Genomes and Genes
Summary: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Publications337 found, 100 shown here
- Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissueStuart P Weisberg
Division of Moleuclar Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Clin Invest 112:1796-808. 2003..Adipose tissue macrophage numbers increase in obesity and participate in inflammatory pathways that are activated in adipose tissues of obese individuals...
- Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistanceHaiyan Xu
Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
J Clin Invest 112:1821-30. 2003..We propose that obesity-related insulin resistance is, at least in part, a chronic inflammatory disease initiated in adipose tissue...
- The disease burden associated with overweight and obesityA Must
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
JAMA 282:1523-9. 1999..Overweight and obesity are increasing dramatically in the United States and most likely contribute substantially to the burden of chronic health conditions...
- Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammalsJ M Friedman
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
Nature 395:763-70. 1998..Leptin also signals nutritional status to several other physiological systems and modulates their function. Here we review the role of leptin in the control of body weight and its relevance to the pathogenesis of obesity.
- Central nervous system control of food intake and body weightG J Morton
Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
Nature 443:289-95. 2006..This new information provides a biological context within which to consider the global obesity epidemic and identifies numerous potential avenues for therapeutic intervention and future research...
- A comparison of direct vs. self-report measures for assessing height, weight and body mass index: a systematic reviewS Connor Gorber
Physical Health Measures Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
Obes Rev 8:307-26. 2007....
- Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulationCristen J Willer
Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits Consortium
Nat Genet 41:25-34. 2009..Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity...
- Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistanceNicholas Houstis
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA
Nature 440:944-8. 2006..Together, our findings suggest that increased ROS levels are an important trigger for insulin resistance in numerous settings...
- AMP-kinase regulates food intake by responding to hormonal and nutrient signals in the hypothalamusYasuhiko Minokoshi
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nature 428:569-74. 2004..Dominant negative AMPK expression in the hypothalamus is sufficient to reduce food intake and body weight, whereas constitutively active AMPK increases both...
- Liraglutide vs insulin glargine and placebo in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (LEAD-5 met+SU): a randomised controlled trialD Russell-Jones
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Guildford Hospital, UK
Diabetologia 52:2046-55. 2009..The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of liraglutide in type 2 diabetes mellitus vs placebo and insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin), all in combination with metformin and glimepiride...
- Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydratesFrank M Sacks
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA
N Engl J Med 360:859-73. 2009..The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year...
- Life course variations in the associations between FTO and MC4R gene variants and body sizeRebecca Hardy
MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, 33 Bedford Place, London, UK
Hum Mol Genet 19:545-52. 2010..Studies of the aetiology of obesity spanning different age groups may identify age-specific determinants of weight gain...
- Genome-wide association study of body weight in chicken F2 resource populationXiaorong Gu
State Key Laboratory for Agro Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, People s Republic of China
PLoS ONE 6:e21872. 2011Chicken body weight is an economically important trait and great genetic progress has been accomplished in genetic selective for body weight...
- A general model for the origin of allometric scaling laws in biologyG B West
Theoretical Division, T 8, Mail Stop B285, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
Science 276:122-6. 1997..More generally, the model predicts structural and functional properties of vertebrate cardiovascular and respiratory systems, plant vascular systems, insect tracheal tubes, and other distribution networks...
- Genetic and environmental factors in relative body weight and human adiposityH H Maes
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
Behav Genet 27:325-51. 1997..These results are consistent with other studies in suggesting that genetic factors play a significant role in the causes of individual differences in relative body weight and human adiposity.
- Inactivation of the Fto gene protects from obesityJulia Fischer
Institute for Animal Developmental and Molecular Biology, Heinrich Heine University, Universitatsstr 1, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
Nature 458:894-8. 2009..Taken together, these experiments provide, to our knowledge, the first direct demonstration that Fto is functionally involved in energy homeostasis by the control of energy expenditure...
- Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight, and breast cancer riskP A van den Brandt
Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
Am J Epidemiol 152:514-27. 2000..The association between BMI and breast cancer varies by menopausal status. Weight control may reduce the risk among postmenopausal women...
- Being big or growing fast: systematic review of size and growth in infancy and later obesityJanis Baird
MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD
BMJ 331:929. 2005..To assess the association between infant size or growth and subsequent obesity and to determine if any association has been stable over time...
- Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traitsAngelo Scuteri
Unità Operativa Geriatria, Istituto per la Patologia Endocrina e Metabolica, Rome, Italy
PLoS Genet 3:e115. 2007..common genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with substantial changes in BMI, hip circumference, and body weight. These changes could have a significant impact on the risk of obesity-related morbidity in the general ..
