snake bites

Summary

Summary: Bites by snakes. The condition of having been bitten by a venomous snake, characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)

Top Publications

  1. pmc The global burden of snakebite: a literature analysis and modelling based on regional estimates of envenoming and deaths
    Anuradhani Kasturiratne
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka
    PLoS Med 5:e218. 2008
  2. pmc Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh
    Ridwanur Rahman
    Department of Medicine, Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e860. 2010
  3. ncbi Snake bite
    David A Warrell
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Lancet 375:77-88. 2010
  4. pmc Snake envenoming: a disease of poverty
    Robert A Harrison
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e569. 2009
  5. pmc Snake bite in South Asia: a review
    Emilie Alirol
    Division of International and Humanitarian Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e603. 2010
  6. pmc Snakebite mortality in India: a nationally representative mortality survey
    Bijayeeni Mohapatra
    Shri Ramachandra Bhanj Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa, India
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1018. 2011
  7. ncbi Plant natural products active against snake bite--the molecular approach
    W B Mors
    Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Centro de Ciencias de Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Phytochemistry 55:627-42. 2000
  8. ncbi Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of immunoglobulin therapy for envenomation
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Clin Pharmacokinet 42:721-41. 2003
  9. ncbi Antivenom efficacy or effectiveness: the Australian experience
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
    Toxicology 268:148-54. 2010
  10. ncbi Snake venom metalloproteinases: their role in the pathogenesis of local tissue damage
    J M Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Biochimie 82:841-50. 2000

Detail Information

Publications290 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The global burden of snakebite: a literature analysis and modelling based on regional estimates of envenoming and deaths
    Anuradhani Kasturiratne
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka
    PLoS Med 5:e218. 2008
    ..In an attempt to provide an accurate, up-to-date estimate of the scale of the global problem, we developed a new method to estimate the disease burden due to snakebites...
  2. pmc Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh
    Ridwanur Rahman
    Department of Medicine, Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e860. 2010
    ..An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia...
  3. ncbi Snake bite
    David A Warrell
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Lancet 375:77-88. 2010
    ..To treat envenoming, the production and clinical use of antivenom must be improved. Increased collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, and laboratory toxinologists should enhance the understanding and treatment of envenoming...
  4. pmc Snake envenoming: a disease of poverty
    Robert A Harrison
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e569. 2009
    ..Our analysis examined the association between globally available data on snakebite-induced mortality and socioeconomic indicators of poverty...
  5. pmc Snake bite in South Asia: a review
    Emilie Alirol
    Division of International and Humanitarian Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e603. 2010
    ..The deficiency of snake bite management in South Asia is multi-causal and requires joint collaborative efforts from researchers, antivenom manufacturers, policy makers, public health authorities and international funders...
  6. pmc Snakebite mortality in India: a nationally representative mortality survey
    Bijayeeni Mohapatra
    Shri Ramachandra Bhanj Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa, India
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1018. 2011
    ..However, inadequate hospital-based reporting has resulted in estimates of total annual snakebite mortality ranging widely from about 1,300 to 50,000. We calculated direct estimates of snakebite mortality from a national mortality survey...
  7. ncbi Plant natural products active against snake bite--the molecular approach
    W B Mors
    Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Centro de Ciencias de Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Phytochemistry 55:627-42. 2000
    ....
  8. ncbi Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of immunoglobulin therapy for envenomation
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Clin Pharmacokinet 42:721-41. 2003
    ..Additional studies are required on different venoms and antivenoms in order to further understand the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of antibodies and their fragments and to optimise the immunotherapy of envenomations...
  9. ncbi Antivenom efficacy or effectiveness: the Australian experience
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
    Toxicology 268:148-54. 2010
    ....
  10. ncbi Snake venom metalloproteinases: their role in the pathogenesis of local tissue damage
    J M Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Biochimie 82:841-50. 2000
    ....
  11. pmc Confronting the neglected problem of snake bite envenoming: the need for a global partnership
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    PLoS Med 3:e150. 2006
  12. ncbi Estimate of the burden of snakebites in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analytic approach
    Jean Philippe Chippaux
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR 216 Mother and Child facing tropical infections, Cotonou, Republique du Benin
    Toxicon 57:586-99. 2011
    ....
