Genomes and Genes
Summary: Bleeding within the intracranial cavity, including hemorrhages in the brain and within the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
Publications184 found, 100 shown here
- Matrix metalloproteinase-9 pretreatment level predicts intracranial hemorrhagic complications after thrombolysis in human strokeJoan Montaner
Cerebrovascular Unit, Vall d Hebron Hospital, Barcelona, Spain
Circulation 107:598-603. 2003..We aimed to correlate plasmatic MMP levels with the appearance of intracranial bleeding complications in stroke patients treated with t-PA...
- Plasma cellular-fibronectin concentration predicts hemorrhagic transformation after thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic strokeMar Castellanos
Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari Doctor Josep Trueta in affiliation with the UAB, Avda Francia s n, Girona 17007, Spain
Stroke 35:1671-6. 2004..We investigated whether high plasma levels of c-Fn were associated with hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in patients with acute stroke...
- The prognostic impact of clinical and CT parameters in patients with pontine hemorrhageRainer Dziewas
Department of Neurology, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
Cerebrovasc Dis 16:224-9. 2003..In patients with pontine hemorrhage (PH), an accurate prognostic assessment is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach...
- Plasma VAP-1/SSAO activity predicts intracranial hemorrhages and adverse neurological outcome after tissue plasminogen activator treatment in strokeMar Hernandez-Guillamon
Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Institut de Recerca, Hospital Vall d Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Stroke 41:1528-35. 2010..We aimed to study plasma VAP-1/SSAO activity in relation to the risk for intracranial bleeding complications in patients with stroke treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), the greatest safety concern with this treatment...
- Intracranial hemorrhages due to late-type vitamin K deficiency bleedingMelih Cekinmez
Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Dadaloglu Mahallesi, 01250, Yuregir, Adana, Turkey
Childs Nerv Syst 24:821-5. 2008..Late-type VKDB has particular importance due to frequent intracranial hemorrhages that lead to high mortality and morbidity...
- Intracranial hemorrhage and vitamin K deficiency associated with biliary atresia: summary of 15 cases and review of the literatureHideyuki Akiyama
Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe Children s Hospital, Kobe, Japan
Pediatr Neurosurg 42:362-7. 2006..Moreover, early performance of Kasai portoenterostomy is possible even for patients who have undergone craniotomy...
- Clinical and neuroradiological predictors of mortality in patients with primary pontine hemorrhageKemal Balci
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
Clin Neurol Neurosurg 108:36-9. 2005BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Primary pontine hemorrhage (PPH) accounts approximately for about 5-10% of intracranial hemorrhages, and PPHs are known to have a much less uniform prognosis...
- Cause is the main predictor of outcome in patients with pontine hemorrhageAlejandro A Rabinstein
Neurological-Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit, Saint Mary's Hospital, Rochester, Minn, USA
Cerebrovasc Dis 17:66-71. 2004..The first episode of hemorrhage in patients with brainstem cavernous malformations is usually benign. Pontine hemorrhage associated with prior hypertension is much more devastating...
- A review of genetic causes of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokeMartijn Tonk
Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, The Netherlands
J Neurol Sci 257:273-9. 2007..Animal model of stroke can also provide valuable information on genetic factors involved in stroke predisposition. In this review, the focus lies on monogenic forms of stroke that can serve as models to study the more common phenotypes...
- Intracranial hemorrhage in term newborns: management and outcomesSurya N Gupta
Department of Pediatric Neurology, Penn State University College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
Pediatr Neurol 40:1-12. 2009....
- Effect of neutrophil depletion on gelatinase expression, edema formation and hemorrhagic transformation after focal ischemic strokeAlex K Harris
Program in Clinical and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, USA
BMC Neurosci 6:49. 2005..While gelatinase (MMP-2 and -9) activity is increased after focal ischemia/reperfusion injury in the brain, the relative contribution of neutrophils to the MMP activity and to the development of hemorrhagic transformation remains unknown...
- Neonatal complications of vacuum-assisted deliveryColin Simonson
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint Pierre, Université Libre de Buxelles, Brussels, Belgium
Obstet Gynecol 109:626-33. 2007....
- Risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage among full-term infants: a case-control studyBalraj S Jhawar
Department of Neurosurgery, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
Neurosurgery 52:581-90; discussion 588-90. 2003..To investigate the cause of intracranial hemorrhage among full-term infants...
- Safety assessment of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in the treatment of adult patients with severe sepsisGordon R Bernard
Division of Allergy, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
Crit Care 7:155-63. 2003....
- Hypertensive pontine microhemorrhageJee-Hyang Jeong
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Stroke 33:925-9. 2002..Further investigation may determine whether hPMHs portend future symptomatic primary pontine hemorrhages...
- Clinical importance of microbleeds in patients receiving IV thrombolysisW Kakuda
Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA, USA
Neurology 65:1175-8. 2005..Cerebral microbleeds (MBs) detected on gradient echo (GRE) imaging may be a risk factor for hemorrhagic complications in patients with stroke treated with IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)...
- Intracerebellar hemorrhage in premature infants: sonographic detection and outcomeHanna Müller
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Heidelberg, Germany
J Perinat Med 35:67-70. 2007..Intracerebellar hemorrhage is a rarely confirmed diagnosis in preterm infants in comparison to peri-/intraventricular hemorrhage. This study evaluates the incidence of intracerebellar hemorrhage and neurological outcome in preterm infants...
