutamatergic neurons modulate energy homeostasis
    Anthony N van den Pol; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cells should give us a better appreciation of the cellular mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis and body weight regulation, and should give us new insight into the potential treatment of obesity through those neurons that ..
  12. PUFA Synthesis and the Control of Hepatic Metabolism
    Donald B Jump; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abrogated high fat diet-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and fatty liver in 4 days without changing body weight or appetite...
  13. Thyroid Hormone Action
    THOMAS STERLING SCANLAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..unambiguously demonstrate that the observed chronically administered, low-dose T1AM induced reduction in body weight results from a decrease in energy intake and not an increase in energy expenditure...
  14. Electrochemical tools to measure local cerebral blood flow and metabolism
    ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Electrochemical tools to measure local cerebral blood flow and metabolism The human brain comprises 2% of body weight and yet consumes 20% of the total energy to support the electrical activity in the brain...
  15. Plant-Derived Estrogens and Cell Proliferation
    Emma Shtivelman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Similar to estradiol, both plant extracts produced a reduction in body weight and abdominal fat in mice fed a high fat diet...
  16. Comparative effectiveness of diabetes prevention strategies in women with GDM
    Assiamira Ferrara; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..weight for women with a normal weight prior to pregnancy;or b) reaching a 5% reduction of their pre-pregnancy body weight if the women were overweight or obese prior to pregnancy...
  17. Effects of In Utero and Transgenerational Exposure of Avy Mice to Bisphenol A
    CHERYL SUSAN ROSENFELD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies will permit us to examine the subtle changes in behavior, body weight, blood metabolites and hormone concentrations, and pathological changes that might ensue in viable yellow mice ..
  18. Obesity: neural control of body weight and metabolism
    Barry E Levin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in hypothalamic leptin receptor transcription, binding and downstream signaling pathways, food intake and body weight gain on chow and HE diet, carcass composition, expression of various mRNA and protein species will be used to ..
  19. A Culturally Tailored LIfestyle Intervention to Prevent Diabetes in South Asians:
    KABAYAM M VENKAT NARAYAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..3) Evaluate the intervention. The primary outcome will be change in body weight, with the study participants counseled to lose 7% body weight and maintain the weight loss over the course of ..
  20. Circadian Expression of Procolipase in the Liver: A Metabolic Signal
    Mark E Lowe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For Aim 1, we will monitor the body temperature, body weight, activity, feeding behavior and food and water intake of wild-type, procolipase- deficient and enterostatin-..
  21. Hypothalamic SIRT1 and Energy Balance
    Eduardo A Nillni; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..siRNA mediated knock down of Sirt1 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus decreases food intake and body weight gain...
  22. Structural biology of enzymes in fatty acid metabolism
    Liang Tong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..ACC2-/- mice have elevated fatty acid oxidation and reduced body fat and body weight, suggesting that an inhibitor against ACC2 may be efficacious in the control of body weight and obesity...
  23. Mechanisms of Obesity in Mice with Neuron-Specific Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency
    Robert H Eckel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The long-term objective of this application is to uncover mechanisms of body weight regulation through a newly discovered pathway mediated by the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the neuron...
  24. The Impact of Sleep-Disordered Breathing on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes
    LOUISE M O apos BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This common and treatable, but usually undiagnosed sleep disorder often develops with excess body weight. Available literature suggests that substantial weight gain and other physiological changes during the short ..
  25. Adiponectin and fetal programming
    Jianhua Shao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In contrast to adults, neonatal blood adiponectin concentrations positively correlate with infant body weight. Studies have shown that adiponectin enhances adipocyte differentiation, inhibits lipolysis and increases ..
  26. A Prospective Study of Adiposity and Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease
    CHRISTINA LYNN WASSEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Current methods for assessing obesity focus on either nonspecific measures of overall body weight (i.e. body mass index) or the extent of abdominal ("central") adiposity...
