brain ischemia

Summary

Summary: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atheros
    Harold P Adams
    Stroke 38:1655-711. 2007
  2. doi Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke
    Werner Hacke
    Department of Neurology, Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    N Engl J Med 359:1317-29. 2008
  3. ncbi Selective ablation of proliferating microglial cells exacerbates ischemic injury in the brain
    Mélanie Lalancette-Hébert
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada G1V 4G2
    J Neurosci 27:2596-605. 2007
  4. pmc Update of the stroke therapy academic industry roundtable preclinical recommendations
    Marc Fisher
    Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Stroke 40:2244-50. 2009
  5. pmc The immunology of stroke: from mechanisms to translation
    Costantino Iadecola
    Division of Neurobiology, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Med 17:796-808. 2011
  6. pmc Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: role of inflammatory cells
    Rong Jin
    Department of Neurosurgery, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 87:779-89. 2010
  7. pmc Pivotal role for neuronal Toll-like receptors in ischemic brain injury and functional deficits
    Sung Chun Tang
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13798-803. 2007
  8. ncbi A neurovascular niche for neurogenesis after stroke
    John J Ohab
    Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 1735, USA
    J Neurosci 26:13007-16. 2006
  9. doi Pivotal role of cerebral interleukin-17-producing gammadeltaT cells in the delayed phase of ischemic brain injury
    Takashi Shichita
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
    Nat Med 15:946-50. 2009
  10. doi Apoptotic mechanisms after cerebral ischemia
    Brad R S Broughton
    Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    Stroke 40:e331-9. 2009

Detail Information

Publications311 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atheros
    Harold P Adams
    Stroke 38:1655-711. 2007
    ..The intended audience is physicians and other emergency healthcare providers who treat patients within the first 48 hours after stroke. In addition, information for healthcare policy makers is included...
  2. doi Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke
    Werner Hacke
    Department of Neurology, Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    N Engl J Med 359:1317-29. 2008
    ..We tested the efficacy and safety of alteplase administered between 3 and 4.5 hours after the onset of a stroke...
  3. ncbi Selective ablation of proliferating microglial cells exacerbates ischemic injury in the brain
    Mélanie Lalancette-Hébert
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada G1V 4G2
    J Neurosci 27:2596-605. 2007
    ....
  4. pmc Update of the stroke therapy academic industry roundtable preclinical recommendations
    Marc Fisher
    Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Stroke 40:2244-50. 2009
    ..Although the recommendations cannot be validated until effective therapies based on them emerge from clinical trials, it is hoped that adherence to them might enhance the chances for success...
  5. pmc The immunology of stroke: from mechanisms to translation
    Costantino Iadecola
    Division of Neurobiology, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Med 17:796-808. 2011
    ....
  6. pmc Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: role of inflammatory cells
    Rong Jin
    Department of Neurosurgery, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 87:779-89. 2010
    ..We discuss how these cells contribute to ischemic brain injury and highlight certain recent findings and currently unanswered questions about inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke...
  7. pmc Pivotal role for neuronal Toll-like receptors in ischemic brain injury and functional deficits
    Sung Chun Tang
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13798-803. 2007
    ..Our findings establish a proapoptotic signaling pathway for TLR2 and -4 in neurons that may render them vulnerable to ischemic death...
  8. ncbi A neurovascular niche for neurogenesis after stroke
    John J Ohab
    Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 1735, USA
    J Neurosci 26:13007-16. 2006
    ..These experiments define a novel brain environment for neuronal regeneration after stroke and identify molecular mechanisms that are shared between angiogenesis and neurogenesis during functional recovery from brain injury...
  9. doi Pivotal role of cerebral interleukin-17-producing gammadeltaT cells in the delayed phase of ischemic brain injury
    Takashi Shichita
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
    Nat Med 15:946-50. 2009
    ..We propose that T lymphocytes, including gammadeltaT lymphocytes, could be a therapeutic target for mitigating the inflammatory events that amplify the initial damage in cerebral ischemia...
  10. doi Apoptotic mechanisms after cerebral ischemia
    Brad R S Broughton
    Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    Stroke 40:e331-9. 2009
    ..Traditionally, cell death after cerebral ischemia was considered to be exclusively necrotic in nature, but research over the past decade has revealed that after a stroke, many neurons in the ischemic penumbra will undergo apoptosis...
  11. ncbi The impact of recanalization on ischemic stroke outcome: a meta-analysis
    Joung Ho Rha
    Department of Neurology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea
    Stroke 38:967-73. 2007
    ....
  12. ncbi Intravenous administration of human umbilical cord blood reduces behavioral deficits after stroke in rats
    J Chen
    Departments of Neurology, Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA
    Stroke 32:2682-8. 2001
    ..01) compared with normal brain tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenously administered HUCBC enter brain, survive, migrate, and improve functional recovery after stroke. HUCBC transplantation may provide a cell source to treat stroke...
  13. doi Definition of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as an outcome event in clinical trials and observational studies: proposal of a multidisciplinary research group
    Mervyn D I Vergouwen
    Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Stroke 41:2391-5. 2010
    ..The second issue is the variability and overlap of terms used to describe each phenomenon. This makes comparisons among studies difficult...
