dna fragmentation


Summary: Endonucleolytic cleavage (cutting both strands) of genomic DNA into fragments at internucleosomal sites. DNA fragmentation along with chromatin condensation are considered the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death
    Susan Elmore
    NIEHS, Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 35:495-516. 2007
  2. ncbi Caspase-3 is required for DNA fragmentation and morphological changes associated with apoptosis
    R U Jänicke
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, The National University of Singapore, 30 Medical Drive, Singapore 117609, Republic of Singapore
    J Biol Chem 273:9357-60. 1998
  3. ncbi Prevention of apoptosis by Bcl-2: release of cytochrome c from mitochondria blocked
    J Yang
    Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Science 275:1129-32. 1997
  4. ncbi DNA fragments in the blood plasma of cancer patients: quantitations and evidence for their origin from apoptotic and necrotic cells
    S Jahr
    Department of Biology, Universitat Konstanz, Germany
    Cancer Res 61:1659-65. 2001
  5. ncbi Initiation of DNA fragmentation during apoptosis induces phosphorylation of H2AX histone at serine 139
    E P Rogakou
    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Division of Basic Sciences, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:9390-5. 2000
  6. ncbi Apoptosis and necrosis: detection, discrimination and phagocytosis
    Dmitri V Krysko
    Molecular Signaling and Cell Death Unit, Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, VIB, 9052 Ghent, Belgium
    Methods 44:205-21. 2008
  7. ncbi Morphologic and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis
    A Saraste
    Department of Anatomy, University of Turku, Finland
    Cardiovasc Res 45:528-37. 2000
  8. pmc Temporal patterns of nucleotide misincorporations and DNA fragmentation in ancient DNA
    Susanna Sawyer
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e34131. 2012
  9. pmc The mechanism underlying acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in humans and mice involves mitochondrial damage and nuclear DNA fragmentation
    Mitchell R McGill
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:1574-83. 2012
  10. ncbi Induction of apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro by flavonoids from Astragalus complanatus
    Yan wei Hu
    Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Soochow University, 199 RenAi Road, Suzhou 215123, PR China
    J Ethnopharmacol 123:293-301. 2009

Detail Information

Publications313 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death
    Susan Elmore
    NIEHS, Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 35:495-516. 2007
  2. ncbi Caspase-3 is required for DNA fragmentation and morphological changes associated with apoptosis
    R U Jänicke
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, The National University of Singapore, 30 Medical Drive, Singapore 117609, Republic of Singapore
    J Biol Chem 273:9357-60. 1998
    ..MCF-7 cells were still sensitive to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- or staurosporine-induced apoptosis, no DNA fragmentation was observed...
  3. ncbi Prevention of apoptosis by Bcl-2: release of cytochrome c from mitochondria blocked
    J Yang
    Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Science 275:1129-32. 1997
    ..Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented the efflux of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and the initiation of apoptosis. Thus, one possible role of Bcl-2 in prevention of apoptosis is to block cytochrome c release from mitochondria...
  4. ncbi DNA fragments in the blood plasma of cancer patients: quantitations and evidence for their origin from apoptotic and necrotic cells
    S Jahr
    Department of Biology, Universitat Konstanz, Germany
    Cancer Res 61:1659-65. 2001
    ..The data are consistent with the possibility that apoptotic and necrotic cells are a major source for plasma DNA in cancer patients...
  5. ncbi Initiation of DNA fragmentation during apoptosis induces phosphorylation of H2AX histone at serine 139
    E P Rogakou
    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Division of Basic Sciences, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:9390-5. 2000
    ..These results indicate that gamma-H2AX formation is an early chromatin modification following initiation of DNA fragmentation during apoptosis.
  6. ncbi Apoptosis and necrosis: detection, discrimination and phagocytosis
    Dmitri V Krysko
    Molecular Signaling and Cell Death Unit, Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, VIB, 9052 Ghent, Belgium
    Methods 44:205-21. 2008
    ..exposure versus membrane permeability by flow fluorocytometry); (3) intracellular markers (oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by flow fluorocytometry, caspase activation, Bid cleavage and cytochrome c release by western blotting); (4) ..
  7. ncbi Morphologic and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis
    A Saraste
    Department of Anatomy, University of Turku, Finland
    Cardiovasc Res 45:528-37. 2000
    ..Recently, potentially more specific assays based on analysis of DNA fragmentation or demonstration of caspase activation have been developed...
  8. pmc Temporal patterns of nucleotide misincorporations and DNA fragmentation in ancient DNA
    Susanna Sawyer
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e34131. 2012
    ..These nucleotide misincorporations are thus a useful tool to distinguish recent from ancient DNA sources in specimens that have not been subjected to unusual or harsh treatments...
  9. pmc The mechanism underlying acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in humans and mice involves mitochondrial damage and nuclear DNA fragmentation
    Mitchell R McGill
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:1574-83. 2012
    ..In rodents, this leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear DNA fragmentation, resulting in necrotic cell death...
  10. ncbi Induction of apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro by flavonoids from Astragalus complanatus
    Yan wei Hu
    Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Soochow University, 199 RenAi Road, Suzhou 215123, PR China
    J Ethnopharmacol 123:293-301. 2009
    ..The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of these flavonoids from Astragalus complanatus (FAC) on human hepatocarcinoma cell viability and apoptosis and to investigate its mechanisms of action in SMMC-7721 cells...
  11. ncbi DNA-PK phosphorylates histone H2AX during apoptotic DNA fragmentation in mammalian cells
    Bipasha Mukherjee
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 2201 Inwood Road, NC 7 206, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    DNA Repair (Amst) 5:575-90. 2006
    ..Apoptotic DNA fragmentation and the consequent chromatin condensation are important for efficient clearing of genomic DNA and ..
  12. ncbi Sperm DNA integrity assessment in prediction of assisted reproduction technology outcome
    M Bungum
    Fertility Clinic, Viborg Hospital, Skive, Denmark
    Hum Reprod 22:174-9. 2007
    ..The available data however, have been based on limited numbers of treatments. We aimed to define the clinical role of SCSA in assisted reproduction...
  13. ncbi Individual and combined effects of ochratoxin A and citrinin on viability and DNA fragmentation in cultured Vero cells and on chromosome aberrations in mice bone marrow cells
    Amel Bouslimi
    Laboratory of Research on Biologically Compatible Compounds, Faculty of Dentistry, Rue Avicenne, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia
    Toxicology 251:1-7. 2008
    ..To this end, we have assessed their effects individually or combined on cell proliferation and DNA fragmentation in cultured Vero cells and in vivo by monitoring the induction of chromosome aberrations...
