post concussion syndrome

Summary

Summary: The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Post concussion syndrome
    Laurie M Ryan
    Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, Department of Neurology, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20012, USA
    Int Rev Psychiatry 15:310-6. 2003
  2. ncbi Regulatory and autoregulatory physiological dysfunction as a primary characteristic of post concussion syndrome: implications for treatment
    John J Leddy
    State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USA
    NeuroRehabilitation 22:199-205. 2007
  3. ncbi Post concussion syndrome: the attraction of the psychological by the organic
    A D Sandy Macleod
    Brain Injury Rehabilitation Service, Burwood Hospital, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
    Med Hypotheses 74:1033-5. 2010
  4. ncbi Early predictors of post-concussion symptoms in patients with mild head injury
    O Savola
    Department of Neurology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
    Eur J Neurol 10:175-81. 2003
  5. ncbi A controlled prospective inception cohort study on the post-concussion syndrome outside the medicolegal context
    D Mickeviciene
    Department of Neurology, Red Cross Hospital, Kaunas, Lithuania
    Eur J Neurol 11:411-9. 2004
  6. ncbi A controlled historical cohort study on the post-concussion syndrome
    D Mickeviciene
    Department of Neurology, Emergency Ward, Red Cross Hospital, Lithuania
    Eur J Neurol 9:581-7. 2002
  7. ncbi Factors related to recovery after mild traumatic brain injury
    G Mooney
    Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
    Brain Inj 19:975-87. 2005
  8. ncbi Cumulative effects of concussion in amateur athletes
    Grant L Iverson
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Brain Inj 18:433-43. 2004
  9. ncbi Diagnostic criteria for postconcussional syndrome after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury
    Corwin Boake
    Baylor College of Medicine University of Texas Houston Medical School, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Houston, TX 77030 3405, USA
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 17:350-6. 2005
  10. ncbi Mild traumatic brain injury does not predict acute postconcussion syndrome
    S Meares
    Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:300-6. 2008

Detail Information

Publications217 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Post concussion syndrome
    Laurie M Ryan
    Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, Department of Neurology, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20012, USA
    Int Rev Psychiatry 15:310-6. 2003
    ..When this cluster of PCS is persistent in nature, it is often called the post concussion syndrome or persistent PCS...
  2. ncbi Regulatory and autoregulatory physiological dysfunction as a primary characteristic of post concussion syndrome: implications for treatment
    John J Leddy
    State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USA
    NeuroRehabilitation 22:199-205. 2007
    ....
  3. ncbi Post concussion syndrome: the attraction of the psychological by the organic
    A D Sandy Macleod
    Brain Injury Rehabilitation Service, Burwood Hospital, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
    Med Hypotheses 74:1033-5. 2010
    ..A seemingly trivial head injury may result in enduring symptoms. The validity of post concussion syndrome (PCS) has been the focus of much medico-legal debate, as has its cause...
  4. ncbi Early predictors of post-concussion symptoms in patients with mild head injury
    O Savola
    Department of Neurology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
    Eur J Neurol 10:175-81. 2003
    ..The presence of skull fracture, elevated serum protein S-100B, dizziness, and headache may help the emergency room physician to identify patients at risk of PCSs and to refer them for further examination and follow-up...
  5. ncbi A controlled prospective inception cohort study on the post-concussion syndrome outside the medicolegal context
    D Mickeviciene
    Department of Neurology, Red Cross Hospital, Kaunas, Lithuania
    Eur J Neurol 11:411-9. 2004
    ..Sociodemographic factors and expectation seem to influence reporting of symptoms after concussion...
  6. ncbi A controlled historical cohort study on the post-concussion syndrome
    D Mickeviciene
    Department of Neurology, Emergency Ward, Red Cross Hospital, Lithuania
    Eur J Neurol 9:581-7. 2002
    ..No specific effect of the head injury was detected when various definitions and different constellations of core symptoms of PCS were used. These findings question the validity of the PCS as a useful clinical entity...
  7. ncbi Factors related to recovery after mild traumatic brain injury
    G Mooney
    Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
    Brain Inj 19:975-87. 2005
    ..To study the variables that relate to outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
  8. ncbi Cumulative effects of concussion in amateur athletes
    Grant L Iverson
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Brain Inj 18:433-43. 2004
    ..To examine the possibility that athletes with multiple concussions show cumulative effects of injury...
  9. ncbi Diagnostic criteria for postconcussional syndrome after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury
    Corwin Boake
    Baylor College of Medicine University of Texas Houston Medical School, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Houston, TX 77030 3405, USA
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 17:350-6. 2005
    ..The authors conclude that further refinement of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for PCS is needed before these criteria are routinely employed...
  10. ncbi Mild traumatic brain injury does not predict acute postconcussion syndrome
    S Meares
    Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:300-6. 2008
    ..Identifying acute PCS (within the first 14 days after injury) may optimise initial recovery and rehabilitation, identify those at risk and increase understanding of PCS...
  11. ncbi Controversies in the sequelae of pediatric mild traumatic brain injury
    Lois K Lee
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 23:580-3; quiz 584-6. 2007
    ..This article will review the literature on the sequelae of pediatric mild brain injury and discuss areas of controversy...
