Genomes and Genes
Summary: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Publications302 found, 100 shown here
- Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissueStuart P Weisberg
Division of Moleuclar Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Clin Invest 112:1796-808. 2003..Adipose tissue macrophage numbers increase in obesity and participate in inflammatory pathways that are activated in adipose tissues of obese individuals...
- Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistanceHaiyan Xu
Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
J Clin Invest 112:1821-30. 2003..We propose that obesity-related insulin resistance is, at least in part, a chronic inflammatory disease initiated in adipose tissue...
- Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulationCristen J Willer
Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits Consortium
Nat Genet 41:25-34. 2009..Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity...
- Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammalsJ M Friedman
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
Nature 395:763-70. 1998..Leptin also signals nutritional status to several other physiological systems and modulates their function. Here we review the role of leptin in the control of body weight and its relevance to the pathogenesis of obesity.
- Central nervous system control of food intake and body weightG J Morton
Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
Nature 443:289-95. 2006..This new information provides a biological context within which to consider the global obesity epidemic and identifies numerous potential avenues for therapeutic intervention and future research...
- Genome-wide association yields new sequence variants at seven loci that associate with measures of obesityGudmar Thorleifsson
deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland
Nat Genet 41:18-24. 2009..6 x 10(-7). This includes previously identified variants close to or in the FTO, MC4R, BDNF and SH2B1 genes, in addition to variants at seven loci not previously connected with obesity...
- Inactivation of the Fto gene protects from obesityJulia Fischer
Institute for Animal Developmental and Molecular Biology, Heinrich Heine University, Universitatsstr 1, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
Nature 458:894-8. 2009..Taken together, these experiments provide, to our knowledge, the first direct demonstration that Fto is functionally involved in energy homeostasis by the control of energy expenditure...
- AMP-kinase regulates food intake by responding to hormonal and nutrient signals in the hypothalamusYasuhiko Minokoshi
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nature 428:569-74. 2004..Dominant negative AMPK expression in the hypothalamus is sufficient to reduce food intake and body weight, whereas constitutively active AMPK increases both...
- A general model for the origin of allometric scaling laws in biologyG B West
Theoretical Division, T 8, Mail Stop B285, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
Science 276:122-6. 1997..More generally, the model predicts structural and functional properties of vertebrate cardiovascular and respiratory systems, plant vascular systems, insect tracheal tubes, and other distribution networks...
- Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activationMitsuhiro Watanabe
Institut de Génétique et Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch, France
Nature 439:484-9. 2006..The BA-TGR5-cAMP-D2 signalling pathway is therefore a crucial mechanism for fine-tuning energy homeostasis that can be targeted to improve metabolic control...
- Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traitsAngelo Scuteri
Unità Operativa Geriatria, Istituto per la Patologia Endocrina e Metabolica, Rome, Italy
PLoS Genet 3:e115. 2007..common genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with substantial changes in BMI, hip circumference, and body weight. These changes could have a significant impact on the risk of obesity-related morbidity in the general ..
- Being big or growing fast: systematic review of size and growth in infancy and later obesityJanis Baird
MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD
BMJ 331:929. 2005..To assess the association between infant size or growth and subsequent obesity and to determine if any association has been stable over time...
- A mouse model for the metabolic effects of the human fat mass and obesity associated FTO geneChris Church
MRC Harwell, Metabolism and Inflammation, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Harwell, UK
PLoS Genet 5:e1000599. 2009..Our model suggests that a search for human coding mutations in FTO may be informative and that inhibition of FTO activity is a possible target for the treatment of morbid obesity...
- The disease burden associated with overweight and obesityA Must
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
JAMA 282:1523-9. 1999..Overweight and obesity are increasing dramatically in the United States and most likely contribute substantially to the burden of chronic health conditions...
- Genetic and environmental factors in relative body weight and human adiposityH H Maes
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
Behav Genet 27:325-51. 1997..These results are consistent with other studies in suggesting that genetic factors play a significant role in the causes of individual differences in relative body weight and human adiposity.
- Fibroblast growth factor 21 reverses hepatic steatosis, increases energy expenditure, and improves insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese miceJing Xu
Department of Metabolic Disorders, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, California, USA
Diabetes 58:250-9. 2009..The aims of the current study are to evaluate the role of FGF21 in energy metabolism and to provide mechanistic insights into its glucose and lipid-lowering effects in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) model...
- Loss of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 function protects mice against adiposityJames M Ntambi
Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11482-6. 2002..These observations suggest that a consequence of SCD1 deficiency is an activation of lipid oxidation in addition to reduced triglyceride synthesis and storage...
- Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesityRuth J F Loos
MRC Epidemiology Unit, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
Nat Genet 40:768-75. 2008....
- Life course variations in the associations between FTO and MC4R gene variants and body sizeRebecca Hardy
MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, 33 Bedford Place, London, UK
Hum Mol Genet 19:545-52. 2010..Studies of the aetiology of obesity spanning different age groups may identify age-specific determinants of weight gain...
- Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistanceArnaud Chiolero
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP, University of Lausanne, 17 rue du Bugnon, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
Am J Clin Nutr 87:801-9. 2008Our aim was to critically evaluate the relations among smoking, body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance as reported in the literature...
- Gut hormone PYY(3-36) physiologically inhibits food intakeRachel L Batterham
Imperial College Faculty of Medicine at Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
Nature 418:650-4. 2002..Thus, postprandial elevation of PYY(3-36) may act through the arcuate nucleus Y2R to inhibit feeding in a gut-hypothalamic pathway...
- Active school transport, physical activity levels and body weight of children and youth: a systematic reviewGuy E J Faulkner
Faculty of Physical Education and Health, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
Prev Med 48:3-8. 2009..Before implementing such solutions, it is important to demonstrate that active school transport is associated with health-related outcomes...
- Nocturnal hypertension in mice consuming a high fructose dietVera Farah
Boonshoft School of Medicine of Wright State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dayton, OH 45401, USA
Auton Neurosci 130:41-50. 2006..CONCLUSION: A high fructose diet in mice produced nocturnal hypertension and autonomic imbalance which may be related to activation of sympathetic and angiotensin systems...
- Metabolic impact of sex hormones on obesityLynda M Brown
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27412, USA
Brain Res 1350:77-85. 2010..others have previously demonstrated that activation of ERalpha by estrogens reduces food intake and increases body weight. This review focuses on the relative contribution of activation of ERalpha by estrogens in the ARC and the VL ..
- Genome-wide effects of long-term divergent selectionAnna M Johansson
Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
PLoS Genet 6:e1001188. 2010..a single trait selection experiment, where 50 generations of selection have resulted in a 9-fold difference in body weight. Analyses of nearly 60,000 SNP markers showed that the effects of selection on the genome are dramatic...
- Oleylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight through activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alphaJin Fu
Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 4625, USA
Nature 425:90-3. 2003Oleylethanolamide (OEA) is a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety and body weight. Although structurally related to the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, OEA does not bind to cannabinoid receptors and its molecular targets ..
- Beneficial effects of subcutaneous fat transplantation on metabolismThien T Tran
Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Cell Metab 7:410-20. 2008..The group with SC fat transplanted into the VIS cavity exhibited decreased body weight, total fat mass, and glucose and insulin levels...
- Long-lasting suppression of hippocampal cell proliferation and impaired cognitive performance by methotrexate in the ratRiejanne Seigers
Department of Behavioral Physiology, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands
Behav Brain Res 186:168-75. 2008..5-300 mg/kg). Animals treated with MTX also showed a dose-dependent transient decrease in body weight gain. In the second study, the effect of MTX (250 mg/kg) on two spatial learning tasks was examined...
- Bioelectrical impedance analysis--part I: review of principles and methodsUrsula G Kyle
Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland
Clin Nutr 23:1226-43. 2004..ESPEN guidelines for the clinical use of BIA measurements are described in a paper to appear soon in Clinical Nutrition...
- Hypothalamic thyroid hormone catabolism acts as a gatekeeper for the seasonal control of body weight and reproductionPerry Barrett
Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Buckburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, United Kingdom
Endocrinology 148:3608-17. 2007..ependyma of the third ventricle, prevented the onset of short-day physiology: hamsters maintained a long-day body weight phenotype and failed to undergo testicular and epididymal regression...
- Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndromeShigetada Furukawa
Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Organismal Biosystems, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
J Clin Invest 114:1752-61. 2004....
- Role of brain insulin receptor in control of body weight and reproductionJ C Bruning
Klinik II und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin and Center of Molecular Medicine ZMMK der Universität zu Köln, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50931 Cologne, Germany
Science 289:2122-5. 2000..Thus, IR signaling in the CNS plays an important role in regulation of energy disposal, fuel metabolism, and reproduction...
- Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination SurveyR E Andersen
Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
JAMA 279:938-42. 1998..Physical inactivity contributes to weight gain in adults, but whether this relationship is true for children of different ethnic groups is not well established...
- Fibroblast growth factor 21 corrects obesity in miceTamer Coskun
Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
Endocrinology 149:6018-27. 2008..report that systemic administration of FGF21 for 2 wk in diet-induced obese and ob/ob mice lowered their mean body weight by 20% predominantly via a reduction in adiposity...