  13. pmc A randomised controlled trial of two infusion rates to decrease reactions to antivenom
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
    PLoS ONE 7:e38739. 2012
    ..This study aimed to investigate whether the rate of infusion of antivenom reduced the frequency of severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions...
  14. pmc Low-dose adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute adverse reactions to antivenom following snakebite: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    H Asita de Silva
    Clinical Trials Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka
    PLoS Med 8:e1000435. 2011
    ..We investigated whether adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone prevent such reactions in secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka by conducting a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial...
  15. ncbi [Snake bite epidemiology in the last 100 years in Brazil: a review]
    Rosany Bochner
    Centro de Informa o Científica e Tecnológica, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045 900, Brasil
    Cad Saude Publica 19:7-16. 2003
    We review 30 studies on snake bites in Brazil, published from 1901 to 2000, and conclude that epidemiological analyses conducted in the last 100 years are based on the same variables already identified by Vital Brazil in his pioneering ..
  16. ncbi Snake venomics and antivenomics: Proteomic tools in the design and control of antivenoms for the treatment of snakebite envenoming
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    J Proteomics 72:165-82. 2009
    ..Snake venomics might be also helpful in designing alternative in vitro tests for the assessment of antivenom efficacy that would eventually substitute current in vivo tests...
  17. ncbi Proteomic tools against the neglected pathology of snake bite envenoming
    Juan J Calvete
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Jaime Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Expert Rev Proteomics 8:739-58. 2011
    ..Antivenomics and venom phenotyping may also contribute to expand the clinical range of currently existing antidotes...
  18. ncbi Epidemiology of snakebites in Europe: a systematic review of the literature
    Jean Philippe Chippaux
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR 216, Mother and Child Facing Tropical Diseases, 08 BP 841 Cotonou, Benin
    Toxicon 59:86-99. 2012
    ..Fragments of highly-purified immunoglobulins are now very well tolerated and dramatically reduce both severity and mortality of snakebites when used in treatment...
  19. ncbi Revisiting saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) bites in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka: distribution, epidemiology and clinical manifestations
    S A M Kularatne
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Kandy, Sri Lanka
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 105:591-7. 2011
    ..The median time for correction of coagulopathy was 802min (range 180-1669min) with Indian polyvalent antivenom. All recovered. The saw scaled viper is responsible for most venomous bites in the Jaffna peninsula...
  20. ncbi Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for measuring taipan venom in serum
    S Kulawickrama
    Emergency Department, Gold Coast Hospital, Queensland, Australia
    Toxicon 55:1510-8. 2010
    ..The use of biotinylation and the antivenom difference method in venom EIA produces a highly sensitive assay that will be useful for determining antivenom dose, forensic and clinical diagnosis...
  21. ncbi Bites of venomous snakes
    Barry S Gold
    Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201 1539, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:347-56. 2002
  22. pmc 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement
    Dídac S Fita
    Department of Biodiversity Conservation, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur ECOSUR, C P 29290, Apto Postal 63, San Cristobal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico
    J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 6:13. 2010
    ..offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil...
  23. ncbi Snakebite doesn't cause disseminated intravascular coagulation: coagulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy in snake envenoming
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, and Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah NSW, Australia
    Semin Thromb Hemost 36:444-51. 2010
    ..The existence of the overlapping clinical syndromes of VICC and thrombotic microangiopathy in snake envenoming is the likely reason for the mistaken idea that snakebite causes DIC...
  24. ncbi Snakebite envenoming from a global perspective: Towards an integrated approach
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1000 San José, Costa Rica
    Toxicon 56:1223-35. 2010
    ....
  25. ncbi [Understanding snake venoms: 50 years of research in Latin America]
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Rev Biol Trop 50:377-94. 2002
    ..Toxinology has become a fruitful and stimulating research field in Latin America which has contributed to a better understanding of snake venoms as well as to an improved management of snake bitten patients...
  26. ncbi Ending the drought: new strategies for improving the flow of affordable, effective antivenoms in Asia and Africa
    David J Williams
    Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, 3010, Australia
    J Proteomics 74:1735-67. 2011
    ....