- Prognostic predictors of thalamic hemorrhageS D Shah
Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate, Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
J Clin Neurosci 12:559-61. 2005..CONCLUSION: CNS score and CT appearance of hematoma are the best predictors of 3 month outcome following thalamic hemorrhage. The proposed model for outcome assessment is simple and easy to apply and could have wide clinical application...
- Stroke after bone marrow transplantation: frequency, aetiology and outcomeW M Coplin
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and the Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
Brain 124:1043-51. 2001..Stroke occurs relatively frequently (incidence almost 3%) after BMT, has a relatively high frequency of infection-triggered events, has a neurological outcome not easily predicted from available data and is often fatal...
- Spontaneous superficial parenchymal and leptomeningeal hemorrhage in term neonatesAmy H Huang
Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, USA
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:469-75. 2004..This pattern leads us to implicate local trauma with contusion or venous compression or occlusion in the development of these hemorrhages...
- Intracranial hemorrhage in asymptomatic neonates: prevalence on MR images and relationship to obstetric and neonatal risk factorsChristopher B Looney
Department of Psychiatry, CB No 7160, 7025A Neurosciences Hospital, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7160, USA
Radiology 242:535-41. 2007..To retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and its relationship to obstetric and neonatal risk factors...
- Predictors of clinical improvement, angiographic recanalization, and intracranial hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute ischemic strokeJ I Suarez
Department of Neurology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Stroke 30:2094-100. 1999..We sought to evaluate predictors of clinical outcome, angiographic success, and adverse effects after intra-arterial administration of urokinase for acute ischemic stroke...
- Different risk factors for different stroke subtypes: association of blood pressure, cholesterol, and antioxidantsJ M Leppälä
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland
Stroke 30:2535-40. 1999..Blood pressure is an important risk factor for stroke, but the roles of serum total and HDL cholesterol, alpha-tocopherol, and beta-carotene are poorly established. We studied these factors in relation to stroke subtypes...
- Early biomarkers of strokeMark A Reynolds
Biosite Incorporated, 11030 Roselle St, San Diego, CA 92121 Duke University Medical Center, Box 2900, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Clin Chem 49:1733-9. 2003..The ability to correlate blood-borne protein biomarkers with stroke phenotypes would aid in the development of such rapid tests...
- Neurologic outcome in neonatal temporal lobe hemorrhagic venous infarctsLaurel Slaughter
Division of Child Neurology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
J Child Neurol 24:1236-42. 2009..We conclude that neonatal temporal lobe hemorrhagic infarct secondary to suspected superficial temporal venous thrombosis appears to have a good clinical outcome. This is surprising, given the dramatic imaging and clinical presentations...
- Multiple cerebral microbleeds: MRI marker of a diffuse hemorrhage-prone stateJulio A Chalela
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Room B1D733, MSC 1063, Bethesda, MD 20892 1063, USA
J Neuroimaging 14:54-7. 2004Recent reports have indicated that cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) detected on gradient-echo (GRF) magnetic resonance imaging may be a risk factor for therapy related intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs).
- Migraine, headache, and the risk of stroke in women: a prospective studyT Kurth
Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 900 Commonwealth Ave E, Boston, MA 02215 1204, USA
Neurology 64:1020-6. 2005..Migraine and headache in general have been associated with subsequent risk of stroke, primarily in retrospective case-control studies. Prospective data evaluating the association between specific headache forms and stroke are sparse...
- Intracranial haemorrhage due to late onset vitamin K deficiency bleeding in Hanoi province, VietnamN Danielsson
Astrid Lindgren's Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 89:F546-50. 2004....
- Prolonged latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes: an evaluation of histologic condition and intracranial ultrasonic abnormality in the neonate born at <28 weeks of gestationThomas F McElrath
Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:794-8. 2003..The odds of ultrasonically detectable brain abnormalities, however, did not increase with increasing latency...
- S100B protein in biological fluids: a tool for perinatal medicineFabrizio Michetti
Institute of Anatomy, Catholic University, Largo Francesco Vito 1, I 00168 Rome, Italy
Clin Chem 48:2097-104. 2002..Finally, because of the neurotrophic role putatively played by S100B, its measurement in biological fluids at pre-/perinatal ages makes it a candidate for the laboratory evaluation of brain maturation...
- Use of hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solution-201 to improve resuscitation parameters and prevent secondary brain injury in a swine model of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhage: laboratory investigationGuy Rosenthal
Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA
J Neurosurg 108:575-87. 2008..We studied the effects of hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying (HBOC)-201 solution compared with lactated Ringer (LR) solution in a large animal model of brain injury and hemorrhage, in a blinded prospective randomized study...
- Comparison of five MR sequences for the detection of acute intracranial hemorrhageCatherine Oppenheim
Department of Neuroradiology, Sainte Anne Hospital, Paris V University, France
Cerebrovasc Dis 20:388-94. 2005..To evaluate the respective value of 5 MR sequences to distinguish between stroke patients with and without acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)...
