aids dementia complex

Summary

Summary: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
    A Antinori
    Clinical Department, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico IRCCS, Rome, Italy
    Neurology 69:1789-99. 2007
  2. ncbi Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia
    M Kaul
    Center for Neuroscience and Aging Research, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 410:988-94. 2001
  3. pmc HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: differences in rates, nature, and predictors
    Robert K Heaton
    University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    J Neurovirol 17:3-16. 2011
  4. ncbi The neuropathogenesis of AIDS
    Francisco González-Scarano
    Department of Neurology, 3 West Gates, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia 19104 4283, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 5:69-81. 2005
  5. pmc HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: pathogenesis and therapeutic opportunities
    Kathryn A Lindl
    Department of Pathology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 240 S 40th St, Room 312 Levy Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6030, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 5:294-309. 2010
  6. ncbi CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mediates enhanced transmigration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier: a potential mechanism of HIV-CNS invasion and NeuroAIDS
    Eliseo A Eugenin
    Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Neurosci 26:1098-106. 2006
  7. ncbi HIV-associated neurologic disease incidence changes:: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1990-1998
    N Sacktor
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neurology 56:257-60. 2001
  8. pmc Significant effects of antiretroviral therapy on global gene expression in brain tissues of patients with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Alejandra Borjabad
    Molecular Virology Division, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital Center and Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002213. 2011
  9. doi Extensive astrocyte infection is prominent in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia
    Melissa J Churchill
    Centre for Virology, The Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Ann Neurol 66:253-8. 2009
  10. ncbi The International HIV Dementia Scale: a new rapid screening test for HIV dementia
    Ned C Sacktor
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    AIDS 19:1367-74. 2005

Research Grants

  1. Pathogenesis of Lyme Borreliosis in the Rhesus Monkey
    MARIO PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. HEROIN AIDS ENCEPHALOPATHY--NEUROPATHOGENESIS MECHANISMS
    Madhavan Nair; Fiscal Year: 2005
  3. Lyme neuroborreliosis pathogenesis in the rhesus monkey
    MARIO PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2009
  4. MOLECULAR STUDIES OF BRAIN NMDA RECEPTORS
    R Suzanne Zukin; Fiscal Year: 2003
  5. Lyme neuroborreliosis pathogenesis in the rhesus monkey
    MARIO PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STRATEGIES TARGETING THE HIV SANC
    Bradley Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2003
  7. Improving the CNS Delivery of Anti-retroviral Compounds
    WILLIAM ELMQUIST; Fiscal Year: 2007
  8. Gene Therapy of AIDS Dementia
    Roger Pomerantz; Fiscal Year: 2004
  9. MECHANISM OF CIGARETTE SMOKE-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2003
  10. SHIV ASSOCIATED ENCEPHALOPATHY
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2003

Detail Information

Publications236 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
    A Antinori
    Clinical Department, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico IRCCS, Rome, Italy
    Neurology 69:1789-99. 2007
    ..An algorithm is proposed to assist in standardized diagnostic classification of HAND...
  2. ncbi Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia
    M Kaul
    Center for Neuroscience and Aging Research, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 410:988-94. 2001
    ..Recent advances in understanding the signalling pathways mediating these events offer hope for therapeutic intervention...
  3. pmc HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: differences in rates, nature, and predictors
    Robert K Heaton
    University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    J Neurovirol 17:3-16. 2011
    ..Clinical trials targeting HAND prevention should specifically examine timing of ART initiation...
  4. ncbi The neuropathogenesis of AIDS
    Francisco González-Scarano
    Department of Neurology, 3 West Gates, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia 19104 4283, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 5:69-81. 2005
    ..Here, we discuss the studies that are being carried out to determine the respective contributions of infection, and monocyte and macrophage activation, to disease progression...
  5. pmc HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: pathogenesis and therapeutic opportunities
    Kathryn A Lindl
    Department of Pathology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 240 S 40th St, Room 312 Levy Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6030, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 5:294-309. 2010
    ..By considering the specific mechanisms and consequences of HIV neuropathogenesis, unified approaches for neuroprotection will likely emerge using a tailored, combined, and non-invasive approach...
  6. ncbi CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mediates enhanced transmigration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier: a potential mechanism of HIV-CNS invasion and NeuroAIDS
    Eliseo A Eugenin
    Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Neurosci 26:1098-106. 2006
    ..These data suggest that CCL2, but not other chemokines, plays a key role in infiltration of HIV-infected leukocytes into the CNS and the subsequent pathology characteristic of NeuroAIDS...