- Fibroblast growth factor 19 increases metabolic rate and reverses dietary and leptin-deficient diabetesLing Fu
Genentech Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
Endocrinology 145:2594-603. 2004..Thus, FGF19 is able to increase metabolic rate concurrently with an increase in fatty acid oxidation...
- Validity of self-reported height and weight in 4808 EPIC-Oxford participantsElizabeth A Spencer
Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, The Radcliffe Infirmary, UK
Public Health Nutr 5:561-5. 2002....
- Effects of size and temperature on metabolic rateJ F Gillooly
Department of Biology, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
Science 293:2248-51. 2001..Temperature and body size are primary determinants of biological time and ecological roles...
- Extravascular lung water indexed to predicted body weight is a novel predictor of intensive care unit mortality in patients with acute lung injuryThelma R Craig
Regional Intensive Care Unit, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, UK
Crit Care Med 38:114-20. 2010..Traditionally, extravascular lung water has been indexed to actual body weight (mL/kg)...
- Adoptive transfer of regulatory NKT lymphocytes ameliorates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and glucose intolerance in ob/ob mice and is associated with intrahepatic CD8 trappingE Elinav
Liver Unit, Department of Medicine, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical Centre, Jerusalem, Israel
J Pathol 209:121-8. 2006..The results further support a role for regulatory NKT lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the leptin-deficient murine model...
- Diet-induced obese mice develop peripheral, but not central, resistance to leptinM van Heek
Department of CNS and Cardiovascular Research, Schering Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, USA
J Clin Invest 99:385-90. 1997..Serum leptin increased in proportion to body weight (P < 0.00001)...
- Maternal obesity is necessary for programming effect of high-fat diet on offspringChristy L White
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296:R1464-72. 2009..These data suggest that maternal obesity exerts an independent effect on offspring body weight that is of similar magnitude as the effect of the offspring's adult diet...
- Epistasis and the release of genetic variation during long-term selectionOrjan Carlborg
Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics, Uppsala University, Box 598, SE 75124 Uppsala, Sweden
Nat Genet 38:418-20. 2006..The interactions in this radial network mediate a considerably larger selection response than predicted by a single-locus model...
- Genetic analysis of an F(2) intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for body-weightPer Wahlberg
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, BMC, Uppsala, Sweden
BMC Genomics 10:248. 2009..Furthermore, we utilized genotype data from ~13,000 SNPs to search the genome for potential selective sweeps that have occurred in the selected lines...
- The regulation of seasonal changes in food intake and body weightF J P Ebling
School of Biomedical Sciences and Institute of Neuroscience, University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham, UK
J Neuroendocrinol 20:827-33. 2008Seasonal rhythms of body weight, reflecting altered food intake, energy storage and expenditure, are a common feature of mammals inhabiting temperate and arctic latitudes...
- betaAR signaling required for diet-induced thermogenesis and obesity resistanceEric S Bachman
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Science 297:843-5. 2002..These findings establish that betaARs are necessary for diet-induced thermogenesis and that this efferent pathway plays a critical role in the body's defense against diet-induced obesity...
- Role for stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in leptin-mediated weight lossPaul Cohen
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Center for Studies in Physics and Biology, Rogosin Institute, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Science 297:240-3. 2002..These findings suggest that down-regulation of SCD-1 is an important component of leptin's metabolic actions...
- Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescentsNancy F Butte
USDA ARS Children s Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
J Nutr 137:153-7. 2007....
- Maternal obesity at conception programs obesity in the offspringKartik Shankar
Arkansas Children s Nutrition Center, 1212 Marshall Street, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294:R528-38. 2008..day (15% excess calories/day) compared with 187 kcal/kg(3/4) per day for 3 wk caused substantial increase in body weight gain, adiposity, serum insulin, leptin, and insulin resistance...
- Abnormal glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle-specific PGC-1alpha knockout mice reveals skeletal muscle-pancreatic beta cell crosstalkChristoph Handschin
Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
J Clin Invest 117:3463-74. 2007..These data clearly illustrate a causal role for muscle PGC-1alpha in maintenance of glucose homeostasis and highlight an unexpected cytokine-mediated crosstalk between skeletal muscle and pancreatic islets...
- The validity of obesity based on self-reported weight and height: Implications for population studiesMaria Nyholm
Skaraborg Institute, Skovde, Sweden
Obesity (Silver Spring) 15:197-208. 2007..To validate self-reported information on weight and height in an adult population and to find a useful algorithm to assess the prevalence of obesity based on self-reported information...
