snake bites

Summary

Summary: Bites by snakes. The condition of having been bitten by a venomous snake, characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)

Top Publications

  1. pmc The global burden of snakebite: a literature analysis and modelling based on regional estimates of envenoming and deaths
    Anuradhani Kasturiratne
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka
    PLoS Med 5:e218. 2008
  2. doi Snakebite doesn't cause disseminated intravascular coagulation: coagulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy in snake envenoming
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, and Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah NSW, Australia
    Semin Thromb Hemost 36:444-51. 2010
  3. doi Snake bite
    David A Warrell
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Lancet 375:77-88. 2010
  4. doi Snakebite envenoming from a global perspective: Towards an integrated approach
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1000 San José, Costa Rica
    Toxicon 56:1223-35. 2010
  5. ncbi Bites of venomous snakes
    Barry S Gold
    Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201 1539, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:347-56. 2002
  6. doi Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for measuring taipan venom in serum
    S Kulawickrama
    Emergency Department, Gold Coast Hospital, Queensland, Australia
    Toxicon 55:1510-8. 2010
  7. pmc 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement
    Dídac S Fita
    Department of Biodiversity Conservation, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur ECOSUR, C P 29290, Apto Postal 63, San Cristobal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico
    J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 6:13. 2010
  8. pmc Snake envenoming: a disease of poverty
    Robert A Harrison
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e569. 2009
  9. ncbi Inhibitors of snake venoms and development of new therapeutics
    Elda E Sanchez
    Natural Toxins Research Center, College of Arts and Sciences, Texas A and M University Kingsville, Kingsville, Texas, USA
    Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 30:647-78. 2008
  10. ncbi Plant natural products active against snake bite--the molecular approach
    W B Mors
    Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Centro de Ciencias de Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Phytochemistry 55:627-42. 2000

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications266 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The global burden of snakebite: a literature analysis and modelling based on regional estimates of envenoming and deaths
    Anuradhani Kasturiratne
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka
    PLoS Med 5:e218. 2008
    ..In an attempt to provide an accurate, up-to-date estimate of the scale of the global problem, we developed a new method to estimate the disease burden due to snakebites...
  2. doi Snakebite doesn't cause disseminated intravascular coagulation: coagulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy in snake envenoming
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, and Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah NSW, Australia
    Semin Thromb Hemost 36:444-51. 2010
    ..The existence of the overlapping clinical syndromes of VICC and thrombotic microangiopathy in snake envenoming is the likely reason for the mistaken idea that snakebite causes DIC...
  3. doi Snake bite
    David A Warrell
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Lancet 375:77-88. 2010
    ..To treat envenoming, the production and clinical use of antivenom must be improved. Increased collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, and laboratory toxinologists should enhance the understanding and treatment of envenoming...
  4. doi Snakebite envenoming from a global perspective: Towards an integrated approach
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1000 San José, Costa Rica
    Toxicon 56:1223-35. 2010
    ....
  5. ncbi Bites of venomous snakes
    Barry S Gold
    Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201 1539, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:347-56. 2002
  6. doi Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for measuring taipan venom in serum
    S Kulawickrama
    Emergency Department, Gold Coast Hospital, Queensland, Australia
    Toxicon 55:1510-8. 2010
    ..The use of biotinylation and the antivenom difference method in venom EIA produces a highly sensitive assay that will be useful for determining antivenom dose, forensic and clinical diagnosis...
  7. pmc 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement
    Dídac S Fita
    Department of Biodiversity Conservation, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur ECOSUR, C P 29290, Apto Postal 63, San Cristobal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico
    J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 6:13. 2010
    ..offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil...
  8. pmc Snake envenoming: a disease of poverty
    Robert A Harrison
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e569. 2009
    ..Our analysis examined the association between globally available data on snakebite-induced mortality and socioeconomic indicators of poverty...
  9. ncbi Inhibitors of snake venoms and development of new therapeutics
    Elda E Sanchez
    Natural Toxins Research Center, College of Arts and Sciences, Texas A and M University Kingsville, Kingsville, Texas, USA
    Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 30:647-78. 2008
    ..The biomedical value of these natural inhibitors can lead to the development of new therapeutics for an assortment of diseases as well as contributing to efficient antivenoms for the treatment of ophidic accidents...
