aids dementia complex

Summary

Summary: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi HIV-1 infection and AIDS: consequences for the central nervous system
    M Kaul
    Center for Neuroscience and Aging Research, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell Death Differ 12:878-92. 2005
  2. ncbi Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
    A Antinori
    Clinical Department, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico IRCCS, Rome, Italy
    Neurology 69:1789-99. 2007
  3. pmc HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: differences in rates, nature, and predictors
    Robert K Heaton
    University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    J Neurovirol 17:3-16. 2011
  4. ncbi The neuropathogenesis of AIDS
    Francisco González-Scarano
    Department of Neurology, 3 West Gates, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia 19104 4283, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 5:69-81. 2005
  5. pmc Neurocognitive impairment among HIV-positive individuals in Botswana: a pilot study
    Kathy Lawler
    Center for AIDS Research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
    J Int AIDS Soc 13:15. 2010
  6. pmc Monocyte activation markers in cerebrospinal fluid associated with impaired neurocognitive testing in advanced HIV infection
    Anupa Kamat
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 60:234-43. 2012
  7. pmc CD4 nadir is a predictor of HIV neurocognitive impairment in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy
    Ronald J Ellis
    University of California, San Diego, USA
    AIDS 25:1747-51. 2011
  8. ncbi Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia
    M Kaul
    Center for Neuroscience and Aging Research, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 410:988-94. 2001
  9. pmc HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system occurs in two distinct cell types
    Gretja Schnell
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002286. 2011
  10. ncbi Neurocognitive dysfunction in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era
    Nomvuyo Z Mothobi
    Department of Neurology and HIV Medicine, St Vincent s Hospital, St Vincent s Centre for Applied Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 25:4-9. 2012

Detail Information

Publications267 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi HIV-1 infection and AIDS: consequences for the central nervous system
    M Kaul
    Center for Neuroscience and Aging Research, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell Death Differ 12:878-92. 2005
    ..This review will discuss recently uncovered pathologic neuroimmune and degenerative mechanisms contributing to neuronal damage induced by HIV-1 and potential approaches for development of future therapeutic intervention...
  2. ncbi Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
    A Antinori
    Clinical Department, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico IRCCS, Rome, Italy
    Neurology 69:1789-99. 2007
    ..An algorithm is proposed to assist in standardized diagnostic classification of HAND...
  3. pmc HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: differences in rates, nature, and predictors
    Robert K Heaton
    University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    J Neurovirol 17:3-16. 2011
    ..Clinical trials targeting HAND prevention should specifically examine timing of ART initiation...
  4. ncbi The neuropathogenesis of AIDS
    Francisco González-Scarano
    Department of Neurology, 3 West Gates, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia 19104 4283, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 5:69-81. 2005
    ..Here, we discuss the studies that are being carried out to determine the respective contributions of infection, and monocyte and macrophage activation, to disease progression...
  5. pmc Neurocognitive impairment among HIV-positive individuals in Botswana: a pilot study
    Kathy Lawler
    Center for AIDS Research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
    J Int AIDS Soc 13:15. 2010
    ....
  6. pmc Monocyte activation markers in cerebrospinal fluid associated with impaired neurocognitive testing in advanced HIV infection
    Anupa Kamat
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 60:234-43. 2012
    ..To examine relationships of monocyte activation markers to HAND of varying severity, we compared plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker levels with neurocognitive test scores in HIV+ subjects...
  7. pmc CD4 nadir is a predictor of HIV neurocognitive impairment in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy
    Ronald J Ellis
    University of California, San Diego, USA
    AIDS 25:1747-51. 2011
    ..The present study evaluated the probability of neuropsychological impairment (NPI) and HAND as a function of CD4 nadir in an HIV-positive cohort...
  8. ncbi Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia
    M Kaul
    Center for Neuroscience and Aging Research, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 410:988-94. 2001
    ..Recent advances in understanding the signalling pathways mediating these events offer hope for therapeutic intervention...
  9. pmc HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system occurs in two distinct cell types
    Gretja Schnell
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002286. 2011
    ..These results suggest that HIV-1 variants in CSF can provide information about viral replication and evolution in the CNS, events that are likely to play an important role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
  10. ncbi Neurocognitive dysfunction in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era
    Nomvuyo Z Mothobi
    Department of Neurology and HIV Medicine, St Vincent s Hospital, St Vincent s Centre for Applied Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 25:4-9. 2012
    ....
  11. ncbi Extensive astrocyte infection is prominent in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia
    Melissa J Churchill
    Centre for Virology, The Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Ann Neurol 66:253-8. 2009
    ..Our data indicate that astrocytes can be extensively infected with HIV, and suggest an important role for HIV-infected astrocytes in HIV neuropathogenesis...
  12. pmc HIV-1 effects on neuropsychological performance in a resource-limited country, Zambia
    Adelina Holguin
    Nebraska Center for Virology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 68583 0900, USA
    AIDS Behav 15:1895-901. 2011
    ..Larger studies that will accommodate gender differences and age are necessary to generate appropriate norms in Zambia in order to better assess the prevalence of HAND in the developing country setting...
  13. ncbi The International HIV Dementia Scale: a new rapid screening test for HIV dementia
    Ned C Sacktor
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    AIDS 19:1367-74. 2005
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a new screening test for HIV dementia, the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) in cohorts from the US and Uganda...
  14. ncbi Validity of the International HIV Dementia Scale in South Africa
    John A Joska
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 25:95-101. 2011
    ..Variable performance in neuropsychological testing may account for false negative screens. The inclusion of brief tests of executive function in a screening battery should be considered...
  15. ncbi Validity of the CogState brief battery: relationship to standardized tests and sensitivity to cognitive impairment in mild traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and AIDS dementia complex
    Paul Maruff
    CogState Ltd, 7 21 Victoria Street, Melbourne 3000, Australia
    Arch Clin Neuropsychol 24:165-78. 2009
    ..of performance on the CogState tasks in groups of individuals with mild head injury, schizophrenia, and AIDS dementia complex. Each of these groups was impaired on the CogState performance measures (Cohen's d's = -.60 to -1...