  27. ncbi [Profile of snakebite accidents in the north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil]
    Juliano Santos Lima
    Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Montes Claros, MG
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 42:561-4. 2009
    ..It is expected that the new data obtained from this sample may serve as the substrate for planning and implementing measures for healthcare surveillance...
  28. pmc Antivenomic assessment of the immunological reactivity of EchiTAb-Plus-ICP, an antivenom for the treatment of snakebite envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa
    Juan J Calvete
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, C S I C, Jaume Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:1194-201. 2010
    ....
  29. ncbi Envenomations
    Eunice M Singletary
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 0774, USA
    Med Clin North Am 89:1195-224. 2005
    ..Clinicians should be familiar with the animals in their region that may lead to envenomation.A rational approach with use of poison center or medical toxicology consultation services ensures that cases are managed appropriately...
  30. ncbi Snakebite-induced acute kidney injury in Latin America
    Fábia M Oliveira Pinho
    Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Goias, Goiania, Brazil
    Semin Nephrol 28:354-62. 2008
    ..In this article the main characteristics of Bothrops and Crotalus snakes and their venoms, the clinical picture, and the pattern of accidents, risk factors, and mechanisms of renal injury are reviewed...
  31. ncbi [Identifying areas of high risk for ophidism in Cordoba, Argentina, using SIGEpi software]
    Gerardo C Leynaud
    Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Centro de Zoologia Aplicada, Cordoba, Argentina
    Rev Panam Salud Publica 26:64-9. 2009
    ....
  32. ncbi Venomous snakebites in southern Croatia
    Boris Lukšić
    Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Split, Split, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 30:191-7. 2006
    ..The antivenom was used more often than it was suggested by the symptoms present...
  33. ncbi Decreased parasympathetic activities in Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) envenoming
    C Laothong
    Department of Medicine, Srisaket Hospital, Srisaket, Thailand
    Toxicon 39:1353-7. 2001
    ..One patient had constipation and defect in micturition which still persisted 2 years after the bite. Decreased parasympathetic activities in Malayan krait bite are perhaps not uncommon and should be examined...
  34. ncbi Animal toxins and the kidney
    Visith Sitprija
    Faculty of Medicine at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Nat Clin Pract Nephrol 4:616-27. 2008
    ..Immunologic mechanisms have a minor role in the pathophysiology of nephropathy caused by animal toxins...
  35. ncbi Trends in snakebite envenomation therapy: scientific, technological and public health considerations
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Curr Pharm Des 13:2935-50. 2007
    ..A global partnership, involving many participants and combining scientific, technological and public health actions, is required to achieve a leap forward in the treatment of snakebite envenomations world-wide...
  36. ncbi Snake bites in north east Sri Lanka
    J S Whitehall
    The Townsville Hospital, Queensland Health, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
    Rural Remote Health 7:751. 2007
    ..Snake bite is a major problem in Sri Lanka where recent decades of warfare and economic sanctions have complicated its management...
  37. ncbi Efficacy of antivenom against the procoagulant effect of Australian brown snake (Pseudonaja sp.) venom: in vivo and in vitro studies
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Tropical Toxinology Unit, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NSW, Australia
    Toxicon 49:57-67. 2007
    ..One vial of antivenom appears to be sufficient to bind and neutralise all venom in patients with severe brown snake envenoming...
  38. ncbi Stability, distribution and use of antivenoms for snakebite envenomation in Latin America: report of a workshop
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1000 San José, Costa Rica
    Toxicon 53:625-30. 2009
    ..It was concluded that, in addition to the fostering of antivenom production and quality control, renewed efforts should be implemented at improving the stability, distribution and correct use of antivenoms in the region...
  39. ncbi Five-year experience with Chinese cobra (Naja atra)--related injuries in two acute hospitals in Hong Kong
    O F Wong
    Department of Accident and Emergency Medicine, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun, Hong Kong
    Hong Kong Med J 16:36-43. 2010
    ..To review the clinical features and management of patients with injuries related to the Chinese cobra (Naja atra)...
  40. ncbi Syndromic approach to treatment of snake bite in Sri Lanka based on results of a prospective national hospital-based survey of patients envenomed by identified snakes
    Christeine A Ariaratnam
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 81:725-31. 2009
    ..The technique of hospital-based collection, labeling and preservation of dead snakes brought by bitten patients is recommended for rapid assessment of a country's medically-important herpetofauna...