  14. pmc Preconditioning and tolerance against cerebral ischaemia: from experimental strategies to clinical use
    Ulrich Dirnagl
    Department of Neurology, Center for Stroke Research, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz, D 10098, Berlin, Germany
    Lancet Neurol 8:398-412. 2009
    ..We also discuss whether preconditioning and tolerance occur naturally in the brain and assess the most promising candidate strategies that are being investigated...
  15. doi Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke: final results of the Multi MERCI trial
    Wade S Smith
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0114, USA
    Stroke 39:1205-12. 2008
    ..Enhancements in embolectomy device design may improve recanalization rates...
  16. ncbi Regeneration of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after ischemic brain injury by recruitment of endogenous neural progenitors
    Hirofumi Nakatomi
    Department of Neurobiology, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Japan
    Cell 110:429-41. 2002
    ..These results expand the possibility of novel neuronal cell regeneration therapies for stroke and other neurological diseases...
  17. ncbi Reactive oxygen radicals in signaling and damage in the ischemic brain
    P H Chan
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94205-5487, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 21:2-14. 2001
    ..Transgenic or knockout mice with cell- or site-specific prooxidant and antioxidant enzymes provide useful tools in dissecting the events involving oxidative stress in signaling and damage in ischemic brain injury...
  18. doi Enhanced detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation by early and prolonged continuous holter monitoring in patients with cerebral ischemia presenting in sinus rhythm
    Raoul Stahrenberg
    Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Universitatsmedizin Gottingen, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Stroke 41:2884-8. 2010
    ..Early initiation and prolongation of continuous Holter monitoring may improve diagnostic yield compared with the standard of care including a 24-hour Holter recording...
  19. ncbi Matrix metalloproteinase-mediated disruption of tight junction proteins in cerebral vessels is reversed by synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor in focal ischemia in rat
    Yi Yang
    Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 0001, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27:697-709. 2007
    ..Disrupted TJPs previously seen in endothelial cells appeared in the surrounding astrocytes. Our results provide direct evidence that MMPs open the BBB by degrading TJPs and that an MMP inhibitor prevents degradation of the TJPs by MMPs...
  20. ncbi Early release of HMGB-1 from neurons after the onset of brain ischemia
    Jianhua Qiu
    Stroke and Neurovascular Regulation Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 28:927-38. 2008
    ..high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) promotes inflammation in sepsis, but little is known about its role in brain ischemia-induced inflammation...
  21. pmc Hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression precedes neovascularization after cerebral ischemia
    H J Marti
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, the Max Planck Institute for Physiological and Clinical Research, Bad Nauheim, Germany
    Am J Pathol 156:965-76. 2000
    ..Exogenous support of this natural protective mechanism might lead to enhanced survival after stroke...
  22. ncbi Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Counc
    Larry B Goldstein
    Stroke 37:1583-633. 2006
    ..This guideline provides an overview of the evidence on various established and potential stroke risk factors and provides recommendations for the reduction of stroke risk...
  23. ncbi Intra-arterial prourokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial. Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism
    A Furlan
    Cerebrovascular Center, Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195, USA
    JAMA 282:2003-11. 1999
    ..Intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator can be beneficial to some patients when given within 3 hours of stroke onset, but many patients present later after stroke onset and alternative treatments are needed...
  24. ncbi Protective role of reactive astrocytes in brain ischemia
    Lizhen Li
    Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology at Sahlgrenska Academy, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 28:468-81. 2008
    Reactive astrocytes are thought to protect the penumbra during brain ischemia, but direct evidence has been lacking due to the absence of suitable experimental models...
  25. pmc Systemic inflammatory challenges compromise survival after experimental stroke via augmenting brain inflammation, blood- brain barrier damage and brain oedema independently of infarct size
    Adam Denes
    Laboratory of Molecular Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest, Hungary
    J Neuroinflammation 8:164. 2011
    ..It is not understood whether systemic inflammatory challenges impair outcome after stroke by increasing brain injury only or whether they have direct effects on brain oedema, cerebrovascular inflammation and blood-brain barrier damage...
  26. pmc Temporal pattern of expression and colocalization of microglia/macrophage phenotype markers following brain ischemic injury in mice
    Carlo Perego
    Laboratory of Inflammation and Nervous System Diseases, Department of Neuroscience, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy
    J Neuroinflammation 8:174. 2011
    ....
  27. doi The neurovascular unit, matrix proteases, and innate inflammation
    Gregory J del Zoppo
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1207:46-9. 2010
    ..Recent experimental work suggests specific cell sources for MMP-9 generation and for matrix proteases from four distinct families that could impact neurovascular unit integrity...
  28. pmc Disruption of downstream MyD88 or TRIF Toll-like receptor signaling does not protect against cerebral ischemia
    Bolanle M Famakin
    Stroke Branch, National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Building 10, Rm 5B06, MSC 1401, Bethesda, MD 20892 1401, USA
    Brain Res 1388:148-56. 2011
    ..9±8.4mm(3). These findings show that disruption of MyD88 or TRIF signaling does not confer protection in brain ischemia and suggests the possibility of additional or alternate downstream adaptors during TLR signaling in cerebral ..