- Role of brain insulin receptor in control of body weight and reproductionJ C Bruning
Klinik II und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin and Center of Molecular Medicine ZMMK der Universität zu Köln, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50931 Cologne, Germany
Science 289:2122-5. 2000..Thus, IR signaling in the CNS plays an important role in regulation of energy disposal, fuel metabolism, and reproduction...
- Extended longevity in mice lacking the insulin receptor in adipose tissueMatthias Bluher
Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, One Joslin Place, Boston, MA, 02215 USA
Science 299:572-4. 2003..Thus, a reduction of fat mass without caloric restriction can be associated with increased longevity in mice, possibly through effects on insulin signaling...
- Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatmentStephen R Daniels
Circulation 111:1999-2012. 2005..In addition, treatment approaches are presented, including behavioral, pharmacological, and surgical treatment. Childhood and adolescent overweight is one of the most important current public health concerns...
- Acute toxicity and biodistribution of different sized titanium dioxide particles in mice after oral administrationJiangxue Wang
Laboratory for Bio Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, National Center for NanoScience and Technology and Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100080, PR China
Toxicol Lett 168:176-85. 2007..Due to the low toxicity, a fixed large dose of 5g/kg body weight of TiO(2) suspensions was administrated by a single oral gavage according to the OECD procedure...
- Novel adipose tissue-mediated resistance to diet-induced visceral obesity in 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-deficient miceNicholas M Morton
Endocrinology Unit, Molecular Medicine Centre, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
Diabetes 53:931-8. 2004..These data provide the first in vivo evidence that adipose 11 beta-HSD-1 deficiency beneficially alters adipose tissue distribution and function, complementing the reported effects of hepatic 11 beta-HSD-1 deficiency or inhibition...
- Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activationMitsuhiro Watanabe
Institut de Génétique et Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch, France
Nature 439:484-9. 2006..The BA-TGR5-cAMP-D2 signalling pathway is therefore a crucial mechanism for fine-tuning energy homeostasis that can be targeted to improve metabolic control...
- Diet-induced obese mice develop peripheral, but not central, resistance to leptinM van Heek
Department of CNS and Cardiovascular Research, Schering Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, USA
J Clin Invest 99:385-90. 1997..Serum leptin increased in proportion to body weight (P < 0.00001)...
- Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysisD S Ludwig
Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Lancet 357:505-8. 2001..The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks. Our aim was to examine this relation...
- Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and RussiaYoufa Wang
Carolina Population Center, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27516 3997, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 75:971-7. 2002..Few studies have used the same references across countries to examine the trends of over- and underweight in older children and adolescents...
- Rapid rewiring of arcuate nucleus feeding circuits by leptinShirly Pinto
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Science 304:110-5. 2004..These data suggest that leptin-mediated plasticity in the ob/ob hypothalamus may underlie some of the hormone's behavioral effects...
- Fibroblast growth factor 21 corrects obesity in miceTamer Coskun
Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
Endocrinology 149:6018-27. 2008..report that systemic administration of FGF21 for 2 wk in diet-induced obese and ob/ob mice lowered their mean body weight by 20% predominantly via a reduction in adiposity...
- Leptin levels reflect body lipid content in mice: evidence for diet-induced resistance to leptin actionR C Frederich
Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Hospital Research North, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nat Med 1:1311-4. 1995The regulation of body weight and composition involves input from genes and the environment, demonstrated, for example, by the variable susceptibility of inbred strains of mice to obesity when offered a high-fat diet...
- Leptin receptor signaling in POMC neurons is required for normal body weight homeostasisNina Balthasar
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Avenue RN, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Neuron 42:983-91. 2004..In summary, leptin receptors on POMC neurons are required but not solely responsible for leptin's regulation of body weight homeostasis.
- Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on plasma lipoproteinsWilliam E Kraus
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
N Engl J Med 347:1483-92. 2002..However, the amount of exercise training required for optimal benefit is unknown. In a prospective, randomized study, we investigated the effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on lipoproteins...
- Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire: a measure of parental attitudes, beliefs and practices about child feeding and obesity pronenessL L Birch
Department of Human Development and Family Studies and Graduate Program in Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Appetite 36:201-10. 2001..The CFQ is designed for use with parents of children ranging in age from about 2 to 11 years of age...
