Genomes and Genes
patent ductus arteriosus
Summary: Abnormal persistence of an open lumen in the ductus arteriosus after birth, the direction of flow being from the aorta to the pulmonary artery, resulting in recirculation of arterial blood through the lungs. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Publications239 found, 100 shown here
- The treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. A review and overview of randomized trialsD B Knight
Newborn Services, National Women s Hospital, Claude Road, Auckland, New Zealand
Semin Neonatol 6:63-73. 2001b>Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common problem in very preterm infants. It results in a significant left-to-right shunt and an increase in left ventricular output. Pulmonary compliance can be reduced...
- Mutations in myosin heavy chain 11 cause a syndrome associating thoracic aortic aneurysm/aortic dissection and patent ductus arteriosusLimin Zhu
Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Département de génétique, 75015 Paris, France
Nat Genet 38:343-9. 2006..recently described two kindreds presenting thoracic aortic aneurysm and/or aortic dissection (TAAD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and mapped the disease locus to 16p12.2-p13.13 (ref. 3)...
- Towards rational management of the patent ductus arteriosus: the need for disease stagingPatrick J McNamara
Patrick J McNamara, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto M5G 1X8, Canada
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 92:F424-7. 2007
- Treatment of persistent patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: time to accept the null hypothesis?W E Benitz
Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304 1510, USA
J Perinatol 30:241-52. 2010Medical and surgical interventions are widely used to close a persistently patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. Objective evidence to support these practices is lacking, causing some to question their usage...
- Patent ductus arteriosus of the preterm infantShannon E G Hamrick
Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Pediatrics 125:1020-30. 2010A persistently patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants can have significant clinical consequences, particularly during the recovery period from respiratory distress syndrome...
- Maternal and offspring MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism as predictors of congenital atrial septal defect and patent ductus arteriosusWenli L Zhu
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China
Mol Hum Reprod 12:51-4. 2006..of congenital heart defects (CHDs), 21 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD), 35 patients with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), one patient with both conditions combined, and their biological parents were collected as the case ..
- Patent ductus arteriosus in micropreemies and full-term infants: the relative merits of surgical ligation versus indomethacin treatmentDanny C Little
Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas 76508, USA
J Pediatr Surg 38:492-6. 2003..Treatment of ductus arteriosus is controversial. The merits and timing of ductus ligation versus indomethacin treatment were compared...
- Early surgical ligation versus a conservative approach for management of patent ductus arteriosus that fails to close after indomethacin treatmentNami Jhaveri
Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0544, USA
J Pediatr 157:381-7, 387.e1. 2010To examine whether a more conservative approach to treating patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with an increase or decrease in morbidity compared with an approach involving early PDA ligation.
- Patent ductus arteriosus in mice with smooth muscle-specific Jag1 deletionXuesong Feng
The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA
Development 137:4191-9. 2010..Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus and is one of the most common congenital heart defects...
- Mutations in TFAP2B cause Char syndrome, a familial form of patent ductus arteriosusM Satoda
Departments of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
Nat Genet 25:42-6. 2000Char syndrome is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by patent ductus arteriosus, facial dysmorphism and hand anomalies...
- Patent ductus arteriosus in very low birthweight infants: complications of pharmacological and surgical treatmentP S Koehne
Departments of Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology, Charite Virchow Hospital, Humboldt University, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, German Heart Institute Berlin, Germany
J Perinat Med 29:327-34. 2001To evaluate complications of surgical and pharmacological treatment of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants.
- Consequences of delayed surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus in very premature infantsSophie Jaillard
Service de Chirurgie, Polyclinique du Bois, Lille, France
Ann Thorac Surg 81:231-4. 2006..The aim of this study was to assess short-term and mid-term effects of delayed surgical closure of the ductus arteriosus on respiratory and digestive outcome in extremely preterm infants...
- Is there an optimal timing for surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants?Vladimiro L Vida
Department of Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Surgery, University of Padua, Padua, Italy
Ann Thorac Surg 87:1509-15; discussion 1515-6. 2009We sought to define the variables associated with hospital outcome in preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and identify the optimal timing for PDA closure to improve hospital outcome.
- Early versus late indomethacin treatment for patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants with respiratory distress syndromeB Van Overmeire
Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, University Hospital Antwerpen, Antwerpen, Belgium
J Pediatr 138:205-11. 2001OBJECTIVE: To compare efficacy and side effects of early versus late indomethacin treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants...
- B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations to guide treatment of patent ductus arteriosusJ T Attridge
Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 94:F178-82. 2009To determine whether b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations can guide treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) to reduce the number of indomethacin doses without increasing morbidity.
- Long-term effects of indomethacin prophylaxis in extremely-low-birth-weight infantsB Schmidt
Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont, Canada
N Engl J Med 344:1966-72. 2001The prophylactic administration of indomethacin reduces the frequency of patent ductus arteriosus and severe intraventricular hemorrhage in very-low-birth-weight infants (those with birth weights below 1500 g)...