  14. ncbi Regulation of DNA fragmentation: the role of caspases and phosphorylation
    Ikuko Kitazumi
    Bio Process Research and Development Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co Ltd, Takasaki, Gunma, Japan
    FEBS J 278:427-41. 2011
    b>DNA fragmentation is a hallmark of apoptosis that is induced by apoptotic stimuli in various cell types...
  15. ncbi Sperm DNA fragmentation: mechanisms of origin, impact on reproductive outcome, and analysis
    Denny Sakkas
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar St, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Fertil Steril 93:1027-36. 2010
    To review the mechanisms responsible for DNA fragmentation in human sperm, including those occurring during spermatogenesis and transport through the reproductive tract...
  16. ncbi Caspase-3 is the primary activator of apoptotic DNA fragmentation via DNA fragmentation factor-45/inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase inactivation
    B B Wolf
    Division of Cellular Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:30651-6. 1999
    Caspase-3 initiates apoptotic DNA fragmentation by proteolytically inactivating DFF45 (DNA fragmentation factor-45)/ICAD (inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase), which releases active DFF40/CAD (caspase-activated DNase), the inhibitor's ..
  17. ncbi Features of apoptosis in Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic stage through a putative role of PfMCA1 metacaspase-like protein
    Benoit Meslin
    University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Equipe d Acceuil 41 70, Paristology and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lyon, 69373, France
    J Infect Dis 195:1852-9. 2007
    ..or the antimalarial chloroquine, apoptosis in Plasmodium asexual stages was evident by the observation of DNA fragmentation and disruption of transmembrane mitochondrial potential...
  18. pmc Autophagic degradation of dBruce controls DNA fragmentation in nurse cells during late Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis
    Ioannis P Nezis
    Centre for Cancer Biomedicine, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
    J Cell Biol 190:523-31. 2010
    ..In this study, we show that autophagy controls DNA fragmentation during late oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster...
  19. pmc Nuclear Akt associates with PKC-phosphorylated Ebp1, preventing DNA fragmentation by inhibition of caspase-activated DNase
    Jee Yin Ahn
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    EMBO J 25:2083-95. 2006
    ..and NGF-treated PC12 nuclear extracts, we purified Ebp1 as a factor, which contributes to inhibition of DNA fragmentation by CAD...
  20. ncbi Apoptotic DNA fragmentation
    S Nagata
    Department of Genetics, Osaka University Medical School and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 2 2 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka, 565 0871, Japan
    Exp Cell Res 256:12-8. 2000
    ..Cells that lack ICAD or that express caspase-resistant mutant ICAD thus do not show DNA fragmentation during apoptosis, although they do exhibit some other features of apoptosis and die...
  21. pmc Loss of splicing factor ASF/SF2 induces G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, but inhibits internucleosomal DNA fragmentation
    Xialu Li
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA
    Genes Dev 19:2705-14. 2005
    ..However, although several hallmarks of apoptosis are apparent, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation was not detected...
  22. ncbi Oxidative stress, DNA damage and the Y chromosome
    R J Aitken
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Centre for Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 23008, Australia
    Reproduction 122:497-506. 2001
  23. ncbi Sperm DNA fragmentation: paternal effect on early post-implantation embryo development in ART
    A Borini
    Tecnobios Procreazione, Centre for Reproductive Health, Via Dante 15, Bologna, Italy
    Hum Reprod 21:2876-81. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation in IVF/ICSI patients, sperm parameters (concentration, motility and morphology) and ART outcome, especially ..
  24. ncbi Evaluation of sperm head shape at high magnification revealed correlation of sperm DNA fragmentation with aberrant head ellipticity and angularity
    Hiroki Utsuno
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan
    Fertil Steril 99:1573-80. 2013
    To test for an association between DNA fragmentation and head shape at high magnification in fresh motile spermatozoa.
  25. pmc Caspases 3 and 7: key mediators of mitochondrial events of apoptosis
    Saquib A Lakhani
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Science 311:847-51. 2006
    ..Furthermore, the early apoptotic events of Bax translocation and cytochrome c release were also delayed. We conclude that caspases 3 and 7 are critical mediators of mitochondrial events of apoptosis...
  26. pmc Identification of a nuclear-localized nuclease from wheat cells undergoing programmed cell death that is able to trigger DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology on nuclei from human cells
    Fernando Dominguez
    Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas Isla de la Cartuja, Universidad de Sevilla CSIC, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
    Biochem J 397:529-36. 2006
    ..Nuclear extracts from nucellar cells undergoing PCD triggered DNA fragmentation and other apoptotic morphology in nuclei from different plant tissues...
  27. ncbi Fall in implantation rates following ICSI with sperm with high DNA fragmentation
    B E Speyer
    Maternal and Fetal Medicine, IFWH, University College London, 86 96 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK
    Hum Reprod 25:1609-18. 2010
    There is considerable uncertainty as to the significance of a high sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) for achieving a successful pregnancy.
  28. pmc Activation of P2X receptors induces apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelium
    Dongli Yang
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 0714, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:1522-30. 2011
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether extracellular ATP induces apoptosis in cultured human RPE...
  29. ncbi Capsaicin induces apoptosis in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells through mitochondria-dependent and -independent pathways
    Siu Wan Ip
    Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
    Environ Toxicol 27:332-41. 2012
    ..In addition, capsaicin produced DNA fragmentation, decreased the DNA contents (sub-G1 phase), and induced G0/G1 phase arrest in SCC-4 cells...
  30. ncbi Sperm chromatin structure assay: its clinical use for detecting sperm DNA fragmentation in male infertility and comparisons with other techniques
    Donald P Evenson
    Olson Biochemistry Laboratories, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57006, USA
    J Androl 23:25-43. 2002
  31. ncbi Overexpression of regucalcin suppresses apoptotic cell death in cloned normal rat kidney proximal tubular epithelial NRK52E cells: change in apoptosis-related gene expression
    Taeko Nakagawa
    Laboratory of Endocrinology and Molecular Metabolism, Graduate School of Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52 1 Yada, Suruga ku, Shizuoka 422 8526, Japan
    J Cell Biochem 96:1274-85. 2005
    ..0 microg/ml), Bay K 8644 (10(-7) M), or thapsigargin (10(-8) M) for 24 h, and this DNA fragmentation was significantly suppressed in transfectants...
  32. ncbi DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure
    Frauke Focke
    Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    Mutat Res 683:74-83. 2010
    ..primary fibroblasts to a 50 Hz EMF at a flux density of 1 mT induces a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the Comet assay, and we provide first evidence for this to be caused by the magnetic rather than the ..