  29. doi Neuroprotective effects of ischemic postconditioning on global brain ischemia in rats through upregulation of hippocampal glutamine synthetase
    Weiqiao Zhang
    Department of Neurosurgery, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1630 Dong Fang Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai 200127, China
    J Clin Neurosci 18:685-9. 2011
    ..05) GS expression compared with both the sham and ischemia-reperfusion groups, suggesting that upregulation of GS expression after ischemia constitutes a neuroprotective mechanism...
  30. ncbi Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atheros
    Harold P Adams
    University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, USA
    Circulation 115:e478-534. 2007
    ..The intended audience is physicians and other emergency healthcare providers who treat patients within the first 48 hours after stroke. In addition, information for healthcare policy makers is included...
  31. ncbi Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of thrombolytic therapy with intravenous alteplase in acute ischaemic stroke (ECASS II). Second European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study Investigators
    W Hacke
    Department of Neurology, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    Lancet 352:1245-51. 1998
    ..We have assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase (0.9 mg/kg bodyweight) within 6 h of stroke onset...
  32. pmc A sequence variant in ZFHX3 on 16q22 associates with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke
    Daniel F Gudbjartsson
    deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland
    Nat Genet 41:876-8. 2009
    ..21, P = 1.4 x 10(-10)). This variant also associated with ischemic stroke (OR = 1.11, P = 0.00054) and cardioembolic stroke (OR = 1.22, P = 0.00021) in a combined analysis of five stroke samples...
  33. doi Cerebral ischemia: models, methods and outcomes
    Konstantin Alexander Hossmann
    Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, Cologne, Germany
    Neuropharmacology 55:257-70. 2008
    Experimental research into brain ischemia contributes substantially to the understanding of ischemic injury mechanisms but suffers from its limited relevance for clinical treatment strategies...
  34. ncbi High mobility group box 1 protein is released by neural cells upon different stresses and worsens ischemic neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo
    G Faraco
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Italy
    J Neurochem 103:590-603. 2007
    ..Together, data underscore the neuropathological role of nuclear HMGB1, and point to the protein as a mediator of post-ischemic brain damage...
  35. pmc Diverse roles of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in neuroinflammation and cerebral ischemia
    E Candelario-Jalil
    Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, MSC10 5620, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Neuroscience 158:983-94. 2009
    ..Inhibitors of metalloproteinases are available, but balancing the beneficial and detrimental effects of these agents remains a challenge...
  36. ncbi Blockade of interleukin-6 signaling aggravates ischemic cerebral damage in mice: possible involvement of Stat3 activation in the protection of neurons
    Toru Yamashita
    Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    J Neurochem 94:459-68. 2005
    ..These results suggest that endogenous IL-6 plays a critical role in preventing damaged neurons from undergoing apoptosis in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia and that its role may be mediated by Stat3 activation...
  37. ncbi Inflammation in ischemic brain injury: timing is important
    Jasna Kriz
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite Laval, 2705 Boulevard Laurier, Quebec, QC, G1V4G2, Canada
    Crit Rev Neurobiol 18:145-57. 2006
    ..There is increasing evidence that post-ischemic inflammation plays an important role in brain ischemia. However, whether inflammatory processes are deleterious or beneficial to recovery is presently a matter of ..
  38. pmc Different strokes for different folks: the rich diversity of animal models of focal cerebral ischemia
    David W Howells
    National Stroke Research Institute and University of Melbourne Department of Medicine, Austin Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 30:1412-31. 2010
    ..The aim is to provide, for novice and expert alike, an overview of the key controllable determinants of experimental stroke outcome to help ensure the most effective application of animal models to translational research...
  39. ncbi Neuronal injury in rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia is associated with activation of autophagic and lysosomal pathways
    Ya Dan Wen
    Department of Pharmacology and Laboratory of Aging and Nervous Diseases, Soochow University School of Medicine, Suzhou, China
    Autophagy 4:762-9. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate that ischemic insult activates autophagy and an autophagic mechanism may contribute to ischemic neuronal injury. Thus, autophagy may be a potential target for developing a novel therapy for stroke...
  40. ncbi Delayed reduction of ischemic brain injury and neurological deficits in mice lacking the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene
    C Iadecola
    Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Neurosci 17:9157-64. 1997
    ..iNOS inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic strategy targeted specifically at the secondary progression of ischemic brain injury...
  41. ncbi Role for matrix metalloproteinase 9 after focal cerebral ischemia: effects of gene knockout and enzyme inhibition with BB-94
    M Asahi
    Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown 02129, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 20:1681-9. 2000
    ..These data demonstrate that MMP-9 plays a deleterious role in the development of brain injury after focal ischemia...
  42. ncbi Trial design and reporting standards for intra-arterial cerebral thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke
    Randall T Higashida
    University of California, San Francisco Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 505 Parnassus Ave, Rm L 352, San Francisco, CA 94143 0628, USA
    Stroke 34:e109-37. 2003
    ....