  16. ncbi HIV-associated neurologic disease incidence changes:: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1990-1998
    N Sacktor
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neurology 56:257-60. 2001
    ..The proportion of new cases of HIV dementia with a CD4 count in a higher range (i.e., 201 to 350) since 1996 may be increasing...
  17. pmc Compartmentalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originates from long-lived cells in some subjects with HIV-1-associated dementia
    Gretja Schnell
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000395. 2009
    ..We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+) T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD...
  18. ncbi Persistence of neuropsychologic deficits despite long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-related neurocognitive impairment: prevalence and risk factors
    Valerio Tozzi
    National Institute for Infectious Diseases IRCCS Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 45:174-82. 2007
    ..We assessed the prevalence and predictors of persistent NP deficits despite long-term HAART in patients with HIV-related NCI...
  19. ncbi CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mediates enhanced transmigration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier: a potential mechanism of HIV-CNS invasion and NeuroAIDS
    Eliseo A Eugenin
    Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Neurosci 26:1098-106. 2006
    ..These data suggest that CCL2, but not other chemokines, plays a key role in infiltration of HIV-infected leukocytes into the CNS and the subsequent pathology characteristic of NeuroAIDS...
  20. ncbi Computerized reaction time battery versus a traditional neuropsychological battery: detecting HIV-related impairments
    Raul Gonzalez
    HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center HNRC, University of California, San Diego, 150 West Washington Street, 2nd Floor, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 9:64-71. 2003
    ..44). Data from this study suggest that traditional NP batteries and computerized reaction time tests do not measure the same thing, and are not interchangeable in examining HIV-related NP impairments...
  21. ncbi Molecular basis for interactions of HIV and drugs of abuse
    Avi Nath
    Department of Neurology, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 31:S62-9. 2002
    ..This article also suggests therapeutic approaches based on our current understanding of the neuropathogenesis of dementia due to HIV infection and drugs of abuse...
  22. pmc Regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 by astrocytes: links to HIV-1 dementia
    Radhika Suryadevara
    Laboratory of Cellular Neuroimmunology, Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA
    Glia 44:47-56. 2003
    ..Our studies reveal new opportunities for repair-based therapeutic strategies in HAD...
  23. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteins in neuropathogenesis of HIV dementia
    Avi Nath
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N Wolfe Street, Meyer 6 109, Baltimore, MD 21287 7609, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:S193-8. 2002
    ..Future therapeutic strategies must target common mechanisms such as oxidative stress and dysregulation of intracellular calcium involved in virotoxin-mediated neurotoxicity...
  24. ncbi Persistence of HIV-associated cognitive impairment, inflammation, and neuronal injury in era of highly active antiretroviral treatment
    Jarek Harezlak
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA
    AIDS 25:625-33. 2011
    ..To determine whether cognitive impairment and brain injury as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) persist in the setting of HAART...
  25. ncbi HIV dementia: an evolving disease
    Justin C McArthur
    Johns Hopkins University HIV Neurosciences Program, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 157:3-10. 2004
    ..relating to HIV-dementia, including: (a) are there differing phenotypes or temporal patterns of progression in HIV-dementia? (b) what determines these temporal patterns? and (c), what has been the impact of therapy on HIV dementia?..
  26. ncbi Prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients across pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy eras: a combined study of two cohorts
    Lucette A Cysique
    Faculty of Medicine, St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Neurovirol 10:350-7. 2004
    ....
  27. pmc Perivascular macrophages are the primary cell type productively infected by simian immunodeficiency virus in the brains of macaques: implications for the neuropathogenesis of AIDS
    K C Williams
    Division of Comparative Pathology, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772, USA
    J Exp Med 193:905-15. 2001
    ....
  28. ncbi Clinical correlates of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in South Africa
    John A Joska
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
    AIDS Behav 14:371-8. 2010
    ..This underlines the impact of HIV on the nervous system and the importance of screening for co morbid mental health conditions...
  29. ncbi Changing patterns in the neuropathogenesis of HIV during the HAART era
    T D Langford
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0624, USA
    Brain Pathol 13:195-210. 2003
    ....
  30. pmc HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: pathogenesis and therapeutic opportunities
    Kathryn A Lindl
    Department of Pathology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 240 S 40th St, Room 312 Levy Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6030, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 5:294-309. 2010
    ..By considering the specific mechanisms and consequences of HIV neuropathogenesis, unified approaches for neuroprotection will likely emerge using a tailored, combined, and non-invasive approach...
  31. pmc HIV subtype D is associated with dementia, compared with subtype A, in immunosuppressed individuals at risk of cognitive impairment in Kampala, Uganda
    Ned Sacktor
    Departments of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 49:780-6. 2009
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between HIV subtype and the severity of HIV-associated cognitive impairment among individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda...
  32. ncbi Changes in the incidence and predictors of human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Krishnan Bhaskaran
    Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, London, United Kingdom
    Ann Neurol 63:213-21. 2008
    ..We therefore aimed to assess changes over calendar time in the risk for HIV-associated dementia (HIV-D), and factors associated with HIV-D risk...
  33. pmc HIV-1 neuroimmunity in the era of antiretroviral therapy
    Stephanie D Kraft-Terry
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5880, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 37:542-8. 2010
    ..Current therapeutic approaches are focused on adjunctive and brain-penetrating antiretroviral therapies. These may attenuate virus-associated neuroinflammatory activities thereby decreasing the severity and frequency of HAND...
  34. pmc A coat of many colors: neuroimmune crosstalk in human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Stephanie D Kraft-Terry
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5880, USA
    Neuron 64:133-45. 2009
    ..Better understanding of the complexities of immune regulation during HAND can improve diagnosis and disease outcomes but is also relevant for the pathogenesis of a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders...