  41. ncbi Parallels between Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) and hump-nosed viper (Hypnale species) bites in the central hills of Sri Lanka amidst the heavy burden of unidentified snake bites
    Keerthi Kularatne
    Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
    Asian Pac J Trop Med 4:564-7. 2011
    ..To describe the epidemiology of snake bite in the region and attempt to compare proven Russell's viper with hump-nosed viper bites...
  42. ncbi Epidemiology, clinical profile and management issues of cobra (Naja naja) bites in Sri Lanka: first authenticated case series
    S A M Kularatne
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Peradeniya University, Sri Lanka
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103:924-30. 2009
    ..The findings highlight the magnitude of local necrosis, respiratory paralysis and antivenom failure in Spectacled cobra bite in Sri Lanka. Coagulopathy requires verification with robust laboratory tests...
  43. ncbi A new Pan African polyspecific antivenom developed in response to the antivenom crisis in Africa
    G D Laing
    Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
    Toxicon 42:35-41. 2003
    ..This new antivenom, and a similar product being manufactured in Costa Rica, are now candidates for clinical testing at an appropriate site in Africa...
  44. ncbi The clinical significance of venom detection in patients of cobra snakebite
    Dong Zong Hung
    Institute of Toxicology, School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No 1, Section 1, Jen Ai Road, Taipei City 10043, Taiwan, ROC
    Toxicon 41:409-15. 2003
    ..In conclusion, these results indicate that venom detection in snakebite victims is valuable in diagnosis and severity assessment of Taiwan cobra snakebite...
  45. ncbi Clinical features of 60 consecutive ICU-treated patients envenomed by Bungarus multicinctus
    Ha Tran Hung
    Vietnam Poison Control Center, Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40:518-24. 2009
    ..The mean duration of the ICU stay was 12 days and the hospital mortality was 7%. According to the Poisoning Severity Score criteria, 54 patients (90%) were classified as severe or lethal envenoming...
  46. ncbi Snake venoms and coagulopathy
    Julian White
    Toxinology Dept, Women s and Children s Hospital, North Adelaide SA 5006, Australia
    Toxicon 45:951-67. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi Second generation snake antivenomics: comparing immunoaffinity and immunodepletion protocols
    Davinia Pla
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain
    Toxicon 60:688-99. 2012
    ..These features contribute to the generalization, economy and reproducibility of the method...
  48. pmc Pre-clinical assays predict pan-African Echis viper efficacy for a species-specific antivenom
    Nicholas R Casewell
    Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e851. 2010
    ..ocellatus-specific EchiTAbG antivenom, which was designed specifically for Nigeria, neutralised the lethal activity of venom from two other African species, E. pyramidum leakeyi and E. coloratus...
  49. ncbi Clinical effects of red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenoming and correlation with venom concentrations: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-11)
    Andrew Churchman
    Emergency Department, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
    Med J Aust 193:696-700. 2010
    ..To describe the clinical features and laboratory findings in patients with definite red-bellied black snake (RBBS; Pseudechis porphyriacus) bites, including correlation with results of venom assays...
  50. ncbi Snake venomics of African spitting cobras: toxin composition and assessment of congeneric cross-reactivity of the pan-African EchiTAb-Plus-ICP antivenom by antivenomics and neutralization approaches
    Daniel Petras
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Jaume Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    J Proteome Res 10:1266-80. 2011
    ..The impaired activity of EchiTAb-Plus-ICP against N. katiensis may not represent a major concern. This species is sympatric with N. nigricollis in many regions of Africa, although very few bites have been attributed to it...
  51. ncbi Accidents caused by Bothrops and Bothropoides in the State of Paraiba: epidemiological and clinical aspects
    Fagner Neves Oliveira
    Health Sciences Graduate Program, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 43:662-7. 2010
    ..Bothrops and Bothropoides snakes cause 70% of the ophidic accidents in Brazil. The species that cause ophidic accidents in State of Paraíba are Bothropoides erythromelas, Bothrops leucurus and Bothropoides neuwiedi...