  33. ncbi Reduction of the incidence of sperm DNA fragmentation by oral antioxidant treatment
    Ermanno Greco
    Centre for Reproductive Medicine, European Hospital, Rome, Italy
    J Androl 26:349-53. 2005
    Sperm DNA fragmentation is known to compromise male fertility. Previous findings have suggested the implication of oxidative stress in the etiology of this pathological condition...
  34. ncbi Sperm DNA damage: how relevant is it clinically?
    Victor E Beshay
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9032, USA
    Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 24:172-9. 2012
    The true impact of the current sperm DNA fragmentation testing needs further scrutiny to assess whether clinically meaningful information is conveyed.
  35. pmc EndoG links Bnip3-induced mitochondrial damage and caspase-independent DNA fragmentation in ischemic cardiomyocytes
    Jisheng Zhang
    Institut de Recerca Biomèdica de Lleida IRBLleida, Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Spain
    PLoS ONE 6:e17998. 2011
    Mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase activation and caspase-dependent DNA fragmentation are involved in cell damage in many tissues...
  36. pmc Two distinct pathways leading to nuclear apoptosis
    S A Susin
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR1599, Institut Gustave Roussy, F 94805 Villejuif, France
    J Exp Med 192:571-80. 2000
    ..including the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nuclei, large scale DNA fragmentation, and initial chromatin condensation (stage I)...
  37. ncbi Apoptogenic activity of 2α,3α-dihydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is mediated via mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase cascade regulated by Bcl-2 in human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells
    Hyun Ju Woo
    Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea
    J Ethnopharmacol 135:626-35. 2011
    ..The present study evaluated the apoptotic effect of 2α,3α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (DHURS), purified from the dried spikes on human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells...
  38. ncbi The effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on miscarriage rates: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Lynne Robinson
    Centre for Human Reproductive Science, Birmingham Women s Hospital, Mindelsohn Drive, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TG, UK
    Hum Reprod 27:2908-17. 2012
    ..Is there an association between high levels of sperm DNA damage and miscarriage?..
  39. pmc The scutellum of germinated wheat grains undergoes programmed cell death: identification of an acidic nuclease involved in nucleus dismantling
    Fernando Dominguez
    Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Universidad de Sevilla and CSIC Avda Américo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla Spain
    J Exp Bot 63:5475-85. 2012
    ..Scutellum cells of grains following germination showed a progressive increase of DNA fragmentation, and the TUNEL assay showed that PCD extended in an apical-to-basal gradient along the scutellum affecting ..
  40. ncbi Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells induced by a novel selenadiazole derivative
    Tianfeng Chen
    Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Biomed Pharmacother 62:77-84. 2008
    ..of apoptosis in MCF-7 and A375 cells by SPO was evidenced by accumulation of sub-G1 cell population, DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation...
  41. ncbi Clinical significance of sperm DNA damage in assisted reproduction outcome
    Luke Simon
    Centre for Public Health, Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Clinical Science, Queens University of Belfast, Grosvenor Road, Belfast BT12 6BJ, UK
    Hum Reprod 25:1594-608. 2010
    Sperm DNA damage shows great promise as a biomarker of infertility. The study aim is to determine the usefulness of DNA fragmentation (DF), including modified bases (MB), to predict assisted reproduction treatment (ART) outcomes.
  42. pmc Apoptosis-inducing factor participation in bovine macrophage Mycobacterium bovis-induced caspase-independent cell death
    X Vega-Manriquez
    Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico City, Mexico
    Infect Immun 75:1223-8. 2007
    ..deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay demonstrated that levels of DNA fragmentation induced by M. bovis and CFE were 53.7% +/- 24% and 38...
  43. ncbi Centrifugation on a single layer of colloid selects improved quality spermatozoa from frozen-thawed stallion semen
    B Macias Garcia
    Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Laboratory of Spermatology, University of Extremadura, Avda de Universidad s n, Caceres, Spain
    Anim Reprod Sci 114:193-202. 2009
    ..Single-layer centrifugation (SLC) using Androcoll-E significantly improved all the sperm parameters studied, implying SLC may be a simple approach to improve the quality of frozen-thawed (FT) spermatozoa for AI...
  44. pmc Random DNA fragmentation allows detection of single-copy, single-exon alterations of copy number by oligonucleotide array CGH in clinical FFPE samples
    Galen Hostetter
    Translational Genomics Research Institute, 445 N 5th Street, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:e9. 2010
    ..3. Finally we present data on derivative of log ratio, a particular sensitive detector of measurement variance, for 216 sequential hybridizations to assess protocol reliability over a wide range of FFPE samples...
  45. ncbi Cisplatin-evoked DNA fragmentation in normal and cancer cells and its modulation by free radical scavengers and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571
    Katarzyna Wozniak
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12 16, 90 237 Lodz, Poland
    Chem Biol Interact 147:309-18. 2004
    ..A 20 h incubation with cisplatin at 1-10 microM induced DNA cross-links and DNA fragmentation in normal and cancer cells...
  46. ncbi Antioxidants to reduce sperm DNA fragmentation: an unexpected adverse effect
    Yves J R Menezo
    Centre de FIV de la clinique de la Muette, Laboratoire d Eylau, Rue St Didier, 75116 Paris, France
    Reprod Biomed Online 14:418-21. 2007
    ..In this study, the DNA fragmentation index and the degree of sperm decondensation were measured using the sperm chromatin structure assay before ..
  47. pmc Rapid pathogen-induced apoptosis: a mechanism used by dendritic cells to limit intracellular replication of Legionella pneumophila
    Catarina V Nogueira
    Section of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000478. 2009
    ..pneumophila replication in DCs. Thus, DCs have a microbial response pathway that rapidly activates apoptosis to limit pathogen replication...
  48. ncbi Correlation between DNA damage and sperm parameters: a prospective study of 1,633 patients
    Paul Cohen-Bacrie
    Laboratoire d Eylau, Paris, France
    Fertil Steril 91:1801-5. 2009
    To investigate DNA fragmentation by using terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling in relation to World Health Organization parameters and computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) in sperm to determine the ..
  49. ncbi Decreased sperm DNA fragmentation after surgical varicocelectomy is associated with increased pregnancy rate
    Marij Smit
    Andrology Unit, Department of Urology and Trials and Research Coordination, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Urol 183:270-4. 2010
    ..We prospectively evaluated changes in sperm chromatin structure in infertile patients before and after surgical repair of varicocele, and the impact on the pregnancy rate...
  50. ncbi Increases in DNA fragmentation and induction of a senescence-specific nuclease are delayed during corolla senescence in ethylene-insensitive (etr1-1) transgenic petunias
    Brennick J Langston
    Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, 1680 Madison Avenue, The Ohio State University, OARDC, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
    J Exp Bot 56:15-23. 2005
    ..The programmed senescence of flower petals has been shown to involve the fragmentation of nuclear DNA. Nuclear DNA fragmentation, as determined by the TUNEL assay, was detected in Petunia x hybrida corollas during both pollination-..