  43. doi Ambivalent aspects of interleukin-6 in cerebral ischemia: inflammatory versus neurotrophic aspects
    Shigeaki Suzuki
    Department of Neurology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, Japan
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29:464-79. 2009
    ..Taken together, the information suggests that IL-6 plays a double role in cerebral ischemia, as an inflammatory mediator during the acute phase and as a neurotrophic mediator between the subacute and prolonged phases...
  44. ncbi Timing for fever-related brain damage in acute ischemic stroke
    J Castillo
    Department of Neurology, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago Hospital Xeral de Galicia, Barcelona, Spain
    Stroke 29:2455-60. 1998
    ..BACKGROUND and..
  45. doi The ischemic penumbra: correlates in imaging and implications for treatment of ischemic stroke. The Johann Jacob Wepfer award 2011
    Wolf Dieter Heiss
    Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, Cologne, Germany
    Cerebrovasc Dis 32:307-20. 2011
    ..As long as a validation of the mismatch selection paradigm is lacking, its use as a surrogate marker of outcome is limited...
  46. doi Computed tomography and magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in ischemic stroke: definitions and thresholds
    Krishna A Dani
    Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, University of Glasgow Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland
    Ann Neurol 70:384-401. 2011
    ..The optimum perfusion values to identify tissue at risk of infarction in acute stroke are unclear. We systematically reviewed CT and MR perfusion imaging in acute ischemic stroke...
  47. ncbi Rapid tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia in rats is induced by preconditioning with electroacupuncture: window of protection and the role of adenosine
    Qiang Wang
    Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an, 710032 Shaanxi, China
    Neurosci Lett 381:158-62. 2005
    ..The rapid ischemic tolerance appears at 2 h (but not at 0.5, 1, or 3 h) after preconditioning, and is possibly mediated through an adenosine A1 receptor-related mechanism...
  48. pmc Microglial involvement in neuroplastic changes following focal brain ischemia in rats
    Alexandre Madinier
    Unité INSERM U887 Motricité Plasticité, Dijon, France
    PLoS ONE 4:e8101. 2009
    ....
  49. doi Plasticity during stroke recovery: from synapse to behaviour
    Timothy H Murphy
    Kinsmen Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:861-72. 2009
    ..The challenge for improving stroke recovery is to understand how to optimally engage and modify surviving neuronal networks, to provide new response strategies that compensate for tissue lost to injury...
  50. ncbi Intravenous administration of human bone marrow stromal cells induces angiogenesis in the ischemic boundary zone after stroke in rats
    Jieli Chen
    Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, Detroit, Mich, USA
    Circ Res 92:692-9. 2003
    ..These data suggest that treatment of stroke with hMSCs enhances angiogenesis in the host brain and hMSC-enhanced angiogenesis is mediated by increases in levels of endogenous rat VEGF and VEGFR2...
  51. ncbi Dual role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in brain injury
    E Shohami
    Department of Pharmacology, Hebrew University School of Pharmacy, Jerusalem, Israel
    Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 10:119-30. 1999
    ..It is suggested that the appropriate context of mediators, at any given time after brain injury may well determine whether the effect of TNF alpha is protective or toxic...
  52. ncbi Intravenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances poststroke sensorimotor recovery and stimulates neurogenesis
    Wolf Rüdiger Schäbitz
    Department of Neurology, University of Munster, Germany
    Stroke 38:2165-72. 2007
    ..Moreover, in intact animals, BDNF is a potent stimulator of adult neurogenesis...
  53. ncbi Neuroprotective effects of the free radical scavenger Edaravone (MCI-186) in mice permanent focal brain ischemia
    Hideo Shichinohe
    Department of Neurosurgery, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Brain Res 1029:200-6. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that Edaravone salvages the boundary zone of infarct by scavenging reactive oxygen species especially in the neurons during permanent focal cerebral ischemia...
  54. ncbi Akt contributes to neuroprotection by hypothermia against cerebral ischemia in rats
    Heng Zhao
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Neurosci 25:9794-806. 2005
    ..Hypothermia may protect from ischemic damage in part by preserving Akt activity and attenuating the apoptotic effects of PTEN, PDK1, and FKHR...
  55. doi Inflammation and brain injury: acute cerebral ischaemia, peripheral and central inflammation
    A Denes
    Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Brain Behav Immun 24:708-23. 2010
    ..However, a greater understanding of the contribution of inflammation to CI is still required, and this review highlights some of the key mechanism that may offer future therapeutic targets...
  56. doi Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), but not TLR3 or TLR9, knock-out mice have neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia
    K Hyakkoku
    Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501 1196, Japan
    Neuroscience 171:258-67. 2010
    ..These data suggest that TLR4 knockout, but not TLR3 or TLR9 knockout, may play a neuroprotective role in ischemic brain injury induced by MCAO in mice...