  35. pmc Dynamics of cognitive change in impaired HIV-positive patients initiating antiretroviral therapy
    L A Cysique
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, CA, USA
    Neurology 73:342-8. 2009
    ....
  36. pmc HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in sub-Saharan Africa: a pilot study in Cameroon
    Georgette D Kanmogne
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neurosciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
    BMC Neurol 10:60. 2010
    ..The objectives of this study were to determine whether Western neuropsychological (NP) methods are appropriate for use in Cameroon, and to evaluate cognitive function in a sample of HIV-infected adults...
  37. pmc Lessons learned developing a diagnostic tool for HIV-associated dementia feasible to implement in resource-limited settings: pilot testing in Kenya
    Judith Kwasa
    Center for Microbiology Research Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    PLoS ONE 7:e32898. 2012
    ..To conduct a preliminary evaluation of the utility and reliability of a diagnostic tool for HIV-associated dementia (HAD) for use by primary health care workers (HCW) which would be feasible to implement in resource-limited settings...
  38. pmc Excess soluble CD40L contributes to blood brain barrier permeability in vivo: implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Donna C Davidson
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA
    PLoS ONE 7:e51793. 2012
    ....
  39. pmc Screening for HIV-associated dementia in South Africa: potentials and pitfalls of task-shifting
    Reuben N Robbins
    HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, Columbia University and the New York State Psychiatric Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 25:587-93. 2011
    ....
  40. pmc Cerebrospinal fluid HIV escape associated with progressive neurologic dysfunction in patients on antiretroviral therapy with well controlled plasma viral load
    Michael J Peluso
    Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    AIDS 26:1765-74. 2012
    ..To characterize HIV-infected patients with neurosymptomatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 'escape', defined as detectable CSF HIV RNA in the setting of treatment-suppressed plasma levels or CSF RNA more than 1-log higher than plasma RNA...
  41. ncbi Interferon-α (IFNα) neurotoxicity
    Cari Fritz-French
    Immunology and Molecular Pathogenesis Graduate Program, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States
    Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 23:7-14. 2012
    ..Development of therapeutics that block IFNα may prove to be an effective treatment of HAND and other inflammatory conditions where there is increased CNS IFNα...
  42. ncbi Molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuronal cell death in HIV dementia
    W Li
    RT Johnson Division of Neuroimmunology and Neurological Infection, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Neurotox Res 8:119-34. 2005
    ....
  43. ncbi Spanish validation of the HIV dementia scale in women
    V Wojna
    NeuroAIDS SNRP, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 21:930-41. 2007
    ..0% negative predictive value). The HDS-Spanish translation offers a useful screening tool with value for the identification of Hispanic women at risk of developing HIV-associated symptomatic neurocognitive disturbances...
  44. ncbi The assessment of cognitive function in advanced HIV-1 infection and AIDS dementia complex using a new computerised cognitive test battery
    Lucette A J Cysique
    Faculty of Medicine, St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Arch Clin Neuropsychol 21:185-94. 2006
    ..with advanced human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection from which eleven were assessed as AIDS dementia complex (ADC) stage 1 or 2. Twenty-one seronegative individuals were recruited as controls...
  45. ncbi Utility of the HIV dementia scale in assessing risk for significant HIV-related cognitive-motor deficits in a high-risk urban adult sample
    M A Richardson
    Division of Psychiatry, Department of Psychology, Boston University School of Medicine, MA 02215, USA
    AIDS Care 17:1013-21. 2005
    ..However, only 25 of 40 (63%) were correctly classified based on their performance on traditional tests of neuropsychological functioning. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed...
  46. pmc HIV-1 Tat upregulates expression of histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) in human neurons: implication for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND)
    Zainulabedin M Saiyed
    Department of Immunology, Institute of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
    Neurochem Int 58:656-64. 2011
    ..Therefore, use of HDAC2 specific inhibitor in combination with HAART may be of therapeutic value in treatment of neurocognitive disorders observed in HIV-1 infected individuals...
  47. ncbi Variable benefit in neuropsychological function in HIV-infected HAART-treated patients
    Lucette A J Cysique
    Faculty of Medicine, St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Neurology 66:1447-50. 2006
    ..A neuroactive HAART regimen was associated with neuropsychological improvement. Decline occurred in a minority with lower nadir CD4. The current CD4 count and plasma viral load were not associated with cognitive change...
  48. pmc Impact of HIV and aging on neuropsychological function
    Lauren A Wendelken
    Department of Neurology, UCSF, San Francisco, CA 94143 1207, USA
    J Neurovirol 18:256-63. 2012
    ..This review summarizes knowledge of cognition in HIV as it relates to age and presents some emerging controversies...
  49. ncbi Platelet decline: an avenue for investigation into the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus -associated dementia
    Lynn M Wachtman
    Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 7609, USA
    Arch Neurol 64:1264-72. 2007
    ..The identification of biomarkers identifying onset of human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia (HIV-D) is critical for diagnosis and the elucidation of pathophysiologic pathways...
  50. ncbi Cell death in HIV dementia
    M P Mattson
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Cell Death Differ 12:893-904. 2005
    ..Drugs and diets that target oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, inflammation and lipid metabolism are in development for the treatment of HIV-1 patients...
  51. ncbi Characterization of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders among individuals starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
    John A Joska
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Behav 15:1197-203. 2011
    ..In a regression model, a lower level of education and male gender were predictive of HIV-D. These findings suggest that HAND are highly prevalent in primary care settings in South Africa where clade C HIV is predominant...
  52. ncbi Prevalence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive impairment, 1996 to 2002: results from an urban observational cohort
    Valerio Tozzi
    National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome, Italy
    J Neurovirol 11:265-73. 2005
    ....