- [Intracranial hemorrhage in term newborn]Tomasz Tomasik
, , Collegium Medicum, ,
Przegl Lek 62:1227-35. 2005..Multifocal bleeding is the most common form of ICH. Because subarachnoid and subdural space are not easy visible by head ultrasound, the CT or MRI scans are recommended in babies with ICH...
- Outcome of survivors of acute stroke who require prolonged ventilatory assistance and tracheostomyAlejandro A Rabinstein
Department of Neurology and the Neurological-Neurosurgical ICU, Saint Mary's Hospital, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Cerebrovasc Dis 18:325-31. 2004..Aggressive care is justified in patients who do not continue to deteriorate neurologically. Pulmonary complications are frequent but treatable. Early tracheostomy can shorten ICU and hospital stays and reduce costs...
- Comparison of CT and three MR sequences for detecting and categorizing early (48 hours) hemorrhagic transformation in hyperacute ischemic strokeMarie Cécile Arnould
Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels, Belgium
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:939-44. 2004..Our goal was to compare the sensitivity of CT and three MR sequences in detecting and categorizing early (48 hours) hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in hyperacute ischemic stroke...
- Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: a prospective comparisonJulio A Chalela
Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
Lancet 369:293-8. 2007..We aimed to prospectively compare CT and MRI for emergency diagnosis of acute stroke...
- Fetal intracranial hemorrhage (fetal stroke): report of four antenatally diagnosed cases and review of the literatureYing-Fen Huang
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 45:135-41. 2006....
- [Imaging of neonatal brain disorders: doubts and certitudes]S Witte-Meyer
, de l'enfant et de la femme, CHU Pellegrin, , 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France
Arch Pediatr 13:672-4. 2006
- [Cerebro-cardial disorders in hemorrhagic stroke]Iu S Martynov
Ter Arkh 76:44-9. 2004..Its severity in massive hemispherical hematomas was due to compression of the brain trunk. CONCLUSION: Pathogenesis of cerebrocardial syndrome rests on impaired central autonomic regulation occurring in stroke...
- Craniotomy with prosthetic heart valves: a clinical dilemmaJ Caird
Department of Neurosurgery, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Br J Neurosurg 20:40-2. 2006..The authors emphasize the risk of re-anticoagulation without postoperative imaging and the disadvantages of therapeutic dose, low molecular weight heparin in the postoperative period...
- Congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair on extracorporeal life support: a decade of lessons learnedMary T Austin
Department of General Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt Children's Hospital, Nashville, Tennessee 37212, USA
Am Surg 70:389-95; discussion 395. 2004..We conclude that CDH repair on ECMO is technically feasible, shows similar survival to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry, and is associated with few bleeding complications...
- Stroke risk factor, pattern and outcome in patients with cancerY Y Zhang
Department of Aged Care and Rehabilitation, Bankstown Lidcombe Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Acta Neurol Scand 114:378-83. 2006..To investigate risk factors, stroke pattern and outcome in stroke patients with cancer...
- Common carotid artery intima-media thickness in patients with brain infarction and intracerebral haemorrhageKonstantinos N Vemmos
Department of Clinical Therapeutics, University of Athens, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece
Cerebrovasc Dis 17:280-6. 2004..1 mm CCA-IMT increase was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.03-1.61). The present results demonstrate the possible predictive power of non-invasive measurement of the CCA-IMT with respect to BI versus ICH and deserve further investigation...
- [Thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke. Critical analysis of current knowledge]Veronica Murray
Medicinska kliniken, Danderyds sjukhus, Stockholm
Lakartidningen 101:662-8, 670-3. 2004..Giving priority to new large randomized controlled trials is essential to achieve this knowledge...
- Arteriovenous malformation of the genu of the corpus callosumOmid J Bendavid
Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, USA
Pediatr Neurosurg 40:49-50. 2004
- A risk scoring system for prediction of haemorrhagic strokeS P Zodpey
Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Govt Medical College, Nagpur
Indian J Public Health 49:218-22. 2005..79 (95% Cl = 0.73-0.84). Thus to conclude, if substantiated by further validation, this scorincy system can be used to predict haemorrhagic stroke, thereby helping to devise effective risk factor intervention strategy...
- Conservative management of spontaneous posterior fossa subdural hematoma in a neonateHaydar Usul
Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey
J Clin Neurosci 12:196-8. 2005..Diagnosis is with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We present a spontaneous posterior fossa subdural hematoma in a term neonate and discuss conservative management...
- [The evaluation of the brain arteriovenous malformations' operative treatment in the clinical material of Silesian Medical University's Departament of Neurosurgery]Adam Rudnik
Katedry i Kliniki Neurochirurgii Slaskiej Akademii Medycznej w Katowicach
Wiad Lek 59:801-4. 2006..The aim of this work is presentation of our results of surgical treatment of AVM and comparison with the results of radiosurgical and endovascular treatment presented by other authors in the literature...
- [Neurologic complications in the immediate postoperative period after cardiac surgery. Role of brain magnetic resonance imaging]José L Pérez-Vela
Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain
Rev Esp Cardiol 58:1014-21. 2005..Our understanding of the pathogenesis, prevention, and management of these lesions is constantly developing...