- Effect of metformin on life span and on the development of spontaneous mammary tumors in HER-2/neu transgenic miceVladimir N Anisimov
Department of Carcinogenesis and Oncogerontology, N N Petrov Research Institute of Oncology, Pesochny 2, St Petersburg 197758, Russian Federation
Exp Gerontol 40:685-93. 2005..with metformin (100 mg/kg in drinking water) slightly decreased the food consumption but failed in reducing the body weight or temperature, slowed down the age-related rise in blood glucose and triglycerides level, as well as the age-..
- Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girlsGeorge P Nassis
Laboratory of Nutrition and Clinical Dietetics, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
Metabolism 54:1472-9. 2005..min/mL before and after intervention, respectively; P=.03). Insulin sensitivity was improved without changes in body weight (pre-intervention, 67.9+/-14.5 kg; post-intervention, 68.3+/-14.0 kg) or percent body fat (pre-intervention, 41...
- Prenatal exposure to a low-protein diet programs disordered regulation of lipid metabolism in the aging ratAml Erhuma
School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292:E1702-14. 2007..The data implicate altered expression of SREBP-1c and ChREBP as key mediators of the programmed phenotype, but the basis of the switch in metabolic status that occurred between 9 and 18 mo of age is, as yet, unidentified...
- Prevalence and trends of overweight among preschool children in developing countriesM de Onis
Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, The World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
Am J Clin Nutr 72:1032-9. 2000..Obesity during childhood is a matter of growing concern. Several reports show increasing rates of obesity in developed countries, whereas the extent of the problem in developing countries remains unknown...
- Genetics of obesity in humansSadaf Farooqi
University Departments of Medicine and Clinical Biochemistry, Box 232, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, United Kingdom
Endocr Rev 27:710-18. 2006..obesity syndromes and discuss how far the characterization of these patients has informed our understanding of the physiological role of leptin and the melanocortins in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.
- Programming of body composition by early growth and nutritionJonathan C K Wells
Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
Proc Nutr Soc 66:423-34. 2007....
- Incretin secretion in relation to meal size and body weight in healthy subjects and people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitusT Vilsbøll
Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2706-13. 2003....
- An obesity-associated FTO gene variant and increased energy intake in childrenJoanne E Cecil
Bute Medical School, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, United Kingdom
N Engl J Med 359:2558-66. 2008..Variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has provided the most robust associations with common obesity to date. However, the role of FTO variants in modulating specific components of energy balance is unknown...
- NPY/AgRP neurons are essential for feeding in adult mice but can be ablated in neonatesSerge Luquet
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Box 357370, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Science 310:683-5. 2005..Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) are thought to be critical regulators of feeding behavior and body weight. To determine whether NPY/AgRP neurons are essential in mice, we targeted the human diphtheria toxin receptor ..
- Persistent improvement of type 2 diabetes in the Goto-Kakizaki rat model by expansion of the beta-cell mass during the prediabetic period with glucagon-like peptide-1 or exendin-4Cécile Tourrel
LPPN, CNRS UMR 7059, Universite Paris 7, Paris, France
Diabetes 51:1443-52. 2002..Under these conditions, GLP-1 represents a unique tool because of its beta-cell replenishing effect in spontaneously diabetic rodents. It may prove to be an invaluable agent for the prevention of human type 2 diabetes...
- Interleukin-10-deficient mice develop chronic enterocolitisR Kuhn
Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany
Cell 75:263-74. 1993..These results indicate that the bowel inflammation in the mutants originates from uncontrolled immune responses stimulated by enteric antigens and that IL-10 is an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract...
- Leptin receptor signaling in POMC neurons is required for normal body weight homeostasisNina Balthasar
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Avenue RN, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Neuron 42:983-91. 2004..In summary, leptin receptors on POMC neurons are required but not solely responsible for leptin's regulation of body weight homeostasis.
- Circulating ghrelin is sensitive to changes in body weight during a diet and exercise program in normal-weight young womenH J Leidy
Noll Physiological Research Center and the Department of Kinesiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:2659-64. 2004..05). Changes in ghrelin were negatively correlated with changes in body weight (r = -0.61; P < 0.05)...
- STAT3 signalling is required for leptin regulation of energy balance but not reproductionSarah H Bates
Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, 1 Joslin Place, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nature 421:856-9. 2003..LRb-STAT3 signalling thus mediates the effects of leptin on melanocortin production and body energy homeostasis, whereas distinct LRb signals regulate NPY and the control of fertility, growth and glucose homeostasis...