  53. ncbi The HIV Dementia Scale: predictive power in mild dementia and HAART
    Kara Anne Bottiggi
    Graduate Center for Gerontology, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky, KY, USA
    J Neurol Sci 260:11-5. 2007
    ..With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the use of sensitive and efficient screening tests for HIV-D continue to be needed for identifying individuals who develop this disorder...
  54. pmc Antiplatelet activity of valproic acid contributes to decreased soluble CD40 ligand production in HIV type 1-infected individuals
    Donna C Davidson
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 186:584-91. 2011
    ....
  55. pmc Rodent models for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Santhi Gorantla
    Center for Neurodegenerative Disorders and Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
    Trends Neurosci 35:197-208. 2012
    ..We review these and other rodent models of HAND and discuss their unmet potential in reflecting human pathobiology and in facilitating disease monitoring and therapeutic discoveries...
  56. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorder: pathophysiology in relation to drug addiction
    Avindra Nath
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1187:122-8. 2010
    ..This review examines the literature to date, lists the experimental challenges faced by researchers studying effects of drug addiction on HIV neuropathogenesis, and suggests future directions for research...
  57. ncbi Increased glutamate in CSF and plasma of patients with HIV dementia
    C Ferrarese
    Department of Neurology, University of Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy
    Neurology 57:671-5. 2001
    ..Experimental evidence suggests that excitotoxicity might play a major role in HIV-induced neurodegeneration. However, few studies have investigated the role of endogenous glutamate in patients with HIV dementia...
  58. pmc Fulminant encephalopathy with basal ganglia hyperintensities in HIV-infected drug users
    S D Newsome
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neurology 76:787-94. 2011
    ..To define a clinical syndrome associated with active drug abuse in HIV-infected individuals...
  59. pmc Cliniconeuropathologic correlates of human immunodeficiency virus in the era of antiretroviral therapy
    I Everall
    HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center HNRC, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0603, USA
    J Neurovirol 15:360-70. 2009
    ..Noninfectious pathologies and minimal changes correlated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, suggesting a shift in pathogenesis from florid HIV replication to other, diverse mechanisms...
  60. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat and methamphetamine affect the release and activation of matrix-degrading proteinases
    Katherine Conant
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Neurovirol 10:21-8. 2004
    ..These results also suggest a potential mechanism for acceleration of HIVD with methamphetamine use...
  61. ncbi SDF-1alpha is expressed in astrocytes and neurons in the AIDS dementia complex: an in vivo and in vitro study
    Kevin Rostasy
    Pediatric Neurology, University of Goettingen, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 62:617-26. 2003
    ..The cellular and regional expression of this chemokine and its relationship to the AIDS dementia complex (ADC), however, have remained undetermined...
  62. ncbi Cells of the central nervous system as targets and reservoirs of the human immunodeficiency virus
    Susanne Kramer-Hammerle
    Institute of Molecular Virology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstadter Landstrasse 1, D 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
    Virus Res 111:194-213. 2005
    ....
  63. pmc HIV-subtype A is associated with poorer neuropsychological performance compared with subtype D in antiretroviral therapy-naive Ugandan children
    Michael J Boivin
    International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
    AIDS 24:1163-70. 2010
    ..HIV-subtype D is associated with more rapid disease progression and higher rates of dementia in Ugandan adults compared with HIV-subtype A. There are no data comparing neuropsychological function by HIV subtype in Ugandan children...
  64. ncbi Drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders/HIV-associated dementia
    Vishnudutt Purohit
    Chemistry and Physiological Systems Research Branch, Division of Basic Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 6001 Executive Boulevard Room 4277, MSC 9555, Bethesda, MD 20892 9555, USA
    Mol Neurobiol 44:102-10. 2011
    ..Increased cell death of dopaminergic neurons can eventually lead to dopamine deficit that may exacerbate the severity and/or accelerate the progression of HAND/HAD...
  65. ncbi HIV-associated cognitive impairment before and after the advent of combination therapy
    Ned Sacktor
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurovirol 8:136-42. 2002
    ..Even though HAART has reduced the incidence of HIV dementia, HIV-associated cognitive impairment continues to be a major clinical problem among individuals with advanced infection...
  66. ncbi Acquired neuronal channelopathies in HIV-associated dementia
    Benjamin B Gelman
    Texas NeuroAIDS Research Center Department of Pathology, Rt 0785, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0785, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 157:111-9. 2004
    ..The channelopathy concept may have wide relevance to the subcortical dementias...
  67. ncbi Neurotrophins prevent HIV Tat-induced neuronal apoptosis via a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent mechanism
    S H Ramirez
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA
    J Neurochem 78:874-89. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that the activation of NF-kappaB by neurotrophic factors may promote survival of neurons exposed to Tat, via regulation of anti-apoptotic genes including Bcl-2...
  68. ncbi Insulin resistance is associated with cognition among HIV-1-infected patients: the Hawaii Aging With HIV cohort
    Victor G Valcour
    Office of Neurology and Aging Research, University of Hawaii, Leahi Hospital, 3675 Kilauea Avenue, Honolulu, HI 96816, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:405-10. 2006
    ..To determine if insulin resistance (IR) is associated with lower cognitive performance among HIV-1-infected adults and to determine if advanced age magnifies risk...
  69. ncbi Neurobiology of multiple insults: HIV-1-associated brain disorders in those who use illicit drugs
    Jeanne E Bell
    Neuropathology Division and Forensic Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Scotland EH8 9AG, UK
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 1:182-91. 2006
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, which are clinically silent at present, may cause problems in the future in HAART-treated subjects...
  70. ncbi Gp120 activates children's brain endothelial cells via CD4
    M F Stins
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, California, USA
    J Neurovirol 7:125-34. 2001
    ..Gp120-induced monocyte migration was inhibited by anti-gp120 and anti-CD4 antibodies. This is the first demonstration that gp120 activates HBMEC via CD4, which may contribute to the development of HIV-1 encephalopathy in children...
  71. pmc Loss of the N-linked glycosylation site at position 386 in the HIV envelope V4 region enhances macrophage tropism and is associated with dementia
    Rebecca L Dunfee
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA
    Virology 367:222-34. 2007
    ....