  27. The Role of Substrate Metabolism and Macrophage Activation in Obesity
    Amy Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Metabolic phenotyping, including body weight and composition, food intake and activity, systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and energy ..
  28. Leptin function &resistance in midbrain VTA &SN in reward eating &obesity
    YI NONE ZHANG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We further postulate that HF feeding induces leptin resistance characterized by diminished food and body weight responses to leptin within the VTA, and that this resistance is a major culprit for exacerbating dietary ..
  29. Mechanisms of diet-induced leptin resistance in ARC and VTA
    Philip J Scarpace; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will test these hypotheses in male Sprague Dawley rats by examining the neural regulation of food intake and body weight, whole body energy homeostasis, and brain region-specific leptin signaling...
  30. Body composition, bone structure, and joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis
    Joshua F Baker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Low body weight has been associated with many adverse outcomes in RA, including fractures, joint damage, and death...
  31. Developmental Programs of Neural Circuits in the Mouse Medial Hypothalamus
    Holly A Ingraham; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Major advances in the study of body weight regulation have identified central nervous system circuits involving the hypothalamus that controls energy ..
  32. PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL INTERACTIONS IN ENERGY BALANCE
    Barbara B Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For this to occur, an increased understanding of the mechanisms controlling food intake and body weight is essential...
  33. Maternal-fetal vitamin D status and child adiposity, insulin resistance and BP
    Susanna Y Huh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and components of its metabolic pathway may be associated with modulation of intrauterine and postnatal growth, body weight, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure...
  34. Interaction of fetal growth and bisphenol A in obesity
    Frederick S vom Saal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The IUGR mice experience a dramatic 90% increase in body weight, while macrosomic males only experience a 30% increase in body weight, during the first week after weaning, ..
  35. Melanin-Concentrating Hormone: Ancestral Role in Feeding &Sleep Regulation
    Philippe Mourrain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will first (i) study how the MCH2 peptide and circuit regulate food intake, growth, and body weight. Further, (ii) using a novel multi-behavioral tracking system we will analyze a large spectrum of behaviors ..
  36. Nitrated fatty acids/PPARgamma in the control of renal and vascular functions
    Tianxin Yang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..duct (CD) document a sodium-retaining function of PPAR in the distal nephron that underlies fluid retention and body weight gains associated with thiazolidinediones (TZDs)...
  37. Chemokine Decoy Receptor: a novel therapy of IBD
    Kanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..A sham group without exposure to DSS or mR-421 will be utilized as a control. Animals will be monitored for body weight and clinical signs of illness: hunched-over appearance, weight loss, loose stools/diarrhea, and bloody stools...
  38. Neuroendocrine Response to Gastric Bypass in Nonhuman Primates
    Randy J Seeley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the mechanisms of these effects and the degree to which they are dependent on changes in food intake or body weight;(3) to characterize the effect of RYGB on the hypothalamic circuitry regulating ingestive behavior and energy ..
  39. Vitamin D Effect on Body Composition During Behavioral Weight Loss in Women
    ANNE M MCTIERNAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..observed between obesity and serum vitamin D level which suggests that some of the associations between excess body weight or vitamin D levels with cancer risk could be due to their relationship with each other...
  40. Quantitative Assessment of Oxidative Metabolism in Brown Fat
    Otto Muzik; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Unfortunately, whether BAT thermogenesis plays a role in body weight regulation apart from its thermoregulatory function, is controversial until today...
  41. Humoral factors in gender differences in blood pressure control
    Jane F Reckelhoff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..many of the characteristics of hyperandrogenemia in women: elevated BP, ovarian dysfunction, increases in body weight and visceral adiposity, increased plasma leptin and TNF-[unreadable]...
  42. Sympathetic Regulation of AMPK in the control of non-shivering thermogenesis
    Jacob D Mulligan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The second hypothesis is that AMPK contributes to the regulation of body weight and temperature by controlling the thermogenic potential and amount of non-shivering thermogenesis in brown ..