  7. ncbi HIV-associated neurologic disease incidence changes:: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1990-1998
    N Sacktor
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neurology 56:257-60. 2001
    ..The proportion of new cases of HIV dementia with a CD4 count in a higher range (i.e., 201 to 350) since 1996 may be increasing...
  8. pmc Significant effects of antiretroviral therapy on global gene expression in brain tissues of patients with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Alejandra Borjabad
    Molecular Virology Division, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital Center and Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002213. 2011
    ..Aberrantly expressed transcripts common to untreated and treated HAND may contribute to neurocognitive changes defying ART...
  9. doi Extensive astrocyte infection is prominent in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia
    Melissa J Churchill
    Centre for Virology, The Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Ann Neurol 66:253-8. 2009
    ..Our data indicate that astrocytes can be extensively infected with HIV, and suggest an important role for HIV-infected astrocytes in HIV neuropathogenesis...
  10. ncbi The International HIV Dementia Scale: a new rapid screening test for HIV dementia
    Ned C Sacktor
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    AIDS 19:1367-74. 2005
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a new screening test for HIV dementia, the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) in cohorts from the US and Uganda...
  11. ncbi Persistence of neuropsychologic deficits despite long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-related neurocognitive impairment: prevalence and risk factors
    Valerio Tozzi
    National Institute for Infectious Diseases IRCCS Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 45:174-82. 2007
    ..We assessed the prevalence and predictors of persistent NP deficits despite long-term HAART in patients with HIV-related NCI...
  12. pmc Compartmentalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originates from long-lived cells in some subjects with HIV-1-associated dementia
    Gretja Schnell
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000395. 2009
    ..We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+) T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD...
  13. pmc Perivascular macrophages are the primary cell type productively infected by simian immunodeficiency virus in the brains of macaques: implications for the neuropathogenesis of AIDS
    K C Williams
    Division of Comparative Pathology, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772, USA
    J Exp Med 193:905-15. 2001
    ....
  14. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteins in neuropathogenesis of HIV dementia
    Avi Nath
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N Wolfe Street, Meyer 6 109, Baltimore, MD 21287 7609, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:S193-8. 2002
    ..Future therapeutic strategies must target common mechanisms such as oxidative stress and dysregulation of intracellular calcium involved in virotoxin-mediated neurotoxicity...
  15. pmc Regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 by astrocytes: links to HIV-1 dementia
    Radhika Suryadevara
    Laboratory of Cellular Neuroimmunology, Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA
    Glia 44:47-56. 2003
    ..Our studies reveal new opportunities for repair-based therapeutic strategies in HAD...
  16. doi Persistence of HIV-associated cognitive impairment, inflammation, and neuronal injury in era of highly active antiretroviral treatment
    Jarek Harezlak
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA
    AIDS 25:625-33. 2011
    ..To determine whether cognitive impairment and brain injury as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) persist in the setting of HAART...
  17. pmc Neurocognitive impairment among HIV-positive individuals in Botswana: a pilot study
    Kathy Lawler
    Center for AIDS Research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
    J Int AIDS Soc 13:15. 2010
    ....
  18. ncbi HIV dementia: an evolving disease
    Justin C McArthur
    Johns Hopkins University HIV Neurosciences Program, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 157:3-10. 2004
    ..relating to HIV-dementia, including: (a) are there differing phenotypes or temporal patterns of progression in HIV-dementia? (b) what determines these temporal patterns? and (c), what has been the impact of therapy on HIV dementia?..
  19. ncbi Molecular basis for interactions of HIV and drugs of abuse
    Avi Nath
    Department of Neurology, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 31:S62-9. 2002
    ..This article also suggests therapeutic approaches based on our current understanding of the neuropathogenesis of dementia due to HIV infection and drugs of abuse...
  20. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces apoptosis in human neuronal cells
    C A Patel
    The Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Virol 74:9717-26. 2000
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) causes AIDS dementia complex (ADC) in certain infected individuals...
  21. pmc HIV subtype D is associated with dementia, compared with subtype A, in immunosuppressed individuals at risk of cognitive impairment in Kampala, Uganda
    Ned Sacktor
    Departments of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 49:780-6. 2009
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between HIV subtype and the severity of HIV-associated cognitive impairment among individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda...
  22. ncbi Changes in the incidence and predictors of human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Krishnan Bhaskaran
    Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, London, United Kingdom
    Ann Neurol 63:213-21. 2008
    ..We therefore aimed to assess changes over calendar time in the risk for HIV-associated dementia (HIV-D), and factors associated with HIV-D risk...