  10. ncbi Plant natural products active against snake bite--the molecular approach
    W B Mors
    Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Centro de Ciencias de Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Phytochemistry 55:627-42. 2000
    ....
  11. pmc Snakebite mortality in India: a nationally representative mortality survey
    Bijayeeni Mohapatra
    Shri Ramachandra Bhanj Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa, India
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1018. 2011
    ..However, inadequate hospital-based reporting has resulted in estimates of total annual snakebite mortality ranging widely from about 1,300 to 50,000. We calculated direct estimates of snakebite mortality from a national mortality survey...
  12. doi Estimate of the burden of snakebites in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analytic approach
    Jean Philippe Chippaux
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR 216 Mother and Child facing tropical infections, Cotonou, Republique du Benin
    Toxicon 57:586-99. 2011
    ....
  13. pmc Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh
    Ridwanur Rahman
    Department of Medicine, Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e860. 2010
    ..An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia...
  14. doi Failure of antivenom to improve recovery in Australian snakebite coagulopathy
    G K Isbister
    Tropical Toxinology Unit, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia
    QJM 102:563-8. 2009
    ..Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) is an important feature of snake envenoming...
  15. ncbi Antivenom dosing in 35 patients with severe brown snake (Pseudonaja) envenoming in Western Australia over 10 years
    Justin M Yeung
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA
    Med J Aust 181:703-5. 2004
    ..To investigate the doses of antivenom administered to adult patients with severe brown snake envenoming...
  16. doi Acute ischemic strokes due to bites by Daboia russelii in Sri Lanka - first authenticated case series
    I Gawarammana
    Department of Clinical Medicine and South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
    Toxicon 54:421-8. 2009
    ..There are no authenticated reports of acute ischemic strokes following bites by D. russelii. We report the first authenticated case series of ischemic strokes following bites by D. russelii in Sri Lanka...
  17. doi Clinical effects and treatment of envenoming by Hoplocephalus spp. snakes in Australia: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-12)
    G K Isbister
    Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Australia
    Toxicon 58:634-40. 2011
    ..envenoming. Based on in vitro studies reported here, patients may be treated with one vial of TSAV, although one vial of brown snake antivenom may also be sufficient...
  18. ncbi Oral bacterial flora of the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) and bamboo pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris) in Hong Kong SAR, China
    K C Shek
    Accident and Emergency Department, Tuen Mun Hospital, Hospital Authority, Hong Kong
    Hong Kong Med J 15:183-90. 2009
    ..To determine the oral bacterial flora associated with two common local venomous snakes in Hong Kong, namely the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) and the bamboo pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris)...
  19. doi Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of Bothrops asper bites
    Rafael Otero-Patiño
    Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia
    Toxicon 54:998-1011. 2009
    ..In addition to antivenom therapy, a number of ancillary interventions are recommended in the treatment of B. asper bites...
  20. ncbi Antivenom use, premedication and early adverse reactions in the management of snake bites in rural Papua New Guinea
    David J Williams
    School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
    Toxicon 49:780-92. 2007
    ..To examine antivenom use, premedication, early adverse reactions and patient outcomes after snake bite in rural Papua New Guinea...
  21. pmc Snake bite in South Asia: a review
    Emilie Alirol
    Division of International and Humanitarian Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e603. 2010
    ..The deficiency of snake bite management in South Asia is multi-causal and requires joint collaborative efforts from researchers, antivenom manufacturers, policy makers, public health authorities and international funders...
  22. ncbi Acute renal failure after Crotalus durissus snakebite: a prospective survey on 100 patients
    Fábia M O Pinho
    Division of Nephrology, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, and Hospital de Doenças Tropicais Tropical Diseases Hospital of Goiânia, Brazil
    Kidney Int 67:659-67. 2005
    ..Acute renal failure (ARF) is the main cause of death after the South American crotalid snakebite. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, risk factors, and characteristics of Crotalus durissus venom-induced ARF...
  23. doi Snake venomics and antivenomics: Proteomic tools in the design and control of antivenoms for the treatment of snakebite envenoming
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    J Proteomics 72:165-82. 2009
    ..Snake venomics might be also helpful in designing alternative in vitro tests for the assessment of antivenom efficacy that would eventually substitute current in vivo tests...