- Effect of posture on the perception of verticality in neglect patientsArnaud Saj
Service de Rééducation Neurologique and EA 2691, Hôpital Swynghedauw, CHRU de Lille, France
Stroke 36:2203-5. 2005..These patients have only been assessed when sitting. We investigated the hypothesis that postural changes modulate visuohaptic SV deviation...
- Complications of intracranial pressure monitoring in children with head traumaRichard C E Anderson
Primary Children s Medical Center, University of Utah, Department of Neurosurgery, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
J Neurosurg 101:53-8. 2004..The purpose of this study was to examine a consecutive series of children with TBI and compare the incidence of complications after placement of an EVD, a fiberoptic intraparencyhmal monitor, or both...
- MRI-guided, open trial of abciximab for ischemic stroke within a 3- to 24-hour windowP D Mitsias
Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA
Neurology 65:612-5. 2005..Treatment of sub-24-hour stroke with abciximab improves early post-treatment neurologic status and often attenuates ischemic lesion growth...
- Acutely and retrospectively diagnosed perinatal stroke: a population-based studyRael Laugesaar
Children s Clinic of Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia
Stroke 38:2234-40. 2007....
- Stroke subtypes among young patients with systemic lupus erythematosusEswar Krishnan
Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Am J Med 118:1415. 2005..Little is known about subtypes of stroke in lupus...
- Craniotomy with cystoperitoneal shunting for treatment of intracranial arachnoid cysts in dogsCurtis W Dewey
Department of Clinical Sciences, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Vet Surg 36:416-22. 2007..To describe a technique of decompressive craniotomy with cystoperitoneal shunt (CPS) placement for treatment of canine intracranial arachnoid cyst (IAC), and to evaluate outcome in 4 dogs...
- Comparison of clinical diagnosis with computed tomography in ascertaining type of strokeJehangir Khan
Department of Medicine, Ayub Medical College and Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 17:65-7. 2005..This study was carried out to compare clinical diagnosis of stroke with Computed tomography (CT) scan findings in ascertaining the type of stroke (hemorrhagic or ischemic)...
- Cerebral microhemorrhageAnand Viswanathan
Department of Neurology, , , France
Stroke 37:550-5. 2006..Further studies to characterize the associated risks of cerebral microhemorrhages in different stroke populations are needed to use this new imaging marker in therapeutic decisions...
- Treatment of intracranial and extracranial haemorrhages in a neonate with severe haemophilia B with recombinant factor IX infusionG M T Guilcher
Department of Paediatrics, Janeway Children s Health and Rehabilitation Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s, NL, Canada
Haemophilia 11:411-4. 2005..A neonate with severe haemophilia B was treated successfully with recombinant FIX through continuous infusion. A high rate of infusion was required and no complications were noted...
- Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke: assessment of 294 patients treated with urokinaseC Brekenfeld
Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Inselspital, University of Berne, CH 3010 Berne, Switzerland
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 78:280-5. 2007..The PROACT II trial showed that intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) is effective for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke attributable to M1 and M2 segment occlusions. Incidence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (sICH) was 10%...
- Leptomeningeal cyst due to vacuum extraction delivery in a twin infantL Bobinski
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Linkoping, Sweden
Acta Neurochir (Wien) 149:319-23; discussion 323. 2007..During a follow-up period of 12 years the neurological and psychological development of the boy has been indistinguishable to that of his twin brother, indicating the satisfactory outcome of the treatment...
- Imaging perinatal brain injury in premature infantsJeffrey J Neil
Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
Semin Perinatol 28:433-43. 2004..Current guidelines regarding the application of these neuroimaging methods to the premature infant are discussed...
- Cerebrovascular disorders in childrenJohn Kylan Lynch
Neuroepidemiology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH DHHS, Building 10, Room 5S220, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1447, Bethesda, MD 20892 1447, USA
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 4:129-38. 2004..This review briefly describes the epidemiology, risk factors, evaluation, treatment, and outcome of stroke in children...
- [A clinical study on spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in children]Jia-lin Cai
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 41:471-2. 2003
- Heparin treatment in cerebral sinus and venous thrombosis: patients at risk of fatal outcomeS Mehraein
Department of Neurology, Charit, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
Cerebrovasc Dis 15:17-21. 2003..Other investigated parameters were not linked with a fatal outcome...
- Pediatric endocarditis and stroke: a single-center retrospective review of seven casesCharu Venkatesan
Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA
Pediatr Neurol 38:243-7. 2008..Routine surveillance for mycotic aneurysms in patients with new neurologic deficits, and the use of aspirin, should be considered in the medical management...
- Multimodal therapy for the treatment of severe ischemic stroke combining GPIIb/IIIa antagonists and angioplasty after failure of thrombolysisAlex Abou-Chebl
Department of Neurology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Stroke 36:2286-8. 2005..9+/-8.7) and 6 (50%) had an NIHSS < or =4 at discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Multimodal rescue therapy was effective at recanalizing occluded cerebral vessels that failed thrombolysis without an excess risk of ICH...
- Stroke in childrenVinita Jain
Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India
Indian J Pediatr 70:S23-7. 2003..The treatment of stroke is largely for stabilization of the patient, but it is very important to know the cause to prevent future strokes. Use of heparin in ischemic stroke is very promising and thrombolytic therapy is under trial...