  23. pmc A coat of many colors: neuroimmune crosstalk in human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Stephanie D Kraft-Terry
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5880, USA
    Neuron 64:133-45. 2009
    ..Better understanding of the complexities of immune regulation during HAND can improve diagnosis and disease outcomes but is also relevant for the pathogenesis of a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders...
  24. pmc HIV-1 neuroimmunity in the era of antiretroviral therapy
    Stephanie D Kraft-Terry
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5880, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 37:542-8. 2010
    ..Current therapeutic approaches are focused on adjunctive and brain-penetrating antiretroviral therapies. These may attenuate virus-associated neuroinflammatory activities thereby decreasing the severity and frequency of HAND...
  25. ncbi Increased glutamate in CSF and plasma of patients with HIV dementia
    C Ferrarese
    Department of Neurology, University of Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy
    Neurology 57:671-5. 2001
    ..Experimental evidence suggests that excitotoxicity might play a major role in HIV-induced neurodegeneration. However, few studies have investigated the role of endogenous glutamate in patients with HIV dementia...
  26. pmc HIV-1 effects on neuropsychological performance in a resource-limited country, Zambia
    Adelina Holguin
    Nebraska Center for Virology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 68583 0900, USA
    AIDS Behav 15:1895-901. 2011
    ..Larger studies that will accommodate gender differences and age are necessary to generate appropriate norms in Zambia in order to better assess the prevalence of HAND in the developing country setting...
  27. ncbi Acquired neuronal channelopathies in HIV-associated dementia
    Benjamin B Gelman
    Texas NeuroAIDS Research Center Department of Pathology, Rt 0785, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0785, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 157:111-9. 2004
    ..The channelopathy concept may have wide relevance to the subcortical dementias...
  28. pmc HIV-subtype A is associated with poorer neuropsychological performance compared with subtype D in antiretroviral therapy-naive Ugandan children
    Michael J Boivin
    International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
    AIDS 24:1163-70. 2010
    ..HIV-subtype D is associated with more rapid disease progression and higher rates of dementia in Ugandan adults compared with HIV-subtype A. There are no data comparing neuropsychological function by HIV subtype in Ugandan children...
  29. doi Drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders/HIV-associated dementia
    Vishnudutt Purohit
    Chemistry and Physiological Systems Research Branch, Division of Basic Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 6001 Executive Boulevard Room 4277, MSC 9555, Bethesda, MD 20892 9555, USA
    Mol Neurobiol 44:102-10. 2011
    ..Increased cell death of dopaminergic neurons can eventually lead to dopamine deficit that may exacerbate the severity and/or accelerate the progression of HAND/HAD...
  30. ncbi SDF-1alpha is expressed in astrocytes and neurons in the AIDS dementia complex: an in vivo and in vitro study
    Kevin Rostasy
    Pediatric Neurology, University of Goettingen, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 62:617-26. 2003
    ..The cellular and regional expression of this chemokine and its relationship to the AIDS dementia complex (ADC), however, have remained undetermined...
  31. ncbi Cells of the central nervous system as targets and reservoirs of the human immunodeficiency virus
    Susanne Kramer-Hammerle
    Institute of Molecular Virology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstadter Landstrasse 1, D 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
    Virus Res 111:194-213. 2005
    ....
  32. ncbi HIV-associated cognitive impairment before and after the advent of combination therapy
    Ned Sacktor
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurovirol 8:136-42. 2002
    ..Even though HAART has reduced the incidence of HIV dementia, HIV-associated cognitive impairment continues to be a major clinical problem among individuals with advanced infection...
  33. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat and methamphetamine affect the release and activation of matrix-degrading proteinases
    Katherine Conant
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Neurovirol 10:21-8. 2004
    ..These results also suggest a potential mechanism for acceleration of HIVD with methamphetamine use...
  34. pmc Fulminant encephalopathy with basal ganglia hyperintensities in HIV-infected drug users
    S D Newsome
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neurology 76:787-94. 2011
    ..To define a clinical syndrome associated with active drug abuse in HIV-infected individuals...
  35. pmc Cliniconeuropathologic correlates of human immunodeficiency virus in the era of antiretroviral therapy
    I Everall
    HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center HNRC, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0603, USA
    J Neurovirol 15:360-70. 2009
    ..Noninfectious pathologies and minimal changes correlated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, suggesting a shift in pathogenesis from florid HIV replication to other, diverse mechanisms...
  36. doi Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorder: pathophysiology in relation to drug addiction
    Avindra Nath
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1187:122-8. 2010
    ..This review examines the literature to date, lists the experimental challenges faced by researchers studying effects of drug addiction on HIV neuropathogenesis, and suggests future directions for research...