- A mouse model for the metabolic effects of the human fat mass and obesity associated FTO geneChris Church
MRC Harwell, Metabolism and Inflammation, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Harwell, UK
PLoS Genet 5:e1000599. 2009..Our model suggests that a search for human coding mutations in FTO may be informative and that inhibition of FTO activity is a possible target for the treatment of morbid obesity...
- STAT3 signalling is required for leptin regulation of energy balance but not reproductionSarah H Bates
Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, 1 Joslin Place, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nature 421:856-9. 2003..LRb-STAT3 signalling thus mediates the effects of leptin on melanocortin production and body energy homeostasis, whereas distinct LRb signals regulate NPY and the control of fertility, growth and glucose homeostasis...
- Loss of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 function protects mice against adiposityJames M Ntambi
Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11482-6. 2002..These observations suggest that a consequence of SCD1 deficiency is an activation of lipid oxidation in addition to reduced triglyceride synthesis and storage...
- Bisphenol A: Perinatal exposure and body weightBeverly S Rubin
Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, United States
Mol Cell Endocrinol 304:55-62. 2009..6% of the US population examined. The potential for BPA to influence body weight is suggested by in vitro studies demonstrating effects of BPA on adipocyte differentiation, lipid accumulation, ..
- Size at birth and early childhood growth in relation to maternal smoking, parity and infant breast-feeding: longitudinal birth cohort study and analysisKen K L Ong
Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, UK
Pediatr Res 52:863-7. 2002..The sequence of fetal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth may predispose to obesity risk in this contemporary population...
- Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistanceArnaud Chiolero
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP, University of Lausanne, 17 rue du Bugnon, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
Am J Clin Nutr 87:801-9. 2008Our aim was to critically evaluate the relations among smoking, body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance as reported in the literature...
- NPY/AgRP neurons are essential for feeding in adult mice but can be ablated in neonatesSerge Luquet
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Box 357370, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Science 310:683-5. 2005..Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) are thought to be critical regulators of feeding behavior and body weight. To determine whether NPY/AgRP neurons are essential in mice, we targeted the human diphtheria toxin receptor ..
- Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesityRuth J F Loos
MRC Epidemiology Unit, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
Nat Genet 40:768-75. 2008....
- Relationship of obesity with osteoporosisLan Juan Zhao
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Missouri Kansas City, 2411 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1640-6. 2007..Previous analyses, however, did not control for the mechanical loading effects of total body weight on bone mass and may have generated a confounded or even biased relationship between obesity and osteoporosis.
- Region-specific leptin resistance within the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese miceHeike Munzberg
Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Endocrinology 145:4880-9. 2004..Defects in leptin action in the ARC may play a role in the pathogenesis of leptin-resistant obesity...
- Genome-wide association yields new sequence variants at seven loci that associate with measures of obesityGudmar Thorleifsson
deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland
Nat Genet 41:18-24. 2009..6 x 10(-7). This includes previously identified variants close to or in the FTO, MC4R, BDNF and SH2B1 genes, in addition to variants at seven loci not previously connected with obesity...
- If started early in life, metformin treatment increases life span and postpones tumors in female SHR miceVladimir N Anisimov
N N Petrov Research Institute of Oncology, Pesochny 2, St Petersburg, Russia
Aging (Albany NY) 3:148-57. 2011..Thus, in female SHR mice, metformin increased life span and postponed tumors when started at the young and middle but not at the old age. In contrast, metformin improves reproductive function when started at any age...
- Leptin directly activates SF1 neurons in the VMH, and this action by leptin is required for normal body-weight homeostasisHarveen Dhillon
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Program in Neuroscience, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Neuron 49:191-203. 2006..that lack LEPRs on SF1-positive neurons, that leptin action at this site plays an important role in reducing body weight and, of note, in resisting diet-induced obesity...
- Oleylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight through activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alphaJin Fu
Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 4625, USA
Nature 425:90-3. 2003Oleylethanolamide (OEA) is a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety and body weight. Although structurally related to the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, OEA does not bind to cannabinoid receptors and its molecular targets ..
- Fibroblast growth factor 21 reverses hepatic steatosis, increases energy expenditure, and improves insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese miceJing Xu
Department of Metabolic Disorders, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, California, USA
Diabetes 58:250-9. 2009..The aims of the current study are to evaluate the role of FGF21 in energy metabolism and to provide mechanistic insights into its glucose and lipid-lowering effects in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) model...