  51. ncbi Simple determination of human sperm DNA fragmentation with an improved sperm chromatin dispersion test
    Jose Luis Fernandez
    Unidad de Investigacion, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Juan Canalejo, As Xubias, A Coruna, Spain
    Fertil Steril 84:833-42. 2005
    To improve the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test and develop it as a simple kit (Halosperm kit) for the accurate determination of sperm DNA fragmentation using conventional bright-field microscopy.
  52. ncbi Molecular evidences for the chemosensitizing efficacy of liposomal curcumin in paclitaxel chemotherapy in mouse models of cervical cancer
    C N Sreekanth
    Integrated Cancer Research Program, Division of Cancer Research, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
    Oncogene 30:3139-52. 2011
    ..As curcumin could effectively downregulate all these survival signals induced by paclitaxel, we suggest it as a potent chemosensitizer to improve the therapeutic index of paclitaxel...
  53. ncbi Caspase-3 is not essential for DNA fragmentation in MCF-7 cells during apoptosis induced by the pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine, PBOX-6
    Margaret M Mc Gee
    Biochemistry Department, Trinity College, 2, Dublin, Ireland
    FEBS Lett 515:66-70. 2002
    ..6 and -7 are responsible for producing the morphological features associated with apoptosis, such as DNA fragmentation. The present study demonstrates that a member of a novel series of pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines, PBOX-6, ..
  54. pmc The impact of partial manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2)-deficiency on mitochondrial oxidant stress, DNA fragmentation and liver injury during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity
    Anup Ramachandran
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, MS 1018, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 251:226-33. 2011
    ..In addition, nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay) correlated with translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and release of apoptosis-inducing ..
  55. ncbi Nuclease activities and DNA fragmentation during programmed cell death of megagametophyte cells of white spruce (Picea glauca) seeds
    Xu He
    Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada V5A 1S6
    Plant Mol Biol 51:509-21. 2003
    ..The temporal pattern of induction of the neutral and acidic nucleases may suggest that the latter function after tonoplast rupture...
  56. ncbi Phenylephrine protects neonatal rat cardiomyocytes from hypoxia and serum deprivation-induced apoptosis
    H Zhu
    Department of Cardiovascular Biology, Rhone Poulenc Rorer Research and Development, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA
    Cell Death Differ 7:773-84. 2000
  57. ncbi Fibroblast growth factor 1 regulates signaling via the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta pathway. Implications for neuroprotection
    Makoto Hashimoto
    Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0624, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:32985-91. 2002
    ..Taken together these results suggest that neuroprotective effects of FGF1 might involve inactivation of GSK3beta by a pathway involving activation of the PI3K-Akt cascades...
  58. ncbi Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I protect intestinal cells from radiation induced apoptosis
    P G Mylonas
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Patras Medical School, 26500, Patras, Greece
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 160:115-22. 2000
    ..DNA and RNA from the mucosa cells were isolated and analyzed by electrophoresis. DNA fragmentation and RNA 28s band ribonuclease cleavage was observed only in the irradiated animals...
  59. ncbi A rapid and transient ROS generation by cadmium triggers apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway in HepG2 cells and this is inhibited through N-acetylcysteine-mediated catalase upregulation
    Seon Hee Oh
    Research Center for Resistant Cells, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Seosuk dong, Dong Gu, Gwangju 501 759, South Korea
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 212:212-23. 2006
    ..Cd was found to induce apoptosis in the HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, as confirmed by DNA fragmentation analysis and TUNEL staining...
  60. pmc Mitochondrial release of AIF and EndoG requires caspase activation downstream of Bax/Bak-mediated permeabilization
    Damien Arnoult
    Biochemistry Section, Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    EMBO J 22:4385-99. 2003
    ..Thus EndoG and AIF seem to define a 'caspase-dependent' mitochondria-initiated apoptotic DNA degradation pathway that is conserved between mammals and nematodes...
  61. ncbi Evaluation of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay for the detection of DNA damage and mutations
    Franck A Atienzar
    School of Biological Sciences, Plymouth Environmental Research Centre, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK
    Mutat Res 521:151-63. 2002
    ..Finally, further research is required to better understand the potential and limitations of the RAPD assay for the detection of DNA damage and mutations...
  62. pmc A caspase-independent pathway mediates macrophage cell death in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Deirdre M Kelly
    Departmrent of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity College Dublin and St James s Hospital, CREST, Dublin 8, Ireland
    Infect Immun 75:1984-93. 2007
    ..for the involvement of both the mitochondria (cleavage of Bid) and the lysosomes (cathepsin-mediated DNA fragmentation) in this cell death pathway...
  63. pmc Down-regulation of a SILENT INFORMATION REGULATOR2-related histone deacetylase gene, OsSRT1, induces DNA fragmentation and cell death in rice
    Limin Huang
    National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China
    Plant Physiol 144:1508-19. 2007
    ..H3K9 (lysine-9 of H3) acetylation and a decrease of H3K9 dimethylation, leading to H(2)O(2) production, DNA fragmentation, cell death, and lesions mimicking plant hypersensitive responses during incompatible interactions with ..
  64. ncbi Camptothecin induced mitochondrial dysfunction leading to programmed cell death in unicellular hemoflagellate Leishmania donovani
    N Sen
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology 4, Raja SC Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, India
    Cell Death Differ 11:924-36. 2004
    ..Taken together, our study indicates that different biochemical events leading to apoptosis in leishmanial cells provide information that could be exploited to develop newer potential therapeutic targets...
  65. ncbi The Drosophila DIAP1 protein is required to prevent accumulation of a continuously generated, processed form of the apical caspase DRONC
    Israel Muro
    Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Program, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:49644-50. 2002
  66. pmc A yeast mutant showing diagnostic markers of early and late apoptosis
    F Madeo
    Physiologisch Chemisches Institut, , , Germany
    J Cell Biol 139:729-34. 1997
    ..staining, using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method, indicating DNA fragmentation; and chromatin condensation and fragmentation...
  67. pmc Telomere dysfunction triggers extensive DNA fragmentation and evolution of complex chromosome abnormalities in human malignant tumors
    D Gisselsson
    Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, SE 221 85 Lund, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12683-8. 2001
    ..Telomerase expression is not sufficient for completely stabilizing the chromosome complement but may be crucial for preventing complete genomic deterioration and maintaining cellular survival...