  52. ncbi An open, randomized comparative trial of two antivenoms for the treatment of envenoming by Sri Lankan Russell's viper (Daboia russelii russelii)
    C A Ariaratnam
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95:74-80. 2001
    ..The safety of this larger dose is the subject of further studies...
  53. ncbi Herbs and herbal constituents active against snake bite
    Antony Gomes
    Laboratory of Toxinology and Experimental Pharmacodynamics, Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009, India
    Indian J Exp Biol 48:865-78. 2010
    ..The present review has been focussed on the varied folk and traditional herbs and their antisnake venom compounds, which might be a stepping stone in establishing the future therapy against snake bite treatment and management...
  54. pmc Snake-bites: appraisal of the global situation
    J P Chippaux
    Centre de Recherches sur les Meningites et les Schistosomiases, Niamey, Niger
    Bull World Health Organ 76:515-24. 1998
    ..The present article is an attempt to draw the attention of health authorities to snake envenomations and urges them to prepare therapeutic protocols adapted to their needs...
  55. pmc Preclinical evaluation of caprylic acid-fractionated IgG antivenom for the treatment of Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) envenoming in Papua New Guinea
    Mariángela Vargas
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1144. 2011
    ..This situation prompted an international collaborative project aimed at generating a new, low-cost antivenom against O. scutellatus for PNG...
  56. ncbi The greater black krait (Bungarus niger), a newly recognized cause of neuro-myotoxic snake bite envenoming in Bangladesh
    Abul Faiz
    Department of Medicine, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Mitford, Dhaka 1100, Bangladesh
    Brain 133:3181-93. 2010
    ....
  57. ncbi The envenomation syndrome caused by the Australian Red-bellied Black Snake Pseudechis porphyriacus
    J Pearn
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Royal Children's Hospital, QLD 4029, Brisbane, Australia
    Toxicon 38:1715-29. 2000
    ....
  58. ncbi Coagulopthy, acute kidney injury and death following Hypnale zara envenoming: the first case report from Sri Lanka
    Kalana Maduwage
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
    Toxicon 58:641-3. 2011
    ..This report describes an authenticated fatal case of a 47 years old male due to coagulopthy and acute kidney injury following envenoming by H. zara in Sri Lanka...
  59. ncbi Cross-cultural comparison of medicinal floras used against snakebites
    Marianne Molander
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Ethnopharmacol 139:863-72. 2012
    ..The use of plants is a major part of the traditional practitioners' treatment of snakebites...
  60. pmc Saw-scaled viper bites in Sri Lanka: is it a different subspecies? Clinical evidence from an authenticated case series
    Ariaranee Gnanathasan
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Kynsey Road, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 86:254-7. 2012
    ....
  61. ncbi Differential efficiency of simvastatin and lipoic acid treatments on Bothrops jararaca envenomation-induced acute kidney injury in mice
    Juliana Marton Barone
    Laboratory of Pharmacology, Instituto Butantan, Av Vital Brasil, 1500, 05503 900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Toxicon 57:148-56. 2011
    ..The beneficial effects of LA and especially of SA on renal effects of vBj open a new perspective for clinical investigations of these drugs as coadjuvant agents in the serotherapy of Bothrops envenomation...
  62. ncbi Inhibitors of snake venoms and development of new therapeutics
    Elda E Sanchez
    Natural Toxins Research Center, College of Arts and Sciences, Texas A and M University Kingsville, Kingsville, Texas, USA
    Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 30:647-78. 2008
    ..The biomedical value of these natural inhibitors can lead to the development of new therapeutics for an assortment of diseases as well as contributing to efficient antivenoms for the treatment of ophidic accidents...
  63. ncbi Clinical effects and treatment of envenoming by Hoplocephalus spp. snakes in Australia: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-12)
    G K Isbister
    Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Australia
    Toxicon 58:634-40. 2011
    ..envenoming. Based on in vitro studies reported here, patients may be treated with one vial of TSAV, although one vial of brown snake antivenom may also be sufficient...
  64. ncbi Failure of antivenom to improve recovery in Australian snakebite coagulopathy
    G K Isbister
    Tropical Toxinology Unit, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia
    QJM 102:563-8. 2009
    ..Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) is an important feature of snake envenoming...