  24. doi Stability, distribution and use of antivenoms for snakebite envenomation in Latin America: report of a workshop
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1000 San José, Costa Rica
    Toxicon 53:625-30. 2009
    ..It was concluded that, in addition to the fostering of antivenom production and quality control, renewed efforts should be implemented at improving the stability, distribution and correct use of antivenoms in the region...
  25. ncbi Snake venom metalloproteinases: their role in the pathogenesis of local tissue damage
    J M Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Biochimie 82:841-50. 2000
    ....
  26. ncbi [Understanding snake venoms: 50 years of research in Latin America]
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Rev Biol Trop 50:377-94. 2002
    ..Toxinology has become a fruitful and stimulating research field in Latin America which has contributed to a better understanding of snake venoms as well as to an improved management of snake bitten patients...
  27. doi Ending the drought: new strategies for improving the flow of affordable, effective antivenoms in Asia and Africa
    David J Williams
    Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, 3010, Australia
    J Proteomics 74:1735-67. 2011
    ....
  28. ncbi Trends in snakebite envenomation therapy: scientific, technological and public health considerations
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Curr Pharm Des 13:2935-50. 2007
    ..A global partnership, involving many participants and combining scientific, technological and public health actions, is required to achieve a leap forward in the treatment of snakebite envenomations world-wide...
  29. ncbi Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom
    R Otero
    Programa de Ofidismo, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, A A 1226, Medellin, Colombia
    J Ethnopharmacol 73:233-41. 2000
    ..d. venom injection (10 microg), neutralization of haemorrhage dropped below 25% for all the extracts. Additionally, B. rosademonte and P. percussa extracts were able to inhibit the proteolytic activity of B. atrox venom on casein...
  30. ncbi Snakebite in tropical Australia: a prospective study in the "Top End" of the Northern Territory
    Bart J Currie
    Tropical and Emerging Infectious Diseases Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT
    Med J Aust 181:693-7. 2004
    ..To describe the epidemiology of snakebite in the "Top End" of the Northern Territory, and the envenoming syndromes of individual snake species...
  31. ncbi First authenticated cases of life-threatening envenoming by the hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) in India
    J K Joseph
    Little Flower Hospital and Research Centre, Snakebite Research Unit, Angamaly 683572, Kerala, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:85-90. 2007
    ..An effective antivenom is urgently needed in south India and in Sri Lanka, where this species is also a common cause of bites...
  32. pmc Snake-bites: appraisal of the global situation
    J P Chippaux
    Centre de Recherches sur les Meningites et les Schistosomiases, Niamey, Niger
    Bull World Health Organ 76:515-24. 1998
    ..The present article is an attempt to draw the attention of health authorities to snake envenomations and urges them to prepare therapeutic protocols adapted to their needs...
  33. doi Frequent and potentially fatal envenoming by hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale and H. nepa) in Sri Lanka: lack of effective antivenom
    C A Ariaratnam
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, No 25 Kynsey Road, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:1120-6. 2008
    In a prospective study of snake bites involving 10 hospitals in Sri Lanka, 302 (35%) of 860 patients with bites by identified snakes proved to have been bitten by hump-nosed pit vipers (301 by Hypnale hypnale and 1 by H. nepa)...
  34. ncbi Two cases of rattlesnake envenomation with delayed coagulopathy
    Michael A Miller
    Ann Emerg Med 39:348. 2002
  35. doi Acute hypersensitivity reactions associated with administration of crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom
    Robert Cannon
    Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 51:407-11. 2008
    ..Brentwood, TN) was introduced in 2001, and early studies reported a hypersensitivity reaction rate up to 19%. We describe the incidence of acute hypersensitivity reactions to FabAV in patients bitten by rattlesnakes...
  36. ncbi A randomized multicenter trial of crotalinae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom for the treatment for crotaline snakebite in the United States
    R C Dart
    Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, 1010 Yosemite Cir, Denver, CO 80230, USA
    Arch Intern Med 161:2030-6. 2001
    ..We compared the efficacy and safety of 2 dosing regimens with a new antivenom, Crotalinae polyvalent immune Fab (Fab AV)...
  37. ncbi Snakebite nephropathy
    Visith Sitprija
    Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
    Nephrology (Carlton) 11:442-8. 2006
    ..Direct nephrotoxicity can be induced by the venom through metalloproteases and phosphilipase A2. Immunologic mechanism plays a minor role in the pathogenesis of the renal lesion...