  12. ncbi Prolonged effects of concussion in high school athletes
    Rosemarie Scolaro Moser
    RSM Psychology Center, LLC, Lawrenceville, New Jersey 08648, USA
    Neurosurgery 57:300-6; discussion 300-6. 2005
    ..To identify enduring prolonged neuropsychological effects of cerebral concussion in high school youth athletes...
  13. ncbi Postconcussional disorder: Are the DSM-IV criteria an improvement over the ICD-10?
    Stephen R McCauley
    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Alliance of Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 193:540-50. 2005
    ..There is no compelling evidence, based on these outcome domains, to suggest which of the two diagnostic criteria sets should be clinically preferred...
  14. ncbi Concussion management in the child and adolescent athlete
    Mark R Lovell
    Sports Medicine Concussion Program, The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, North Huntingdon, PA 15203, USA
    Curr Sports Med Rep 7:12-5. 2008
    ..Neurodevelopmental differences between adult and child athletes are highlighted and new developments in the management of concussion in youth sports are discussed...
  15. ncbi Community integration, social support and life satisfaction in relation to symptoms 3 years after mild traumatic brain injury
    B M Stålnacke
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umea University, Sweden
    Brain Inj 21:933-42. 2007
    ....
  16. ncbi Traumatic brain injury--the need for support and follow up
    John Olver
    Monash University
    Aust Fam Physician 34:269-71. 2005
    ..Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is the commonest type of brain injury. It is sometimes difficult to select patients who require ongoing follow up to avoid the sequelae of MTBI...
  17. ncbi Sport-related concussion: factors associated with prolonged return to play
    Chad A Asplund
    Department of Family Practice, DeWitt Army Community Hospital, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060, USA
    Clin J Sport Med 14:339-43. 2004
    ..To assess predictive value of concussion signs and symptoms based on return-to-play timelines...
  18. ncbi Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. Soldiers returning from Iraq
    Charles W Hoge
    Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, U S Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:453-63. 2008
    ..However, the epidemiology of combat-related mild traumatic brain injury is poorly understood...
  19. ncbi Return to play after concussion: principles and practice
    James Kissick
    Ottawa Sport Medicine Centre, 39 Goulding Cr, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2K 2N9
    Clin J Sport Med 15:426-31. 2005
    ....
  20. ncbi Recovery from sports concussion in high school and collegiate athletes
    Michael P McClincy
    University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Brain Inj 20:33-9. 2006
    ..Neuropsychological testing is a valuable tool in concussion diagnosis and management. ImPACT, a computerized neuropsychological testing program, consists of eight cognitive tasks and a 21-item symptom inventory...
  21. ncbi The relationship of psychological and cognitive factors and opioids in the development of the postconcussion syndrome in general trauma patients with mild traumatic brain injury
    Susanne Meares
    Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, New South Wales, Australia
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 12:792-801. 2006
    ..The results suggest that psychological factors are present much earlier than has previously been considered in the development of the PCS...
  22. ncbi Impact of creatine kinase correction on the predictive value of S-100B after mild traumatic brain injury
    Jeffrey J Bazarian
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY, USA
    Restor Neurol Neurosci 24:163-72. 2006
    ..To validate a correction factor for the extracranial release of the astroglial protein, S-100B, based on concomitant creatine kinase (CK) levels...
  23. ncbi Serum S-100B and cleaved-tau are poor predictors of long-term outcome after mild traumatic brain injury
    Jeffrey J Bazarian
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York 14472, USA
    Brain Inj 20:759-65. 2006
    ..To determine the relationship of serum S-100B and C-tau levels to long-term outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI)...
  24. ncbi The characteristics of patients who do not seek medical treatment for traumatic brain injury
    Lon Setnik
    The Elliot Hospital, Manchester, NH, USA
    Brain Inj 21:1-9. 2007
    ..To identify factors associated with not seeking medical care for traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
  25. pmc A validation of the post concussion symptom scale in the assessment of complex concussion using cognitive testing and functional MRI
    Jen Kai Chen
    Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 78:1231-8. 2007
    ..Clinical assessment of cerebral concussion relies on the presence and duration of post concussive symptoms (PCS). Given that these PCS are subjective reports and not always specific to concussion, their usefulness remains to be validated...
  26. ncbi Examination of postconcussion-like symptoms in healthy university students: relationships to subjective and objective neuropsychological function performance
    Ya Wang
    Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    Arch Clin Neuropsychol 21:339-47. 2006
    ....
  27. pmc Neurocognitive and neuroimaging correlates of pediatric traumatic brain injury: a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study
    Jeffrey R Wozniak
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota Medical Center, 2450 Riverside Avenue, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA
    Arch Clin Neuropsychol 22:555-68. 2007
    ..Parent-reported executive deficits were inversely correlated with FA. Results suggest that DTI measures are sensitive to long-term WM changes and associated with cognitive functioning following pediatric TBI...