- Gut hormone PYY(3-36) physiologically inhibits food intakeRachel L Batterham
Imperial College Faculty of Medicine at Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
Nature 418:650-4. 2002..Thus, postprandial elevation of PYY(3-36) may act through the arcuate nucleus Y2R to inhibit feeding in a gut-hypothalamic pathway...
- Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces body weight with regulation of multiple genes expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese miceMak Soon Lee
Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea
Ann Nutr Metab 54:151-7. 2009..The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in diet-induced obese mice...
- The role of gut hormones in the regulation of body weight and energy homeostasisEfthimia Karra
Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Mol Cell Endocrinol 316:120-8. 2010..endocrine organ in the body producing hormones that have important sensing and signaling roles in regulating body weight and energy expenditure...
- Central role of ceramide biosynthesis in body weight regulation, energy metabolism, and the metabolic syndromeGuang Yang
Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E211-24. 2009..This study highlights a novel role for ceramide biosynthesis in body weight regulation, energy expenditure, and the metabolic syndrome.
- Diabetes, a new mutation in the mouseK P Hummel
Science 153:1127-8. 1966..Abnormal deposition of fat at 3 to 4 weeks of age is followed shortly by hyperglycemia, polyuria, and glycosuria. Accompanying morphological changes in the islets of Langerhans suggest neogenesis to compensate for insulin depletion...
- Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescentsGail C Rampersaud
Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, SW 23rd Drive, FETL Building 685, Gainesville, FL 32611 0720, USA
J Am Diet Assoc 105:743-60; quiz 761-2. 2005..of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents...
- Polychlorinated biphenyl-77 induces adipocyte differentiation and proinflammatory adipokines and promotes obesity and atherosclerosisVioleta Arsenescu
Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
Environ Health Perspect 116:761-8. 2008..However, the effects of PCBs on adipocytes, obesity, and obesity-associated cardiovascular disease are unknown...
- Fetuses of obese mothers develop insulin resistance in uteroPatrick M Catalano
Department of Reproductive Biology, Case Western Reserve University at Metro Health Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Diabetes Care 32:1076-80. 2009..The purpose of this study was to determine whether fetuses of obese women have increased obesity, insulin resistance, and markers of inflammation, supporting the concept of fetal programming...
- Mice lacking ghrelin receptors resist the development of diet-induced obesityJeffrey M Zigman
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
J Clin Invest 115:3564-72. 2005..ghrelin levels rise following food deprivation, and ghrelin administration stimulates feeding and increases body weight and adiposity...
- Beyond body mass indexA M Prentice
MRC International Nutrition Group, Public Health Nutrition Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 49 51 Bedford Square, London, WC1B 3DP, UK
Obes Rev 2:141-7. 2001..We argue that BMI continues to serve well for many purposes, but that the time is now right to initiate a gradual evolution beyond BMI towards standards based on actual measurements of body fat mass...
- Ghrelin in the regulation of body weight and metabolismT R Castaneda
Dept of Physiology and Pharmacology, Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA
Front Neuroendocrinol 31:44-60. 2010..This review summarizes the current knowledge on ghrelin synthesis, secretion, mechanism of action and biological functions with an additional focus on potential for ghrelin-based pharmacotherapies...
- Obesity wars: molecular progress confronts an expanding epidemicJeffrey S Flier
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Cell 116:337-50. 2004....
- Ghrelin causes hyperphagia and obesity in ratsA M Wren
Endocrine Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
Diabetes 50:2540-7. 2001..2 +/- 3.8 g, P < 0.05) and adiposity. These data provide evidence that ghrelin is important in long-term control of food intake and body weight and that circulating ghrelin at fasting concentrations may stimulate food intake.
- Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is essential for growth hormone-mediated survival of calorie-restricted miceTong Jin Zhao
Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7467-72. 2010..When subjected to 60% calorie restriction, WT and Goat(-/-) mice both lost 30% of body weight and 75% of body fat within 4 days. In both lines, fasting blood glucose initially declined equally...
- Hypothalamic thyroid hormone catabolism acts as a gatekeeper for the seasonal control of body weight and reproductionPerry Barrett
Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Buckburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, United Kingdom
Endocrinology 148:3608-17. 2007..ependyma of the third ventricle, prevented the onset of short-day physiology: hamsters maintained a long-day body weight phenotype and failed to undergo testicular and epididymal regression...
- Active school transport, physical activity levels and body weight of children and youth: a systematic reviewGuy E J Faulkner
Faculty of Physical Education and Health, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
Prev Med 48:3-8. 2009..Before implementing such solutions, it is important to demonstrate that active school transport is associated with health-related outcomes...