- Total serum bilirubin levels during cyclooxygenase inhibitor treatment for patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infantsC Rheinlaender
Department of Neonatology, Charite, Campus Virchow Hospital, University Medicine Berlin, Augustenberger Platz 1, Berlin, Germany
Acta Paediatr 98:36-42. 2009..To determine whether ibuprofen use in VLBW infants is associated with increased serum bilirubin levels and impaired neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age compared to indomethacin...
- Effect of ibuprofen on bilirubin-albumin binding in vitro at concentrations observed during treatment of patent ductus arteriosusC Diot
SGS Cephac Europe, Saint Benoît Cedex, France
Early Hum Dev 86:315-7. 2010..In vitro studies have shown that ibuprofen (IBU) may interfere with bilirubin-albumin binding at concentrations of 100 microg/mL and above...
- Echocardiographic predictors of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus in extremely-low-birth-weight preterm neonatesF G Ramos
Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
J Perinatol 30:535-9. 2010Identify echocardiographic parameters at <or=4 day postnatal that predict the subsequent need for closure of a clinically significant patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA) in extremely-low-birth-weight neonates (ELBW).
- Is surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus necessary? The Western Australian experience of conservative managementJ M Brooks
Women s and Children s Health Service, Western Australia
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 90:F235-9. 2005Surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is widely practised in preterm infants despite no clear evidence that this improves outcomes...
- Patent ductus arteriosus ligation in premature infants: who really benefits, and at what cost?Mehul V Raval
Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7223, USA
J Pediatr Surg 42:69-75; discussion 75. 2007b>Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation in premature infants has been shown to have low surgical morbidity and mortality...
- Diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosusJ Skinner
Department of Paediatrics, Green Lane Hospital, Green Lane West, Auckland, New Zealand
Semin Neonatol 6:49-61. 2001..The neonatal clinician and echocardiographer is reminded to remain wary of occult congenital heart disease, particularly before closing the ductus...
- Novel TFAP2B mutation in nonsyndromic patent ductus arteriosusMaher Khetyar
Division of Clinical Developmental Sciences, St George s University of London, London, United Kingdom
Genet Test 12:457-9. 2008..We investigated a consanguineous family with isolated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) for mutations in TFAP2B...
- Cardiocirculatory effects of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low-birth-weight infants with respiratory distress syndromeSenji Shimada
Department of Pediatrics, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate, Japan
Pediatr Int 45:255-62. 2003Cardiocirculatory effects of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) have not been systematically studied in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)...
- Patent ductus arteriosus and neonatal death in prostaglandin receptor EP4-deficient miceE Segi
Department of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 246:7-12. 1998..These results suggest that neonatal death is at least partly due to patent ductus arteriosus and that the EP4 receptor plays a role in regulation of the patency of this vessel...
- Patent ductus arteriosus therapy: impact on neonatal and 18-month outcomeJuliette C Madan
aDivision of Newborn Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Floating Hospital for Children, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Pediatrics 123:674-81. 2009The purpose of this work was to evaluate therapy for patent ductus arteriosus as a risk factor for death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low birth ..
- Factors affecting successful closure of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus with indomethacin in extremely low birth weight infantsChuan Zhong Yang
Department of Neonatology, South Medical University Affiliated Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518028, China
World J Pediatr 4:91-6. 2008The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is high in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Indomethacin has been widely used in the prophylaxis and treatment of hemodynamically significant PDA...
- B-type natriuretic peptide predicts responses to indomethacin in premature neonates with patent ductus arteriosusJong Hau Hsu
Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
J Pediatr 157:79-84. 2010To determine whether B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) predicts indomethacin responsiveness in premature neonates with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).
- Changes in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic lung disease of prematurityE Bancalari
Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, USA
Am J Perinatol 18:1-9. 2001..data strongly suggest that infections, either prenatal or nosocomial, and the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) play a major role in the development of CLD in these infants...
- Indomethacin responsiveness of patent ductus arteriosus and renal abnormalities in preterm infants treated with indomethacinKazuo Itabashi
Children s Medical Center, Northern Yokohama Hospital, 35 1 Chigasakityuo, Tsuzukiku, Yokohama 224 8503, Japan
J Pediatr 143:203-7. 2003We evaluated the factors related to indomethacin responsiveness of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and subsequent renal and electrolyte abnormalities in a large number of low birth weight infants.
- Spontaneous intestinal perforation after oral ibuprofen treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in two very-low-birthweight infantsM M Tatli
Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey
Acta Paediatr 93:999-1001. 2004To discuss intestinal side effects of ibuprofen in the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, after having observed two cases of spontaneous intestinal perforation following ibuprofen treatment.