  37. ncbi Neurobiology of multiple insults: HIV-1-associated brain disorders in those who use illicit drugs
    Jeanne E Bell
    Neuropathology Division and Forensic Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh, Scotland EH8 9AG, UK
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 1:182-91. 2006
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, which are clinically silent at present, may cause problems in the future in HAART-treated subjects...
  38. ncbi Insulin resistance is associated with cognition among HIV-1-infected patients: the Hawaii Aging With HIV cohort
    Victor G Valcour
    Office of Neurology and Aging Research, University of Hawaii, Leahi Hospital, 3675 Kilauea Avenue, Honolulu, HI 96816, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:405-10. 2006
    ..To determine if insulin resistance (IR) is associated with lower cognitive performance among HIV-1-infected adults and to determine if advanced age magnifies risk...
  39. pmc Loss of the N-linked glycosylation site at position 386 in the HIV envelope V4 region enhances macrophage tropism and is associated with dementia
    Rebecca L Dunfee
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA
    Virology 367:222-34. 2007
    ....
  40. ncbi Neurotrophins prevent HIV Tat-induced neuronal apoptosis via a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent mechanism
    S H Ramirez
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA
    J Neurochem 78:874-89. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that the activation of NF-kappaB by neurotrophic factors may promote survival of neurons exposed to Tat, via regulation of anti-apoptotic genes including Bcl-2...
  41. ncbi Gp120 activates children's brain endothelial cells via CD4
    M F Stins
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, California, USA
    J Neurovirol 7:125-34. 2001
    ..Gp120-induced monocyte migration was inhibited by anti-gp120 and anti-CD4 antibodies. This is the first demonstration that gp120 activates HBMEC via CD4, which may contribute to the development of HIV-1 encephalopathy in children...
  42. ncbi Undetectable cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA and beta-2 microglobulin do not indicate inactive AIDS dementia complex in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated patients
    Lucette A Cysique
    St Vincent s Hospital Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, Sydney, Australia
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 39:426-9. 2005
    To assess whether nonelevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers could delineate inactive AIDS dementia complex (ADC) in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), using neuropsychologic performance change as an ..
  43. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protein Tat induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated neurotoxicity
    Lara Buscemi
    Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Therapeutics, University of North Dakota, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 501 N Columbia Road, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 26:661-70. 2007
    ....
  44. pmc Neurocognitive effects of treatment interruption in stable HIV-positive patients in an observational cohort
    K R Robertson
    Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina, 2128 Physician Office Building, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7025, USA
    Neurology 74:1260-6. 2010
    ..Prior studies have shown improved neurocognition with initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV. We hypothesized that stopping ART would be associated with poorer neurocognitive function...
  45. pmc Resting cerebral blood flow: a potential biomarker of the effects of HIV in the brain
    B M Ances
    Department of Neurology, Washington University in St Louis, MO, USA
    Neurology 73:702-8. 2009
    ..We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC)...
  46. ncbi HIV-infected subjects with the E4 allele for APOE have excess dementia and peripheral neuropathy
    E H Corder
    Genetic Epidemiology, Odense University, Denmark
    Nat Med 4:1182-4. 1998
    ..0001). Thus, neurologic symptoms for HIV-infection and AD are linked through an etiologic risk factor. Long-term survivors of HIV infection with E4 may be at high risk for AD; conversely, gene-viral interactions may speed AD pathogenesis...
  47. pmc Gene expression profiles of HIV-1-infected glia and brain: toward better understanding of the role of astrocytes in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Alejandra Borjabad
    Molecular Virology Division, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital Center, 432 West 58th Street, Antenucci Building, Room 709, New York, NY 10019, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 5:44-62. 2010
    ..Functional genomics, in conjunction with other approaches, may help clarify the role of astrocytes in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis...
  48. ncbi The changing pattern of HIV neuropathology in the HAART era
    Francoise Gray
    Laboratoire de Neuropathologie, Faculte de Medecine Paris Ile de France Ouest, Garches, France
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 62:429-40. 2003
    ..These findings are compared with those reported in other neuropathological studies from different developed countries...
  49. doi Clinical correlates of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in South Africa
    John A Joska
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
    AIDS Behav 14:371-8. 2010
    ..This underlines the impact of HIV on the nervous system and the importance of screening for co morbid mental health conditions...
  50. pmc Dynamics of cognitive change in impaired HIV-positive patients initiating antiretroviral therapy
    L A Cysique
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, CA, USA
    Neurology 73:342-8. 2009
    ....