  43. Maternal Hyperinsulinemia and Fetal Programming
    Mulchand S Patel; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The hypothalamic melanocortin system is considered to play a critical role in the regulation of appetite and body weight homeostasis;it is hypothesized that aberrations in this system contribute significantly towards the development ..
  44. Aging and Apoptosis
    Brian A Herman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g. lower bone mineral density, lower fat content, decreased body weight and shorter lifespan) and c) extends the lifespan of the MnSOD'''mouse...
  45. The Role of Estradiol and Sex in the Effects of Ghrelin on Meal Patterns and Fos-
    PETER BUTERA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Gonadal steroids are among the numerous factors influencing food intake and body weight in mammals...
  46. Exercise, Breast Cancer Prevention, and Mechanisms
    Henry J Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mammary carcinogenesis and that are dependent on PA intensity and duration, and independent of differences in body weight. Three specific aims are proposed:1) How does PA intensity inhibit the carcinogenic process? A range of PA ..
  47. PROTRH GENE TRANSCRIPTION AND BIOSYNTHESIS BY LEPTIN
    EDUARDO NILLNI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Project Description Regulation of energy consumption is a pivotal mechanism for maintaining body weight. Hormones that regulate energy balance can be categorized into those that influence appetite and those that act to maintain body fat ..
  48. Mechanisms for the Effects of Hypothalamic PTP1B on Energy Balance
    KARYN JOANNE CATALANO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will examine the role of PTP1B regulation in these neurons by looking at the effect of PTP1B deletion on body weight, body composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry, and ..
  49. Targeted investigation of tissue specific oxidative stress in the etiology of ALS
    Holly Van Remmen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will measure disease onset (loss of body weight and neurologic score), progression (rotarod, motor neuron numbers, loss of muscle innervation) and lifespan in ..
  50. COMBINATORIAL-DESIGNED NANO-PLATFORMS TO OVERCOME TUMOR DRUG RESISTANCE
    Zhenfeng Duan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and combination sIRNA/drug co-therapy;and (5) determination of acute safety profiles by measuring changes in body weight, blood cell counts, liver enzymes, and liver tissue histopathology with single and combination siRNA/drug co-..
  51. Regulation of Host Nitrogen Balance by the Gut Microbiome
    Gary D Wu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..metabolic stress, manifested as a striking (40%) increase in calorie consumption simply in order to maintain body weight. In addition, due to a reduction in ureagenesis, these mice suffer a profound defect of water conservation ..
  52. Establishing the Precursors of Osteoporosis in Children
    Xiping Xu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the above relationships are independent of other important covariates, including age, gender, pubertal stage, body weight and composition, nutritional intake, and physical activity, and if there are interactions between the ..
  53. Timing of Exposure to Selenium and Isoflavones and Prostate Cancer Prevention
    EDWIN DOUGLAS LEPHART; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Measurement of body weight, genitourinary (GU) tract weight, time to palpable tumor, pathological tumor grade, and incidence of metastases ..
  54. Fatty acid Control Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome via TPR proteins
    Terry D Hinds; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..acids, have been shown in clinical and animal studies to be useful in controlling lipid storage and regulating body weight and obesity in mammals. The molecular mechanisms behind what controls these actions are not well understood...
  55. Food Environment, Diet Quality and Disparities in Obesity
    Adam Drewnowski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The main aim of the study is to assess the impact of SEP, environmental, and dietary variables on obesity and body weight gain...
  56. CRP, eNOS and Endothelial Dysfunction
    Philip W Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure will also be evaluated...
  57. A simple dietary message to improve dietary quality for metabolic syndrome
    Yunsheng Ma; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..A 3-month post-intensive intervention assessment will measure short-term changes in body weight, diet, and metabolic syndrome indicators...