  28. ncbi Cognitive functioning and postconcussive symptoms in trauma patients with and without mild TBI
    Nancy Landre
    Neuropsychology Service, Parkside Building, Suite 690, Advocate Lutheran General Hospital, 1775 Dempster Street, Park Ridge, IL 60068, United States
    Arch Clin Neuropsychol 21:255-73. 2006
    ..Postconcussive symptoms were similarly unrelated to pain severity, but were consistently related to emotional distress. Results are discussed in terms of their etiological and treatment implications...
  29. ncbi One-year follow-up of mild traumatic brain injury: cognition, disability and life satisfaction of patients seeking consultation
    Britt Marie Stålnacke
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umea University Hospital, Umea, Sweden
    J Rehabil Med 39:405-11. 2007
    ..To investigate cognitive function, symptoms, disabilities and life satisfaction of patients with mild traumatic brain injury who accepted consultation one year post-trauma...
  30. ncbi The school of hard knocks
    Carmen Peota
    Minn Med 89:10-2. 2006
  31. ncbi Natural history of the long-term cognitive, affective, and physical sequelae of mild traumatic brain injury
    T McHugh
    Brain Cogn 60:209-11. 2006
    ..Asymptomatic MTBI participants improved in overall level of functioning from 4 to 7 months, but remained significantly different from NC participants in their reduced verbal fluency and working memory functioning...
  32. ncbi Pediatric sport-related concussion: a review of the clinical management of an oft-neglected population
    Michael W Kirkwood
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Children s Hospital, Denver, Colorado, USA
    Pediatrics 117:1359-71. 2006
    ..We also briefly cover non-sport-related interventions (eg, school support). With proper management, most children and adolescents sustaining a sport-related concussion can be expected to recover fully...
  33. ncbi The effect of major depression on subjective and objective cognitive deficits in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury
    Laury Chamelian
    Sunnybrook and Women, s College Health Sciences Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Toronto, ON, M4N 3M5
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 18:33-8. 2006
    ..In mild to moderate TBI, subjective cognitive deficits are linked in large measure to comorbid major depression. However, other mechanisms may also account for these deficits...
  34. pmc Are mild head injuries as mild as we think? Neurobehavioral concomitants of chronic post-concussion syndrome
    Annette Sterr
    School of Human Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
    BMC Neurol 6:7. 2006
    ..Thereby, the performance deficits should be most noticeable in participants with highest PCS severity...
  35. ncbi Evaluating the utility of ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for postconcussion syndrome following mild traumatic brain injury
    Shauna Kashluba
    Department of Psychology, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 12:111-8. 2006
    ..The ICD-10 PCS symptoms were unable to accurately classify the MTBI patients at three months post-injury...
  36. pmc Cognition in the days following concussion: comparison of symptomatic versus asymptomatic athletes
    A Collie
    Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 77:241-5. 2006
    ..This study compared post-concussion cognitive function in recently concussed athletes who were symptomatic/asymptomatic at the time of assessment with that of non-injured (control) athletes...
  37. ncbi Symptoms and disability until 3 months after mild TBI
    A Lundin
    Department of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain Inj 20:799-806. 2006
    ..Examine frequency, character and course of symptoms until 3 months after MTBI and the relation between symptoms and disability...
  38. pmc A punch drunk jockey?
    P McCrory
    British Journal of Sports Medicine, Melbourne, Australia
    Br J Sports Med 38:e3. 2004
    ..The case is reported of a retired professional jockey with progressive memory loss. The concern is that he may be suffering from chronic traumatic encephalopathy or the "punch drunk syndrome"...
  39. ncbi Treatment of recurrent concussion
    Paul McCrory
    Centre for Sports Medicine Research and Education, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
    Curr Sports Med Rep 1:28-32. 2002
    ..This paper discusses such issues...
  40. pmc Saccadometry: the possible application of latency distribution measurement for monitoring concussion
    B C Pearson
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, UK
    Br J Sports Med 41:610-2. 2007
    ..This quantitative, objective and easy to use technique should perhaps be deployed more widely to evaluate its potential in monitoring the effects of sports-related head injuries...
  41. ncbi 2002 Refshauge Lecture. When to retire after concussion?
    P McCrory
    Centre for Sports Medicine Research and Education, Brain Research Institute, University of Melbourne, Australia
    J Sci Med Sport 5:169-82. 2002
    ....
  42. ncbi On-field predictors of neuropsychological and symptom deficit following sports-related concussion
    Michael W Collins
    UPMC Sports Concussion Program, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Center for Sports Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 3200 South Water Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203, U S A
    Clin J Sport Med 13:222-9. 2003
    ..Investigate the relationship between on-field markers of concussion severity and postinjury neuropsychological and symptom presentation in an athlete-specific population...
  43. ncbi Does age play a role in recovery from sports-related concussion? A comparison of high school and collegiate athletes
    Melvin Field
    Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Center for Sports Medicine, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Pediatr 142:546-53. 2003
    ..To evaluate symptoms and neurocognitive recovery patterns after sports-related concussion in high school and college athletes...
  44. ncbi Postconcussive symptom report: the relative influence of head injury and depression
    Julie A Suhr
    Department of Psychology, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
    J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 24:981-93. 2002
    ..Thus, report of cognitive PCS symptoms is not specific to head injury, raising concerns about using such items to screen for head injury in the general population...