  51. ncbi Glutamate is a mediator of neurotoxicity in secretions of activated HIV-1-infected macrophages
    Z g Jiang
    Laboratory of Neurotoxicology, NIMH, 10 Center Drive, Room 3D42, NIH, 20892-1262, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 117:97-107. 2001
    ..Glutamate measured in CM accounted for all neurotoxic effects observed from HIV/LPS CM in astrocyte-poor neuronal cultures and may contribute to the pathophysiology of HIV-1-associated dementia...
  52. pmc Pathogenesis of HIV in the central nervous system
    Victor Valcour
    Memory and Aging Center, University of California San Francisco, 94143 1207, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 8:54-61. 2011
    ..This review highlights recent investigations of HIV-related CNS injury with emphasis on cART-era neuropathological mechanisms in the context of both US and international settings...
  53. doi Neurobiology of HIV
    Britta Hult
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    Int Rev Psychiatry 20:3-13. 2008
    ..Given the variable success of the current HAART drugs against virus in the CNS, such therapies would greatly benefit the HIV infected population as they live longer and more productive lives...
  54. pmc HIV-1 Tat activates neuronal ryanodine receptors with rapid induction of the unfolded protein response and mitochondrial hyperpolarization
    John P Norman
    Center for Neural Development and Disease, The University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3731. 2008
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that abnormal RyR signaling mediates the neuronal UPR with failure of mitochondrial energy metabolism, and is a critical locus for the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 in the CNS...
  55. pmc HIV-1 associated dementia: update on pathological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches
    Marcus Kaul
    Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Curr Opin Neurol 22:315-20. 2009
    ..This review will discuss recent progress toward a better understanding of the pathogenesis and an improved design of therapies for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
  56. ncbi Caspase cascades in human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurodegeneration
    Gwenn A Garden
    Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 22:4015-24. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that pharmacologic interventions aimed at the caspase enzyme pathways may be beneficial for the prevention or treatment of HAD...
  57. doi Validity of the CogState brief battery: relationship to standardized tests and sensitivity to cognitive impairment in mild traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and AIDS dementia complex
    Paul Maruff
    CogState Ltd, 7 21 Victoria Street, Melbourne 3000, Australia
    Arch Clin Neuropsychol 24:165-78. 2009
    ..of performance on the CogState tasks in groups of individuals with mild head injury, schizophrenia, and AIDS dementia complex. Each of these groups was impaired on the CogState performance measures (Cohen's d's = -.60 to -1...
  58. pmc Chemokines and activated macrophages in HIV gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis
    M Kaul
    CNS Research Institute, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:8212-6. 1999
    ..Moreover, gp120SF2-induced neuronal apoptosis depends predominantly on an indirect pathway via activation of chemokine receptors on macrophages/microglia, whereas SDF-1 may act directly on neurons or astrocytes...
  59. pmc Increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) env compartmentalization in the presence of HIV-1-associated dementia
    Kimberly Ritola
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UNC Center for AIDS Research, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7295, USA
    J Virol 79:10830-4. 2005
    ..Alternatively, HAD may be associated with a more pronounced state of immunosuppression that permits more extensive replication and independent evolution within the CNS compartment...
  60. ncbi Evolving paradigms in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia
    Tracy Fischer-Smith
    Center for Neurovirology, Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, 1900 N 12th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Med 7:1-26. 2005
    ..Potential therapeutic strategies are also briefly discussed...
  61. ncbi Neuroprotective and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of minocycline
    M Christine Zink
    Department of Comparative Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    JAMA 293:2003-11. 2005
    ..Current antiretroviral drugs are expensive, have significant adverse effects including neurotoxicity, and few cross the blood-brain barrier...
  62. ncbi Cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 infection usually responds well to antiretroviral treatment
    Asa Mellgren
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg, Sweden
    Antivir Ther 10:701-7. 2005
    ..We conclude that the central nervous system (CNS) is usually not a 'sanctuary site', difficult to reach with combination antiretroviral treatment...
  63. ncbi HIV-related neuropathology, 1985 to 1999: rising prevalence of HIV encephalopathy in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Jutta K Neuenburg
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 31:171-7. 2002
    ..Although combination therapies decrease overall mortality and prevalence of CNS opportunistic infections, these therapies may be less active in preventing direct HIV-1 effects on the brain...
  64. pmc Genetic composition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cerebrospinal fluid and blood without treatment and during failing antiretroviral therapy
    M C Strain
    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    J Virol 79:1772-88. 2005
    ....