- Beneficial effects of subcutaneous fat transplantation on metabolismThien T Tran
Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Cell Metab 7:410-20. 2008..The group with SC fat transplanted into the VIS cavity exhibited decreased body weight, total fat mass, and glucose and insulin levels...
- Bioelectrical impedance analysis--part I: review of principles and methodsUrsula G Kyle
Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland
Clin Nutr 23:1226-43. 2004..ESPEN guidelines for the clinical use of BIA measurements are described in a paper to appear soon in Clinical Nutrition...
- Long-lasting suppression of hippocampal cell proliferation and impaired cognitive performance by methotrexate in the ratRiejanne Seigers
Department of Behavioral Physiology, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands
Behav Brain Res 186:168-75. 2008..5-300 mg/kg). Animals treated with MTX also showed a dose-dependent transient decrease in body weight gain. In the second study, the effect of MTX (250 mg/kg) on two spatial learning tasks was examined...
- Metabolic impact of sex hormones on obesityLynda M Brown
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27412, USA
Brain Res 1350:77-85. 2010..others have previously demonstrated that activation of ERalpha by estrogens reduces food intake and increases body weight. This review focuses on the relative contribution of activation of ERalpha by estrogens in the ARC and the VL ..
- Nocturnal hypertension in mice consuming a high fructose dietVera Farah
Boonshoft School of Medicine of Wright State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dayton, OH 45401, USA
Auton Neurosci 130:41-50. 2006..To investigate the effect of fructose consumption on the light/dark pattern of blood pressure, heart rate and autonomic neural function in mice...
- Genome-wide effects of long-term divergent selectionAnna M Johansson
Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
PLoS Genet 6:e1001188. 2010..a single trait selection experiment, where 50 generations of selection have resulted in a 9-fold difference in body weight. Analyses of nearly 60,000 SNP markers showed that the effects of selection on the genome are dramatic...
- Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndromeShigetada Furukawa
Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Organismal Biosystems, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
J Clin Invest 114:1752-61. 2004....
- Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination SurveyR E Andersen
Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
JAMA 279:938-42. 1998..Physical inactivity contributes to weight gain in adults, but whether this relationship is true for children of different ethnic groups is not well established...
- Fibroblast growth factor 19 increases metabolic rate and reverses dietary and leptin-deficient diabetesLing Fu
Genentech Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
Endocrinology 145:2594-603. 2004..Thus, FGF19 is able to increase metabolic rate concurrently with an increase in fatty acid oxidation...
- Validity of self-reported height and weight in 4808 EPIC-Oxford participantsElizabeth A Spencer
Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, The Radcliffe Infirmary, UK
Public Health Nutr 5:561-5. 2002....
- Maternal obesity is necessary for programming effect of high-fat diet on offspringChristy L White
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296:R1464-72. 2009..These data suggest that maternal obesity exerts an independent effect on offspring body weight that is of similar magnitude as the effect of the offspring's adult diet...
- Genetic analysis of an F(2) intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for body-weightPer Wahlberg
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, BMC, Uppsala, Sweden
BMC Genomics 10:248. 2009..Furthermore, we utilized genotype data from ~13,000 SNPs to search the genome for potential selective sweeps that have occurred in the selected lines...
- Adoptive transfer of regulatory NKT lymphocytes ameliorates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and glucose intolerance in ob/ob mice and is associated with intrahepatic CD8 trappingE Elinav
Liver Unit, Department of Medicine, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical Centre, Jerusalem, Israel
J Pathol 209:121-8. 2006..The results further support a role for regulatory NKT lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the leptin-deficient murine model...
- The regulation of seasonal changes in food intake and body weightF J P Ebling
School of Biomedical Sciences and Institute of Neuroscience, University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham, UK
J Neuroendocrinol 20:827-33. 2008Seasonal rhythms of body weight, reflecting altered food intake, energy storage and expenditure, are a common feature of mammals inhabiting temperate and arctic latitudes...
- Epistasis and the release of genetic variation during long-term selectionOrjan Carlborg
Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics, Uppsala University, Box 598, SE 75124 Uppsala, Sweden
Nat Genet 38:418-20. 2006..The interactions in this radial network mediate a considerably larger selection response than predicted by a single-locus model...
- Extravascular lung water indexed to predicted body weight is a novel predictor of intensive care unit mortality in patients with acute lung injuryThelma R Craig
Regional Intensive Care Unit, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, UK
Crit Care Med 38:114-20. 2010..Traditionally, extravascular lung water has been indexed to actual body weight (mL/kg)...