- Severity of the ductal shunt: a comparison of different markersM El Hajjar
Clinique de Médecine Néonatale, Hopital Jeanne de Flandre, CHRU de Lille, Lille, France
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 90:F419-22. 2005..When the ductus arteriosus (DA) is patent, the ductal shunt is proportional to the ratio of left ventricular output (LVO) to systemic blood flow. Systemic blood flow can be estimated by measuring flow in the superior vena cava (SVC)...
- Mesenteric oxyhemoglobin desaturation improves with patent ductus arteriosus ligationS D Meier
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children s Hospital, Houston, 77030, USA
J Perinatol 26:562-4. 2006..monitor cerebral and mesenteric regional oximetry in a preterm neonate undergoing surgical ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus. This patient initially demonstrated severe mesenteric oxyhemoglobin desaturation, which improved ..
- Comparison of suture ligation and clip application for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonatesParkash Lal Mandhan
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 132:672-4. 2006We reviewed the experience of 2 centers performing surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates to identify whether the choice of surgical technique--suture ligation or clip application--affected outcome.
- Ibuprofen in the management of neonatal Patent Ductus ArteriosusSimon Keady
Women and Children s Services, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Intensive Crit Care Nurs 21:56-8. 2005b>Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) has a prevalence of approximately 25% in neonates of less than 33 weeks gestation. Failure to treat increases the mortality risk in these preterm infants...
- Does patent ductus arteriosus affect feed tolerance in preterm neonates?S K Patole
Department of Neonatal Paediatrics, King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women, Bagot Road, Perth, Western Australia 6008, Australia
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 92:F53-5. 2007b>Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), especially PDA with sepsis, has been reported as a risk factor for feed intolerance in preterm neonates...
- Moyamoya angiopathy with dolichoectatic internal carotid arteries, patent ductus arteriosus and pupillary dysfunction: a new genetic syndrome?Nadia Khan
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Zurich, Frauenklinikstrasse 10, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
Eur Neurol 51:72-7. 2004..carotid arteries in combination with iris hypoplasia with bilateral fixed dilated pupils and a history of patent ductus arteriosus. Both were symptomatic with moyamoya angiopathy and underwent bilateral extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) ..
- Oral ibuprofen prophylaxis for symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus of prematurityV Sangtawesin
Neonatal Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok, Thailand
J Med Assoc Thai 89:314-21. 2006..The oral suspension form of ibuprofen has been shown to have the same efficacy and safety as indomethacin in the treatment of symptomatic PDA, however its role is still questionable in the prophylaxis of symptomatic PDA...
- Persistent Doppler flow predicts lack of response to multiple courses of indomethacin in premature infants with recurrent patent ductus arteriosusRoberta L Keller
Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
Pediatrics 112:583-7. 2003..produces ductus arteriosus constriction in extremely premature newborns, a recurrent symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) frequently develops after the initial course of indomethacin...
- Effectiveness and side effects of an escalating, stepwise approach to indomethacin treatment for symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants below 33 weeks of gestationMarkus Sperandio
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Pediatrics 116:1361-6. 2005Symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA) is a common problem in premature infants and can be treated effectively with intravenous indomethacin, leading to permanent ductal closure in 70% to 80% of infants...
- N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in premature patent ductus arteriosus: a physiologic biomarker, but is it a clinical tool?Cathy Hammerman
Department of Neonatology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, POB 3235, 91031 Jerusalem, Israel
Pediatr Cardiol 31:62-5. 2010..peptide (NT-proBNP) levels could serve as prognostic indicators of the therapeutic responsiveness of the patent ductus arteriosus to pharmacologic treatment...
- Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project: patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic archC L Backer
Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Medical School, Children s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA
Ann Thorac Surg 69:S298-307. 2000The extant nomenclature for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), coarctation of the aorta (CoAo), and interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is reviewed for the purpose of establishing a unified reporting system...
- Scoliosis in patients with aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus: does standard posterolateral thoracotomy play a role in the development of the lateral curve of the spine?Marek Roclawski
Department of Orthopaedics, Medical University of Gdansk, Nowe Ogrody 1 6, 80 803 Gdansk, Poland
Pediatr Cardiol 30:941-5. 2009..on the development of scoliosis in subjects undergoing repair of coarctation of the aorta (CoA) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A group of 133 patients with CoA and PDA was evaluated...
- Should all newborns who undergo patent ductus arteriosus ligation be examined for vocal fold mobility?Marshall E Smith
University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, USA
Laryngoscope 119:1606-9. 2009To determine the incidence of left vocal fold paralysis (LVFP) in premature infants who undergo patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation.
- Beat-to-beat blood pressure variability and patent ductus arteriosus in ventilated, premature infantsAlain Beuchée
Department of Paediatrics, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pavillon Le Chartier, CHU Pontchaillou, 35033, Rennes Cedex 09, France
Pflugers Arch 446:154-60. 2003..It is concluded that respiratory related BPV involves both diastolic and systolic blood pressure and is correlated to the magnitude of left-to-right transductal shunting in the population studied...