  65. ncbi Evaluation of HIV RNA and markers of immune activation as predictors of HIV-associated dementia
    J J Sevigny
    Columbia University and The Taub Institute, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neurology 63:2084-90. 2004
    ....
  66. pmc Platelet decline as a predictor of brain injury in HIV infection
    Ann B Ragin
    Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
    J Neurovirol 17:487-95. 2011
    ..Findings from a structural brain imaging substudy of older participants, however, support a possible relationship between platelet decline and reduced gray matter...
  67. ncbi Neurocognitive functioning in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection: effects of combined therapy
    Manisha C Shanbhag
    Division of General Pediatrics, Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:651-6. 2005
    ....
  68. doi HIV, antiretroviral therapies, and the brain
    Kevin J Liner
    Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina, 170 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7025, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 7:85-91. 2010
    ....
  69. pmc A model of human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis in scid mice
    W R Tyor
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:8658-62. 1993
    ..This model of HIV encephalitis should provide insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of this disorder...
  70. pmc Antiretroviral medications disrupt microglial phagocytosis of β-amyloid and increase its production by neurons: implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Brian Giunta
    Neuroimmunology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    Mol Brain 4:23. 2011
    ..Therefore these compounds may consequently contribute to cognitive decline observed in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)...
  71. pmc NanoART, neuroAIDS and CNS drug delivery
    Ari Nowacek
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5880, USA
    Nanomedicine (Lond) 4:557-74. 2009
    ..This article focuses on how nanotechnology can serve to improve the delivery of antiretroviral medicines, termed nanoART, across the BBB and affect the biodistribution and clinical benefit for HIV-1 disease...
  72. pmc Neurocognitive and motor deficits in HIV-infected Ugandan children with high CD4 cell counts
    Theodore D Ruel
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, UCSF Benioff Children s Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0136, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:1001-9. 2012
    ....
  73. ncbi Utility of the HIV dementia scale in assessing risk for significant HIV-related cognitive-motor deficits in a high-risk urban adult sample
    M A Richardson
    Division of Psychiatry, Department of Psychology, Boston University School of Medicine, MA 02215, USA
    AIDS Care 17:1013-21. 2005
    ..However, only 25 of 40 (63%) were correctly classified based on their performance on traditional tests of neuropsychological functioning. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed...
  74. pmc HIV-1-infected astrocytes and the microglial proteome
    Tong Wang
    Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5880, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 3:173-86. 2008
    ..The observations confirmed the potential of astrocytes to influence the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection by specifically altering the neurotoxic potential of infected microglia and regulating viral maturation...
  75. doi Deciphering complex mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases: the advent of systems biology
    Farshid Noorbakhsh
    Department of Medicine, 6 11 Heritage Medical Research Centre, 87 Avenue, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G2S2, Canada
    Trends Neurosci 32:88-100. 2009
    ....
  76. ncbi Neurological disease in HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral treatment: a Brazilian experience
    Jacqueline Ferreira de Oliveira
    Minas Gerais Hospital State Foundation, Hospital Eduardo de Menezes, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 39:146-51. 2006
    ..The neurological diseases continue to be a frequent complication of HIV/AIDS and infections are still its main causes in Brazil, even in the highly active antiretroviral treatment era...
  77. ncbi Adjunctive therapies for HIV-1 associated neurologic disease
    S W Perry
    Center for Aging and Developmental Biology, Kornberg Medical Research Institute, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Neurotox Res 8:161-6. 2005
    ....
  78. pmc In vitro glutaminase regulation and mechanisms of glutamate generation in HIV-1-infected macrophage
    Nathan Erdmann
    Laboratory of Neurotoxicology at the Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 5880, USA
    J Neurochem 109:551-61. 2009
    ..These findings support glutaminase as a potential component of the HAD pathogenic process and identify a possible therapeutic avenue for the treatment of neuroinflammatory states such as HAD...
  79. pmc Glutamate production by HIV-1 infected human macrophage is blocked by the inhibition of glutaminase
    Nathan Erdmann
    Laboratory of Neurotoxicology, Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 5880, USA
    J Neurochem 102:539-49. 2007
    ..These findings support glutaminase as a potential component of the HAD pathogenic process and identify a possible therapeutic avenue for the treatment of neuroinflammatory states such as HAD...