- Effects of size and temperature on metabolic rateJ F Gillooly
Department of Biology, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
Science 293:2248-51. 2001..Temperature and body size are primary determinants of biological time and ecological roles...
- betaAR signaling required for diet-induced thermogenesis and obesity resistanceEric S Bachman
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Science 297:843-5. 2002..These findings establish that betaARs are necessary for diet-induced thermogenesis and that this efferent pathway plays a critical role in the body's defense against diet-induced obesity...
- Abnormal glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle-specific PGC-1alpha knockout mice reveals skeletal muscle-pancreatic beta cell crosstalkChristoph Handschin
Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
J Clin Invest 117:3463-74. 2007..These data clearly illustrate a causal role for muscle PGC-1alpha in maintenance of glucose homeostasis and highlight an unexpected cytokine-mediated crosstalk between skeletal muscle and pancreatic islets...
- Effect of metformin on life span and on the development of spontaneous mammary tumors in HER-2/neu transgenic miceVladimir N Anisimov
Department of Carcinogenesis and Oncogerontology, N N Petrov Research Institute of Oncology, Pesochny 2, St Petersburg 197758, Russian Federation
Exp Gerontol 40:685-93. 2005..with metformin (100 mg/kg in drinking water) slightly decreased the food consumption but failed in reducing the body weight or temperature, slowed down the age-related rise in blood glucose and triglycerides level, as well as the age-..
- Prevalence and trends of overweight among preschool children in developing countriesM de Onis
Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, The World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
Am J Clin Nutr 72:1032-9. 2000..Obesity during childhood is a matter of growing concern. Several reports show increasing rates of obesity in developed countries, whereas the extent of the problem in developing countries remains unknown...
- Maternal obesity at conception programs obesity in the offspringKartik Shankar
Arkansas Children s Nutrition Center, 1212 Marshall Street, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294:R528-38. 2008..day (15% excess calories/day) compared with 187 kcal/kg(3/4) per day for 3 wk caused substantial increase in body weight gain, adiposity, serum insulin, leptin, and insulin resistance...
- Prenatal exposure to a low-protein diet programs disordered regulation of lipid metabolism in the aging ratAml Erhuma
School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292:E1702-14. 2007..The data implicate altered expression of SREBP-1c and ChREBP as key mediators of the programmed phenotype, but the basis of the switch in metabolic status that occurred between 9 and 18 mo of age is, as yet, unidentified...
- Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girlsGeorge P Nassis
Laboratory of Nutrition and Clinical Dietetics, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
Metabolism 54:1472-9. 2005..min/mL before and after intervention, respectively; P=.03). Insulin sensitivity was improved without changes in body weight (pre-intervention, 67.9+/-14.5 kg; post-intervention, 68.3+/-14.0 kg) or percent body fat (pre-intervention, 41...
- Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescentsNancy F Butte
USDA ARS Children s Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
J Nutr 137:153-7. 2007....
- The validity of obesity based on self-reported weight and height: Implications for population studiesMaria Nyholm
Skaraborg Institute, Skovde, Sweden
Obesity (Silver Spring) 15:197-208. 2007..To validate self-reported information on weight and height in an adult population and to find a useful algorithm to assess the prevalence of obesity based on self-reported information...
- Role for stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in leptin-mediated weight lossPaul Cohen
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Center for Studies in Physics and Biology, Rogosin Institute, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Science 297:240-3. 2002..These findings suggest that down-regulation of SCD-1 is an important component of leptin's metabolic actions...
- An obesity-associated FTO gene variant and increased energy intake in childrenJoanne E Cecil
Bute Medical School, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, United Kingdom
N Engl J Med 359:2558-66. 2008..Variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has provided the most robust associations with common obesity to date. However, the role of FTO variants in modulating specific components of energy balance is unknown...
- Programming of body composition by early growth and nutritionJonathan C K Wells
Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
Proc Nutr Soc 66:423-34. 2007....
- Incretin secretion in relation to meal size and body weight in healthy subjects and people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitusT Vilsbøll
Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2706-13. 2003....
- Genetics of obesity in humansSadaf Farooqi
University Departments of Medicine and Clinical Biochemistry, Box 232, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, United Kingdom
Endocr Rev 27:710-18. 2006..obesity syndromes and discuss how far the characterization of these patients has informed our understanding of the physiological role of leptin and the melanocortins in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.