- Time lag to diagnosis of stroke in childrenLidia V Gabis
Department of Neurology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 8790, USA
Pediatrics 110:924-8. 2002..We evaluated whether children who receive a diagnosis of stroke meet a major inclusion criterion for such trials, namely time to diagnosis of <3 to 6 hours...
- Recurrent thalamic haemorrhage attributed to a cerebellar arteriovenous malformationR Sparing
Department of Neurology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
Can J Neurol Sci 35:358-9. 2008
- Thrombolytic treatment of acute ischemic strokeJames F Meschia
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
Mayo Clin Proc 77:542-51. 2002....
- Visible infarction on computed tomography is an independent predictor of poor functional outcome after stroke, and not of haemorrhagic transformationJ M Wardlaw
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland, UK
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74:452-8. 2003....
- [Dural arteriovenous fistulas with intracranial hemorrhage: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects]U Dietrich
Neuroradiologie, Krankenanstalten Gilead, Bielefeld
Zentralbl Neurochir 64:12-8. 2003..In the first case definite closure of a remnant of the fistula was refused, in the second no further therapy was recommended...
- Are some patients likely to benefit from recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke even beyond 3 hours from symptom onset?David M Kent
Division of Clinical Care Research, Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, Mass 02111, USA
Stroke 34:464-7. 2003....
- Natural history of dural arteriovenous shuntsMichael Soderman
Department of Neuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital, SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
Stroke 39:1735-9. 2008..Present knowledge about the natural history of these lesions is limited, however. We investigated the incidences of intracranial hemorrhage, progressive dementia syndrome, and death in patients diagnosed in our neurovascular center...
- Carotid dissection with permanent and transient occlusion or severe stenosis: Long-term outcomeC Kremer
Department of Neurology, University Hospitals of Zürich Drs Kremer, Mosso, Georgiadis, Benninger, Baumgartner, Bern, Switzerland
Neurology 60:271-5. 2003..To compare the rate of ischemic events and intracranial hemorrhage in the long-term follow-up of patients with persistent and transient severe stenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) due to spontaneous dissection (ICAD)...
- Analysis of the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy in ischemic strokeRejane C Lisboa
Departments of Neurology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Stroke 33:2866-71. 2002..6%; P=0.001; odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.33 to 3.0). CONCLUSIONS: IAT for ischemic stroke appears efficacious but carries an increased risk of SICH. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety and efficacy of IAT in stroke...
- Intracranial hemorrhage in newborns with hemophilia: the role of screening radiologic studies in the first 7 days of lifeAngela R Smith
Department of Pediatric Hematology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 30:81-4. 2008..On the basis of this series we found screening to be safe and effective in recognizing ICH. As a result of this approach, all ICHs were found when they were radiographically small and before the babies had neurologic symptoms...
- Intracranial haemorrhage among a population of haemophilic patients in BrazilS V Antunes
Serviço de Hemofilia, Disciplina de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Haemophilia 9:573-7. 2003..This prompt treatment will increase the chances of a better prognosis. Another impact measure consists in the administration of the deficient coagulation factor after every head trauma, even when considered minor...
- Intracranial hemorrhage associated with congenital organic disease in neonates. Report of two cases and review of literatureH Hamada
Department of Neurosurgery, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan
Childs Nerv Syst 17:423-6. 2001..Timely diagnosis and aggressive surgery may be required for the management of neonatal AVMs with intracerebral hemorrhage...
- Emergent CT evaluation of strokeDavid Sarkarati
Michigan State University, Emergency Medicine Residency-Lansing, P.O. Box 30480, Lansing, MI 48909, USA
Emerg Med Clin North Am 20:553-81. 2002..The more facile emergency physicians are at interpreting the head CT, the better they can communicate with consulting specialists and deliver prompt care to patients that present with neurologic emergencies...
- Intraarterial thrombolytic therapy within 3 hours of the onset of strokeEric C Bourekas
Department of Radiology, College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
Neurosurgery 54:39-44; discussion 44-6. 2004..This study is the first retrospective analysis of a two-institution experience with IA thrombolysis within 3 hours of stroke onset...
- Spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage in children: aetiology, presentation and outcomeAndreas D Meyer-Heim
Division of Paediatric Neurology, University Children's Hospital, Steinwiesstrasse 75, CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland
Brain Dev 25:416-21. 2003..Mortality (25%, 8/32) and morbidity were considerable, particularly in infratentorial haemorrhages, in aneurysms, in children younger than 3 years and in those with underlying haematological disorders...
- Acquired aqueductal stenosis in preterm infants: an indication for neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomyD Scavarda
Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Hopital des Enfants, La Timone, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France
Childs Nerv Syst 19:756-9. 2003..The object of this study is to demonstrate the delayed occurrence of aqueductal stenosis in preterm infants who have suffered from intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and to try to explain the mechanisms of this stenosis...
- Central post-stroke pain or paresthesia in lenticulocapsular hemorrhagesJong S Kim
Department of Neurology, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
Neurology 61:679-82. 2003..The mean score of the visual numerical scale was 5.6. The lesions involved the dorsal part of the posterior limb of the internal capsule, probably damaging the thalamocortical sensory pathway...