  57. pmc Multiple preconditioning paradigms converge on interferon regulatory factor-dependent signaling to promote tolerance to ischemic brain injury
    Susan L Stevens
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 31:8456-63. 2011
    ..of the TLR4 ligand LPS or the TLR9 ligand unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide before transient brain ischemia in mice confers substantial protection against ischemic damage...
  58. ncbi A strong neuroprotective effect of the autonomous C-terminal peptide of IGF-1 Ec (MGF) in brain ischemia
    Joanna Dluzniewska
    Molecular Biology Unit, Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
    FASEB J 19:1896-8. 2005
    ..In vivo, in a gerbil model of transient brain ischemia, treatment with the synthetic MGF C-terminal peptide provided very significant protection to the vulnerable ..
  59. ncbi Measurement of brain temperature with magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute ischemic stroke
    Bartosz Karaszewski
    Department of Neurology of Adults, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
    Ann Neurol 60:438-46. 2006
    ..We used magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (water-to-N-acetylaspartate frequency shift) to measure cerebral temperature noninvasively in stroke patients...
  60. pmc Cortical spreading ischaemia is a novel process involved in ischaemic damage in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage
    Jens P Dreier
    Department of Experimental Neurology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Brain 132:1866-81. 2009
    ....
  61. ncbi Intracerebroventricular injection of microglia protects against focal brain ischemia
    Yoshihisa Kitamura
    Department of Neurobiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Japan
    J Pharmacol Sci 94:203-6. 2004
    ..At that time, migrated microglia were detected in the ischemic lesion. These results suggest that exogenous microglia can migrate into brain parenchyma and then protect against neurodegeneration induced by MCA occlusion and reperfusion...
  62. doi JNK inhibition and inflammation after cerebral ischemia
    Corinne Benakis
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Brain Behav Immun 24:800-11. 2010
    ..In contrast, in vitro data show an indirect effect of D-JNKI1 on the modulation of microglial activation...
  63. ncbi CNS plasticity and assessment of forelimb sensorimotor outcome in unilateral rat models of stroke, cortical ablation, parkinsonism and spinal cord injury
    T Schallert
    Department of Psychology and Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Mezes 330, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Neuropharmacology 39:777-87. 2000
    ..OP-1 showed a beneficial effect on limb use asymmetry in the cylinder test...
  64. ncbi Subarachnoid haemorrhage
    Jan van Gijn
    Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Centre Utrecht, 3584CX Utrecht, Netherlands
    Lancet 369:306-18. 2007
    ..Hydrocephalus might cause gradual obtundation in the first few hours or days; it can be treated by lumbar puncture or ventricular drainage, dependent on the site of obstruction...
  65. ncbi Role of T lymphocytes and interferon-gamma in ischemic stroke
    Gokhan Yilmaz
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130 3932, USA
    Circulation 113:2105-12. 2006
    ....
  66. pmc Therapeutic hypothermia for brain ischemia: where have we come and where do we go?
    Midori A Yenari
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Stroke 41:S72-4. 2010
    ..We review the state of therapeutic hypothermia in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and provide an outlook for its role in stroke therapy...
  67. doi Role of inflammatory markers in brain ischemia
    Manuel Rodríguez-Yáñez
    Department of Neurology, Hospital Clinico Universitario, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Curr Opin Neurol 21:353-7. 2008
    Inflammatory mechanisms play an important role in the risk of stroke and during the acute phase of brain ischemia, which contributes to functional outcome of patients...
  68. ncbi Inflammatory cytokines in acute ischemic stroke
    Antonino Tuttolomondo
    Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, University of Palermo, Italy
    Curr Pharm Des 14:3574-89. 2008
    ....
  69. ncbi Exciting, radical, suicidal: how brain cells die after stroke
    Eng H Lo
    Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, MGH East 149 2401, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Stroke 36:189-92. 2005
  70. ncbi Protective effect of exogenous administration of alpha-tocopherol in middle cerebral artery occlusion model of cerebral ischemia in rats
    Geeta Chaudhary
    Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 17:703-7. 2003
    ..The results demonstrate that exogenous administration of alpha-tocopherol is able to reduce the neuronal damage caused during ischemia-reperfusion, which can be attributed to its antioxidant activity...
  71. ncbi Enriched rehabilitative training promotes improved forelimb motor function and enhanced dendritic growth after focal ischemic injury
    J Biernaskie
    Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s, Newfoundland, Canada A1B 3V6
    J Neurosci 21:5272-80. 2001
    ....
  72. ncbi Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (Alteplase) for ischemic stroke 3 to 5 hours after symptom onset. The ATLANTIS Study: a randomized controlled trial. Alteplase Thrombolysis for Acute Noninterventional Therapy in Ischemic Stroke
    W M Clark
    Oregon Stroke Center, Portland 97201, USA
    JAMA 282:2019-26. 1999
    ..This restricts the number of patients who can be treated, since most stroke patients present more than 3 hours after symptom onset...
  73. pmc Estrogen receptor alpha, not beta, is a critical link in estradiol-mediated protection against brain injury
    D B Dubal
    Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:1952-7. 2001
    ..Our discovery that ER alpha mediates protection of the brain carries far-reaching implications for the selective targeting of ERs in the treatment and prevention of neural dysfunction associated with normal aging or brain injury...