  38. doi Antivenom efficacy or effectiveness: the Australian experience
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
    Toxicology 268:148-54. 2010
    ....
  39. doi Thrombotic microangiopathy and acute kidney injury in hump-nosed viper (Hypnale species) envenoming: a descriptive study in Sri Lanka
    Nalaka Herath
    Nephrology and Transplant Unit, Teaching Hospital, Kandy, Sri Lanka
    Toxicon 60:61-5. 2012
    ..Autopsy study found thrombosis of micro-vessels. Thrombotic microangiopathy could be a causative pathology of AKI in hump-nosed viper bite carrying poor outcome...
  40. doi Improving antivenom availability and accessibility: science, technology, and beyond
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Toxicon 60:676-87. 2012
    ..These tasks should be envisaged in terms of synergistic, interprogrammatic and intersectorial interventions, with the participation of many players...
  41. ncbi Clinical effects of red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenoming and correlation with venom concentrations: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-11)
    Andrew Churchman
    Emergency Department, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
    Med J Aust 193:696-700. 2010
    ..To describe the clinical features and laboratory findings in patients with definite red-bellied black snake (RBBS; Pseudechis porphyriacus) bites, including correlation with results of venom assays...
  42. ncbi [Identifying areas of high risk for ophidism in Cordoba, Argentina, using SIGEpi software]
    Gerardo C Leynaud
    Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Centro de Zoologia Aplicada, Cordoba, Argentina
    Rev Panam Salud Publica 26:64-9. 2009
    ....
  43. doi Bacterial infection in association with snakebite: a 10-year experience in a northern Taiwan medical center
    Chun Ming Chen
    Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect 44:456-60. 2011
    ..Microbiological data of secondary wound infections following snakebites is rarely reported in Taiwan. The objective of this study was to assess the secondary wound infection after venomous snakebites...
  44. ncbi Failure of chloramphenicol prophylaxis to reduce the frequency of abscess formation as a complication of envenoming by Bothrops snakes in Brazil: a double-blind randomized controlled trial
    M T Jorge
    Departamento de Clinica Medica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98:529-34. 2004
    ..7%) patients in group 2 (P>0.05). In conclusion, the use of orally-administered chloramphenicol for victims of Bothrops snake bite with signs of local envenoming on admission, is not effective for the prevention of local infections...
  45. ncbi Ventricular tachycardia, a rare manifestation of Russell's viper bite: case report
    Yotsapon Thewjitcharoen
    Chaophya Abhaibhubejhr Hospital, 32 7 Moo 12 Prachianusorn Rd, Ampur Muang, Prachinburi 25000, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 88:1931-3. 2005
    ..He was successfully treated by cardiovertion and amiodarone. Subsequently, antivenom for Russell's Viper was administered for correction of a bleeding disorder..
  46. ncbi Changes in serial laboratory test results in snakebite patients: when can we safely exclude envenoming?
    Graham Ireland
    Emergency Department, Gold Coast Hospital, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
    Med J Aust 193:285-90. 2010
    ....
  47. doi Cardiac tamponade in Russell viper (Daboia russelii) bite: case report with brief review
    Subramanian Senthilkumaran
    Sri Gokulam Hospitals and Research Institute, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
    J Emerg Med 42:288-90. 2012
    ..Coagulopathy after snake bite is well known; however, cardiac tamponade as a manifestation of coagulopathy is rare...
  48. ncbi Envenoming by the rough-scaled snake (Tropidechis carinatus): a series of confirmed cases
    Melissa Gan
    Emergency Department, Gold Coast Hospital, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
    Med J Aust 191:183-6. 2009
    ..To describe demographic, geographical and clinical features of envenoming by the rough-scaled snake (RSS) (Tropidechis carinatus)...
  49. doi Coagulopthy, acute kidney injury and death following Hypnale zara envenoming: the first case report from Sri Lanka
    Kalana Maduwage
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
    Toxicon 58:641-3. 2011
    ..This report describes an authenticated fatal case of a 47 years old male due to coagulopthy and acute kidney injury following envenoming by H. zara in Sri Lanka...