  72. ncbi Undetectable cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA and beta-2 microglobulin do not indicate inactive AIDS dementia complex in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated patients
    Lucette A Cysique
    St Vincent s Hospital Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, Sydney, Australia
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 39:426-9. 2005
    To assess whether nonelevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers could delineate inactive AIDS dementia complex (ADC) in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), using neuropsychologic performance change as an ..
  73. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces apoptosis in human neuronal cells
    C A Patel
    The Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Virol 74:9717-26. 2000
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) causes AIDS dementia complex (ADC) in certain infected individuals...
  74. ncbi Neurocognitive impairment and survival in a cohort of HIV-infected patients treated with HAART
    Valerio Tozzi
    National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, 00149 Rome, Italy
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:706-13. 2005
    ....
  75. pmc Impact of HAART and CNS-penetrating antiretroviral regimens on HIV encephalopathy among perinatally infected children and adolescents
    Kunjal Patel
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    AIDS 23:1893-901. 2009
    ....
  76. pmc HIV proteins (gp120 and Tat) and methamphetamine in oxidative stress-induced damage in the brain: potential role of the thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide
    Atrayee Banerjee
    Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 400 West 11th Street, Rolla, MO 65409, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 48:1388-98. 2010
    ....
  77. pmc Significant effects of antiretroviral therapy on global gene expression in brain tissues of patients with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Alejandra Borjabad
    Molecular Virology Division, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital Center and Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002213. 2011
    ..Aberrantly expressed transcripts common to untreated and treated HAND may contribute to neurocognitive changes defying ART...
  78. ncbi Human brain parenchymal microglia express CD14 and CD45 and are productively infected by HIV-1 in HIV-1 encephalitis
    Melissa A Cosenza
    Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Brain Pathol 12:442-55. 2002
    ..Because productively infected tissue macrophages serve as the major viral reservoir, these findings have important implications for AIDS...
  79. ncbi HIV-infected subjects with the E4 allele for APOE have excess dementia and peripheral neuropathy
    E H Corder
    Genetic Epidemiology, Odense University, Denmark
    Nat Med 4:1182-4. 1998
    ..0001). Thus, neurologic symptoms for HIV-infection and AD are linked through an etiologic risk factor. Long-term survivors of HIV infection with E4 may be at high risk for AD; conversely, gene-viral interactions may speed AD pathogenesis...
  80. pmc Pathogenesis of HIV in the central nervous system
    Victor Valcour
    Memory and Aging Center, University of California San Francisco, 94143 1207, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 8:54-61. 2011
    ..This review highlights recent investigations of HIV-related CNS injury with emphasis on cART-era neuropathological mechanisms in the context of both US and international settings...
  81. ncbi Glutamate is a mediator of neurotoxicity in secretions of activated HIV-1-infected macrophages
    Z g Jiang
    Laboratory of Neurotoxicology, NIMH, 10 Center Drive, Room 3D42, NIH, 20892-1262, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 117:97-107. 2001
    ..Glutamate measured in CM accounted for all neurotoxic effects observed from HIV/LPS CM in astrocyte-poor neuronal cultures and may contribute to the pathophysiology of HIV-1-associated dementia...
  82. pmc Resting cerebral blood flow: a potential biomarker of the effects of HIV in the brain
    B M Ances
    Department of Neurology, Washington University in St Louis, MO, USA
    Neurology 73:702-8. 2009
    ..We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC)...
  83. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protein Tat induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated neurotoxicity
    Lara Buscemi
    Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Therapeutics, University of North Dakota, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 501 N Columbia Road, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 26:661-70. 2007
    ....
  84. pmc HIV-1 Tat activates neuronal ryanodine receptors with rapid induction of the unfolded protein response and mitochondrial hyperpolarization
    John P Norman
    Center for Neural Development and Disease, The University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3731. 2008
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that abnormal RyR signaling mediates the neuronal UPR with failure of mitochondrial energy metabolism, and is a critical locus for the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 in the CNS...
  85. ncbi Caspase cascades in human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurodegeneration
    Gwenn A Garden
    Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 22:4015-24. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that pharmacologic interventions aimed at the caspase enzyme pathways may be beneficial for the prevention or treatment of HAD...
  86. pmc Gene expression profiles of HIV-1-infected glia and brain: toward better understanding of the role of astrocytes in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Alejandra Borjabad
    Molecular Virology Division, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital Center, 432 West 58th Street, Antenucci Building, Room 709, New York, NY 10019, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 5:44-62. 2010
    ..Functional genomics, in conjunction with other approaches, may help clarify the role of astrocytes in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis...
  87. ncbi Neurobiology of HIV
    Britta Hult
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    Int Rev Psychiatry 20:3-13. 2008
    ..Given the variable success of the current HAART drugs against virus in the CNS, such therapies would greatly benefit the HIV infected population as they live longer and more productive lives...
  88. ncbi Evolving paradigms in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia
    Tracy Fischer-Smith
    Center for Neurovirology, Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, 1900 N 12th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Med 7:1-26. 2005
    ..Potential therapeutic strategies are also briefly discussed...
  89. ncbi Neuroprotective and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of minocycline
    M Christine Zink
    Department of Comparative Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    JAMA 293:2003-11. 2005
    ..Current antiretroviral drugs are expensive, have significant adverse effects including neurotoxicity, and few cross the blood-brain barrier...
  90. pmc Chemokines and activated macrophages in HIV gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis
    M Kaul
    CNS Research Institute, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:8212-6. 1999
    ..Moreover, gp120SF2-induced neuronal apoptosis depends predominantly on an indirect pathway via activation of chemokine receptors on macrophages/microglia, whereas SDF-1 may act directly on neurons or astrocytes...