  74. ncbi Apoptotic and antiapoptotic mechanisms in stroke
    M P Mattson
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224 6825, USA
    Cell Tissue Res 301:173-87. 2000
    ..Interestingly, recent studies suggest novel dietary approaches (e.g., food restriction and supplementation with antioxidants) that may reduce brain damage following stroke...
  75. ncbi Neuroprotective properties of statins in cerebral ischemia and stroke
    C J Vaughan
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, The New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Stroke 30:1969-73. 1999
    ..In this article, we review the emerging evidence that statins have beneficial effects within the cerebral circulation and brain parenchyma during ischemic stroke and reperfusion...
  76. ncbi Reorganization of remote cortical regions after ischemic brain injury: a potential substrate for stroke recovery
    S B Frost
    Center on Aging, Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA
    J Neurophysiol 89:3205-14. 2003
    ..Reorganization in intact tissue may provide a neural substrate for adaptive motor behavior and play a critical role in postinjury recovery of function...
  77. ncbi Directed migration of neuronal precursors into the ischemic cerebral cortex and striatum
    Kunlin Jin
    Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato, CA 94945, USA
    Mol Cell Neurosci 24:171-89. 2003
    ..These results indicate that after cerebral ischemia, new neurons are directed toward sites of brain injury, where they might be in a position to participate in brain repair and functional recovery...
  78. pmc Activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 by FTY720 is neuroprotective after ischemic stroke in rats
    Yu Hasegawa
    Department of Physiology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, Calif 92354, USA
    Stroke 41:368-74. 2010
    ..FTY720 is a known sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonist. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of postischemic administration of FTY720 in rats with 2 hours transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
  79. pmc Primary prevention of stroke by healthy lifestyle
    Stephanie E Chiuve
    Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Nutrition, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Circulation 118:947-54. 2008
    ..The combination of healthy lifestyle factors is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and total cardiovascular disease. Little is known about the impact of multiple lifestyle factors on the risk of stroke...
  80. pmc Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction as determinants of ischemic neuronal death and survival
    Kuniyasu Niizuma
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5487, USA
    J Neurochem 109:133-8. 2009
    ....
  81. doi The poor outcome of ischemic stroke in very old people: a cohort study of its determinants
    Licia Denti
    Geriatric and Rehabilitation Department, University Hospital of Parma, Parma, Italy
    J Am Geriatr Soc 58:12-7. 2010
    ..To assess how much of the excess risk of poor outcome from stroke in people aged 80 and older aging per se explains, independent of other prognostic determinants...
  82. ncbi Matrix metalloproteinases and free radicals in cerebral ischemia
    K Jian Liu
    College of Pharmacy, Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, 87131, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:71-80. 2005
    ..Understanding the relationship between proteases and free radicals in cerebral ischemia is critical for the design of therapeutic agents aimed at controlling cell death in ischemic tissues...
  83. ncbi Adventures in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia: penumbra, gene expression, neuroprotection: the 2002 Thomas Willis Lecture
    Myron D Ginsberg
    Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Fla 33101, USA
    Stroke 34:214-23. 2003
    ..This presentation first highlights insights into the ischemic penumbra enabled by a multimodal experimental approach; second, discusses gene expression in ischemia; and third, confronts the challenges of neuroprotectant therapy...
  84. doi Hemispheric hypoperfusion in postictal paresis mimics early brain ischemia
    Sven Rupprecht
    Department of Neurology, Friedrich Schiller University, Erlanger Allee 101, D 07747 Jena, Germany
    Epilepsy Res 89:355-9. 2010
    ..Further investigations are warranted to clarify the role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the pathophysiology of postictal paresis...
  85. ncbi Stroke-induced immunodepression: experimental evidence and clinical relevance
    Ulrich Dirnagl
    Department of Neurology, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Stroke 38:770-3. 2007
    ..Nevertheless, clinical evidence is emerging demonstrating that stroke-induced immunodepression in humans not only exists, but has very similar features to those characterized in rodent experiments...
  86. ncbi Nosocomial pneumonia after acute stroke: implications for neurological intensive care medicine
    Ruediger Hilker
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Cologne, Germany
    Stroke 34:975-81. 2003
    ..Pneumonia has been estimated to occur in about one third of patients after acute stroke. Only limited data are available on stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) in specialized neurological intensive care units (NICUs)...
  87. doi Tissue-type plasminogen activator in the ischemic brain: more than a thrombolytic
    Manuel Yepes
    Department of Neurology and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Trends Neurosci 32:48-55. 2009
    ..Here, the best studied pathways of tPA neurotoxicity are discussed along with future directions for a safer use of tPA as a thrombolytic agent in the setting of acute ischemic stroke...
  88. pmc The "golden hour" and acute brain ischemia: presenting features and lytic therapy in >30,000 patients arriving within 60 minutes of stroke onset
    Jeffrey L Saver
    Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif 90095, USA
    Stroke 41:1431-9. 2010
    The benefit of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in acute brain ischemia is strongly time dependent.