- Persistent improvement of type 2 diabetes in the Goto-Kakizaki rat model by expansion of the beta-cell mass during the prediabetic period with glucagon-like peptide-1 or exendin-4Cécile Tourrel
LPPN, CNRS UMR 7059, Universite Paris 7, Paris, France
Diabetes 51:1443-52. 2002..Under these conditions, GLP-1 represents a unique tool because of its beta-cell replenishing effect in spontaneously diabetic rodents. It may prove to be an invaluable agent for the prevention of human type 2 diabetes...
- Interleukin-10-deficient mice develop chronic enterocolitisR Kuhn
Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany
Cell 75:263-74. 1993..These results indicate that the bowel inflammation in the mutants originates from uncontrolled immune responses stimulated by enteric antigens and that IL-10 is an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract...
- Circulating ghrelin is sensitive to changes in body weight during a diet and exercise program in normal-weight young womenH J Leidy
Noll Physiological Research Center and the Department of Kinesiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:2659-64. 2004..05). Changes in ghrelin were negatively correlated with changes in body weight (r = -0.61; P < 0.05)...
- Allometric scaling of maximal metabolic rate in mammals: muscle aerobic capacity as determinant factorEwald R Weibel
Department of Anatomy, University of Berne, Buhlstrasse 26, CH 3000, Berne 9, Switzerland
Respir Physiol Neurobiol 140:115-32. 2004..We conclude that the scaling of maximal metabolic rate is explained by features and mechanisms different from those determining basal metabolic rate...
- Effects of exenatide and lifestyle modification on body weight and glucose tolerance in obese subjects with and without pre-diabetesJulio Rosenstock
Dallas Diabetes and Endocrine Center at Medical City, Dallas, Texas, USA
Diabetes Care 33:1173-5. 2010To assess the effects of exenatide on body weight and glucose tolerance in nondiabetic obese subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG).
- Hypothalamic SIRT1 and Energy BalanceEduardo A Nillni; Fiscal Year: 2010..siRNA mediated knock down of Sirt1 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus decreases food intake and body weight gain...
- Arcuate nucleus glutamatergic neurons modulate energy homeostasisAnthony N van den Pol; Fiscal Year: 2010..cells should give us a better appreciation of the cellular mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis and body weight regulation, and should give us new insight into the potential treatment of obesity through those neurons that ..
- Obesity: neural control of body weight and metabolismBarry E Levin; Fiscal Year: 2010..in hypothalamic leptin receptor transcription, binding and downstream signaling pathways, food intake and body weight gain on chow and HE diet, carcass composition, expression of various mRNA and protein species will be used to ..
- Maternal Hyperinsulinemia and Fetal ProgrammingMulchand S Patel; Fiscal Year: 2010..The hypothalamic melanocortin system is considered to play a critical role in the regulation of appetite and body weight homeostasis;it is hypothesized that aberrations in this system contribute significantly towards the development ..
- Maternal Hyperinsulinemia and Fetal ProgrammingMulchand Patel; Fiscal Year: 2009..The hypothalamic melanocortin system is considered to play a critical role in the regulation of appetite and body weight homeostasis; it is hypothesized that aberrations in this system contribute significantly towards the ..
- Phosphodiesterase-3B signaling in the Hypothalamus and ObesityAbhiram Sahu; Fiscal Year: 2010..secreted primarily by fat cells and acts centrally, particularly in the hypothalamus, to reduce food intake and body weight (wt)...
- Development of Leptin-Sensitive Hypothalamic PathwaysRichard Simerly; Fiscal Year: 2005..Leptin signals are conveyed via the ARH to other brain regions involved in the regulation of body weight, such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), an important component of the final common ..
- Nutritional Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in the Multiethnic CohortGertraud Maskarinec; Fiscal Year: 2007..diabetes and Japanese-Americans also suffer a disproportionate rate of the disease despite their relatively low body weight. The importance of body weight and nutritional composition appears to differ by ethnic background...
- DIETARY COMPOSITION, OBESITY, AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISKERNST SCHAEFER; Fiscal Year: 2003..to examine the effects of three diets meeting National Cholesterol Education program Step 2 diet criteria on body weight and composition and on CHD risk factors (LDL C, HDL C, remnant lipoprotein C, Lp(a) C, insulin, glycosylated ..
- NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF PEPTIDE INDUCED SATIETYRobert C Ritter; Fiscal Year: 2010..intake and to appreciate how these substrates are involved in the physiology and pathology of food intake and body weight. CCK is a peptide hormone secreted by enteroendcrine "I cells" of the upper small intestine, while GLP-1 is ..