  91. pmc Increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) env compartmentalization in the presence of HIV-1-associated dementia
    Kimberly Ritola
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UNC Center for AIDS Research, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7295, USA
    J Virol 79:10830-4. 2005
    ..Alternatively, HAD may be associated with a more pronounced state of immunosuppression that permits more extensive replication and independent evolution within the CNS compartment...
  92. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA Levels in different regions of human brain: quantification using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
    Adarsh M Kumar
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA
    J Neurovirol 13:210-24. 2007
    ..However, the highest concentration of viral RNA was found in the caudate nucleus and the lowest concentration in the frontal cortex and cerebrospinal fluid. The viral RNA was undetectable in all samples of HIV-negative individuals...
  93. ncbi Astrocyte infection by HIV-1: mechanisms of restricted virus replication, and role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia
    Paul R Gorry
    Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Curr HIV Res 1:463-73. 2003
    ....
  94. ncbi Abundant expression of HIV Nef and Rev proteins in brain astrocytes in vivo is associated with dementia
    A Ranki
    Department of Dermatology and Venereal Diseases, University of Helsinki, Finland
    AIDS 9:1001-8. 1995
    ..To relate the expression of HIV regulatory proteins and HIV-specific mRNA in the brain cells of infected individuals with clinical neurological disease...
  95. pmc Neurocognitive effects of treatment interruption in stable HIV-positive patients in an observational cohort
    K R Robertson
    Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina, 2128 Physician Office Building, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7025, USA
    Neurology 74:1260-6. 2010
    ..Prior studies have shown improved neurocognition with initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV. We hypothesized that stopping ART would be associated with poorer neurocognitive function...
  96. pmc HIV-1 associated dementia: update on pathological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches
    Marcus Kaul
    Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Curr Opin Neurol 22:315-20. 2009
    ..This review will discuss recent progress toward a better understanding of the pathogenesis and an improved design of therapies for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
  97. ncbi MicroRNA profiling reveals new aspects of HIV neurodegeneration: caspase-6 regulates astrocyte survival
    Farshid Noorbakhsh
    Department of Medicine Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    FASEB J 24:1799-812. 2010
    ..Overall, these data point to previously unrecognized alterations in miRNA profile in the brain during HIV infection, which contribute to cell death through dysregulation of cell death machinery...
  98. pmc Microbial translocation is associated with increased monocyte activation and dementia in AIDS patients
    Petronela Ancuta
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e2516. 2008
    ....
  99. ncbi The changing pattern of HIV neuropathology in the HAART era
    Francoise Gray
    Laboratoire de Neuropathologie, Faculte de Medecine Paris Ile de France Ouest, Garches, France
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 62:429-40. 2003
    ..These findings are compared with those reported in other neuropathological studies from different developed countries...
  100. ncbi Neurodegeneration and ageing in the HAART era
    Bruce J Brew
    Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, Sydney, Australia
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 4:163-74. 2009
    ..Lastly, there will be a brief discussion of interventions to minimize such neurodegeneration including optimization of HAART for brain entry...
  101. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein mediates neural cell death: a neurotoxic role for IP-10
    Guido van Marle
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada
    Virology 329:302-18. 2004
    ..Furthermore, Nef molecular diversity was evident in brain tissue among patients with neurological disease and which may influence IP-10 production by astrocytes...

Research Grants64

  1. Regulation of HIV-1 by Rad51 in CNS cells
    Kamel Khalili; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: AIDS dementia complex, minor motor cognitive disorders and peripheral neuropathies remain significant in HIV-1 associated ..
  2. High School Student NeuroResearch Program (HSNRP)
    Marlys Hearst Witte; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Ongoing short-term and long-term evaluation including surveys, database registry and career portfolios will document efficacy of the training model and promote networking. ..
  3. Role of Monocytes/Macrophages in CNS Disease in the HAART Era
    Tracy Fischer-Smith; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The studies proposed in this application should provide novel insights regarding the role of altered monocyte/ MF homeostasis in HIV induced neurocognitive disorders. ..
  4. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Neuropsychological Outcomes in HIV/HCV Co-infection
    JODI M HEAPS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Additionally, it has been reported that co-infected persons are significantly more likely to develop AIDS dementia complex (Ryan et al., 2004)...
  5. Pediatric HIV-encephalopathy in DRC: effect of ART & role of compartmentalization
    Annelies Van Rie; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  6. Pathogenesis of Lyme Borreliosis in the Rhesus Monkey
    MARIO PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..burgdorferi and lipoprotein in inflammation and neurodegeneration, specifically, the expression and involvement of pertinent TLR in mediating cytokine production and apoptosis in the different cell combinations. ..
  7. HEROIN AIDS ENCEPHALOPATHY--NEUROPATHOGENESIS MECHANISMS
    Madhavan Nair; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Further studies will elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the immuno- and neuropathogenic effects of heroin use in HIV-l infection, and may yield novel therapies for the treatment of heroin using, HIV-infected patients. ..
  8. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STRATEGIES TARGETING THE HIV SANC
    Bradley Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..HlV disease may suffer a persistent and disabling loss of cognitive and motor function referred to as AIDS dementia complex. HIV induced CNS dysfunction occurs with especially high frequency in HIV infected children, with 88% ..
  9. Improving the CNS Delivery of Anti-retroviral Compounds
    WILLIAM ELMQUIST; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..HIV-1) renders the host susceptible to a variety of serious central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as AIDS dementia complex and HIV-1 encephalopathy...
  10. CONTROLLED STUDY OF INFANT HIV ENCEPHALOPATHY
    David Coulter; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Epidemiological, relative risk, and statistical (MANOVA with repeated measures) determinations will be used to analyze these results and test the stated hypotheses...
  11. Gene Therapy of AIDS Dementia
    Roger Pomerantz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a collective term to describe AIDS-related cognitive dysfunction, motor difficulties, ..
  12. CYTOKINES AND AIDS DEMENTIA COMPLEX
    Iain Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  13. HIV GP120 INDUCTION OF ICAM-1--INVOLVEMENT IN ADC
    ETTY BENVENISTE; Fiscal Year: 1999
    b>AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) affects up to 50% of adult AIDS patients...