- Surfactant and patent ductus arteriosusAbhay Kumar
Monash Newborn Monash, Medical Centre, Clayton, Vic, Australia
Indian J Pediatr 77:51-5. 2010..To investigate the relationship between surfactant replacement therapy and the development of a haemodynamically significant ductus arteriosus...
- Prophylaxis of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus with oral ibuprofen in very low birth weight infantsChaisit Sangtawesin
Cardiology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Department of Medical Services, Thailand
J Med Assoc Thai 91:S28-34. 2008b>Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common cause of mortality and morbidity among very low birth weight infants...
- Can early echocardiographic findings predict patent ductus arteriosus?Przemko Kwinta
Department of Pediatrics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland
Neonatology 95:141-8. 2009..Early treatment of a high-risk population is alternative to the routine prophylactic use of PSI, but it remains unclear which newborn is at greatest risk for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).
- Ductus arteriosus ligation and alveolar growth in preterm baboons with a patent ductus arteriosusLing Yi Chang
Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado 80204, USA
Pediatr Res 63:299-302. 2008Premature newborn baboons [125 d (67%) gestation], exposed to a moderate-size patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) [pulmonary-to-systemic blood-flow-ratio (Qp/Qs) = 1...
- Hypotension in preterm infants with significant patent ductus arteriosus: effects of dopamineAntoine Bouissou
Department of Perinatal Medicine, Hopital Jeanne de Flandre, CHRU Lille, France
J Pediatr 153:790-4. 2008To study the effects of dopamine on systemic arterial pressure (SAP) and systemic blood flow (SBF) (estimated with the superior vena cava [SVC] flow) in preterm infants with hypotension and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).
- Increased indomethacin dosing for persistent patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trialPriya Jegatheesan
Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0544, USA
J Pediatr 153:183-9. 2008We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial to determine whether higher doses of indomethacin would improve the rate of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure.
- Patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonatesRamesh Agarwal
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India
Indian J Pediatr 75:277-80. 2008..on day 3-4 in a ventilated neonate and unexplained metabolic acidosis may be the earliest indicators of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Indomethacin is the main stay of medical management of PDA in preterm neonates...
- Evidence for active closure of patent ductus arteriosus in very preterm infantsDavid B Knight
J Pediatr 152:446-7; author reply 447-8. 2008
- The effect of ductal diameter on surgical and medical closure of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates: size mattersScott Tschuppert
Division of Congenital Cardiovascular Surgery, University Children s Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 135:78-82. 2008We sought to analyze the effect of patent ductus arteriosus diameter on treatment success in premature neonates.
- Orogastric and intravenous indomethacin administration to very premature neonates with patent ductus arteriosus: population pharmacokinetics, absolute bioavailability, and treatment outcomeMohammed Al Za'abi
School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Ther Drug Monit 29:807-14. 2007..was developed after administration of orogastric and/or intravenous indomethacin for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants...
- Neurodevelopmental outcome after COX inhibitor treatment for patent ductus arteriosusC Rheinlaender
Department of Neonatology, Charite, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Germany
Early Hum Dev 86:87-92. 2010..results in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants two years after successful or failed cyclooxygenase inhibitor treatment with either indomethacin or ibuprofen for a haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA).
- Prophylactic indomethacin reduces grades III and IV intraventricular hemorrhages when compared to early indomethacin treatment of a patent ductus arteriosusToby Debra Yanowitz
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the Magee Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
J Perinatol 23:317-22. 2003..To determine the relative risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) between two very early indomethacin treatment strategies...
- Near-infrared spectroscopy as a screening tool for patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infantsMark A Underwood
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Davis School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Neonatology 91:134-9. 2007b>Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is frequent and potentially pathologic in preterm infants. A simple bedside tool to screen for ductal patency would assist in the care of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants.
- Noninvasive diagnosis of aortic coarctation in neonates with patent ductus arteriosusChun Wei Lu
Department of Pediatrics, Shin Kong Wu Ho Su Memorial Hospital, National Taiwan University, No 7 Chung Shan South Road, 100 Taipei, Taiwan
J Pediatr 148:217-21. 2006To find a noninvasive method to detect coarctation of the aorta (CoA) in the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in neonates.
- Conservative treatment for patent ductus arteriosus in the pretermSophie Vanhaesebrouck
Neonatal Intensive Care, Ziekenhuis Oost Limburg, Genk, Belgium
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 92:F244-7. 2007A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common among preterms, and prophylactic medical treatment has been advocated as the first-line approach...