  50. ncbi Snake bites in north east Sri Lanka
    J S Whitehall
    The Townsville Hospital, Queensland Health, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
    Rural Remote Health 7:751. 2007
    ..Snake bite is a major problem in Sri Lanka where recent decades of warfare and economic sanctions have complicated its management...
  51. pmc Saw-scaled viper bites in Sri Lanka: is it a different subspecies? Clinical evidence from an authenticated case series
    Ariaranee Gnanathasan
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Kynsey Road, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 86:254-7. 2012
    ....
  52. pmc Mapping snakebite epidemiology in Nicaragua--pitfalls and possible solutions
    Erik Hansson
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e896. 2010
    ..To avoid this error, we try to identify where underreporting is likely based on available information...
  53. doi Revisiting saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) bites in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka: distribution, epidemiology and clinical manifestations
    S A M Kularatne
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Kandy, Sri Lanka
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 105:591-7. 2011
    ..The median time for correction of coagulopathy was 802min (range 180-1669min) with Indian polyvalent antivenom. All recovered. The saw scaled viper is responsible for most venomous bites in the Jaffna peninsula...
  54. ncbi Ethnobotanical survey of folk plants for the treatment of snakebites in Southern part of Tamilnadu, India
    Ramar Perumal Samy
    Venom and Toxin Research Programme, Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore
    J Ethnopharmacol 115:302-12. 2008
    ....
  55. ncbi Efficacy of antivenom against the procoagulant effect of Australian brown snake (Pseudonaja sp.) venom: in vivo and in vitro studies
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Tropical Toxinology Unit, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NSW, Australia
    Toxicon 49:57-67. 2007
    ..One vial of antivenom appears to be sufficient to bind and neutralise all venom in patients with severe brown snake envenoming...
  56. ncbi Geographic Information System mapping of snakebite incidence in northern Ghana and Nigeria using environmental indicators: a preliminary study
    Anna M Molesworth
    Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97:188-92. 2003
    ..Detailed and extensive further studies will enable the more reliable estimation of snakebite incidence at a local level across the region...
  57. ncbi Case report: Acute myocardial infarction complicating a viper bite
    A M Saadeh
    Internal Medicine Department, Princess Basma Teaching Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 64:280-2. 2001
    ..The patient had no risk factors for coronary artery disease and the coronary arteries were normal on cardiac catheterization. The possible mechanisms leading to myocardial infarction following snakebite are discussed...
  58. ncbi Multiple thrombotic occlusions of vessels after Russell's viper envenoming
    Dong Zong Hung
    Institute of Toxicology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Pharmacol Toxicol 91:106-10. 2002
    ....
  59. doi Human anti-snake venom IgG antibodies in a previously bitten snake-handler, but no protection against local envenoming
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, New South Wales, Australia
    Toxicon 55:646-9. 2010
    ..However, despite the presence of antibodies to death adder venom and free venom not being detected, the patient still developed significant local myotoxicity...
  60. ncbi Twentieth century toxinology and antivenom development in Australia
    Kenneth D Winkel
    Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
    Toxicon 48:738-54. 2006
    ..This paper reviews some of the milestones of Australian toxinology, and antivenom development in particular, during the 20th century...
  61. ncbi Taiwan's venomous snakebite: epidemiological, evolution and geographic differences
    Dong Zong Hung
    Division of Toxicology, Emergency Department, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160, Sec 3, Taichung Harbor Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98:96-101. 2004
    ....
  62. ncbi Study of the efficacy of the black stone on envenomation by snake bite in the murine model
    Jean Philippe Chippaux
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, La Paz, Bolivia
    Toxicon 49:717-20. 2007
    ..arietans venom. Our results show that, contrary to widespread belief, no efficacy to treat envenomation may be expected of the BS...
  63. doi [Guidelines for the production, control and regulation of snake antivenom immunoglobulins]
    Jean Philippe Chippaux
    Unité de recherche Santé de la mère et de l enfant en milieu tropical, IRD UR010, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 avenue de l Observatoire, Paris Cedex 06, France
    Biol Aujourdhui 204:87-91. 2010
    ..These guidelines, which will published soon, should promote access to antivenoms, and their use by health services, leading in the short term to a significant decrease of snakebite morbidity and mortality...
  64. pmc Antivenomic assessment of the immunological reactivity of EchiTAb-Plus-ICP, an antivenom for the treatment of snakebite envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa
    Juan J Calvete
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, C S I C, Jaume Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:1194-201. 2010
    ....