  65. ncbi Acute ischemic strokes due to bites by Daboia russelii in Sri Lanka - first authenticated case series
    I Gawarammana
    Department of Clinical Medicine and South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
    Toxicon 54:421-8. 2009
    ..There are no authenticated reports of acute ischemic strokes following bites by D. russelii. We report the first authenticated case series of ischemic strokes following bites by D. russelii in Sri Lanka...
  66. ncbi Antivenom dosing in 35 patients with severe brown snake (Pseudonaja) envenoming in Western Australia over 10 years
    Justin M Yeung
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA
    Med J Aust 181:703-5. 2004
    ..To investigate the doses of antivenom administered to adult patients with severe brown snake envenoming...
  67. ncbi Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of Bothrops asper bites
    Rafael Otero-Patiño
    Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia
    Toxicon 54:998-1011. 2009
    ..In addition to antivenom therapy, a number of ancillary interventions are recommended in the treatment of B. asper bites...
  68. ncbi Oral bacterial flora of the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) and bamboo pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris) in Hong Kong SAR, China
    K C Shek
    Accident and Emergency Department, Tuen Mun Hospital, Hospital Authority, Hong Kong
    Hong Kong Med J 15:183-90. 2009
    ..To determine the oral bacterial flora associated with two common local venomous snakes in Hong Kong, namely the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) and the bamboo pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris)...
  69. ncbi Antivenom use, premedication and early adverse reactions in the management of snake bites in rural Papua New Guinea
    David J Williams
    School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
    Toxicon 49:780-92. 2007
    ..To examine antivenom use, premedication, early adverse reactions and patient outcomes after snake bite in rural Papua New Guinea...
  70. ncbi Acute renal failure after Crotalus durissus snakebite: a prospective survey on 100 patients
    Fábia M O Pinho
    Division of Nephrology, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, and Hospital de Doenças Tropicais Tropical Diseases Hospital of Goiânia, Brazil
    Kidney Int 67:659-67. 2005
    ..Acute renal failure (ARF) is the main cause of death after the South American crotalid snakebite. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, risk factors, and characteristics of Crotalus durissus venom-induced ARF...
  71. ncbi Snakebite in tropical Australia: a prospective study in the "Top End" of the Northern Territory
    Bart J Currie
    Tropical and Emerging Infectious Diseases Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT
    Med J Aust 181:693-7. 2004
    ..To describe the epidemiology of snakebite in the "Top End" of the Northern Territory, and the envenoming syndromes of individual snake species...
  72. ncbi First authenticated cases of life-threatening envenoming by the hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) in India
    J K Joseph
    Little Flower Hospital and Research Centre, Snakebite Research Unit, Angamaly 683572, Kerala, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:85-90. 2007
    ..An effective antivenom is urgently needed in south India and in Sri Lanka, where this species is also a common cause of bites...
  73. ncbi Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom
    R Otero
    Programa de Ofidismo, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, A A 1226, Medellin, Colombia
    J Ethnopharmacol 73:233-41. 2000
    ..d. venom injection (10 microg), neutralization of haemorrhage dropped below 25% for all the extracts. Additionally, B. rosademonte and P. percussa extracts were able to inhibit the proteolytic activity of B. atrox venom on casein...
  74. ncbi Frequent and potentially fatal envenoming by hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale and H. nepa) in Sri Lanka: lack of effective antivenom
    C A Ariaratnam
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, No 25 Kynsey Road, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:1120-6. 2008
    In a prospective study of snake bites involving 10 hospitals in Sri Lanka, 302 (35%) of 860 patients with bites by identified snakes proved to have been bitten by hump-nosed pit vipers (301 by Hypnale hypnale and 1 by H. nepa)...
  75. ncbi Acute hypersensitivity reactions associated with administration of crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom
    Robert Cannon
    Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 51:407-11. 2008
    ..Brentwood, TN) was introduced in 2001, and early studies reported a hypersensitivity reaction rate up to 19%. We describe the incidence of acute hypersensitivity reactions to FabAV in patients bitten by rattlesnakes...
  76. ncbi A randomized multicenter trial of crotalinae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom for the treatment for crotaline snakebite in the United States
    R C Dart
    Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, 1010 Yosemite Cir, Denver, CO 80230, USA
    Arch Intern Med 161:2030-6. 2001
    ..We compared the efficacy and safety of 2 dosing regimens with a new antivenom, Crotalinae polyvalent immune Fab (Fab AV)...