- Pulmonary endarteritis and subsequent embolization to the lung as a complication of a patent ductus arteriosus--a case reportMehmet Bilge
Department of Cardiology, Medical Faculty, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, Turkey
Angiology 55:99-102. 2004..describe a case of pulmonary endarteritis and subsequent embolization to the lungs as a complication of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)...
- Indications for open lung biopsy in patients with ventricular septal defect and/or patent ductus arteriosus with pulmonary hypertensionS Yamaki
Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
Heart Vessels 5:166-71. 1990..m2 in patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and/or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with severe pulmonary hypertension...
- Comparison of intravenous and enteral indomethacin administration for closure of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely-low-birth-weight infantsPei Chen Tsao
Institute of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, R O C
J Chin Med Assoc 73:15-20. 2010The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to compare the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure rate with different routes (intravenous and enteral) of indomethacin treatment and neonatal outcomes.
- Incidental discovery of a patent ductus arteriosus in adultsHarvey D Cassidy
Department of Family Medicine, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, Florida, USA
J Am Board Fam Med 22:214-8. 2009b>Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an uncommon clinical finding in adult primary care patients...
- Plasma brain natriuretic peptide as a predictor of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infantsV F Puddy
Regional Neonatal Unit, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
Clin Sci (Lond) 103:75-7. 2002b>Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an important cause of morbidity in extremely preterm infants...
- Left vocal cord paralysis associated with long-standing patent ductus arteriosusM Nakahira
Department of Otolaryngology, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku, Kochi, 783-8505, Japan
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 22:759-61. 2001SUMMARY: Left vocal cord paralysis in association with patent ductus arteriosus is unusual...
- Congenital sternal cleft with patent ductus arteriosus: report of a caseNorihiko Ishikawa
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Ishikawa Prefectural Central Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan
Surg Today 32:66-8. 2002..The patient was a full-term baby girl with a superior incomplete sternal cleft with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)...
- Interruption of patent ductus arteriosus in children: robotically assisted versus videothoracoscopic surgeryEmmanuel Le Bret
Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, Paris, France
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 123:973-6. 2002..This study analyzes the feasibility, safety, and efficiency of a robotically assisted technique for patent ductus arteriosus closure and compares the results with those of the videothoracoscopic technique.
- Transcatheter closure of the patent ductus arteriosus using an Amplatzer duct occluder in adultsC H Lee
Cardiac Medical Unit, Grantham Hospital, Hong Kong
Jpn Heart J 42:533-7. 2001b>Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a congenital heart disease that frequently escapes detection until the patient reaches adulthood...
- Patent ductus arteriosus, indomethacin and necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants: a population-based studyShaul Dollberg
Department of Neonatology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizman Street, Tel Aviv, 64239, Israel
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 40:184-8. 2005b>Patent ductus arteriosus is a risk factor for the development of necrotizing enterocolitis...
- An optimized ibuprofen dosing scheme for preterm neonates with patent ductus arteriosus, based on a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studyDeborah Hirt
EA3620, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
Br J Clin Pharmacol 65:629-36. 2008Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent that induces closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in neonates...
- Three-dimensional rotational digital angiography in a complicated case of patent ductus arteriosus transcatheter closureGianluca Rigatelli
Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Endoluminal Interventions, Rovigo General Hospital, Rovigo, Italy
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 70:900-3. 2007..We present a case of a difficult patent ductus arteriosus in which 3D rotational angiography was the key to successful closure...
- Influence of a patent ductus arteriosus on cardiac troponin T levels in preterm infantsAfif F El-Khuffash
Department of Neonatology, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
J Pediatr 153:350-3. 2008To evaluate the effect of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on the myocardium by measuring levels of cardiac troponin T (cTnT), a marker of ischemic myocardial damage.
- Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus in adults using the Amplatzer duct occluder: initial results and follow-upThomas E Hong
Section of Pediatric Cardiology, The University of Chicago Children s Hospital, IL 60637, USA
Indian Heart J 54:384-9. 2002Surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus in adult patients may be problematic. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus is an established procedure...
- Feasibility and safety of transcatheter intervention for complex patent ductus arteriosusShi wei Yang
12th Ward, Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Chao Yang District, Beijing, China
Angiology 61:372-6. 2010We evaluated the transcatheter intervention of complex patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in Chinese adults. Between January 2004 and April 2008, 112 adult patients (43 males, 69 females, mean age 31 +/- 19 years) underwent intervention...
- [Effects of transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus in 139 adult patients]Xian yang Zhu
Department of Congenital Heart Disease, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region, Shenyang 110016, China
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi 37:998-1000. 2009To analyze the clinical feature and the effects of transcatheter closure of adult patients with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).
- Late embolization of Amplatzer patent ductus arteriosus occlusion device with thoracic aorta embedmentDavid Michael McMullan
Cardiovascular Surgery, Children s National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia 20010, USA
Ann Thorac Surg 83:1177-9. 2007An 11.5-month-old child was found to have a widely patent ductus arteriosus 8 months after percutaneous Amplatzer device closure of the ductus. Angiography confirmed that the occlusion device had migrated to the descending thoracic aorta...