  65. doi Antivenom: the most cost-effective treatment in the world?
    N Brown
    The Institute of Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Toxicon 55:1405-7. 2010
    ..These advances may lead to antivenom becoming one of the most cost-effective treatments available to modern medicine, and provides strong justification for its inclusion in international health funding initiatives...
  66. ncbi Prognostic factors for local necrosis in Bothrops jararaca (Brazilian pit viper) bites
    L A Ribeiro
    Departamento de Clínica Médica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av Pará 1720 Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, CEP 38400 902, Brazil
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95:630-4. 2001
    ..The size of the snake was the most important independent prognostic factor related to the presence of necrosis...
  67. doi A cross-sectional survey of snake oral bacterial flora from Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Ka Keung Lam
    Department of Accident and Emergency, Pok Oi Hospital, Au Tau, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, People s Republic of China
    Emerg Med J 28:107-14. 2011
    ..To determine the pattern of oral bacterial flora and their sensitivity to antibiotics in freshly captured native snakes in Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China...
  68. doi Report of the 4th International Conference on Envenomations by Snakebites and Scorpion Stings in Africa, Dakar, April 25-29, 2011
    Jean Philippe Chippaux
    Cerpage et IRD UMR 216, Mère et Enfant Face aux Infections Tropicales, Cotonou, Benin
    Toxicon 58:426-9. 2011
    ..Finally, financing mechanisms to ensure an equitable distribution of resources must be sought, as well as the constitution of a network of African experts were discussed at length...
  69. ncbi The clinical significance of venom detection in patients of cobra snakebite
    Dong Zong Hung
    Institute of Toxicology, School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No 1, Section 1, Jen Ai Road, Taipei City 10043, Taiwan, ROC
    Toxicon 41:409-15. 2003
    ..In conclusion, these results indicate that venom detection in snakebite victims is valuable in diagnosis and severity assessment of Taiwan cobra snakebite...
  70. doi Syndromic approach to treatment of snake bite in Sri Lanka based on results of a prospective national hospital-based survey of patients envenomed by identified snakes
    Christeine A Ariaratnam
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 81:725-31. 2009
    ..The technique of hospital-based collection, labeling and preservation of dead snakes brought by bitten patients is recommended for rapid assessment of a country's medically-important herpetofauna...
  71. doi Epidemiology, clinical profile and management issues of cobra (Naja naja) bites in Sri Lanka: first authenticated case series
    S A M Kularatne
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Peradeniya University, Sri Lanka
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103:924-30. 2009
    ..The findings highlight the magnitude of local necrosis, respiratory paralysis and antivenom failure in Spectacled cobra bite in Sri Lanka. Coagulopathy requires verification with robust laboratory tests...
  72. ncbi Venomous snakes of Saudi Arabia and the Middle East: a keynote for travellers
    M Ismail
    Graduate Studies and Research, October6 University, 6th of October City, Main Center 111, Egypt
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 21:164-9. 2003
    ..The epidemiology of snake bites, pathophysiology of toxicity and the clinical features of envenoming by the different species of snakes are ..
  73. ncbi Snakebite mortality at Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea, 1992-2001
    Forbes McGain
    Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic
    Med J Aust 181:687-91. 2004
    ..Fatal snakebites at Port Moresby General Hospital (PMGH), Papua New Guinea (PNG), were examined to identify interventions that may improve patient survival...
  74. doi Large snake size suggests increased snakebite severity in patients bitten by rattlesnakes in Southern california
    Donald N Janes
    Lynchburg General Hospital, Lynchburg, VA 24501, USA
    Wilderness Environ Med 21:120-6. 2010
    ..To correlate rattlesnake size and other characteristics of envenomation with the severity of envenomation...
  75. doi Use of antivenom for snakebites reported to United States poison centers
    Henry A Spiller
    Kentucky Regional Poison Center, PO Box 35070, Louisville, KY 40232 5070, USA
    Am J Emerg Med 28:780-5. 2010
    ..In 2001, a new antivenin was introduced to the United States and became widely available in the snakebite season of 2002. We investigated what impact this may have had on snakebite treatment and medical outcome...
  76. ncbi Antivenom therapy for snakebites in children: is there evidence?