  77. ncbi Two cases of rattlesnake envenomation with delayed coagulopathy
    Michael A Miller
    Ann Emerg Med 39:348. 2002
  78. ncbi Snakebite nephropathy
    Visith Sitprija
    Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
    Nephrology (Carlton) 11:442-8. 2006
    ..Direct nephrotoxicity can be induced by the venom through metalloproteases and phosphilipase A2. Immunologic mechanism plays a minor role in the pathogenesis of the renal lesion...
  79. ncbi Improving antivenom availability and accessibility: science, technology, and beyond
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Toxicon 60:676-87. 2012
    ..These tasks should be envisaged in terms of synergistic, interprogrammatic and intersectorial interventions, with the participation of many players...
  80. ncbi Thrombotic microangiopathy and acute kidney injury in hump-nosed viper (Hypnale species) envenoming: a descriptive study in Sri Lanka
    Nalaka Herath
    Nephrology and Transplant Unit, Teaching Hospital, Kandy, Sri Lanka
    Toxicon 60:61-5. 2012
    ..Autopsy study found thrombosis of micro-vessels. Thrombotic microangiopathy could be a causative pathology of AKI in hump-nosed viper bite carrying poor outcome...
  81. ncbi Envenoming by the rough-scaled snake (Tropidechis carinatus): a series of confirmed cases
    Melissa Gan
    Emergency Department, Gold Coast Hospital, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
    Med J Aust 191:183-6. 2009
    ..To describe demographic, geographical and clinical features of envenoming by the rough-scaled snake (RSS) (Tropidechis carinatus)...
  82. ncbi Failure of chloramphenicol prophylaxis to reduce the frequency of abscess formation as a complication of envenoming by Bothrops snakes in Brazil: a double-blind randomized controlled trial
    M T Jorge
    Departamento de Clinica Medica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98:529-34. 2004
    ..7%) patients in group 2 (P>0.05). In conclusion, the use of orally-administered chloramphenicol for victims of Bothrops snake bite with signs of local envenoming on admission, is not effective for the prevention of local infections...
  83. ncbi Bacterial infection in association with snakebite: a 10-year experience in a northern Taiwan medical center
    Chun Ming Chen
    Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect 44:456-60. 2011
    ..Microbiological data of secondary wound infections following snakebites is rarely reported in Taiwan. The objective of this study was to assess the secondary wound infection after venomous snakebites...
  84. ncbi Changes in serial laboratory test results in snakebite patients: when can we safely exclude envenoming?
    Graham Ireland
    Emergency Department, Gold Coast Hospital, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
    Med J Aust 193:285-90. 2010
    ....
  85. ncbi Cardiac tamponade in Russell viper (Daboia russelii) bite: case report with brief review
    Subramanian Senthilkumaran
    Sri Gokulam Hospitals and Research Institute, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
    J Emerg Med 42:288-90. 2012
    ..Coagulopathy after snake bite is well known; however, cardiac tamponade as a manifestation of coagulopathy is rare...
  86. ncbi Ventricular tachycardia, a rare manifestation of Russell's viper bite: case report
    Yotsapon Thewjitcharoen
    Chaophya Abhaibhubejhr Hospital, 32 7 Moo 12 Prachianusorn Rd, Ampur Muang, Prachinburi 25000, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 88:1931-3. 2005
    ..He was successfully treated by cardiovertion and amiodarone. Subsequently, antivenom for Russell's Viper was administered for correction of a bleeding disorder..
  87. ncbi Ethnobotanical survey of folk plants for the treatment of snakebites in Southern part of Tamilnadu, India
    Ramar Perumal Samy
    Venom and Toxin Research Programme, Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore
    J Ethnopharmacol 115:302-12. 2008
    ....
  88. ncbi Geographic Information System mapping of snakebite incidence in northern Ghana and Nigeria using environmental indicators: a preliminary study
    Anna M Molesworth
    Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97:188-92. 2003
    ..Detailed and extensive further studies will enable the more reliable estimation of snakebite incidence at a local level across the region...