- Current controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infantsNick Evans
Department of Neonatal Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Adv Neonatal Care 3:168-77. 2003..regarding the preferential use of echocardiography rather than reliance on clinical signs to diagnose patent ductus arteriosus. The rationale for the treatment of symptomatic versus presymptomatic versus prophylactic is compared and ..
- Echocardiography predicts closure of patent ductus arteriosus in response to ibuprofen in infants less than 28 week gestational ageChristiane Pees
Department of Neonatology, Charite, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Early Hum Dev 86:503-8. 2010b>Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a frequent problem in preterm infants, and its incidence is inversely correlated with gestational age...
- Totally endoscopic robotic-assisted repair of patent ductus arteriosus and vascular ring in childrenYoshihiro Suematsu
Department of Cardiac Surgery, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Ann Thorac Surg 80:2309-13. 2005This study reports on our initial experience with robotically assisted patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure and vascular ring division in children.
- Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosusS Shrivastava
Escorts Heart Institute and Research Center, Okhla Road, New Delhi 110 025, India
Indian Pediatr 37:1307-13. 2000..To present short and intermediate results of catheter closure of patent ductus artereiosus using spring coils and Amplatzer duct occluder...
- Analysis of outcome in 298 extremely low-birth-weight infants with patent ductus arteriosusFrederick Alexander
Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA
J Pediatr Surg 44:112-7; disscusion 117. 2009Indomethacin is accepted therapy for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in ELBW infants (<1000 g). We hypothesize that surgical ligation may provide comparatively superior outcomes in select ELBW infants.
- The pharmacologic closure of the patent ductus arteriosusBart Van Overmeire
Department of Pediatrics, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Antwerp University Hospital, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, B 2650 Edegem, Belgium
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 10:177-84. 2005..This chapter focuses on some of the basic mechanisms underlying ductal patency and the clinical attempts to diminish side effects associated with indomethacin, including the alternative use of ibuprofen...
- Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis with intestinal perforation in extremely premature infants receiving early indomethacin treatment for patent ductus arteriosusAlan M Fujii
Department of Pediatrics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA 02218, USA
J Perinatol 22:535-40. 2002..the highest mortality and morbidity rates, to reduce the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)...
- Retrospective economic evaluation of a controlled trial of indomethacin prophylaxis for patent ductus arteriosus in premature infantsJohn A F Zupancic
Department of Neonatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Early Hum Dev 82:97-103. 2006..To determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of indomethacin prophylaxis in extremely low birth weight infants enrolled in the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms (TIPP)...
- Early or late surgical ligation of medical refractory patent ductus arteriosus in premature infantsChien Chou Hsiao
Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, College of Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan
J Formos Med Assoc 108:72-7. 2009Optimal time to surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very-low-birth-weight (< 1500 g) premature infants remains an area of controversy...
- The physiopathology of the patent ductus arteriosusPaolo Giliberti
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Monaldi Hospital, Naples, Italy
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 22:6-9. 2009b>Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) remains a frequent problem for the very low birth weight infants...
- Effects of coil closure of patent ductus arteriosus on left anterior descending coronary artery blood flow using transthoracic Doppler echocardiographyKenji Harada
Department of Pediatrics, Ajkita University School of Medicine, Japan
J Am Soc Echocardiogr 17:659-63. 2004..Coil closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a model of acute changes in blood pressure and left ventricular (LV) preload that influences ..
- Necrotizing enterocolitis and gastrointestinal complications after indomethacin therapy and surgical ligation in premature infants with patent ductus arteriosusDonough J O'Donovan
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
J Perinatol 23:286-90. 2003Indomethacin is the most frequently used pharmacological agent for closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants...
- Effect of patent ductus arteriosus and indomethacin treatment on serum cardiac troponin T levels in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndromeD Trevisanuto
Department of Pediatrics, University of Padova, Italy
Eur J Pediatr 159:273-6. 2000..The aim of this study was to detect the potential ischemic effect of persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and indomethacin treatment on the coronary vascular bed by measuring cTnT concentrations...
- Closure of a large patent ductus arteriosus in adults: first do no harmMichael L Rigby
Heart 93:417-8. 2007
- Links between early adrenal function and respiratory outcome in preterm infants: airway inflammation and patent ductus arteriosusK L Watterberg
Department of Pediatrics, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
Pediatrics 105:320-4. 2000To investigate the relationship of cortisol concentrations during the first week of life to patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), markers of lung inflammation, and respiratory outcome in very low birth weight infants.
- Acute renal impairment after oral ibuprofen for medical closure of patent ductus arteriosusFiliz Tiker
Indian Pediatr 44:54-5. 2007
- Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants?L Cordero
1Division of Neonatal Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
J Perinatol 27:158-63. 2007Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment are common strategies for the prevention or management of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA).