  45. ncbi Contemporary issues in mild traumatic brain injury
    Peter M Rees
    Department of Neurology, Burnaby Hospital, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 84:1885-94. 2003
    ..To determine (1) minimum criteria in adults for clinical diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and (2) whether persistent postconcussive syndrome exists as a nosologic entity...
  46. ncbi Toward an evidence-based approach in the management of concussion: the role of neuroimaging
    David Kushner
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 23:1442-4. 2002
  47. ncbi Use of specific malingering measures in a Spanish sample
    Raquel Vilar-Lopez
    Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluacion y Tratamiento Psicologico, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
    J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 30:710-22. 2008
    ..The results show that both the Victoria Symptom Validity Test and the b Test can be used to detect malingering in Spanish population. However, some restrictions must be applied when the Rey 15-Item Test is administered and interpreted...
  48. ncbi Objective documentation of traumatic brain injury subsequent to mild head trauma: multimodal brain imaging with MEG, SPECT, and MRI
    Jeffrey David Lewine
    Department of Radiology, The University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    J Head Trauma Rehabil 22:141-55. 2007
    ....
  49. ncbi Visual p300 effects beyond symptoms in concussed college athletes
    Marc E Lavoie
    Departement de Psychologie, Groupe de Recherche en Neuropsychologie Experimentale, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 26:55-73. 2004
    ....
  50. pmc Statistical procedures for determining the extent of cognitive change following concussion
    A Collie
    Center for Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Br J Sports Med 38:273-8. 2004
    ..A case example is used to illustrate the effect that the statistical approach may have on clinical decision making...
  51. ncbi Understanding sequelae of injury mechanisms and mild traumatic brain injury incurred during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan: persistent postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder
    Aaron I Schneiderman
    War Related Illness and Injury Study Center, Washington DC VA Medical Center, Washington, DC 20422, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 167:1446-52. 2008
    ..72, 3.28). The strongest factor associated with postconcussive symptoms was PTSD, even after overlapping symptoms were removed from the PTSD score (prevalence ratio = 3.79, 95% confidence interval: 2.57, 5.59)...
  52. ncbi Causes and time-course of vertigo in an ear, nose, and throat clinic
    Suwicha Isaradisaikul
    Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, 110 Intawaroros Road, Sriphum, Mueang, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 267:1837-41. 2010
    ..The three most common causes were BPPV, Meniere's disease, and sudden idiopathic hearing loss. Half of the cases who returned for follow up had remitted symptoms within 4 weeks...
  53. ncbi The neurophysiology of concussion
    Nigel A Shaw
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1, New Zealand
    Prog Neurobiol 67:281-344. 2002
    ....
  54. ncbi Electroencephalogram and evoked potential parameters examined in Chinese mild head injury patients for forensic medicine
    Xi Ping Chen
    Forensic Brain Laboratory, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007, China Human Brain Mapping and Cortical Imaging Laboratory, Aalborg University, Fred Bajersvej 7D3 DK 9220, Aalborg, Denmark E mail
    Neurosci Bull 22:165-70. 2006
    ..The study suggests that combination of EEG and EP parameters can contribute to the evaluation of brain function as a whole for clinical and forensic applications...
  55. ncbi The clinical value of serum S-100 protein measurements in minor head injury: a Scandinavian multicentre study
    T Ingebrigtsen
    Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Tromsø, Norway
    Brain Inj 14:1047-55. 2000
    ..Increased serum levels of this protein were hypothetized to predict intracranial pathology and increased frequency of post-concussion symptoms...
  56. ncbi Diffusion tensor imaging of mild to moderate blast-related traumatic brain injury and its sequelae
    Harvey S Levin
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Neurotrauma 27:683-94. 2010
    ..Our data do not show WM injury in mild to moderate blast-related TBI in veterans despite their residual symptoms and difficulty in verbal memory. Limitations of the study and implications for future research are also discussed...
  57. ncbi Canadian minor hockey participants' knowledge about concussion
    Michael D Cusimano
    Injury Prevention Research Office, Division of Neurosurgery, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Neurol Sci 36:315-20. 2009
    ..The purpose of this research is to describe what minor league hockey players, coaches, parents and trainers know about concussion and its management...
  58. ncbi Occurrence of epilepsy during the first 10 years after traumatic brain injury acquired in childhood up to the age of 18 years in the south western Swedish population-based series
    I Emanuelson
    Institution for Clinical Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
    Brain Inj 23:612-6. 2009
    ..The risk of seizures is increased after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the impact and duration of this increased risk is not well characterized in children...
  59. ncbi MR imaging in the detection of diffuse axonal injury with mild traumatic brain injury
    Naile Bolca Topal
    Department of Radiology, Uludag University Medical School, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa, Turkey
    Neurol Res 30:974-8. 2008
    ..To evaluate the occurrence and distribution of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) caused by diffuse axonal injury (DAI) using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to attempt to correlate MR findings with post-concussion symptoms (PCS)...
  60. ncbi Attentional deficits in patients with post-concussion symptoms: a componential perspective
    R C Chan
    Department of Psychology, The University of Hong Kong, PR China
    Brain Inj 15:71-94. 2001
    ..It is hoped that a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of such defects will foster and guide the development of intervention...