  14. ENHANCING BRAIN UPTAKE OF AZT BY TRANSPORT INHIBITION
    Ronald Sawchuk; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..direct brain infection by HIV as the likely cause of these neurological symptoms, referred to as AIDS dementia complex. Recent studies showing direct HIV brain infection provide a clear rationale for the importance of ..
  15. MECHANISM OF CIGARETTE SMOKE-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..b>AIDS dementia complex, and transmission of HIV-1 from mother to the offspring...
  16. SHIV ASSOCIATED ENCEPHALOPATHY
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) develop a neurological disease known as HIV- associated cognitive/motor complex or AIDS dementia complex. In this application, we propose to use a pathogenic, molecular clone of simian- human immunodeficiency ..
  17. BEHAVIORAL AND NEURONAL EFFECTS OF RETROVIRAL INFECTION
    Ian Paul; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..its resulting acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and attendant cognitive and affective deficits (AIDS dementia complex - ADC) have made studies of the behavioral and neurobiological effects of retroviral infection imperative...
  18. FIV-MD AS A MODEL FOR AGE-DEPENDENT NEURO-AIDS
    Michael Podell; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Adult AIDS dementia complex is seen later in the course of the disease compared to a more rapid onset of progressive encephalopathy in ..
  19. PERINATAL HIV INFECTIONS--PREVENTION OF CNS PATHOLOGY
    Stanley Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  20. EVOKED POTENTIALS IN CONGENITAL HIV INFECTION
    RON EMERSON; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..An estimated 25 to 30 children infected with HIV prenatally or in the perinatal period will be compared to 50 uninfected children. The sample will be followed repeatedly up to three years of age with serial median nerve SEP studies...
  21. BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER DYSFUNCTION--AIDS NEUROLOGIC DISEASE
    Jay Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..b>AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is an important neurological syndrome occurring in approximately 10-25 percent of HIV-infected ..
  22. TRANSENDOTHELIAL MIGRATION MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES HIV1
    Holly Birdsall; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  23. Canine model for assessing CNS access P-gp substrates
    KATRINA MEALEY; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..variety of drugs is considered a major hindrance to effective treatment for many brain disorders including AIDS dementia complex, epilepsy, psychosis, and others...
  24. ROLE OF T4 IN THE NEUROTROPISM OF THE AIDS VIRUS
    Elizabeth Lacy; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..AIDS) is frequently complicated by a clinically distinct encephalopathy which has been termed the AIDS dementia complex. Viral studies on brain tissue from AIDS patients indicate that this syndrome probably results from a ..
  25. ETIOLOGIC ROLE OF TNF/FAS ON AN AIDS-LIKE CNS DISEASE
    Paul Wong; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..the Abstract): The broad goal of this application is a focused examination of the neuropathogenesis of the AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC)...
  26. DO GLUCOCORTICOIDS EXACERBATE GP120 NEUROENDANGERMENT
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2002
    It is now believed that the neurobehavioral and neuropathologic indices of AIDS Dementia Complex can arise directly from HIV infection of the brain...
  27. Effect of Alcohol on SHIV Neuroinvasion
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) develop a neurological disease known as HIV-associated cognitive/motor complex or AIDS dementia complex. It is known that chronic use of ethanol can lead to an immunocompromised state that results in increased ..
  28. PROTECTING CNS CELLS FROM HIV AND HIV-INDUCED INJURY
    David Strayer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We propose to address this therapeutic challenge using rSV40 gene delivery to the CNS, both to protect the brain from HIV infection and to mitigate HIV-induced CNS dysfunction. ..
  29. PRENATAL VIRAL INFECTION AND NEUROENDOCRINE DEVELOPMENT
    MAUREEN O GRADY; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The AIDS dementia complex, a neurological syndrome seen in children and infants as well as adults, is characterized by disturbances ..
  30. QUANTITATIVE BRAIN MRI ANALYSIS TO ASSESS AIDS TREATMENT
    THOMAS KENT; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Furthermore, in a patient with AIDS dementia complex (ADC) who recovered after treatment with zidovudine (AZT), we found a dramatic increase in gray matter ..
  31. ASTROCYTE CYTOKINE EXPRESSION/ION TRANSPORT IN ADC
    Dale Benos; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. FASEB SUMMER CONFERENCE ON NEUROIMMUNOLOGY
    ETTY BENVENISTE; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Examples include Alzheimer's Disease, Stroke, AIDS Dementia Complex and Parkinson's disease...
  33. INTRACELLULAR TARGETING/ANTI-VIRAL AGENTS AND AIDS
    NANCY STERNBERGER; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ....
  34. HIV-1 ENCEPHALOPATHY--VIRAL FACTORS IN PATHOGENESIS
    Leon Epstein; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..These studies will provide important information on therapeutic implications of persistent retrovirus infection of the human brain, and on the consequences of fetal exposure to HTLV-III...
  35. Gp120-Mediated Cell Death in the Basal Ganglia
    RACHEL NOSHENY; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..infected individuals experience neurological and psychiatric problems that are collectively termed the AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC). The current global AIDS crisis highlights the need for therapeutic strategies to treat ADC...
  36. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY OF HIV ENCEPHALOPATHY
    Francisco Gonzalez Scarano; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The coordinated studies in this program project will increase our understanding of critical mechanisms of virus persistence and of the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration and provide novel targets for prevention or intervention in HAD. ..
  37. NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF SIMIAN AIDS
    Peter Dews; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  38. DEVELOPMENT OF ANTI-HIV VECTORS IN MONOCYTES/MACROPHAGES
    Daniel Tenen; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..These studies should provide a focused but comprehensive approach to development of a model of gene therapy for AIDS...