  89. doi Hospitalizations for incident stroke in Shunde District, Foshan, South China
    Wenbin Liang
    School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia
    Neuroepidemiology 30:101-4. 2008
    ..However, CT scan and MRI were not widely used in China until the middle 1990s. We estimate the stroke incidence based on stroke hospitalizations in Shunde District, Foshan, south China...
  90. pmc Experimental and preliminary clinical evidence of an ischemic zone with prolonged negative DC shifts surrounded by a normally perfused tissue belt with persistent electrocorticographic depression
    Ana I Oliveira-Ferreira
    Department of Experimental Neurology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 30:1504-19. 2010
    ..These preliminary results suggest that the ischemic zone in rat and human cortex is surrounded by a normally perfused belt with persistently reduced synaptic activity during the acute injury phase...
  91. pmc Evidence for stroke-induced neurogenesis in the human brain
    Kunlin Jin
    Buck Institute for Age Research, Novato, CA 94945, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:13198-202. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that stroke-induced compensatory neurogenesis may occur in the human brain, where it could contribute to postischemic recovery and represent a target for stroke therapy...
  92. pmc Combination therapy with hypothermia for treatment of cerebral ischemia
    Xian N Tang
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco and San Francisco Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Neurotrauma 26:325-31. 2009
    ..The experimental data nevertheless seem to favor a combinatorial approach. Thus, in order to apply hypothermia to a broader range of patients, combination strategies should be further investigated...
  93. doi Transcranial Doppler for predicting delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Emmanuel Carrera
    Neurological Intensive Care Unit, Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Neurosurgery 65:316-23; discussion 323-4. 2009
    ..We sought to determine the prognostic utility of serial TCD examination after SAH...
  94. doi The spectrum of systemic immune alterations after murine focal ischemia: immunodepression versus immunomodulation
    Arthur Liesz
    Department of Neurology, University Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Stroke 40:2849-58. 2009
    ..Herein, we characterize the impact of 3 ischemia models on systemic immunological and microbiological parameters...
  95. doi Antiphospholipid antibodies and risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in young women in the RATIO study: a case-control study
    Rolf T Urbanus
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    Lancet Neurol 8:998-1005. 2009
    ....
  96. pmc Recurrent spontaneous spreading depolarizations facilitate acute dendritic injury in the ischemic penumbra
    W Christopher Risher
    Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
    J Neurosci 30:9859-68. 2010
    ..We propose that metabolic stress resulting from recurring SDs facilitates acute injury at the level of dendrites and dendritic spines in metabolically compromised tissue, expediting penumbral recruitment into the ischemic core...
  97. doi Recombinant C1 inhibitor in brain ischemic injury
    Raffaella Gesuete
    Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy
    Ann Neurol 66:332-42. 2009
    ..We have explored the efficacy and the therapeutic window of the recently available human recombinant (rh) C1-INH on ischemic brain injury and investigated its mechanism of action in comparison with that of plasma-derived (pd) C1-INH...
  98. ncbi Inflammation and infection in clinical stroke
    Hedley C A Emsley
    University of Manchester and Stroke Services, Clinical Sciences Building, Hope Hospital, Eccles Old Road, Salford, M6 8HD, U K
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 22:1399-419. 2002
    ..Newer approaches have included antimicrobial and antileukocyte strategies. One of the most promising avenues may be the use of cytokine antagonism, for example, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist...
  99. ncbi Efficacy of rehabilitative experience declines with time after focal ischemic brain injury
    Jeff Biernaskie
    Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s Campus, Newfoundland, Canada A1B 3V6
    J Neurosci 24:1245-54. 2004
    ..These findings have important implications for rehabilitation of stroke patients, many of whom experience considerable delays before therapy is initiated...
  100. ncbi Therapeutic hypothermia: neuroprotective mechanisms
    Liping Liu
    Dept of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco and the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Neurology 127, 4150 Clement St, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Front Biosci 12:816-25. 2007
    ..Therapeutic hypothermia is likely to undergo phase III clinical trials in various clinical settings. Novel technologies are being developed to optimize the safety and efficacy of this promising approach...
  101. ncbi Animal models of focal and global cerebral ischemia
    Richard J Traystman
    Department of Anesthesiology Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA
    ILAR J 44:85-95. 2003
    ..This review summarizes many (but not all) small and large animal models of focal and global cerebral ischemia and discusses their advantages and disadvantages...

Research Grants84

  1. BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER TRANSPORT AND ISCHEMIC BRAIN INJURY
    Richard Keep; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..P-glycoprotein and the organic acid transporter both play a major role in limiting the access of some drugs to the brain. ..
  2. Combination drug treatment to inhibit multiple cell death pathways after TBI
    ALAN FADEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  3. INTERLEUKIN-1 AND PERINATAL BRAIN INJURY
    Faye Silverstein; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  4. BRAIN METABOLISM DURING ANESTHESIA, LOW PH1, AND HYPOXIA
    Lawrence Litt; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  5. An angiogenic role for the alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha V beta 3 integrins during cer
    D Milner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..If successful, this work could have major impact on the incidence and mortality of ischemic stroke. ..