  61. ncbi Relationship between symptoms and psychological factors five years after whiplash injury
    Britt Marie Stålnacke
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation Rehabilitation Medicine, Bldg 9A, Umea University Hospital, Umea University, SE 90185 Umeå, Sweden
    J Rehabil Med 41:353-9. 2009
    ....
  62. ncbi [Mild brain injury: forensic sciences and indemnification]
    M A Ceccaldi
    Cabinet d Avocats Preziosi Ceccaldi, Marseille, France
    Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac 107:312-6. 2006
    ..It is particularly important to improve the nomenclature of the different kinds of injuries to reach a better indemnification for those patients who suffer from their trauma their entire life...
  63. ncbi Quality of life in children after mild head injury
    Virginia Rotarescu
    Neurosurgical Department, Clinical Hospital Bagdasar Arseni, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
    J Med Life 1:307-22. 2008
    ..The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Mild Head Injury (MHI) in children not only in terms of impairment, but also in terms of disability, handicap and quality of life (QOL)...
  64. pmc Impact of early intervention on outcome following mild head injury in adults
    J Ponsford
    Monash Epworth Rehabilitation Research Centre, Epworth Hospital, Richmond, Victoria, Australia
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 73:330-2. 2002
    ..The impact of mild head injury is variable and determinants of outcome remain poorly understood. Results of previous intervention studies have been mixed...
  65. ncbi Continuum of care model for managing mild traumatic brain injury in a workers' compensation context: a description of the model and its development
    Jeremy M Rose
    Millard Health, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Brain Inj 19:29-39. 2005
    ..Local and international experts in the field of brain injury assessment and rehabilitation also contributed to the development of the final model...
  66. ncbi Association between combat stress and post-concussive symptom reporting in OEF/OIF service members with mild traumatic brain injuries
    Douglas B Cooper
    Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Brooke Army Medical Center, Ft Sam Houston, TX, USA
    Brain Inj 25:1-7. 2011
    ..It was hypothesized that the co-occurrence of combat stress would have a significant effect on the severity of post-concussive complaints, specifically on emotional and cognitive symptoms...
  67. ncbi The effects of motivation, coaching, and knowledge of neuropsychology on the simulated malingering of head injury
    Kristi Erdal
    Department of Psychology, The Colorado College, 14 East Cache La Poudre Street, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, USA
    Arch Clin Neuropsychol 19:73-88. 2004
    ....
  68. ncbi Integrated imaging approach with MEG and DTI to detect mild traumatic brain injury in military and civilian patients
    Ming Xiong Huang
    Research, Radiology, Rehabilitation, and Psychiatry Services, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, USA
    J Neurotrauma 26:1213-26. 2009
    ....
  69. ncbi [Mild head trauma: complications and acousticovestibular sequelae]
    M Granier
    Service d Oto Rhino Laryngologie et de Chirurgie Cervico faciale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Besancon, France
    Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac 107:253-63. 2006
    ..Among labyrinthine involvement, especially unilateral destruction, fistulization, concussion, and post concussion syndrome are especially descripted. Bony dislocations dominate middle ear sequelae...
  70. ncbi Five-year outcome after mild head injury: a prospective controlled study
    A S Jakola
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway
    Acta Neurol Scand 115:398-402. 2007
    ..To study the prevalence of post-concussion symptoms (PCS) 5-7 years after mild head injury (MHI) and to investigate whether patients suffer from more symptoms than the normal population...
  71. ncbi Base rate of post-concussion symptoms among normal people and its neuropsychological correlates
    R C Chan
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, China
    Clin Rehabil 15:266-73. 2001
    ..To explore the base rate of symptoms similar to those of post-concussion symptoms (PCS) among a group of participants without head injury. The effect of subjective complaints upon cognitive functioning was also examined...
  72. ncbi A preliminary study of subsymptom threshold exercise training for refractory post-concussion syndrome
    John J Leddy
    Department of Orthopaedics, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
    Clin J Sport Med 20:21-7. 2010
    ..To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of subsymptom threshold exercise training for the treatment of post-concussion syndrome (PCS)...
  73. pmc Relationships among post-concussive symptoms and symptoms of PTSD in children following mild traumatic brain injury
    Christine A Hajek
    Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
    Brain Inj 24:100-9. 2010
    ..To investigate the occurrence of post-concussive symptoms (PCS) and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children following mild traumatic brain injuries (TBI)...
  74. pmc Traumatic brain injury
    Jane E Risdall
    Surgeon Commander, Royal Navy, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366:241-50. 2011
    ....
  75. ncbi Management of concussion and post-concussion syndrome
    Barry Willer
    University at Buffalo, G 96 Farber Hall, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
    Curr Treat Options Neurol 8:415-26. 2006
    ..Lastly, we suggest a promising new direction for helping patients recover from PCS...
  76. ncbi Elevated serum S-100B protein as a predictor of failure to short-term return to work or activities after mild head injury
    George Stranjalis
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Athens, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece
    J Neurotrauma 21:1070-5. 2004
    ....