    James M Schmidt
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia 23507, USA
    Curr Opin Pediatr 17:234-8. 2005
    ..This review examines the evidence supporting the use of CroFab, with particular attention on the pediatric population...
  77. doi Late hematologic toxicity following treatment of rattlesnake envenomation with crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom
    Anne Michelle Ruha
    Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, United States
    Toxicon 57:53-9. 2011
    ....
  78. doi Short-term outcomes after Fab antivenom therapy for severe crotaline snakebite
    Eric J Lavonas
    Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, CO, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 57:128-137.e3. 2011
    ....
  79. ncbi Coagulopathy following bites by the Papuan taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus canni)
    D G Lalloo
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Papua New Guinea
    Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 6:65-72. 1995
    ..These abnormalities may be primarily attributable to the prothrombin activator present in taipan venom, but it is likely that other uncharacterized venom components contributed...
  80. doi Lipoic acid effects on renal function, aminopeptidase activities and oxidative stress in Crotalus durissus terrificus envenomation in mice
    Valter de Sousa Alegre
    Laboratory of Pharmacology, Instituto Butantan, Av Vital Brazil, 1500, 05503 900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Toxicon 56:402-10. 2010
    ..Data suggest that LA contributes to the solubilization/remotion of proteins in MF with impairment of most AP, but it could be beneficial for the treatment of the direct nephrotoxicity of vCdt...
  81. ncbi A large single-center experience with treatment of patients with crotalid envenomations: outcomes with and evolution of antivenin therapy
    Michael G Corneille
    Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    Am J Surg 192:848-52. 2006
    ..Allergic reactions are fewer with ovine Fab antivenin (FabAV). This study describes the management of crotalid envenomations in patients treated with FabAV or ACP, and without antivenin...
  82. doi Pediatric snakebites: lessons learned from 114 cases
    Brendan T Campbell
    Department of Surgery, Arkansas Children s Hospital and the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
    J Pediatr Surg 43:1338-41. 2008
    ..Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of pediatric snakebite injuries are lacking because they occur infrequently in most centers...
  83. pmc Crotaline Fab antivenom appears to be effective in cases of severe North American pit viper envenomation: an integrative review
    Eric J Lavonas
    Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health Hospital Authority, 777 Bannock St, MC 0180, Denver, CO 80204, USA
    BMC Emerg Med 9:13. 2009
    ..No clinical trial data are available concerning the effectiveness of FabAV for treatment of severe snakebite, but several published articles describe its use in this setting...
  84. doi Recombinant factor VIIa for treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage following rattlesnake envenomation
    Anne Michelle Ruha
    Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Wilderness Environ Med 20:156-60. 2009
    ....
  85. doi Recurrent coagulopathy with delayed significant bleeding after crotaline envenomation
    Nicole F O'Brien
    Department of Critical Care, Rady Children s Hospital, San Diego, CA 32123, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 25:457-9. 2009
    ..Report of delayed significant coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding after Crotaline envenomation...
  86. ncbi Snakebite injuries treated in United States emergency departments, 2001-2004
    Mary Elizabeth O'Neil
    RTI International, Social and Statistical Sciences, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Wilderness Environ Med 18:281-7. 2007
    ..National estimates of such injuries treated in emergency departments (EDs) are presented along with characteristics of the affected population...
  87. doi Evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to the development of a crotalidae polyvalent antivenin (CroFab) protocol at a university hospital
    Kyle A Weant
    Department of Pharmacy Services, University of Kentucky HealthCare, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Ann Pharmacother 44:447-55. 2010
    ..The inappropriate use of this agent can result in adverse patient consequences and a significant financial burden for both the hospital and the patient...
  88. ncbi Low incidence of early reactions to horse-derived F(ab')(2) antivenom for snakebites in Thailand
    Aegachai Thiansookon
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
    Acta Trop 105:203-5. 2008
    ..Antivenom can be given in all 10 without reactions. In conclusion, the incidence of early reactions to antivenoms was low in Thailand and skin test is not helpful at all in predicting this adverse reaction...
  89. doi Endogenous thrombin potential as a novel method for the characterization of procoagulant snake venoms and the efficacy of antivenom
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
    Toxicon 56:75-85. 2010
    ..ETP is a useful assay to investigate mechanisms of other procoagulant venoms and is a robust method of assessing antivenom efficacy...