- Stroke in childrenSheffali Gulati
Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Indian J Pediatr 70:639-48. 2003..Mortality after stroke in children ranges from 20% to 30% depending on the location and the underlying cause. Residual neurological dysfunction is present in more than 50% of survivors...
- [Perinatal intracranial hemorrhage due to immune thrombocytopenia]A López-Lafuente
Servicio de Neuropediatria, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Esplugues de Ll, Barcelona, Espana
Rev Neurol 29:917-22. 1999..There are two forms, the iso-aloimmune forms, with an incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in the neonatal period of 10-20%, and the autoimmune form with an incidence of only 1%...
- Injuries from the 2002 North Carolina ice storm, and strategies for preventionJoshua Broder
Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Neurosciences Hospital, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Injury 36:21-6. 2005..South Med J 1994;87(2):174-8; Smith RW, Nelson DR. Fractures and other injuries from falls after an ice storm. Am J Emerg Med 1998;16(1):52-5]. We postulated that injuries might differ in a region where ice storms are less common...
- Fall or shaken: traumatic brain injury in children caused by falls or abuse at home - a review on biomechanics and diagnosisM Oehmichen
Institut fur Rechtsmedizin, Universitatsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Campus Lubeck, Germany
Neuropediatrics 36:240-5. 2005..aspects, multiple or complex skull fractures, depression fractures, additional fractures of the body, and intracranial hemorrhages as a consequence of an impact are the most important findings in child abuse...
- [Specific treatment of the acute cerebral infarct. Present and future]J J Muñoz-Torrero
Servicio de Neurologia, Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Espana
Rev Neurol 31:959-82. 2000..ECASS, showed a favorable tendency in the evolution of the treated group, with no increase in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages. Neuroprotectors have shown to be effective in experimental models of ischaemia but at the moment there ..
- Can specific patient variables be used to predict outcome of intracranial hemorrhage?Isser Dubinsky
University Health Network and the Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Am J Emerg Med 20:26-9. 2002..identify the demographic, physiologic, and anatomic variables associated with outcomes of patients with intracranial hemorrhages. We performed a prospective study of all patients with known or suspected intracranial hemorrhages ..
- Descriptive analysis of the Boston criteria applied to a Dutch-type cerebral amyloid angiopathy populationSanneke van Rooden
Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Stroke 40:3022-7. 2009..The aim of this study was to analyze and refine the existing Boston criteria in patients with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type...
- Antepartum treatment without early cordocentesis for standard-risk alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a randomized controlled trialRichard L Berkowitz
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
Obstet Gynecol 110:249-55. 2007..The study was limited to "standard-risk" patients, who were defined as women with documented alloimmune thrombocytopenia who had not delivered an infant with an intracranial hemorrhage in a prior pregnancy...
- Necessity of repeat head CT and ICU monitoring in patients with minimal brain injuryTiffany K Bee
Critical Care Trauma Division, Department of General Surgery, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA
J Trauma 66:1015-8. 2009..In an attempt to better allocate scarce resources, we hypothesized that not only was repeat head CT unnecessary but also routine intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring of these patients with MBI and stable examinations were unnecessary...
- Safety of intra-arterial thrombolysis in the postoperative periodJ A Chalela
Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
Stroke 32:1365-9. 2001..However, IAT may increase the risk of surgical bleeding. We sought to determine the safety of postoperative IAT...
- Multiple brain hemorrhages and hematomas associated with ectopic fascioliasis in brain and eyeLiangxue Zhou
Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 China
Surg Neurol 69:516-21. 2008..To our knowledge, no case report such as this has been found in the medical literature...
- Phase II study of continuous infusion carmustine and cisplatin followed by cranial irradiation in adults with newly diagnosed high-grade astrocytomaS A Grossman
The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA
J Clin Oncol 15:2596-603. 1997..To evaluate the activity and toxicity of carmustine (BCNU) and cisplatin administered as a 72-hour continuous intravenous infusion before radiation in adults with newly diagnosed high-grade astrocytomas...
- Posttraumatic epilepsy: the endophenotypes of a human model of epileptogenesisRamon Diaz-Arrastia
Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas, Texas 75390 9036, USA
Epilepsia 50:14-20. 2009..epilepsy of approximately 50%, whereas nonpenetrating head injury may produce focal contusions and intracranial hemorrhages, and is associated with a risk of posttraumatic epilepsy of up to 30%...
- Acute stroke patients are being underfed: a nitrogen balance studyJulio A Chalela
Section on Stroke Diagnostics and Therapeutics, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Neurocrit Care 1:331-4. 2004..We sought to assess nitrogen balance in patients with acute stroke and to determine the variables associated with negative nitrogen balance...
- Preliminary experience with intra-arterial nicardipine in patients with acute ischemic strokeQaisar A Shah
Zeenat Qureshi Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Neurocrit Care 7:53-7. 2007..Selective delivery of calcium channel blocker may improve perfusion and possibly provide neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia...
- Risk, types, and severity of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosisRaymond T F Cheung
University Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong King, China
Stroke 34:1847-51. 2003..We sought to report the occurrence and risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage during long-term follow-up of patients with internal carotid artery stenosis, with and without carotid endarterectomy...