  77. ncbi Classification of brain-stem trigeminal evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis, minor head injuries and post-concussion syndrome pathologies by similarity measurements
    H Guterman
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P O B 653, 84105, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Int J Med Inform 60:303-18. 2000
    ..55% and 84.1% for MS and PCS pathologies, respectively, was achieved. This performance compares favorably to the classification rates of 84.28% for MS and 70.47% for PCS pathologies achieved by human experts...
  78. ncbi Electrophysiological indices of persistent post-concussion symptoms
    M Gaetz
    Brain Behaviour Laboratory, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Brain Inj 14:815-32. 2000
    ..This opinion has changed somewhat in recent years, based on the scientific evidence and popular cases in the media that suggest MHI can result in damage that can, in some cases, lead to long-term cognitive sequelae...
  79. pmc Low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy and SPECT brain imaging in the treatment of blast-induced chronic traumatic brain injury (post-concussion syndrome) and post traumatic stress disorder: a case report
    Paul G Harch
    Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2021 Perdido St, Room W535, New Orleans, Louisiana, 70112, USA
    Cases J 2:6538. 2009
    A 25-year-old male military veteran presented with diagnoses of post concussion syndrome and post traumatic stress disorder three years after loss of consciousness from an explosion in combat...
  80. ncbi Diffusion tensor imaging of acute mild traumatic brain injury in adolescents
    E A Wilde
    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Alliance of Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77025, USA
    Neurology 70:948-55. 2008
    ..Despite normal CT imaging and neurologic functioning, many individuals report postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). This dissociation has been enigmatic for clinicians and investigators...
  81. ncbi Recovery in the first year after mild head injury: divergence of symptom status and self-perceived quality of life
    Marcus H Heitger
    Van der Veer Institute for Parkinson s and Brain Research, Christchurch, New Zealand
    J Rehabil Med 39:612-21. 2007
    ..To examine self-perceived health status during the first year following mild closed head injury...
  82. ncbi Characterizing 'mild' in traumatic brain injury with proton MR spectroscopy in the thalamus: Initial findings
    Ivan Kirov
    Department of Radiology, New York, USA
    Brain Inj 21:1147-54. 2007
    ..The aim here, therefore, is to characterize their thalamic metabolite levels with proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) compared with healthy controls...
  83. ncbi Commentary on Delis and Wetter, "Cogniform disorder and cogniform condition: proposed diagnoses for excessive cognitive symptoms"
    Glenn J Larrabee
    2650 Bahia Vista St 308, Sarasota, FL 34239, USA
    Arch Clin Neuropsychol 22:683-7. 2007
    ..Chronic post-concussion syndrome is considered as a specific example of a Cogniform Disorder or Condition...
  84. ncbi Neurometabolic changes in the acute phase after sports concussions correlate with symptom severity
    Luke C Henry
    Centre de Recherche en Neuropsychologie et Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Neurotrauma 27:65-76. 2010
    ....
  85. pmc Post-concussive symptoms in children with mild traumatic brain injury
    H Gerry Taylor
    Case Western Reserve University
    Neuropsychology 24:148-59. 2010
    ..The findings validate both transient and persistent PCS in children with mTBI and document associations of symptoms with injury and noninjury factors...
  86. ncbi An examination of the base rates of post-concussion symptoms: the influence of demographics and depression
    Natalie Garden
    Clinical Neuropsychology Research Group, School of Psychology and Counseling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4059, Australia
    Appl Neuropsychol 17:1-7. 2010
    ..This study adds to the growing body of literature that calls for caution in the clinical interpretation of results from PCS symptom inventories...
  87. ncbi DHEAS repeated treatment improves cognitive and behavioral deficits after mild traumatic brain injury
    A Milman
    Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Israel
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 18:181-7. 2008
    ..001), meaning that DHEAS has beneficial effects only when given to injured animals. Our results demonstrate that the long-term cognitive and behavioral effects induced by mTBI may be improved by a repeated weekly treatment with DHEAS...
  88. ncbi Comprehensive clinical picture of patients with complicated vs uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury
    Elaine de Guise
    Traumatic Brain Injury Program, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Neuropsychol 24:1113-30. 2010
    ..The groups showed no other difference in neurological, psychological, or cognitive outcome. A complete neurological examination should be done acutely in patients with MTBI to determine more specific follow-up required...
  89. ncbi Relationship between competency in activities, injury severity, and post-concussion symptoms after traumatic brain injury
    Unni Sveen
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Oslo, Norway
    Scand J Occup Ther 17:225-32. 2010
    ..To determine to what extent injury severity and post-concussion symptoms after 3 months predict ability in activities 12 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and assess the frequency of problems in daily activities...
  90. ncbi Long-term electrophysiological changes in athletes with a history of multiple concussions
    Louis De Beaumont
    Centre de Recherche en Neuropsychologie et Cognition, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Canada
    Brain Inj 21:631-44. 2007
    ..This event-related potentials study investigated the long-term effects associated with a history of one or multiple concussions on the N2pc and P3 components using a visual search oddball paradigm...
  91. pmc Second impact syndrome
    Tareg Bey
    University of California, Irvine School of Medicine
    West J Emerg Med 10:6-10. 2009
    ..Furthermore, we present guidelines for appropriate follow up and evaluation by a specialist when necessary...