  58. Translational Diebetes Prevention in GDM
    Assiamira Ferrara; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The primary outcomes are the proportion of women who reach their postpartum body weight goal and the total amount of weight change...
  59. Self-Determination Theory and Lifestyle Behaviors in Barrett's Esophagus Patients
    HODA J BADR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In fact, lifestyle counseling to achieve a healthy body weight, engage in physical activity, stop smoking, and refrain from drinking alcohol is the standard of care for newly ..
  60. Regulation and Function of Urocortins and their Receptors
    Aditi Bhargava; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will determine alterations in colitis severity by measuring changes in body weight gain, mortality, histological damage, and fluid leak. Specific Aim 2...
  61. DIETARY PATTERNS AND RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
    Frank B Hu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..measured by doubly-labeled water [DLW]), physical activity (measured by accelerometers), sleep duration, and body weight in a subsample of NHS/HPFS participants (n=1,300) enrolled in the ongoing Lifestyle Validation Study (LVS)...
  62. Role of Oleylethanolamine in the Regulation of the HPT Axis
    Csaba Fekete; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Oleylethanolamide (OEA) is a recently described anorexigenic agent that has been shown to effectively reduce body weight after oral administration. Accordingly, OEA may be an attractive candidate for the treatment of obesity...
  63. ZeroG: Dynamic Over-Ground Body-Weight Support System
    Joseph Hidler; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..2005). ..
  64. DRUGS OF ABUSE, DOPAMINE & CONTROL BY BRAIN PEPTIDES
    BARTLEY HOEBEL; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..can be used in behaving animals to monitor dopamine (DA), serotonin (SER), and their metabolites during body weight changes, self-stimulation or injection of drugs...
  65. DIETARY COMPOSITION, OBESITY, AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK
    ERNST SCHAEFER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..to examine the effects of three diets meeting National Cholesterol Education program Step 2 diet criteria on body weight and composition and on CHD risk factors (LDL C, HDL C, remnant lipoprotein C, Lp(a) C, insulin, glycosylated ..
  66. Food Rheology and Exercise in Aging Humans
    WAYNE CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Human aging is often associated with compromised regulation of energy balance and inappropriate body weight and body composition...
  67. METABOLIC ASPECTS OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGE IN DEPRESSION
    Madelyn Fernstrom; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Antidepressant treatment is reputed to be associated with unwanted, excessive weight gain. Regulation of body weight is a complex problem and can result from increase caloric intake, decreased caloric expenditure, or both...
  68. Design and Evaluation of the Remote Intervention for Diet and Exercise (RIDE)
    Corby K Martin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..An additional limitation is the quality of self-reported food intake, exercise, and body weight data that participants enter into the internet application or report to their online counselor...
  69. Analytical Tools for Optimizing Neurorehabilitation of Gait
    W Selbie; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  70. Effect of exercise and weight loss on adipose tissue biology
    Anne McTiernan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Higher levels of physical activity and lower body weight or body fat are associated with a decreased risk of several types of cancer, in particular colorectal and postmenopausal breast cancer...
  71. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL OF SEASONAL WEIGHT CYCLES
    George Wade; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..often exhibit dramatic seasonal fluctuations in a number of physiological processes, including reproduction, body weight and lipid storage, thermoregulation, and metabolic and endocrine functions...
  72. Physiologic Effects of High-Dose Gastric Antral Botulinum Toxin Injections
    Mark D Topazian; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Delayed gastric emptying occurred in the group that received 300 U BTA. Body weight loss (mean -4...
  73. Smart Knee Brace
    Katherine Rudolph; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Currently, therapists can begin rehabilitation of walking by using lower extremity braces or body weight supported treadmill training to support the weak limb...
  74. LEPTIN ACTION ON HYPOTHALAMIC PEPTIDES GOVERNING FEEDING
    Abhiram Sahu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    The goal of this project is to understand the neurobiological basis of food intake and body weight regulation...