- Early venous thromboembolic event prophylaxis in traumatic brain injury with low-molecular-weight heparin: risks and benefitsRoy R Dudley
Montreal Neurological Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
J Neurotrauma 27:2165-72. 2010..should be used to prevent VTE complications, but suggest that there is an increased risk of expansion of intracranial hemorrhages (ICH) with VTE prophylaxis. In addition, it is unclear which treatment regimen (i.e...
Research Grants116 found, 100 shown here
- Phase 2B Study of TNK in Acute StrokeE Haley; Fiscal Year: 2007..1 mg/kg and 0.4 mg/kg without any symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages being observed...
- Natural History and Treatment Response of AVMsALEXANDER HALIM; Fiscal Year: 2002Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) are usually detected only when the patient presents with intracranial hemorrhages, seizures, headaches, focal neurological deficits, or other disorders. A smaller number are detected incidentally...
- White matter injury in germinal matrix hemorrhagePraveen Ballabh; Fiscal Year: 2010..Hence, the proposed study will elucidate the mechanism of white matter injury in IVH and may lead to novel strategies in prevention of cerebral palsy in premature infants. ..
- Pericytes in Pathogenesis of Germinal-Matrix HemorrhagePraveen Ballabh; Fiscal Year: 2006..Our data may help in understanding the etiology of GMH and may explain the basis of prenatal glucocorticoid therapy. It may also identify new strategies in the prevention and treatment of GMH. ..
- Novel Therapies in Hemostasis and TransfusionJames Bussel; Fiscal Year: 2007..Dr. James Bussel, as our site's Primary Investigator, is responsible for ensuring that all aspects of TMH Network protocols are followed. WEILL CORNELL MEDICAL CENTER/NEW YORK PRESBYTERIAN HOSPITAL CRITIQUES ..
- Risks of Warfarin for Elders with Atrial FibrillationMargaret Fang; Fiscal Year: 2007..Together, these projects will provide practical experience and form the basis for future studies that seek to improve the safety and use of anticoagulants in the oldest patients with atrial fibrillation. ..
- Anticoagulation Treatment and Long-Term Outcomes After Venous ThromboembolismMargaret C Fang; Fiscal Year: 2010..This project will evaluate current treatment patterns for VTE, identify risk factors for adverse outcomes, and develop clinically applicable risk-stratification tools to help predict recurrent VTE and major hemorrhagic complications. ..
- The Significance of Intracranial Hemorrhage after Revascularization TherapyPooja Khatri; Fiscal Year: 2007..Therapies that restore blood flow to more patients, and do so more effectively and safely, are greatly needed to improve outcomes after stroke. ..
- EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANTICOAGULATION IN ATRIAL FIBRILLATIONDaniel Singer; Fiscal Year: 2000..comparison of the quality of anticoagulation provided by anticoagulation units versus that of primary physicians. The investigators state that this research should lead to important health and economic benefits for older Americans. ..
- Harvard Planning Grant for Institutional Clinical and Translational Science AwardDaniel Singer; Fiscal Year: 2006..We believe our planning process is specific, innovative yet disciplined, and should be robust. A full and competitive CTSA application will be produced in a timely manner. ..
- EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANTICOAGULATION IN ATRIAL FIBRILLATIONDaniel Singer; Fiscal Year: 2005..In all, continued study of our cohort will efficiently provide powerful insights into optimizing stroke prevention strategies for the many older Americans with AF. ..
- Whole Genome Association Study of Migraine in WomenROBERT YUK LUNG ZEE; Fiscal Year: 2010..Thus, we request funding to study the genomic of migraine using a whole genome approach and to evaluate gene-environment interactions. ..
- Restless Legs Syndrome, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular EventsTobias Kurth; Fiscal Year: 2009..Thus, this grant proposal request funding to study the association between RLS, CVD risk factors as well as CVD events. ..
- Whole Genome Association Study of Migraine in WomenTobias Kurth; Fiscal Year: 2009..Thus, we request funding to study the genomic of migraine using a whole genome approach and to evaluate gene-environment interactions. ..
- Restless Legs Syndrome, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular EventsTobias Kurth; Fiscal Year: 2010..Thus, this grant proposal request funding to study the association between RLS, CVD risk factors as well as CVD events. ..
- Inflammatory and Immune Mechanisms of Atherosclerosis in HIV-Infected WomenRobert C Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2010..g., lipids) over time due to changes in HAART and HIV disease stage, and how this impacts atherosclerosis. (End of Abstract) ..
- fMRI of Language Recover Following Stroke in AdultsJerzy P Szaflarski; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Epidemiology of IGF and Cardiovascular EventsRobert Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- MICROVASCULAR OCCLUSION IN ACUTE FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIAGregory Del Zoppo; Fiscal Year: 2004..These studies are a direct extension of completed work of this proposal, and are expected to add greatly to the understanding of how vascular ischemia affects neuron integrity with testable treatment strategies. ..
- Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in ChildhoodShlomo Shinnar; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Vascular Mechanisms of Secondary Injury After TBIClaudia Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2007..Effect of Erythropoietin on Anemia and Need for Transfusion Project 3. EDHF Following Traumatic Brain Injury Project 4. Neuroprotection of Erythropoietin Signaling in TBI ..