- Allometric scaling of maximal metabolic rate in mammals: muscle aerobic capacity as determinant factorEwald R Weibel
Department of Anatomy, University of Berne, Buhlstrasse 26, CH 3000, Berne 9, Switzerland
Respir Physiol Neurobiol 140:115-32. 2004..We conclude that the scaling of maximal metabolic rate is explained by features and mechanisms different from those determining basal metabolic rate...
- Maternal perceptions of their child's weight status: the GENESIS studyYannis Manios
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, 70 El Venizelou Avenue, 17671 Kallithea, Athens, Greece
Public Health Nutr 12:1099-105. 2009..The objective of the present work was to quantify mothers' misclassification of pre-school children's weight status and to determine factors associated with the maternal misperception...
- Effects of exenatide and lifestyle modification on body weight and glucose tolerance in obese subjects with and without pre-diabetesJulio Rosenstock
Dallas Diabetes and Endocrine Center at Medical City, Dallas, Texas, USA
Diabetes Care 33:1173-5. 2010To assess the effects of exenatide on body weight and glucose tolerance in nondiabetic obese subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG).
- Healthy aging and where you live: community design relationships with physical activity and body weight in older AmericansLawrence Frank
School of Environmental Health and Community, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia
J Phys Act Health 7:S82-90. 2010..Suburban development patterns may impede physical activity (PA) and mobility and affect healthy aging. This paper investigates the relationships between neighborhood design and walking, driving, PA, and obesity in adults over age 65 years...
- Consumption of sugars and body weightM A van Baak
NUTRIM, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Obes Rev 10:9-23. 2009..Here we have reviewed the recent scientific literature on consumption of sugars and body weight. Main focus was on three questions: (i) What is the evidence that intake of dietary sugars is associated with ..
- Long-term individual housing in C57BL/6J and DBA/2 mice: assessment of behavioral consequencesV Voikar
Neuroscience Center and Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Genes Brain Behav 4:240-52. 2005..We conclude that individual housing has strong strain- and test-specific effects on emotional behavior and impairs memory in certain tasks...
- AMP-activated protein kinase: ancient energy gauge provides clues to modern understanding of metabolismBarbara B Kahn
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Cell Metab 1:15-25. 2005..It mediates effects of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, and possibly resistin) in regulating food intake, body weight, and glucose and lipid homeostasis...
- Sex differences in behavior and striatal ascorbate release in the 140 CAG knock-in mouse model of Huntington's diseaseJenelle L Dorner
Program in Neuroscience and Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
Behav Brain Res 178:90-7. 2007..Furthermore, sex differences observed in behavior and striatal AA release suggest sex-dependent variation in the phenotype and neuropathology of HD...
- Improved glycemic control and lipid profile and normalized fibrinolytic activity on a low-glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetic patientsA E Järvi
Clinical Nutrition Research Unit, Uppsala University, Sweden
Diabetes Care 22:10-8. 1999..To evaluate the effects of varying the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate-rich foods on metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients...
- Systematic review demonstrating that breakfast consumption influences body weight outcomes in children and adolescents in EuropeHania Szajewska
Department of Pediatrics, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50:113-9. 2010..We aimed to review the evidence on the effects of breakfast consumption on body weight outcomes in children and adolescents in Europe...
- Excess gains in weight and waist circumference associated with childbearing: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA)E P Gunderson
Kaiser Permanente Foundation Hospitals, Division of Research, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28:525-35. 2004..To examine the association of childbearing with weight and waist circumference (WC) changes, we compared women with and without pregnancies or births during follow-up...
- Sperm competition and reproductive mode influence sperm dimensions and structure among snakesMaximiliano Tourmente
Laboratorio de Biologia del Comportamiento, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba, Argentina
Evolution 63:2513-24. 2009..We conclude that the influence of sperm competition upon different sperm components varies between taxa, because their structure and function is different...
- Short-term, increasing dietary protein and fat moderately affect energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and uncoupling protein gene expression in ratsKlaus J Petzke
Groups of Stable Isotopes and of Energy Metabolism, German Institute of Human Nutrition in Potsdam Rehbrücke DIfE, D 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
J Nutr Biochem 18:400-7. 2007..A function of UCPs in energy balance and dissipating food energy was suggested. Future experiments are focused on the regulation of UCP gene expression by dietary protein, which could be important for body-weight management...
- Effects of body weight and alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivityQiwei X Paulson
Department of Nutritional Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas, USA
Nutr J 9:14. 2010..The aim of this study was to determine whether alcohol consumption and body weights affect overlapping metabolic pathways and to identify specific target genes that are regulated in these pathways...
- Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I treatment inhibits gluconeogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitusPatricia Pennisi
Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Betheda, MD 20892, USA
Endocrinology 147:2619-30. 2006..rhIGF-I treatment also increased body weight in MKR with concomitant changes in body composition such as a decrease in fat mass and an increase in lean body ..
- No change in calculated creatinine clearance after tenofovir initiation among Thai patientsAngele Gayet-Ageron
University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
J Antimicrob Chemother 59:1034-7. 2007Thai patients have a lower average body weight than patients from western Europe or the USA...
- Various dietary fats differentially change the gene expression of neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation in ratsB Dziedzic
Department of Cell to Cell Communication, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
J Neuroendocrinol 19:364-73. 2007..The present study demonstrates that various forms of dietary fat differentially change the expression of neuropeptide genes involved in energy homeostasis...
- Effect of chronic consumption of almonds on body weight in healthy humansJames Hollis
Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA
Br J Nutr 98:651-6. 2007..Ten weeks of daily almond consumption did not cause a change in body weight. This was predominantly due to compensation for the energy contained in the almonds through reduced food intake ..
- Chronic central infusion of ghrelin increases hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related protein mRNA levels and body weight in ratsJ Kamegai
Department of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
Diabetes 50:2438-43. 2001..However, the effect of chronic infusion of ghrelin on food consumption and body weight and their possible mechanisms have not been elucidated...
- Twenty-year changes in the prevalence of obesity among Finnish adultsM Lahti-Koski
National Institute for Health and Welfare THL, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Obes Rev 11:171-6. 2010..A comprehensive public health strategy targeting the whole population and especially those with low education is urgently needed to halt the obesity epidemic...
- Early macronutrient intake and overweight at five years of ageS Scaglioni
Department of Paediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24:777-81. 2000..To examine the influence of the macronutrient intake in early life on the development of overweight in children...
- Ghrelin-leptin tango in body-weight regulationDavid E Cummings
Gastroenterology 124:1532-5. 2003
- Effect of Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame) on the development of cerebrovascular diseases in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive ratsKatsumi Ikeda
School of Human Envionmental Sciences, Mukogawa Women s University, Nishinomiya, Japan
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 30:44-8. 2003..It is possible that fucoxanthin in Wakame may have a preventive effect against ischaemic neuronal cell death seen in SHRSP with stroke...
- Early undernutrition leads to long-lasting reductions in body weight and adiposity whereas increased intake increases cardiac fibrosis in male ratsElena Velkoska
Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010, Australia
J Nutr 138:1622-7. 2008..examined both short- (24 d) and long- (16 wk) term effects of early postnatal over- and underfeeding in rats on body weight, body composition, plasma hormones, adiposity markers, and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y content...
- A longitudinal examination of patterns in girls' weight concerns and body dissatisfaction from ages 5 to 9 yearsKirsten Krahnstoever Davison
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, S 110 Henderson Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Int J Eat Disord 33:320-32. 2003....
- Chicken meat quality: genetic variability and relationship with growth and muscle characteristicsElisabeth Le Bihan-Duval
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique INRA, UR83 Recherches Avicoles, F 37380 Nouzilly, France
BMC Genet 9:53. 2008..The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers...
- Motivational "spill-over" during weight control: increased self-determination and exercise intrinsic motivation predict eating self-regulationJutta Mata
Department of Exercise and Health, Faculty of Human Kinetics, Technical University of Lisbon, Cruz Quebrada, Portugal
Health Psychol 28:709-16. 2009..The authors further investigated whether general, treatment-related, and exercise motivation underlie the relation between increased exercise and improved eating regulation...
- Hypothalamic pathways underlying the endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral effects of leptinJ K Elmquist
Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, 325 Research North, 99 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Physiol Behav 74:703-8. 2001..Leptin decreases body weight in part by activating the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in increased thermogenesis and energy ..
- Patterns of growth associated with the timing of adiposity reboundSheila M Williams
Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:335-41. 2009..12 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.13) and 3.32 (95% CI: 1.46, 7.54). Thus, early rebound is associated with increased depositions of fat in middle childhood, and risks associated with early rebound persist at least until early adulthood...
- Altered serotonin receptor expression is associated with depression-related behavior in the R6/1 transgenic mouse model of Huntington's diseaseTerence Y C Pang
Howard Florey Institute, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Hum Mol Genet 18:753-66. 2009..Our findings implicate altered serotonergic signaling as the basis for the development of depression during the preclinical stages of HD...
- Leukocyte telomere dynamics and human hematopoietic stem cell kinetics during somatic growthIgor Sidorov
Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands
Exp Hematol 37:514-24. 2009..A central question in stem cell research is knowing the frequency of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) replication in vivo...