- BEHAVIORAL PHYSIOLOGY OF BODY WEIGHT REGULATIONDIANNE FIGLEWICZ LATTEMANN; Fiscal Year: 2010..effects of insulin and leptin are independent of their chronic effects to decrease food intake and regulate body weight. Our recent studies demonstrate that both the medial hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the ventral ..
- DNA Methylation Profiles in a Polygenic Mouse Model of Diet-Induced ObesityJan Bressler; Fiscal Year: 2007..Although the results of twin studies and adoption studies provide strong support for a genetic influence on body weight, mutations causing obesity are rare in the population and major genes contributing to common obesity have not ..
- Response to and signals of caloric restriction and intermittent feeding regimensMarc Hellerstein; Fiscal Year: 2009..First, a life-time of food deprivation and reduced body weight is not practical for most people; and, second, it has not been easy to identify the underlying metabolic and ..
- Response to and signals of caloric restriction and intermittent feeding regimensMARC KOPEL HELLERSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010..First, a life-time of food deprivation and reduced body weight is not practical for most people;and, second, it has not been easy to identify the underlying metabolic and ..
- Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced weight loss: neural mechanismsChuanfeng Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009..CRHR) signaling attenuates BDNF-inhibited feeding; and 3) chronic (14 d) injection of BDNF reduces feeding and body weight long-term and increases proliferation of newborn cells in the region...
- Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced weight loss: neural mechanismsChuanfeng Wang; Fiscal Year: 2010..CRHR) signaling attenuates BDNF-inhibited feeding;and 3) chronic (14 d) injection of BDNF reduces feeding and body weight long-term and increases proliferation of newborn cells in the region...
- PHOTOPERIODIC CONTROL OF OBESITYTimothy Bartness; Fiscal Year: 1991..The seasonal changes in body weight in Syrian (Mesocricetus auratus) and Siberian (Phodopus sungorus sungorus) hamsters are reflected entirely as ..
- Food Rheology and Exercise in Aging HumansWAYNE CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2009Human aging is often associated with compromised regulation of energy balance and inappropriate body weight and body composition...
- NUTRITION, LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE AND BODY WEIGHT REGULATIONRobert Eckel; Fiscal Year: 1992..in this proposal is to understand how the tissue-dependent relation of LPL by macronutrients relates to body weight maintenance...
- Analytical Tools for Optimizing Neurorehabilitation of GaitW Selbie; Fiscal Year: 2006....
- Leptin in Human Energy and Neuroendocrine HomeostasisRudolph Leibel; Fiscal Year: 2006..Energy and neuroendocrine homeostastic systems are altered during the maintenance of a reduced body weight in a manner that favors the regain of lost weight; 2...
- Examination of mechanisms (E-MECHANIC) of exercise-induced weight compensationCORBY K contact MARTIN; Fiscal Year: 2010High body weight is associated with increased risk for hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, stroke, and coronary heart disease...
- Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight by GLP-1ROGER REIDELBERGER; Fiscal Year: 2009..In rodents, GLP-1 potently reduces food intake and body weight when given systemically or into the brain, and administration of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) ..
- Exercise, Breast Cancer Prevention, and MechanismsHenry Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2009..mammary carcinogenesis and that are dependent on PA intensity and duration, and independent of differences in body weight. Three specific aims are proposed:1) How does PA intensity inhibit the carcinogenic process? A range of PA ..
- Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight by GLP-1ROGER REIDELBERGER; Fiscal Year: 2007..In rodents, GLP-1 potently reduces food intake and body weight when given systemically or into the brain, and administration of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) ..
- INTERACTIONS OF LEPTIN AND CENTRAL SEROTONIN SYSTEMSJoel Elmquist; Fiscal Year: 2004DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from the Investigator's Abstract) In the United States today aberrant food intake and body weight regulation is prevalent and is manifested by extremes that include obesity and anorexia nervosa...
- Smart Knee BraceKatherine Rudolph; Fiscal Year: 2005..Currently, therapists can begin rehabilitation of walking by using lower extremity braces or body weight supported treadmill training to support the weak limb...
- LEPTIN ACTION ON HYPOTHALAMIC PEPTIDES GOVERNING FEEDINGAbhiram Sahu; Fiscal Year: 2001The goal of this project is to understand the neurobiological basis of food intake and body weight regulation...