- In Vivo RNAi of Injury Signals After Brain InjuryHELEN HELLMICH; Fiscal Year: 2007..In turn, this may open up avenues for therapeutic manipulation of deleterious gene expression in human patients. ..
- Angiogenic Agents and Alveolar InjuryVineet Bhandari; Fiscal Year: 2007..Determine the differences and the degree to which the response to hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury differs in adult, newborn and fetal mice with regard to VEGF, Angiopoietin 1 and Angiopoietin 2. ..
- Dissociating Components of the Attentional Network in NeglectChristopher Rorden; Fiscal Year: 2007..The present study tests these predictions by converging use of neuropsychology, functional MRI, and transcranial magnetic stimulation in normal observers. ..
- Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: Adolescent Follow-upDeborah Frank; Fiscal Year: 2007..Such data can inform clinical interventions and public policy choices for care of youngsters with IUCE from infancy to adolescence. ..
- COCAINE EXPOSURE IN UTERO--ELEMENTARY SHCOOL FOLLOWUPDeborah Frank; Fiscal Year: 1999..This data can inform public policy choices for care of cocaine exposed elementary school children nationwide. ..
- PROGNOSIS OF CHILDREN WITH A FIRST UNPROVOKED SEIZUREShlomo Shinnar; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- Hyperhomocysteinemia in Alzheimer's DiseaseRamon Diaz Arrastia; Fiscal Year: 2003..Each of these specific aims is essential to rationally design a large multicenter trial to determine whether polyvitamin therapy lowers AD risk. ..
- Adverse effects of RBC transfusions: A unifying hypothesisJohn D Roback; Fiscal Year: 2010..However, transfusions are associated with adverse effects. These studies will seek to determine why adverse outcomes happen after transfusion, and develop ways to improve blood collection and storage to minimize these outcomes. ..
- Plasminogen activators and NMDA after brain injuryWilliam M Armstead; Fiscal Year: 2010..Immunohistochemistry, detection of plasminogen activator and MAPK expression, and CBF determination by radiolabled microspheres will be performed. ..
- Plasminogen activators and cerebral ischemic injuryWilliam Armstead; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- MICROVASCULAR OCCLUSION IN ACUTE FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIAGregory Del Zoppo; Fiscal Year: 1993..In view of clinical studies demonstrating successful cerebral arterial recanalization, the approaches in this proposal may have significant consequences for future acute stroke patient management and outcome...
- Adverse effects of RBC transfusions: A unifying hypothesisJohn Roback; Fiscal Year: 2009..However, transfusions are associated with adverse effects. These studies will seek to determine why adverse outcomes happen after transfusion, and develop ways to improve blood collection and storage to minimize these outcomes. ..
- Hepatocyte Nitric Oxide Synthase Regulation by Glucagon and InsulinBrian G Harbrecht; Fiscal Year: 2010..By defining these mechanisms, we will provide a framework for understanding the basic cellular events in shock and sepsis, which may lead to novel cellular-based therapies for critically ill patients. ..
- Plasminogen activators and NMDA after brain injuryWilliam Armstead; Fiscal Year: 2009..Immunohistochemistry, detection of plasminogen activator and MAPK expression, and CBF determination by radiolabled microspheres will be performed. ..
- POTASSIUM CHANNELS AND CEREBRAL HEMODYNAMICS AFTER BRAINWilliam Armstead; Fiscal Year: 2005..These studies may lead to therapies for brain injured children. ..
- MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MYOTONIC DYSTROPHYSATYAKAM BHAGWATI; Fiscal Year: 2002..This approach is designed to explore the function of these CTG/CUG repeat binding proteins and their possible role in the pathogenesis of DM. ..
- Immune Reactants, Cholesterol and AtherosclerosisALLISON REISS; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- Neurovascular Adhesion Receptors and Barrier IntegrityGregory Del Zoppo; Fiscal Year: 2007..Understanding the mechanisms of their expression and disruption is likely to lead to new testable approaches to preserve or selectively alter barrier function and microvessel integrity in other neurovascular degenerative disorders. ..
- MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES AND NEURONS IN FOCAL ISCHEMIAGregory Del Zoppo; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies are likely to lead to new testable therapeutic approaches to preserve mlcrovascular and neuron function which will have relevance to other vascular neuron degenerative disorders. ..
- NOVEL DEVICES FOR RAPID BLOOD COMPATIBILITY TESTINGJohn Roback; Fiscal Year: 2004..The results of the multi-center trial (to be completed during Phase Ill) will lead to an FDA 510(k) application. ..
- Plasminogen activators and cerebral ischemic injuryWilliam Armstead; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- GLUCAGON AND HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION IN SURGICAL SEPSISBrian Harbrecht; Fiscal Year: 2005..These insights will contribute to uncovering the basic cellular mechanisms involved in multiple organ dysfunction and may lead to potential therapeutic approaches. ..
- Vaccine-enhanced DLI to prevent cancer recurrence after stem cell transplantationJohn Roback; Fiscal Year: 2006....
- fMRI of Language Recover Following Stroke in AdultsJerzy Szaflarski; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Inflammatory and Immune Mechanisms of Atherosclerosis in HIV-Infected WomenRobert Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2009..g., lipids) over time due to changes in HAART and HIV disease stage, and how this impacts atherosclerosis. (End of Abstract) ..