  90. ncbi Current use of Australian snake antivenoms and frequency of immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylaxis
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT
    Med J Aust 188:473-6. 2008
    ..To investigate current use of Australian snake antivenoms and the frequency and severity of immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions...
  91. doi Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab for the treatment of pediatric crotaline envenomation
    Collin S Goto
    Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children s Medical Center of Dallas, Medical Toxicology, North Texas Poison Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75235, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 25:273-9; quiz 280-2. 2009
    ..This article will review the use of FabAV for the treatment of pediatric crotaline envenomation...
  92. ncbi Pressure immobilization delays mortality and increases intracompartmental pressure after artificial intramuscular rattlesnake envenomation in a porcine model
    Sean P Bush
    Department of Emergency Medicine Laack, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Medical Center and Children s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 44:599-604. 2004
    ..We determine the effect of pressure immobilization on mortality and intracompartmental pressure after artificial intramuscular Crotalus atrox envenomation in a porcine model...
  93. ncbi Suction for venomous snakebite: a study of "mock venom" extraction in a human model
    Michael B Alberts
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, Fresno 93702, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 43:181-6. 2004
    ..We determine the percentage of mock venom recovered by a suction device (Sawyer Extractor pump) in a simulated snakebite in human volunteers...
  94. ncbi Airway obstruction following canebrake rattlesnake envenomation
    W Kerns
    Emergency Medicine and Medical Toxicology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
    J Emerg Med 20:377-80. 2001
    ..He was managed with fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation and Crotalid antivenin with good outcome...
  95. ncbi Use of stun guns for venomous bites and stings: a review
    E Ben Welch
    Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, Southwestern Oklahoma State University, Weatherford, USA
    Wilderness Environ Med 12:111-7. 2001
    ..A Medline search was performed using these terms: venomous bites, venomous stings, snake bites, spider bites, electrical, stun gun, high voltage electricity, low amperage electricity, direct current, and ..
  96. ncbi Epidemiology and hospital course of rattlesnake envenomations cared for at a tertiary referral center in Central Arizona
    D Tanen
    Department of Medical Toxicology, Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 8:177-82. 2001
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographics and primary inpatient treatment of victims of rattle-snake bites (RSBs) referred to a teritiary referral poison treatment center in central Arizona, and to compare the frequency of local tissue ..
  97. ncbi Immediate hypersensitivity reaction associated with the rapid infusion of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine)
    Christopher P Holstege
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 0699, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 39:677-9. 2002
    ..Holstege CP, Wu J, Baer AB. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction associated with the rapid infusion of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine). Ann Emerg Med. June 2002;39:677-679.]..
  98. ncbi Copperhead snakebites: clinical severity of local effects
    E J Scharman
    West Virginia Poison Center, West Virginia University Charleston Division, Charleston, WV 25304, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 38:55-61. 2001
    ..We sought to evaluate the type and extent of local reactions after copperhead snakebites...
  99. ncbi Effects of a negative pressure venom extraction device (Extractor) on local tissue injury after artificial rattlesnake envenomation in a porcine model
    S P Bush
    Loma Linda University School of Medicine, CA, USA
    Wilderness Environ Med 11:180-8. 2000
    ..To determine if a commercially available negative-pressure venom extraction device (Extractor) reduces local tissue injury after artificial rattlesnake envenomation in a porcine model...
  100. ncbi Rattlesnake bites in children: antivenin treatment and surgical indications
    Brian A Shaw
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Valley Children s Hospital, Madera, California 93611, USA
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 84:1624-9. 2002
    ..Our hypothesis is that aggressive use of antivenin is just as effective and safe for children as it is for adults...
  101. ncbi [Snakebites in the State of Goiás, Brazil]
    Fábia Maria Oliveira Pinho
    Universidade Catolica de Goias, Goiania, GO
    Rev Assoc Med Bras 50:93-6. 2004
    ..Ophidic accidents are a serious health problem for tropical countries, because are responsible for the high incidence of morbidity and mortality...

Research Grants1

  1. Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Coralmyn for Coral Snake Bite (BB-IND 13926,01/02/09)
    LESLIE VICTORIA BOYER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2) Demonstrate the value of plasma venom levels as a surrogate endpoint in coral snake bites by relating venom levels to severity of envenomation, before and after treatment...