- Morphologic assessment of patent ductus arteriosus in adults using retrospectively ECG-gated multidetector CTGareth J Morgan-Hughes
Department of Cardiology, South West Cardiothoracic Centre, Plymouth National Health Service Trust, Derriford, Plymouth PL6 8DH, United Kingdom
AJR Am J Roentgenol 181:749-54. 2003Noninvasive imaging of a persistently patent ductus arteriosus in adults remains a challenge...
- Patent ductus arteriosus ligation is associated with impaired left ventricular systolic performance in premature infants weighing less than 1000 gPatrick J McNamara
Physiology and Experimental Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 140:150-7. 2010b>Patent ductus arteriosus ligation is often complicated by systemic hypotension and oxygenation failure. The ability of the immature myocardium to compensate for altered afterload is poorly understood...
- Patent ductus arteriosusDouglas J Schneider
University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, and Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Children s Hospital of Illinois, 420 NE Glen Oak Ave, Suite 304, Peoria, IL 61603, USA
Circulation 114:1873-82. 2006
- Predictors of failed closure of patent ductus arteriosus with indomethacinN Y Boo
Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
Singapore Med J 47:763-8. 2006The aim of this study was to determine predictors of failed closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) following a single course of indomethacin in symptomatic preterm infants.
- Indomethacin prophylaxis, patent ductus arteriosus, and the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: further analyses from the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms (TIPP)Barbara Schmidt
Department of Pediatrics and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
J Pediatr 148:730-734. 2006To determine the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in subgroups of infants with and without patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) who were randomized to indomethacin prophylaxis or placebo, and to examine whether adverse drug effects on ..
- Early hemodynamic consequences of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants with intrauterine growth restrictionT Rakza
Clinique de Médecine Néonatale, Hopital Jeanne de Flandre, CHRU de Lille, France
J Pediatr 151:624-8. 2007To test the hypothesis that significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may occur very early after birth in preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), we compared the longitudinal changes in left-to-right shunting through ..
- Utility of transesophageal echocardiography in the examination of adult patients with patent ductus arteriosusA Andrade
Department of Echocardiography, Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia Ignacio Chavez, Mexico, D F, Mexico
Am Heart J 130:543-6. 1995Thirteen patients with clinical suspicion of patent ductus arteriosus were evaluated by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic studies...
- Closure of the Primate Ductus ArteriosusRonald Clyman; Fiscal Year: 2006..If left unclosed, a persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with significant morbidity: increased severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a ..
- GI-Safer Formulation of Indomethacin for use in Preterm NeonatesUPENDRA K MARATHI; Fiscal Year: 2010..feeding and the use of indomethacin, the standard of care to treat and/or prevent the development of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)...
- GI-Safer Formulation of Indomethacin for use in Preterm NeonatesUPENDRA K MARATHI; Fiscal Year: 2013..feeding and the use of indomethacin, the standard of care to treat and/or prevent the development of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA), a condition which results in the circulation short-circuiting the pulmonary vasculature, leading ..
- Role of natriuretic peptides in the ductus arteriosusJOHN JEFFREY REESE; Fiscal Year: 2013..Infants with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) have increased ANP and BNP levels due to cardiac overload...
- Myocardin Related Transcription Factor Function in the VasculatureMichael S Parmacek; Fiscal Year: 2013..genes, iii) mice in which the myocardin gene is ablated in neural crest-derived SMCs exhibit patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) resulting from a block in SMC differentiation, iv) myocardin-deficient primary aortic SMCs assume a ..
- Genes contributing to patent ductus arteriosus susceptibility in preterm newbornsRonald I Clyman; Fiscal Year: 2013..Each year, approximately 25,000 premature newborns are treated for a symptomatic, persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the United States...
- Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Infants with HLHS after Hybrid Stage I PalliationSharon L Hill; Fiscal Year: 2011..After the Hybrid procedure, cerebral perfusion is dependent upon the blood flow through the stented patent ductus arteriosus and retrograde aortic arch flow to the carotid arteries, similar to fetal life, for approximately 6 ..
- Mechanism of Renal Prostaglandin TransportVictor L Schuster; Fiscal Year: 2010..Mice in which we have globally disrupted PGT gene expression die on post-natal day 1 from patent ductus arteriosus. In contrast, mice in which we have selectively deleted PGT from the collecting duct excrete dilute urine,..
- Removable Stents for Neonates with Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease(CCHD)JAMES HUNTER GOLDIE; Fiscal Year: 2013..A promising alternative treatment calls for placing a stent in te patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), in order to delay definitive repair until the child is older and wil have a lower risk...
- ETIOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASESDonald Patterson; Fiscal Year: 1999..mechanisms underlying two hereditary forms of congenital heart disease: Conotruncal defects (CTDs) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)...
- REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVAL AFTER CARDIAC DEFECT REPAIRCynthia Morris; Fiscal Year: 1991..TOF), coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis (AS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)...
- The Genetic Etiology of Patent Ductus ArteriosusArya Mani; Fiscal Year: 2006..Failure of postnatal closure of this muscular artery, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), is one of the most common genital cardiovascular defects...
- ETIOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASEPaula Henthorn; Fiscal Year: 2006..The common anatomic forms of CHD include conotruncal defects (CTD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)...
- SCOR: RESPIRATORY DISORDERS OF NEONATES AND CHILDRENWILLIAM TOOLEY; Fiscal Year: 1991..function in infants and to use these methods to determine the importance of the chest wall in maintaining lung stability, to measure blood gases on the skin and to estimate the amount of flow through a patent ductus arteriosus.
- Vessel Remodeling During Ductus Arteriosus ClosureRonald I Clyman; Fiscal Year: 2010..These studies should increase our understanding of the mechanisms that prevent the preterm DA from closing and remodeling after birth. ..
- Opposing Effects of pO2 on SOCs in Smooth Muscle CellsEdward Weir; Fiscal Year: 2008..A better understanding of the mechanisms of O2-mediated changes in tone in the ductus arteriosus and pulmonary artery would therefore be of significant medical importance. ..
- Schizophrenia Predisposition in 22q11 Deletion SyndromeVandana Shashi; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- FAMILIAL PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUSBruce Gelb; Fiscal Year: 2004..Verbatim from Applicant's Abstract): Char syndrome is an inherited heart-hand disorder comprising patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), abnormal 5th fingers, and facial dysmorphism...
- Pediatric Cardiac Procedures: Access, Rates and OutcomesDarryl Gray; Fiscal Year: 2004..We will address such concerns in the increasingly important but as yet understudied realm of pediatric cardiac interventions. ..
- Calorie Restriction Effects on Chromosomal AberrationsCHARLEEN MOORE; Fiscal Year: 2003..The results will be essential in identifying potential mechanisms by which CR acts in cancer prevention and delay of the aging process in long-lived species such as the rhesus monkey and humans. ..
- SIGNALING OF MECHANICAL STRAIN IN LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLSPatricia Chess; Fiscal Year: 2003..The project is designed to optimize the principle investigator's research development, while yielding information regarding pulmonary epithelial responses to mechanical strain. ..
- PHONATION AND PHONATORY CONTROL IN VOCAL TREMORSMarshall Smith; Fiscal Year: 2002..The experimental phase consists of studies of neuromuscular and respiratory input to the larynx. This information about vocal tremor will be applied to model simulations with the use of physiological signals as input model parameters. ..
- Electrode Array Reanimation of the Paralyzed LarynxMarshall Smith; Fiscal Year: 2006..Nerve samples will be harvested and studied to examine the effects of the implanted array on RLN fibers. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Mechanisms of Ductus Arteriosus RegulationJOHN JEFFREY REESE; Fiscal Year: 2010..These studies will examine new roles for prostaglandins and their relationship with other vasoactive mediators during development. ..
- Safe Pregnancy by Infectious Disease Control in KinshasaCarl Bose; Fiscal Year: 2008..It will also build upon, and augment, a burgeoning, multidisciplinary research and training program at the Kinshasa School of Public Health. ..
- Disease pathogenesis of Noonan syndrome and related disordersBruce Gelb; Fiscal Year: 2008..Char syndrome, which has a phenotype that includes patent ductus arteriosus, is caused by transcription factor AP-2beta dominant-negative mutations...
- Bilirubin-induced Auditory Neuropathy in PretermsSANJIV AMIN; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Angiogenic Agents and Alveolar InjuryVineet Bhandari; Fiscal Year: 2007..Determine the differences and the degree to which the response to hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury differs in adult, newborn and fetal mice with regard to VEGF, Angiopoietin 1 and Angiopoietin 2. ..
- The Role of IgLONS in Cardiac Development and DiseasePaul Grossfeld; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- PROSTAGLANDIN SIGNALING IN FEMALE REPRODUCTIONJohn Reese; Fiscal Year: 2005..The results of these experiments will enhance the understanding of maternal-fetal PG signaling, and are likely to provide new insights into premature or dysfunctional labor in women. ..
- Metabolism-excitation coupling in the heartColin Nichols; Fiscal Year: 2005..The work will provide information that will ultimately underlie the development of rational therapies for the treatment of cardiac ischemia and arrhythmias. ..
- Pericytes in Pathogenesis of Germinal-Matrix HemorrhagePraveen Ballabh; Fiscal Year: 2006..Our data may help in understanding the etiology of GMH and may explain the basis of prenatal glucocorticoid therapy. It may also identify new strategies in the prevention and treatment of GMH. [unreadable] [unreadable]..