  68. ncbi DNA degradation in development and programmed cell death
    Shigekazu Nagata
    Laboratory of Genetics, Integrated Biology Laboratories, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Japan
    Annu Rev Immunol 23:853-75. 2005
    ..I discuss what might be or will be learned from understanding the molecular mechanisms of DNA degradation that occurs during mammalian development...
  69. ncbi Global cerebral ischemia activates nuclear factor-kappa B prior to evidence of DNA fragmentation
    J A Clemens
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Co, CNS Division, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 48:187-96. 1997
    ..Specific labeling of DNA strand breaks and DNA fragmentation was examined in situ by means of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (..
  70. ncbi Late, but not early, paternal effect on human embryo development is related to sperm DNA fragmentation
    Jan Tesarik
    MAR and Gen, Molecular Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, Gracia 36, 18002 Granada, Spain
    Hum Reprod 19:611-5. 2004
    It is known that repeated failure of assisted reproduction treatment (ART) can be due to a paternal effect. This study was undertaken to analyse the possible relationship between ART failure and sperm DNA fragmentation.
  71. ncbi Trashing the genome: the role of nucleases during apoptosis
    Kumiko Samejima
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Swann Building, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:677-88. 2005
    ..Waste-management nucleases also destroy DNA that is released into the extracellular compartment. Here, we describe the complex group of nucleases that are involved in DNA destruction during apoptotic cell death...
  72. ncbi Semen characteristics and sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men with low and high levels of seminal reactive oxygen species
    Reda Mahfouz
    Center for Reproductive Medicine, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Fertil Steril 94:2141-6. 2010
    To examine sperm motility, total antioxidant level (TAC), DNA fragmentation, and medical history in infertile men with high seminal high reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  73. ncbi Continued in situ DNA fragmentation of microglia/macrophages in white matter weeks and months after traumatic brain injury
    Stephen Wilson
    Department of Neuropathology, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Neurotrauma 21:239-50. 2004
    ..These findings indicate that most of the in situ DNA fragmentation occurred in microglia/macrophages in ascending and descending fiber tracts of the brain stem in which by ..
  74. ncbi The sperm chromatin dispersion test: a simple method for the determination of sperm DNA fragmentation
    Jose Luis Fernandez
    Sección de Genética y Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Teresa Herrera, Complejo Hospitalario Juan Canalejo, La Coruna, Spain
    J Androl 24:59-66. 2003
    Sperm DNA fragmentation is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of infertility. We herein describe the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test, a novel assay for sperm DNA fragmentation in semen...
  75. ncbi The nucellus degenerates by a process of programmed cell death during the early stages of wheat grain development
    F Dominguez
    Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas Isla de la Cartuja, Sevilla, Spain
    Planta 213:352-60. 2001
    ..A progressive degradation of the cytosolic contents and organelles was observed, and the plasma membrane was disrupted. However, the Golgi apparatus remained intact and apparently functional even in the final stages of cell death...
  76. ncbi Intranuclear localization of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and large scale DNA fragmentation after traumatic brain injury in rats and in neuronal cultures exposed to peroxynitrite
    Xiaopeng Zhang
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh, 3434 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    J Neurochem 82:181-91. 2002
    ..Immunocytochemical analysis showed AIF labeling in neuronal nuclei with DNA fragmentation in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus...
  77. ncbi Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) parameters are related to fertilization, blastocyst development, and ongoing pregnancy in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles
    Michael R Virro
    Markham Fertility Centre, Markham, Ontario, Canada
    Fertil Steril 81:1289-95. 2004
    To determine the relationship between sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) parameters (DNA fragmentation index [DFI] and high DNA stainability [HDS]), and conventional IVF and IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes.
  78. ncbi Angiotensin type 2 receptor dephosphorylates Bcl-2 by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 and induces apoptosis
    M Horiuchi
    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:19022-6. 1997
    ..In these cells, nerve growth factor (NGF) inhibited the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by serum depletion, whereas Ang II antagonized this NGF cell survival action and induced apoptosis...
  79. ncbi Increased sperm DNA damage in patients with varicocele: relationship with seminal oxidative stress
    R Smith
    Institute of Maternal and Child Research, School of Medicine, University of Chile and San Borja Arriarán Clinical Hospital, Santiago, Chile
    Hum Reprod 21:986-93. 2006
    ..The current study was designed to determine the extent of sperm nuclear DNA damage in patients with varicocele and to examine its relationship with oxidative stress...
  80. ncbi Long-term effects of mouse intracytoplasmic sperm injection with DNA-fragmented sperm on health and behavior of adult offspring
    Raul Fernandez-Gonzalez
    Departamento de Reproduccion Animal, INIA, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Biol Reprod 78:761-72. 2008
    ..Our data indicate that use of DFS in ICSI can generate effects that only emerge during later life, such as aberrant growth, premature aging, abnormal behavior, and mesenchymal tumors...
  81. pmc Smac mimetic bypasses apoptosis resistance in FADD- or caspase-8-deficient cells by priming for tumor necrosis factor α-induced necroptosis
    Bram Laukens
    University Children s Hospital, Ulm, Germany
    Neoplasia 13:971-9. 2011
    ..e., caspase activation, DNA fragmentation) in FADD-deficient cells...
  82. ncbi Sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men with genitourinary infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma
    Guadalupe Gallegos
    Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
    Fertil Steril 90:328-34. 2008
  83. ncbi Comprehensive analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation by five different assays: TUNEL assay, SCSA, SCD test and alkaline and neutral Comet assay
    J Ribas-Maynou
    Departament de Biologia Cellular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain
    Andrology 1:715-22. 2013
    Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) is becoming an important test to assess male infertility. Several different tests are available, but no consensus has yet been reached as to which tests are most predictive of infertility...
  84. ncbi The effects of different sperm preparation methods and incubation time on the sperm DNA fragmentation
    Xiao Dong Zhang
    Chongqing Reproductive and Genetic Institute, Chongqing Obstetric and Gynecology Hospital and Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    Hum Fertil (Camb) 14:187-91. 2011
    To study the effect of different sperm preparation methods and incubation times post preparation on sperm DNA fragmentation.
  85. ncbi Apoptosis in HepG2 cells exposed to high glucose
    Karthikeyan Chandrasekaran
    Life Science Division, AU KBC Research Centre, MIT Campus of Anna University, Chromepet, Chennai 600 044, India
    Toxicol In Vitro 24:387-96. 2010
    ..These results suggest that glucose induces apoptosis in liver cells through increased oxidative stress...
  86. pmc Degradation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway contributes to glucotoxicity in beta-cells and human pancreatic islets
    Safia Costes
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale INSERM, U661, Equipe Avenir, Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle, Montpellier, France
    Diabetes 58:1105-15. 2009
    ..The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is crucial for beta-cell survival and function. We investigated whether prolonged exposure of beta-cells to high glucose affects the functional integrity of CREB...