  39. HIV NEUROTOXICITY--MECHANISM & MODULATION BY CANABINOIDS
    STANLEY THAYER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..microglia in HIV-1 neurotoxicity and may identify pharmacologic targets that could influence the course of AIDS dementia complex. 2) The effects of cannabinoids on glutamatergic synaptic activity will be determined...
  40. VIRUS AND HOST FACTORS IN SIV ENCEPHALITIS
    M Zink; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..large proportion of HIV-infected adults and children suffer motor and cognitive impairment, referred to as AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC)...
  41. Functional Genomics of the Blood-Brain Barrier
    ERIC SHUSTA; Fiscal Year: 2004
    HIV encephalitis and AIDS dementia complex are neurological disorders that continue to afflict AIDS patients even in the presence of highly active retroviral therapies...
  42. Oxidative Stress Markers and HIV Dementia
    Ned Sacktor; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We believe that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the development of HIV-D, and strategies to decrease oxidative stress may serve as a useful therapeutic target to treat HIV-D. ..
  43. NEUROPROTECTION IN NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASE
    Yogesh Patel; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  44. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY OF HIV ENCEPHALOPATHY
    Francisco Gonzalez Scarano; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The coordinated studies in this program project will increase our understanding of critical mechanisms of virus persistence and of the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration and provide novel targets for prevention or intervention in HAD. ..
  45. NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEFICIT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN HIV+ MEN
    Robert Bornstein; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The goals of the study will be to identify the characteristics of subjects who develop AIDS Dementia Complex, how immunological changes relate to changes in neuropsychological performance, and to develop an ..
  46. LIPID MEDIATORS IN HIV NEUROTRANSMITTER DYSFUNCTION
    WILLIAM O BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The underlying mechanisms responsible for HIV-related cognitive and motor deficits, known as AIDS dementia complex (ADC), are probably multi-factorial in nature, as no clear correlation exists between these deficits and pathological ..
  47. MORPHOMETRIC CORRELATES OF ENCEPHALOPATHY IN AIDS
    Thomas Eskin; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..These various phenomena, if colocalized with specific CNS damage or HIV infection, might represent markers which explain HIV-neurotropism and support a direct role for HIV in the injury to specific CNS components in AIDS-DC...
  48. Macrophages, HAART, and HIV dementia in Thailand
    Victor Valcour; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Given this unique cohort, we further intend to use proteomics to generate important molecular markers that predict M/M/phi response to HAART and that distinguish HAD in HAART-treated compared to HAART-naive individuals. ..
  49. Real-time Minimal Residual Disease assay of Pediatric B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
    Bruce Shiramizu; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The assay developed by this exploratory proposal could be incorporated into pediatric B-cell NHL studies to assess MRD on therapy or to assess the efficacy of innovative therapies. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  50. TEXAS REPOSITORY FOR AIDS NEUROPATHOGENESIS RESEARCH
    Benjamin Gelman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. Dopamine Systems and Neuropsychiatric Changes in HIV/AIDS
    Benjamin B Gelman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The project breaks ground neuroscientifically, as no autopsy study has advanced to a "task specific" behavioral correlation with circuit level anomalies of a specific neurotransmitter system. ..
  52. HIV and the Proteasome in the Aging Human Brain
    Benjamin Gelman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The linkage between brain inflammation and altered neuronal protein turnover could lead to a unifying functional concept of dementia with application to HIV and aging both. ..
  53. MYELOPATHY AND NEUROPATHY DURING CHANGING HIV BURDEN
    Benjamin Gelman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Together, the studies we have proposed will provide insights concerning prevalent AIDS morbidities in the HAART era. ..
  54. Effect of Alcohol on HIV-1 Immune Responses & BBB Damage
    Yuri Persidsky; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The ability to use an in vitro BBB and an in vivo animal model will help in defining mechanisms of disease progression in the setting of alcohol abuse. ..
  55. Activated Immune Parameters Associated with HIV & Aging
    Bruce Shiramizu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  56. HIV-1 Proviral DNA and Monocyte Phenotype in Relation to Neurocognitive Function
    Bruce T Shiramizu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This resource-rich team is well-positioned to conduct this investigation into the pathogenesis of HAD. ..
  57. Neuropathogenesis of Immune Reconstitution Syndrome with HIV Infection
    Avindra Nath; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specific aim 2: To determine the mechanism of GB mediated neurotoxicity Specific aim 3: To determine the mechanism of neuroprotection with Kv1.3 blockers ..
  58. Cellular Tropism & Reservoir in Brain with HIV-Clade C
    Avindra Nath; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We believe this will serve as a nidus for the development of several projects to address the neuropathogenesis of HIV infection and develop a rational design for therapeutic approaches and vaccine development. ..
  59. Immunophilin ligands for HIV dementia and neuropathy
    Avindra Nath; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..An administrative core will coordinate the interactions between all the projects and each of the researchers. ..
  60. Pathogenesis of HIV Peripheral Neuropathy
    Avindra Nath; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Finally, a panel of novel antioxidants, with potential clinical applicability will be screened for their ability to protect against this neurotoxicity. ..
  61. INTERACTIONS OF HIV-1GP120 WITH BRAIN CELLS: ROLE OF PAG
    Avindra Nath; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The transfected cells will be screened for gp120 binding properties and for gp120-induced changes in intracellular calcium. The role of Pag in viral entry by itself or in conjunction with other HIV-coreceptors will also be determined. ..
  62. EFFECTS OF NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS ON HIV-1 INFECTION OF BRAI
    Avindra Nath; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  63. Selegiline, Oxidative Stress and MRS in HIV Dementia
    Giovanni Schifitto; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The proposed study will take advantage of the ACTG supporting A5090 study and of the existing MRS consortium infrastructure that will allow us to perform multicenter MRS studies. ..
  64. CSF & Lymphocyte Dynamics in HIV Infection
    Richard W Price; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..nervous system (CMS) are critical to chronic CMS infection and the development of HIV encephalitis and the AIDS dementia complex (ADC)...