  92. ncbi Exploring children's self-efficacy related to physical activity performance after a mild traumatic brain injury
    Isabelle Gagnon
    Ecole de readaptation, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Canada
    J Head Trauma Rehabil 20:436-49. 2005
    ....
  93. ncbi The impact of major depression on outcome following mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury in older adults
    Mark J Rapoport
    Sunnybrook and Women s College Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Affect Disord 92:273-6. 2006
    ..Major depression is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet no studies to date have explored its relationship to psychosocial outcome in older adults with TBI...
  94. ncbi [The detection of possible cases of simulation after a traumatic brain injury]
    J M Muñoz Céspedes
    Servicio de Psiquiatria, Unidad de Daño Cerebral, Hospital Beata Ma Ana, Madrid, 28007, Spain
    Rev Neurol 32:773-8. 2001
    ....
  95. ncbi Latent structure of the Test of Everyday Attention: convergent evidence from patients with traumatic brain injury
    Raymond C K Chan
    Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, PR China
    Brain Inj 20:653-9. 2006
    ..The present study aimed to examine the nature of attention distinctions among sub-tests of the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA) underlying the performance of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
  96. ncbi Abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging seen acutely following mild traumatic brain injury: correlation with neuropsychological tests and delayed recovery
    David G Hughes
    Department of Neuroradiology, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford, UK
    Neuroradiology 46:550-8. 2004
    ..Although non-specific abnormalities are frequently seen, standard MRI techniques are not helpful in identifying patients with MTBI who are likely to have delayed recovery...
  97. ncbi [The nature, diagnosis and treatment of post-concussion syndrome]
    J M Muñoz-Céspedes
    Departamento de Psicología Básica Procesos Cognitivos, Facultad de Psicologia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Espana
    Rev Neurol 27:844-53. 1998
    ..The relationship between brief loss of consciousness, subsequent cognitive and emotional complaints, and impact on daily functioning continues to be hotly debated...
  98. ncbi Reliability and validity of a computerized neurocognitive test battery, CNS Vital Signs
    C Thomas Gualtieri
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, North Carolina Neuropsychiatry Clinics, 400 Franklin Square, 1829 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill NC 2751, USA
    Arch Clin Neuropsychol 21:623-43. 2006
    ..But it is not a substitute for formal neuropsychological testing, it is not diagnostic, and it will have only a limited role in the medical setting, absent the active participation of consulting neuropsychologists...
  99. ncbi Panic disorder in a patient with traumatic brain injury: a case report and discussion
    M H Scheutzow
    Carolinas Medical Center, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Charlotte Institute of Rehabilitation, NC, USA
    Brain Inj 13:705-14. 1999
    ..Rehabilitation specialists should be aware of the manifestations and management of panic attacks and come to appreciate that recognition of this treatable condition is important during all stages of rehabilitation...
  100. ncbi Relation between subjective fogginess and neuropsychological testing following concussion
    Grant L Iverson
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 10:904-6. 2004
    ..Thus, athletes with any degree of self-reported fogginess at one-week post injury are likely to have adverse effects from their concussions in multiple domains...
  101. ncbi Post-concussion syndrome
    Kevin Foy
    Department of Psychiatry, Deaumont Hosptial, Dublin, UK
    Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 70:440-3. 2009
    ..This article examines the clinical features, epidemiology, aetiology and treatment of the condition...

Research Grants37

  1. Pediatric Mild Head Injury: Definition and Consequences
    Ronald Maio; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This study will contribute to the consistent definition of MTBI in children and set the stage for further investigations of the long-term consequences of head injury in children. ..
  2. Gender Differences in Dopamine Function after TBI
    Amy Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  3. Amygdala Response to Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury
    Jonathan Lifshitz; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This research effort may lead to novel treatments for the affective disorders in an otherwise healthy brain-injured population, in addition to post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. ..
  4. CONTROLLED TRIAL OF SERTRALINE FOR DEPRESSION AFTER TBI
    Charles Bombardier; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Secondary hypotheses to be tested include whether sertraline leads to greater improvement in neuropsychological test performance, post-concussive symptoms and self-reported health status as measured by the SF 36. ..
  5. Frontal Lobe Injury and Executive Control of Cognition and Emotion
    Diane Swick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since these conditions can result in tremendous losses of productivity, the development of more sensitive assessments of brain health can assist in tailoring rehabilitation efforts to the needs of individual patients. ..
  6. Exploring the Physiology of Short-term Control of Cerebral Blood Flow in Humans
    J Andrew Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ....
  7. Identifying mTBI Subtypes and their Implications for Recovery and Reintegration
    Mark Meterko; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  8. Regional Cerebral Metabolism in Blast-Induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
    Gholam R Berenji; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The severity and extent of abnormal RCM findings will serve as an objective measurement for clinical evaluation, and possibly prognosis of mild TBI. ..
  9. Interactive Training for Sports Concussion Prevention and Management
    ANN E GLANG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In response to this public health problem, the proposed Internet programs will train coaches, athletic staff, student athletes, parents, and school administrators how to recognize, respond to, and manage a sports concussion. ..