  80. pmc Independent evolution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance mutations in diverse areas of the brain in HIV-infected patients, with and without dementia, on antiretroviral treatment
    Theresa K Smit
    Retroviral Genetics Laboratory, Center for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Darcy Rd, Westmead NSW 2145, Sydney, Australia
    J Virol 78:10133-48. 2004
    b>AIDS dementia complex (ADC) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients continues to be a problem in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  81. doi Nadir CD4 cell count predicts neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients
    Jose A Muñoz-Moreno
    Lluita contra la SIDA Foundation, Germans Trias i Pujol University Hospital, Badalona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:1301-7. 2008
    ..We found differences in neurocognitive functioning in relation to nadir CD4 count in HIV-infected patients. Attention should be given to this value in the management of neurocognitive protection in HIV infection...
  82. ncbi Variable benefit in neuropsychological function in HIV-infected HAART-treated patients
    Lucette A J Cysique
    Faculty of Medicine, St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Neurology 66:1447-50. 2006
    ..A neuroactive HAART regimen was associated with neuropsychological improvement. Decline occurred in a minority with lower nadir CD4. The current CD4 count and plasma viral load were not associated with cognitive change...
  83. doi Does highly active antiretroviral therapy improve neurocognitive function? A systematic review
    John A Joska
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Neurovirol 16:101-14. 2010
    ..Studies examining the long-term effects of HAART on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) using uniform methods of data collection are needed, together with clear reporting of HAART regimens...
  84. pmc Impact of HAART and CNS-penetrating antiretroviral regimens on HIV encephalopathy among perinatally infected children and adolescents
    Kunjal Patel
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    AIDS 23:1893-901. 2009
    ....
  85. ncbi Viruses and the brain: from inflammation to dementia
    Tongguang Wang
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Clin Sci (Lond) 110:393-407. 2006
    ..Understanding these mechanisms should ultimately enable development of immunomodulatory therapies for treating these infections, as well as other neuro-inflammatory conditions...
  86. ncbi Mechanisms of neuronal injury and death in HIV-1 associated dementia
    Marcus Kaul
    Center for Neuroscience and Aging Research, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Curr HIV Res 4:307-18. 2006
    ..This article will review recently identified injurious mechanisms potentially contributing to neuronal death in association with HIV-1 disease and discuss recent and prospective approaches for therapy and prevention of HAD...
  87. pmc Anti-CD45RO suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in microglia: role of Hck tyrosine kinase and implications for AIDS dementia
    Mee Ohk Kim
    Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    J Virol 80:62-72. 2006
    ..alphaCD45RO-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication in microglia identifies the CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase as a potential therapeutic target for HIV-1 infection/AIDS dementia...
  88. pmc Selegiline and oxidative stress in HIV-associated cognitive impairment
    G Schifitto
    University of Rochester, NY, USA
    Neurology 73:1975-81. 2009
    ....
  89. doi Tight junction regulation by morphine and HIV-1 tat modulates blood-brain barrier permeability
    Supriya D Mahajan
    Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Buffalo General Hospital, 301 Multi Research Bldg, 100 High Street, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA
    J Clin Immunol 28:528-41. 2008
    ..These studies may lead to the development of novel anti-HIV-1 therapeutics that target specific TJ proteins, thus preventing TJ disruption in opiate using HIV-1 patients...
  90. ncbi Mononuclear phagocytes mediate blood-brain barrier compromise and neuronal injury during HIV-1-associated dementia
    Y Persidsky
    Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, The Department of Pathology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha 68198 5215, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 68:413-22. 2000
    ..In toto, these works underscore the diverse roles of chemokines in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis and lay the foundation for future therapeutic interventions...
  91. ncbi Highly active antiretroviral therapy reverses brain metabolite abnormalities in mild HIV dementia
    L Chang
    Department of Neurology, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, USA
    Neurology 53:782-9. 1999
    ..To determine whether cerebral metabolite abnormalities normalize with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  92. ncbi Antiretroviral treatment alters relationship between MCP-1 and neurometabolites in HIV patients
    Linda Chang
    Department of Medicine, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai, Honolulu, HI, USA
    Antivir Ther 9:431-40. 2004
    ..The relationships between neurometabolites and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were evaluated in HIV patients before and after antiretroviral treatment...
  93. doi Neurodegeneration and ageing in the HAART era
    Bruce J Brew
    Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, Sydney, Australia
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 4:163-74. 2009
    ..Lastly, there will be a brief discussion of interventions to minimize such neurodegeneration including optimization of HAART for brain entry...
  94. pmc Predictive validity of demographically adjusted normative standards for the HIV Dementia Scale
    Erin E Morgan
    Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego State University and University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
    J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 30:83-90. 2008
    ..The application of demographically adjusted normative standards on the HDS improves the clinical applicability and accuracy of this cognitive screening measure in the detection of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders...