  89. pmc Mapping snakebite epidemiology in Nicaragua--pitfalls and possible solutions
    Erik Hansson
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e896. 2010
    ..To avoid this error, we try to identify where underreporting is likely based on available information...
  90. ncbi Multiple thrombotic occlusions of vessels after Russell's viper envenoming
    Dong Zong Hung
    Institute of Toxicology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Pharmacol Toxicol 91:106-10. 2002
    ....
  91. ncbi Human anti-snake venom IgG antibodies in a previously bitten snake-handler, but no protection against local envenoming
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, New South Wales, Australia
    Toxicon 55:646-9. 2010
    ..However, despite the presence of antibodies to death adder venom and free venom not being detected, the patient still developed significant local myotoxicity...
  92. ncbi Case report: Acute myocardial infarction complicating a viper bite
    A M Saadeh
    Internal Medicine Department, Princess Basma Teaching Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 64:280-2. 2001
    ..The patient had no risk factors for coronary artery disease and the coronary arteries were normal on cardiac catheterization. The possible mechanisms leading to myocardial infarction following snakebite are discussed...
  93. ncbi Twentieth century toxinology and antivenom development in Australia
    Kenneth D Winkel
    Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
    Toxicon 48:738-54. 2006
    ..This paper reviews some of the milestones of Australian toxinology, and antivenom development in particular, during the 20th century...
  94. ncbi Prognostic factors for local necrosis in Bothrops jararaca (Brazilian pit viper) bites
    L A Ribeiro
    Departamento de Clínica Médica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av Pará 1720 Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, CEP 38400 902, Brazil
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95:630-4. 2001
    ..The size of the snake was the most important independent prognostic factor related to the presence of necrosis...
  95. ncbi Study of the efficacy of the black stone on envenomation by snake bite in the murine model
    Jean Philippe Chippaux
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, La Paz, Bolivia
    Toxicon 49:717-20. 2007
    ..arietans venom. Our results show that, contrary to widespread belief, no efficacy to treat envenomation may be expected of the BS...
  96. ncbi A cross-sectional survey of snake oral bacterial flora from Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Ka Keung Lam
    Department of Accident and Emergency, Pok Oi Hospital, Au Tau, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, People s Republic of China
    Emerg Med J 28:107-14. 2011
    ..To determine the pattern of oral bacterial flora and their sensitivity to antibiotics in freshly captured native snakes in Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China...
  97. ncbi Taiwan's venomous snakebite: epidemiological, evolution and geographic differences
    Dong Zong Hung
    Division of Toxicology, Emergency Department, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160, Sec 3, Taichung Harbor Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98:96-101. 2004
    ....
  98. ncbi Antivenom: the most cost-effective treatment in the world?
    N Brown
    The Institute of Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Toxicon 55:1405-7. 2010
    ..These advances may lead to antivenom becoming one of the most cost-effective treatments available to modern medicine, and provides strong justification for its inclusion in international health funding initiatives...
  99. ncbi Report of the 4th International Conference on Envenomations by Snakebites and Scorpion Stings in Africa, Dakar, April 25-29, 2011
    Jean Philippe Chippaux
    Cerpage et IRD UMR 216, Mère et Enfant Face aux Infections Tropicales, Cotonou, Benin
    Toxicon 58:426-9. 2011
    ..Finally, financing mechanisms to ensure an equitable distribution of resources must be sought, as well as the constitution of a network of African experts were discussed at length...
  100. ncbi [Guidelines for the production, control and regulation of snake antivenom immunoglobulins]
    Jean Philippe Chippaux
    Unité de recherche Santé de la mère et de l enfant en milieu tropical, IRD UR010, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 avenue de l Observatoire, Paris Cedex 06, France
    Biol Aujourdhui 204:87-91. 2010
    ..These guidelines, which will published soon, should promote access to antivenoms, and their use by health services, leading in the short term to a significant decrease of snakebite morbidity and mortality...
  101. ncbi Venomous snakes of Saudi Arabia and the Middle East: a keynote for travellers
    M Ismail
    Graduate Studies and Research, October6 University, 6th of October City, Main Center 111, Egypt
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 21:164-9. 2003
    ..The epidemiology of snake bites, pathophysiology of toxicity and the clinical features of envenoming by the different species of snakes are ..