  6. An angiogenic role for the alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha V beta 3 integrins during cer
    D RICHARD MILNER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..If successful, this work could have major impact on the incidence and mortality of ischemic stroke. ..
  7. Novel Mechanistic Targets of Steroid Hormones in the Brain
    Meharvan Singh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  8. Blood-Brain Barrier in Cerebral Ischemia
    MARTHA O DONNELL; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The proposed studies should reveal whether therapeutic approaches aimed at blocking BBB Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity may be of value for attenuating ischemia-induced brain edema. ..
  9. Interaction of Estrogen and Tissue Plasminogen Activator
    Shaohua Yang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The application's objectives are to explore the feasibility for further clinical trials of combination therapy of estrogen and rtPA for ischemic stroke. ..
  10. Interaction of Estrogen and Tissue Plasminogen Activator
    Shaohua Yang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The application's objectives are to explore the feasibility for further clinical trials of combination therapy of estrogen and rtPA for ischemic stroke. ..
  11. Pilot Trial of Bumetanide for Neonatal Seizures
    JANET SUSAN SOUL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed pilot trial will determine the feasibility of a novel trial design to test new drugs to treat seizures in newborns, and will determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of bumetanide in newborns. ..
  12. CDP-choline: Mechanisms in Cerebral Ischemia
    RAO ADIBHATLA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Arachidonic acid activates neutral sphingomyelinase, resulting in membrane disintegration. PCCT activity was stimulated by exogenous CDP-choline. Aim 2 will be tested in gerbil transient forebrain ischemia. ..
  13. Heat Shock Protein Therapeutics for Stroke
    FRANK R contact SHARP; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  14. Vascular Cognitive Impairment Induced by Ischemic Stroke: mechanism and therapy
    Shaohua Yang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The studies proposed will provide new insight on the mechanism of vascular dementia and identify potential therapeutic target for the prevention of cognitive decline following cerebral ischemia. ..
  15. Mechanisms of Hyperbaric Oxygen Induced Brain Protection
    John H Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  16. Stem Cells and Ischemic Brain Injury
    Walter Low; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. Cytokines and the blood-brain barrier in the ovine fetus
    BARBARA STONESTREET; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..b>Brain ischemia is induced by carotid occlusion...
  18. Cytokines and the blood-brain barrier in the ovine fetus
    Barbara S Stonestreet; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Brain ischemia is induced by carotid occlusion...
  19. Cytokines and the blood-brain barrier in the ovine fetus
    BARBARA STONESTREET; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..b>Brain ischemia is induced by carotid occlusion...
  20. Cytokines and the blood-brain barrier in the ovine fetus
    Barbara S Stonestreet; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Brain ischemia is induced by carotid occlusion...
  21. Cerebal Ischemia During Anesthesia and Surgery
    Piyush Patel; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The long term goals of the research are to prevent the occurrence of isehemic brain injury in patients undergoing anesthesia and surgery. ..
  22. Nitric Oxide--Neurotoxic Mechanisms of MPTP
    Allen Mandir; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In this study we demonstrate that NMDA excitotoxicity is dramatically reduced in PARP-1 knockout mice whereas PARP-1 knockout mice are sensitive to AMPA excitotoxicity. ..
  23. Jun Kinase Signaling and Apoptosis in Ischemia Stroke
    Chia Yi Kuan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, we will use tw0-dimensional protein electrophoresis of mass spectrometry to identify the mitochondrial targets of JNK signaling. ..
  24. A NEW STRATEGY FOR PROTECTION FROM CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA
    Ying Xia; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our preliminary studies have shown that this proposal is feasible and will very likely yield important information on the EA-induced protection and eventually shed light on new therapeutic modalities of stroke. ..
  25. INFLAMMATORY AND THROMBOTIC CELL INTERACTIONS IN STROKE
    Leslie Ritter; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  26. A NEW STRATEGY FOR PROTECTION FROM CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA
    Ying Xia; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our preliminary studies have shown that this proposal is feasible and will very likely yield important information on the EA-induced protection and eventually shed light on new therapeutic modalities of stroke. ..
  27. Neonatal Brain Ischemia: Neuroimaging as a Basis For Rational Stem Cell Therapy
    Stephen Ashwal; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  28. Neonatal Brain Ischemia: Neuroimaging as a Basis For Rational Stem Cell Therapy
    Stephen Ashwal; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  29. Neuroprotective Role of Fetuin in Cerebral Ischemia
    Haichao Wang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Answers to these questions will improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of ischemic neural injury, and identify novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of stroke and related disorders. ..
  30. NMDA ANTAGONISTS IN THE TREATMENT OF STROKE
    Gary Steinberg; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The results from the proposed project will expedite the planning and execution of a clinical study...
  31. Radical Scavengers for Brain Ischemia Reperfusion injury
    Howard Elford; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Imidate have exhibited biochemical properties that indicate that they are good candidates to protect against brain ischemia reperfusion injury. These compounds are very effective free radical scavengers...