  95. ncbi Neuropathology and neurodegeneration in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pathogenesis of HIV-induced lesions of the brain, correlations with HIV-associated disorders and modifications according to treatments
    F Gray
    Laboratoire de Neuropathologie, Faculté de médecine Paris Ouest, Garches, France
    Clin Neuropathol 20:146-55. 2001
    ..The poor CNS penetration of many antiretroviral agents is a possible explanation, but irreversible "burnt out" HIV-induced CNS changes may also be responsible...
  96. pmc The comorbidity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease: a foreseeable medical challenge in post-HAART era
    Jiqing Xu
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198 5880, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 4:200-12. 2009
    ..A growing awareness of potential convergent mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration shared by HIV and Abeta points to a significant chance of comorbidity of AD and HAND in senile HIV patients, which calls for a need of basic studies...
  97. pmc HIV DNA in circulating monocytes as a mechanism to dementia and other HIV complications
    Victor G Valcour
    Hawaii Center for AIDS, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96816, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 87:621-6. 2010
    ..Herein, we summarize our current understanding of monocyte HIV DNA and central nervous system dysfunction in humans. We present a model to understand these relationships and suggest possible treatment approaches to be tested...
  98. ncbi Molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuronal cell death in HIV dementia
    W Li
    RT Johnson Division of Neuroimmunology and Neurological Infection, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Neurotox Res 8:119-34. 2005
    ....
  99. pmc White matter tract injury and cognitive impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals
    Assawin Gongvatana
    San Diego State University University of California, San Diego, Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego and La Jolla, California, USA
    J Neurovirol 15:187-95. 2009
    ..The study also confirms that CNS injury is evident in persons infected with HIV despite effective antiretroviral treatment...
  100. ncbi The shifting patterns of HIV encephalitis neuropathology
    I P Everall
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0624, USA
    Neurotox Res 8:51-61. 2005
    ..More detailed characterization of these proposed variants of HIVE is important in order to better understand the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurological damage and to design more effective treatments to protect the nervous system...
  101. pmc Tumor necrosis factor-alpha at the crossroads of neuronal life and death during HIV-associated dementia
    Ramendra N Saha
    Department of Oral Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 40th and Holdrege, Lincoln, NE 68583 0740, USA
    J Neurochem 86:1057-71. 2003
    ..The current compilation examines these contradictory concepts, and evaluates their efficacy in the light of TNF-alpha signaling. It also attempts to elaborate the current consensus outlook of TNF-alpha's role during HAD...

Research Grants71

  1. Pathogenesis of Lyme Borreliosis in the Rhesus Monkey
    MARIO PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..burgdorferi and lipoprotein in inflammation and neurodegeneration, specifically, the expression and involvement of pertinent TLR in mediating cytokine production and apoptosis in the different cell combinations. ..
  2. HEROIN AIDS ENCEPHALOPATHY--NEUROPATHOGENESIS MECHANISMS
    Madhavan Nair; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Further studies will elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the immuno- and neuropathogenic effects of heroin use in HIV-l infection, and may yield novel therapies for the treatment of heroin using, HIV-infected patients. ..
  3. Lyme neuroborreliosis pathogenesis in the rhesus monkey
    MARIO PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  4. MOLECULAR STUDIES OF BRAIN NMDA RECEPTORS
    R Suzanne Zukin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Findings from these studies are expected to aid in the development of new strategies for intervention in neurodegenerative disorders. ..
  5. Lyme neuroborreliosis pathogenesis in the rhesus monkey
    MARIO PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  6. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STRATEGIES TARGETING THE HIV SANC
    Bradley Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..HlV disease may suffer a persistent and disabling loss of cognitive and motor function referred to as AIDS dementia complex. HIV induced CNS dysfunction occurs with especially high frequency in HIV infected children, with 88% ..
  7. Improving the CNS Delivery of Anti-retroviral Compounds
    WILLIAM ELMQUIST; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..HIV-1) renders the host susceptible to a variety of serious central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as AIDS dementia complex and HIV-1 encephalopathy...
  8. Gene Therapy of AIDS Dementia
    Roger Pomerantz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a collective term to describe AIDS-related cognitive dysfunction, motor difficulties, ..
  9. MECHANISM OF CIGARETTE SMOKE-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..b>AIDS dementia complex, and transmission of HIV-1 from mother to the offspring...
  10. SHIV ASSOCIATED ENCEPHALOPATHY
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) develop a neurological disease known as HIV- associated cognitive/motor complex or AIDS dementia complex. In this application, we propose to use a pathogenic, molecular clone of simian- human immunodeficiency ..