  10. Neurosensory Assessments of Concussion
    Mark A Tommerdahl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The overall long term goal of the work is to develop standardized measures of CNS health that can be utilized to compliment the assessments currently used for concussion/TBI in both clinical and sports training center environments. ..
  11. Brain injury due to soccer heading and opportunities for its mitigation
    MICHAEL LAWRENCE LIPTON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim III (Intensive measurement): Determine the short-term effects on and variability in day-to-day cognitive function and PCS using an intensive measurement design. ..
  12. Evaluation of Approaches to Auditory Rehabilitation for Mild TBI
    Gabrielle Saunders; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Results will contribute to the development of evidence-based intervention approaches for blast-exposed veterans with reported functional hearing difficulties and normal/near-normal auditory sensitivity. ..
  13. HYBRID Diffusion Imaging to Detect Acute White Matter Injury After Mild TBI
    Yu Chien Wu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..e. supplement clinical history), monitor recovery from the injury, and serve as a biomarker for response to treatment interventions. ..
  14. Diagnosing Mild TBI in VA and Active Duty Military Patients using MEG and DTI
    Mingxiong Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  15. Volumetric MRSI Evaluation of Traumatic Brain Injury
    Andrew A Maudsley; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It is hypothesized that the improved sensitivity and spatial coverage of the proposed neuroimaging measures will improve characterization of mild and moderate injury. ..
  16. Developmental Consequences of Pediatric TBI
    Heather T Keenan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This information will be integrated with the children's current health service and school support service use in order to understand the barriers to services and inform the needed supports for children at each developmental stage. ..
  17. Interactive Training in Sports Concussion Prevention and Management
    Ann Glang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The program will be relevant for a wide variety of sports activities and be designed for home, worksite, and community agency settings and will be available in Internet/Intranet, CD and DVD formats. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. Telephone Intervention for Postconcussion Syndrome
    Richard Temple; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..It is hypothesized that individuals receiving the treatment will display a more complete resolution of their symptoms, and improved educational/occupational functioning and HQOL, relative to the control group. ..
  19. An fMRI Study of Executive Functioning after TBI
    Harvey Levin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Analyses will test TBI-related alterations in brain activation at 3 months postinjury, changes on reimaging at 1 year, relationship to EFs, and MPH effects. ..
  20. fMRI and Sports-Related Concussion
    Mark Lovell; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results of this study also will help determine which medications or other therapies are most likely to benefit victims of concussion in subsequent therapeutic trials. ..
  21. SELF-MANAGEMENT OF SICKLE CELL DISEASE
    Stephen McCauley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. Prospective Memory in Normal and Head-Injured Children
    Stephen McCauley; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The fourth aim is to determine which cortical structures (specifically prefrontal cortex) are involved in PM functioning through the use of fMRI. ..
  23. POST CONCUSSIVE SYMPTOMS: CHILDREN WITH MILD HEAD INJURY
    Keith Yeates; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The findings will help resolve the scientific controversy regarding the outcomes associated with mild CHI, and will assist physicians and other health care providers in identifying the sequelae of mild CHI and managing them effectively. ..
  24. Social Outcomes in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury
    Keith O Yeates; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..By helping to better understand social outcomes after childhood TBI, the study's findings may suggest ways to promote children's behavioral adaptation to the functional losses and disabilities that frequently occur after TBI. ..
  25. Marrow stromal cell deliver to repair the spinal cord
    Jeffery Kocsis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. RCT Methylphenidate & Memory/Attention Training in Traumatic Brain Injury
    Thomas McAllister; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Further, it will help to clarify underlying neural mechanisms and suggest additional treatment possibilities. ..
  27. Detecting Axonal Damage After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
    Jeffrey Bazarian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  28. DOPAMINERGIC MODULATION WORKING MEMORY TBI--FMRI STUDY
    Thomas McAllister; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Performance and fMRI visualized activation of WM circuitry will be characterized at baseline (on placebo) and following administration of a dopamine agonist. ..
  29. Early School Progress in <1000g Birthweight Children
    H Gerry Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The findings will inform efforts to identify and treat learning disorders in high-risk children at school entry. ..
  30. Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury in Children
    Keith Yeates; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Effect of Biomechanical Force Exposure on Cognition & Brain Activation in Student
    Thomas McAllister; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Impact parameters will be directly measured using helmet-based accelerometer units. ..
  32. SCHOOL AGE CONSEQUENCES OF <750 GRAM BIRTHWEIGHT
    H Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Results will clarify the long-term sequelae of less than 750 g birth weight and shed light on the bases of both adverse consequences and developmental sparing. ..
  33. A Comprehensive Surveillance of Occ Injury in Maryland
    Patricia Dischinger; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..6) To identify priority areas for injury prevention within the state of Maryland, based on groups of workers at high risk of injury. ..
  34. Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury
    Jeffrey Bazarian; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  35. Role of Candidate Alleles in Cognitive Outcome After TBI
    Thomas McAllister; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. New Frontiers in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury
    Keith Yeates; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE IN TRAUMA PATIENTS
    Patricia Dischinger; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The validity of self reports will be assessed by interviewing collaterals from 100 randomly selected patients in each of the intervention and control groups at 6 and 12 months. ..