  87. ncbi Okadaic acid induces DNA fragmentation via caspase-3-dependent and caspase-3-independent pathways in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells
    Ikuko Kitazumi
    Bio Process Research and Development Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co, Ltd, Hagiwara, Takasaki, Gunma, Japan
    FEBS J 277:404-12. 2010
    b>DNA fragmentation is a hallmark of apoptosis that occurs in a variety of cell types; however, it remains unclear whether caspase-3 is required for its induction...
  88. ncbi In vitro cytotoxic potential of Polyalthia longifolia on human cancer cell lines and induction of apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway in HL-60 cells
    Monika Verma
    Department of Pharmacology, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu, India
    Chem Biol Interact 171:45-56. 2008
    ..All the above parameters revealed that F002-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway in HL-60 cells...
  89. ncbi Correlation between male age, WHO sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation, chromatin packaging and outcome in assisted reproduction technology
    M Nijs
    Genk Institute for Fertility Technology, Ziekenhuis Oost Limburg, Genk, Belgium
    Andrologia 43:174-9. 2011
    ..to examine whether patient's age was reflected in sperm motility, concentration, morphology as well as in DNA fragmentation (DFI) and immature chromatin (unprocessed nuclear proteins and/or poorly condensed chromatin) as measured by ..
  90. ncbi Topoisomerase II-mediated breaks in spermatozoa cause the specific degradation of paternal DNA in fertilized oocytes
    Yasuhiro Yamauchi
    Institute for Biogenesis Research, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA
    Biol Reprod 76:666-72. 2007
    ..Furthermore, partial religation by EDTA of TOP2B-induced breaks prevents neither the inhibition of DNA synthesis nor DNA degradation...
  91. ncbi Deoxyribonuclease 1 aggravates acetaminophen-induced liver necrosis in male CD-1 mice
    Markus Napirei
    Abteilung für Anatomie und Embryologie, Medizinische Fakultat, Ruhr Universitat Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Hepatology 43:297-305. 2006
    ..NADH+NAD+), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP); release of aminotransferases and Dnase1; and occurrence of DNA fragmentation. As expected, an APAP overdose in WT mice led to massive hepatocellular necrosis characterized by the ..
  92. pmc Origin and quantification of circulating DNA in mice with human colorectal cancer xenografts
    Alain R Thierry
    Sysdiag UMR3145 CNRS BIO RAD, CAP DELTA 1682 Rue de la Valsière, 34184 Montpellier Cedex 4, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:6159-75. 2010
    ..Altogether, our results suggest that ctDNA features vary during CRC tumor development and our experimental system might be a useful tool to follow such variations...
  93. ncbi Effects of Benzo(e)Pyrene, a toxic component of cigarette smoke, on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro
    Ashish Sharma
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, California 92868, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:5111-7. 2008
  94. pmc First complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a box jellyfish reveals a highly fragmented linear architecture and insights into telomere evolution
    David Roy Smith
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Genome Biol Evol 4:52-8. 2012
    ..The silent-site nucleotide variation within the A. moseri mtDNA is among the highest observed from a eukaryotic genome and may be associated with elevated rates of recombination...
  95. ncbi Isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex induce apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cells
    Sylwia Krzyminska
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, A Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland
    Microb Pathog 49:83-9. 2010
    ..Analyses of cellular morphology and DNA fragmentation in the HEp-2 cells exhibited typical features of cells undergoing apoptosis...
  96. ncbi Curcumin induces cell death without oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation in quiescent and proliferating human CD8+ cells
    Adriana Magalska
    Laboratory of Molecular Bases of Aging, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warszawa, Poland
    Acta Biochim Pol 53:531-8. 2006
    ..chromatin condensation, activation of caspase-3 and specific DFF40/CAD endonuclease and oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation were analyzed using MTT test, microscopic observation, Western blotting and flow cytometry...
  97. ncbi Subarachnoid hemolysate produces DNA fragmentation in a pattern similar to apoptosis in mouse brain
    P G Matz
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Brain Res 858:312-9. 2000
    ..Sections were stained for DNA fragmentation using the terminal deoxyuridine nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and also immunostained for the ..
  98. ncbi Semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation as causes of recurrent pregnancy loss
    Sonia Brahem
    Department of Cytogenetic and Reproductive biology, Farhat Hached, University Teaching Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia
    Urology 78:792-6. 2011
    To evaluate and compare standard sperm parameters, and sperm DNA fragmentation in seminal ejaculates from men whose partners had a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and in a control group of men who had recently established their ..
  99. ncbi Boron neutron capture therapy induces cell cycle arrest and DNA fragmentation in murine melanoma cells
    F Faião-Flores
    Biochemical and Biophysical Laboratory, Butantan Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Appl Radiat Isot 69:1741-4. 2011
    ..The electric potential of mitochondrial membrane, cyclin D1 and caspase-3 markers were analyzed. BNCT induced a cell death increase and cyclin D1 amount decreased only in B16F10 melanoma. Besides, there was not caspase-3 phosphorylation...
  100. ncbi Prolonged moderate-intensity aerobic exercise does not alter apoptotic signaling and DNA fragmentation in human skeletal muscle
    Joe Quadrilatero
    Dept of Kinesiology, Univ of Waterloo, ON, Canada
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298:E534-47. 2010
    ..The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of apoptosis-related proteins/enzymes, DNA fragmentation, and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of humans during an acute bout of prolonged moderate-intensity ..
  101. pmc The effects of male aging on semen quality, sperm DNA fragmentation and chromosomal abnormalities in an infertile population
    Sonia Brahem
    Department of Cytogenetic and Reproductive biology, Farhat Hached, University Teaching Hospital, 4000 Sousse, Tunisia
    J Assist Reprod Genet 28:425-32. 2011
    To investigate the effects of male aging on semen quality, DNA fragmentation and chromosomal abnormalities in the spermatozoa of infertile patients and fertile men.

Research Grants63

    Danxia Liu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..by in situ immunohistochemical staining, enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitation of DNA fragmentation, and laddering of DNA fragments by electrophoresis...
  2. Dual-Receptor Targeted Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Therapy of Brain Cancer
    Ann Marie Broome; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mechanism of Pc 4-mediated programmed cell death using a mitochondrial membrane potential assay, TUNEL and DNA fragmentation assays, and cell permeability assays, including trypan blue staining and Annexin V/ propidium iodide flow ..