- Maternal macronutrient and energy intakes in pregnancy and offspring intake at 10 y: exploring parental comparisons and prenatal effectsMarie Jo A Brion
Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
Am J Clin Nutr 91:748-56. 2010..Few prospective dietary studies have explored this relation...
- QTL for body weight, morphometric traits and stress response in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labraxC Massault
Division of Genetics and Genomics, Roslin Institute and Royal Dick School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS, UK
Anim Genet 41:337-45. 2010..2122 offspring from natural mating between 57 parents (22 males, 34 females and one missing) phenotyped for body weight, eight morphometric traits and cortisol levels, had been previously assigned to parents based on genotypes of ..
- Independent associations of body-size adjusted fat mass and fat-free mass with the metabolic syndrome in ChineseJing Wang
Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
Ann Hum Biol 36:110-21. 2009..Excess fat leads to adverse health outcomes. Most previous studies investigating body fatness using BMI or fat percentage, which contain both fat mass and fat-free mass, were not able to differentiate the exposure...
- The hypothalamus and the control of energy homeostasis: different circuits, different purposesG Williams
Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Duncan Building, Daulby Street, L69 3GA, Liverpool, UK
Physiol Behav 74:683-701. 2001..Orexin neurones are stimulated by hypoglycaemia partly via the NTS and inhibited by food ingestion. These neurones may therefore be involved in the severe hyperphagia of hypoglycaemia and short-term control of feeding...
- 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol prevents and ameliorates symptoms of experimental murine inflammatory bowel diseaseM T Cantorna
Department of Nutrition, College of Health and Human Development, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
J Nutr 130:2648-52. 2000..1, 25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol treatment (0.2 microgram/d) for as little as 2 wk blocked the progression and ameliorated (P < 0.05) symptoms in IL-10 KO mice with already established IBD...
- Low-dose leptin reverses skeletal muscle, autonomic, and neuroendocrine adaptations to maintenance of reduced weightMichael Rosenbaum
Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Clin Invest 115:3579-86. 2005Maintenance of a reduced body weight is accompanied by decreased energy expenditure that is due largely to increased skeletal muscle work efficiency...
- Hypothalamic SIRT1 and Energy BalanceEduardo A Nillni; Fiscal Year: 2010..siRNA mediated knock down of Sirt1 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus decreases food intake and body weight gain...
- Arcuate nucleus glutamatergic neurons modulate energy homeostasisAnthony N van den Pol; Fiscal Year: 2010..cells should give us a better appreciation of the cellular mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis and body weight regulation, and should give us new insight into the potential treatment of obesity through those neurons that ..
- Obesity: neural control of body weight and metabolismBarry E Levin; Fiscal Year: 2010..in hypothalamic leptin receptor transcription, binding and downstream signaling pathways, food intake and body weight gain on chow and HE diet, carcass composition, expression of various mRNA and protein species will be used to ..
- Maternal Hyperinsulinemia and Fetal ProgrammingMulchand Patel; Fiscal Year: 2009..The hypothalamic melanocortin system is considered to play a critical role in the regulation of appetite and body weight homeostasis; it is hypothesized that aberrations in this system contribute significantly towards the ..
- Maternal Hyperinsulinemia and Fetal ProgrammingMulchand S Patel; Fiscal Year: 2010..The hypothalamic melanocortin system is considered to play a critical role in the regulation of appetite and body weight homeostasis;it is hypothesized that aberrations in this system contribute significantly towards the development ..
- Phosphodiesterase-3B signaling in the Hypothalamus and ObesityAbhiram Sahu; Fiscal Year: 2010..secreted primarily by fat cells and acts centrally, particularly in the hypothalamus, to reduce food intake and body weight (wt)...
- Development of Leptin-Sensitive Hypothalamic PathwaysRichard Simerly; Fiscal Year: 2005..Leptin signals are conveyed via the ARH to other brain regions involved in the regulation of body weight, such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), an important component of the final common ..
- Nutritional Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in the Multiethnic CohortGertraud Maskarinec; Fiscal Year: 2007..diabetes and Japanese-Americans also suffer a disproportionate rate of the disease despite their relatively low body weight. The importance of body weight and nutritional composition appears to differ by ethnic background...
- DIETARY COMPOSITION, OBESITY, AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISKERNST SCHAEFER; Fiscal Year: 2003..to examine the effects of three diets meeting National Cholesterol Education program Step 2 diet criteria on body weight and composition and on CHD risk factors (LDL C, HDL C, remnant lipoprotein C, Lp(a) C, insulin, glycosylated ..
- NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF PEPTIDE INDUCED SATIETYRobert C Ritter; Fiscal Year: 2010..intake and to appreciate how these substrates are involved in the physiology and pathology of food intake and body weight. CCK is a peptide hormone secreted by enteroendcrine "I cells" of the upper small intestine, while GLP-1 is ..
- BEHAVIORAL PHYSIOLOGY OF BODY WEIGHT REGULATIONDIANNE FIGLEWICZ LATTEMANN; Fiscal Year: 2010..effects of insulin and leptin are independent of their chronic effects to decrease food intake and regulate body weight. Our recent studies demonstrate that both the medial hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the ventral ..
- DNA Methylation Profiles in a Polygenic Mouse Model of Diet-Induced ObesityJan Bressler; Fiscal Year: 2007..Although the results of twin studies and adoption studies provide strong support for a genetic influence on body weight, mutations causing obesity are rare in the population and major genes contributing to common obesity have not ..
- Response to and signals of caloric restriction and intermittent feeding regimensMarc Hellerstein; Fiscal Year: 2009..First, a life-time of food deprivation and reduced body weight is not practical for most people; and, second, it has not been easy to identify the underlying metabolic and ..
- Response to and signals of caloric restriction and intermittent feeding regimensMARC KOPEL HELLERSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010..First, a life-time of food deprivation and reduced body weight is not practical for most people;and, second, it has not been easy to identify the underlying metabolic and ..
- Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced weight loss: neural mechanismsChuanfeng Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009..CRHR) signaling attenuates BDNF-inhibited feeding; and 3) chronic (14 d) injection of BDNF reduces feeding and body weight long-term and increases proliferation of newborn cells in the region...
- PHOTOPERIODIC CONTROL OF OBESITYTimothy Bartness; Fiscal Year: 1991..The seasonal changes in body weight in Syrian (Mesocricetus auratus) and Siberian (Phodopus sungorus sungorus) hamsters are reflected entirely as ..
- Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced weight loss: neural mechanismsChuanfeng Wang; Fiscal Year: 2010..CRHR) signaling attenuates BDNF-inhibited feeding;and 3) chronic (14 d) injection of BDNF reduces feeding and body weight long-term and increases proliferation of newborn cells in the region...
- Food Rheology and Exercise in Aging HumansWAYNE CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2009Human aging is often associated with compromised regulation of energy balance and inappropriate body weight and body composition...
- NUTRITION, LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE AND BODY WEIGHT REGULATIONRobert Eckel; Fiscal Year: 1992..in this proposal is to understand how the tissue-dependent relation of LPL by macronutrients relates to body weight maintenance...
- Analytical Tools for Optimizing Neurorehabilitation of GaitW Selbie; Fiscal Year: 2006....
- Leptin in Human Energy and Neuroendocrine HomeostasisRudolph Leibel; Fiscal Year: 2006..Energy and neuroendocrine homeostastic systems are altered during the maintenance of a reduced body weight in a manner that favors the regain of lost weight; 2...
- Examination of mechanisms (E-MECHANIC) of exercise-induced weight compensationCORBY K contact MARTIN; Fiscal Year: 2010High body weight is associated with increased risk for hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, stroke, and coronary heart disease...
- Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight by GLP-1ROGER REIDELBERGER; Fiscal Year: 2007..In rodents, GLP-1 potently reduces food intake and body weight when given systemically or into the brain, and administration of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) ..
- Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight by GLP-1ROGER REIDELBERGER; Fiscal Year: 2009..In rodents, GLP-1 potently reduces food intake and body weight when given systemically or into the brain, and administration of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) ..
- Exercise, Breast Cancer Prevention, and MechanismsHenry Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2009..mammary carcinogenesis and that are dependent on PA intensity and duration, and independent of differences in body weight. Three specific aims are proposed:1) How does PA intensity inhibit the carcinogenic process? A range of PA ..
- INTERACTIONS OF LEPTIN AND CENTRAL SEROTONIN SYSTEMSJoel Elmquist; Fiscal Year: 2004DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from the Investigator's Abstract) In the United States today aberrant food intake and body weight regulation is prevalent and is manifested by extremes that include obesity and anorexia nervosa...
- Smart Knee BraceKatherine Rudolph; Fiscal Year: 2005..Currently, therapists can begin rehabilitation of walking by using lower extremity braces or body weight supported treadmill training to support the weak limb...
- LEPTIN ACTION ON HYPOTHALAMIC PEPTIDES GOVERNING FEEDINGAbhiram Sahu; Fiscal Year: 2001The goal of this project is to understand the neurobiological basis of food intake and body weight regulation...