  3. Enhancing radiation and cisplatin HNSCC cell killing by inhibiting mitochondrial
    Lynn Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..be performed to determine clonogenic cell survival, mitochondrial function, ROS production, mitochondrial DNA fragmentation and mode of cell death after treatment with radiation and/ or cisplatin...
  4. Mechanisms of cLDL-Induced Endothelial Injury
    Sudhir V Shah; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One of the major events that occurs in response of cLDL exposure to endothelial cells is the induction of DNA fragmentation and cell death...
  5. Premortem enzymatic DNA damage in kidney injury
    Alexei G Basnakian; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These observations led to the conclusion that endonucleases are involved in premortem DNA fragmentation, which precedes and causes cell death...
  6. Development of a nanosecond pulsed electric field system to treat skin cancer
    RICHARD LEE NUCCITELLI; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..the tumor is only exposed to the electric field for total of 200 5s yet this stimulates pyknosis, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation and reduces blood flow to the tumor...
  7. Applying nanosecond pulse electric fields to treat skin cancer
    RICHARD LEE NUCCITELLI; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We will also investigate the involvement of the apoptosis pathway since that can also lead to DNA fragmentation. This work should determine how useful this new technology will be in future treatments of skin tumors...
  8. Mechanism of Folate Deficiency as a Co-Factor for HPV16-induced Carcinogenesis
    ASOK ANTONY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Because folate deficiency can induce single-strand nicks in genomic DNA and also double-strand DNA fragmentation, our overarching hypothesis is that the unstable genomic DNA in HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts is ..
    Sandra M Mooney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The implication is that ethanol causes DNA fragmentation, but this degradation may not be obligatory for apoptosis. Instead, it may reveal DNA repair mechanisms...
  10. Cooperative Multicenter Reproductive Medicine Network UNC Clinical Site
    ANNE ZWEIFEL STEINER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..trial designed to test the hypothesis that male antioxidant therapy will improve sperm motility and reduce DNA fragmentation leading to higher fertilization and lower miscarriage rates in couples trying to conceive naturally...
  11. The Role of PAF and TLR in NEC
    Michael S Caplan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the stimulation of transepithelial electrolyte transport, cytoplasmic acidification, caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. In addition, endogenous bacteria stimulate the inflammatory cascade and are a prerequisite for neonatal NEC...
  12. Anesthesia-induced developmental neurodegeneration
    ..This leads to activation of caspase-9, and -3, DNA fragmentation, and neuronal death...
  13. Attomole-Level High-Throughput Genomics
    PATRICE MARIE MILOS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..specific aims are: (1) Optimization of DNA tailing and sequencing surface capture steps, (2) Development of DNA fragmentation strategies suitable for low DNA quantities, (3) Specific capture and sequencing of polyA+ mRNA from total ..
  14. staphylococcus aureus biofilms mediate keratinocyte apoptosis
    Kelly R Kirker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..planktonic-conditioned medium for apoptotic characteristics, including phosphatidylserine translocation and DNA fragmentation. Next, KC cultures will also be analyzed for the induction of the intrinsic and/or extrinsic apoptotic ..
  15. Cavitation Enhancement of Biospecimen processing for Improved DNA Fragmentation
    WILLIAM PERRY JANZEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since DNA fragmentation can be a very problematic step for both NGS and ChIP, any technology that increased the efficiency and ..
  16. Phosphorylation of Acinus Regulates its Biological Functions
    Keqiang Ye; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by caspases to produce a 17-kDa fragment (p17), triggering apoptotic chromatin condensation prior to DNA fragmentation. AMPA-induced excitotoxicity increases nuclear levels of caspase-activated acinus and incurs chromatin ..
    Hasan Mukhtar; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..apoptosis by basic fibroblast growth factor or enhance it by dexamethasone, with assessment of apoptosis by DNA fragmentation, histology, direct immunoperoxidase staining of digoxigenin-labeled genomic DNA in sections, or flow ..
  18. Sequencing by nanopore mass spectrometry
    Derek Stein; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..pore;2) Demonstrate mass spectrometry of single DNA bases ejected from a nanopore;3) Identify efficient DNA fragmentation and ionization mechanisms;4) Sequence short DNA homopolymers. Obtaining high quality sequence information (e...
    Philip Liu; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..in gene mutation frequency within 8 hr in the lacl gene of Big Blue transgenic mice, and an appearance of DNA fragmentation, a characteristics of apoptosis, 3 days after ischemia...
  20. High Pressure Sample Preparation Instrumentation for DNA Sequencing.
    Alexander V Lazarev; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Phase I proposal is focuses on the optimization of control parameters to achieve desired DNA fragmentation performance, following up on preliminary work already done on several prototypes of the two alternative ..
  21. Acquisition of Covaris E220 and Sciclone G3 systems for high throughput sequencin
    Luca Comai; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..shortcoming, we propose the acquisition of the Covaris E220 high performance sonicator, a state-of-the art DNA fragmentation device that enables efficient and customizable production of size-selected DNA fragments...
    Gabor Huszar; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..indicating maturity, DNA nick translation and the single sperm DNA comet assay, which highlight sperm DNA fragmentation, a known cause of male infertility and increased rates of pregnancy loss...
    Changping Zou; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..determine the effects of different retinoids on the induction of apoptosis in bladder cancer cells by using DNA fragmentation, propidium iodide staining, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase assays and the effects of combinations ..
    Kelle Moley; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..From preliminary studies we have learned that that high concentrations of IGF-1 or insulin induce extensive DNA fragmentation in nuclei of embryos cultured from a two-cell to blastocyst stage This appears to be an apoptotic process ..
    MURAT ARCASOY; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..type EpoRs and erythroid progenitors from affected individuals will be studied in Epo dos response assays, DNA fragmentation studies, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays and immunoprecipitation and Western blotting experiments...
    Jean Pierre Perchellet; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The lead compound, a TT bisquinone (TT2), not only inhibits macromolecule synthesis, induces DNA fragmentation, and decreases the growth and viability (IC50: 100 nM) of L1210 cells in vitro like the quinone antitumor ..
  27. Zinc Neurotoxicity in Traumatic Brain Injury
    Donald Prough; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..intracellular Zn2+ accumulation); vanadium acid fuchsin (VAF) staining (acute cell injury); staining for DNA fragmentation (TUNEL); ribonuclease protection assays (apoptosis); neuronal counts (histopathologic outcome), and beam ..
    M El Etreby; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..g., mitotic and apoptotic indices), in vitro cell viability (cytotoxicity), Cdk1 protein concentration, DNA fragmentation, PKA and PKC isoform activity and subcellular distribution, as well as the changes in the expression of bax, ..
  29. Inhibition of CTL killing by HSV
    KEITH JEROME; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..mechanism used by HSV to blunt the attack of CU, in which HSV protects infected cells from CTL-induced DNA fragmentation. However, inhibition of DNA fragmentation may not imply inhibition of other aspects of cell death (cell ..
    ENG LO; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..is mild therefore this may favor apoptotic pathways of cell death; (ii) extensive internucleosomal DNA fragmentation occurs in cells surrounding the hemorrhage; (iii) DNA fragmentation post-hemorrhage is reduced by caspase ..
  31. Apoptosis Execution Pathways in Dopaminergic Cell Death
    Jun Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..and released from the mitochondria upon receiving death signals, and potently promotes high-molecular-weight DNA fragmentation and nuclear apoptosis...
  32. Novel Immunotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Susan Wright; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..hybridoma will be genetically fused to a potently toxic 9 kD novel human peptide called "activator of DNA fragmentation" (ADF)...
  33. Structure/Function Studies on Flavoproteins
    Irina Sevrioukova; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the mitochondrial intermembrane space, to the nucleus where it causes chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Neither physiological function nor mechanism of apoptosis induced by this protein is known...
    Leroy Liu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..TOP2-targeted anti-cancer drugs are known to induce apoptotic cell death and high molecular weight (HMW) DNA fragmentation (about 50 kb)...
    Lynn Harrison; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..dUTPase mutants indicate that the base excision repair pathway attempts to remove the dUTP resulting in DNA fragmentation and inhibition of growth...
  36. Engineering Biosynthesis of Brefeldin A and Its Analogs
    Weiwen Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..interest in brefeldin A has been greatly stimulated recently by the finding that it can selectively induce DNA fragmentation associated with apoptosis in certain types of tumor cells, and it is in pre-clinical development as an ..
  37. CLN3: Modulation of Apoptosis and Ceramide Levels
    Rose Mary Boustany; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These are: presence of nuclear chromatin condensation by EM and evidence of DNA fragmentation by TUNEL staining of JNCL neurons, upregulation of Bcl-2 in surviving, nonapoptotic JNCL neurons, and ..
    Anne Cross; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..mitochondrial electron transport, direct damage to proteins, lipid peroxidation which damages membranes, and DNA fragmentation. PN is generated by the rapid reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with superoxide, at a diffusion-limited rate...
    Simon Powell; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..as an early event and rapid response proteins are recruited to sites of damage, which perhaps eliminates DNA fragmentation (with a half-life of 30 minutes)...
    David McCormick; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Apoptosis is being monitored by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (TUNEL) assay or by caspase 3-dependent hydrolysis of the fluorogenic substrate, N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Asp-..
    Chung Park; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..is induced by lipotrope deficiency in the MCF-7 cell line; 2) to investigate if lipotrope deficiency induces DNA fragmentation with subsequent morphological appearance of cell death (apoptosis); 3) to examine if lipotropes mediate ..
  42. A3 Adenosine Receptors Cardioprotective Mechanisms
    John Auchampach; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..integrity (mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, and rate of ATP synthesis), apoptosis (DNA fragmentation, TUNEL staining, caspase activation), and pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling (NF kappa B activation, TNF ..
  43. Involvement of CIDE-A in the development of liver steatosis
    Bruce Kelder; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We identified CIDE-A (Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor, alpha subunit-like effector A) as the most differentially expressed gene as a function of age...
  44. The Role of Caspase-8 in Alzheimer's Disease
    Troy Rohn; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Apoptosis is characterized by plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation and is initiated by the activation of caspases, a family of aspartate proteases...
    James Grotta; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Impairment of normal calcium homeostasis and growth factor response inflammation, and DNA fragmentation in and around the ischemic region may conspire to produce delayed neuronal death and impaired function in ..
    Cun Yu Wang; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..which is characterized by condensation of the nucleus and cytoplasm, specific protein degradation, and DNA fragmentation. Extensive studies have documented that apoptosis is the primary killing mechanism induced by cancer ..
    Douglas Green; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..For these analyses we will take advantage of the DNA fragmentation that is characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis...
    Boris Sakic; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The present project aims to examine: 1. Whether DNA fragmentation involves neurons, glial and/or endothelial cells (will be achieved by combining immunofluorescence with ..
    Kapil Bhalla; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..and triggers the cleavage and activity of caspase-9, followed by caspase-3, resulting in the morphologic and DNA fragmentation of apoptosis...
    Kathleen Crowley; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Free radicals are suspected of causing cellular damage, for example, DNA fragmentation associated with aging, and high cellular iron concentration and sensitivity to the oxidizing potential of ..
  51. Caspase mediated cell death after brain trauma
    Ramesh Raghupathi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of Bax and cytochrome c, and, apoptotic neuronal damage, as indicated by the presence of cellular DNA fragmentation and morphologic analyses...
  52. Structural Studies of Nuclear Effectors of Apoptosis
    Hao Wu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation are hallmarks of apoptotic cell death...
  53. Development of Site-Directed Caspase-Cleavage Antibodies
    Troy Rohn; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Apoptosis is characterized by plasma membrane bleeding, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation and is initiated by the activation of capspases, a family of aspartate proteases...
    KEITH JEROME; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In preliminary studies for this proposal, I have demonstrated that HSV-1 inhibits the oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis, including apoptosis induced by CTL...
    WILLIAM GARRARD; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION (from the application): Events that are triggered by DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) during the terminal stages of apoptosis include internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation...
    David Pearce; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..of retinal cells, and whether Cln3 mice undergo photoreceptor-specific apoptosis, using DNA laddering, DNA fragmentation and ssDNA analysis...
  57. Analyzing Multiplexed Amplicons for Advanced Sequencing
    Steven Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This preparation generally includes DNA fragmentation, amplification, enrichment and solid-support-attachment steps which result in a chip with a large number of ..
    Daniel Organisciak; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..cell loss will be assayed using rhodopsin and photoreceptor DNA measurements, electrophoretic analysis of DNA fragmentation, and light and electron microscopy of light-damaged retinas...
  59. Prevention of Bladder Cancer with Broccoli Sprouts
    Yuesheng Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The biomarkers include nuclear DNA fragmentation, activation of selected caspases, cell cycle change and related cell cycle regulators, using both flow ..
  60. Progestogen Inhibition of Ovarian Cancer Cell Metastasis
    William Murdoch; Fiscal Year: 2003
  61. Endonuclease dificiency in breast cancer progression
    Alexei Basnakian; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The next specific aim will be focused on functional studies to determine the role of EndoG in dedifferentiation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells in vitro (Specific Aim 2). ..
    Anumantha Kanthasamy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of dopaminergic cell death, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation, have been extensively evaluated...
    Anumantha Kanthasamy; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..