- The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report
Aram V Chobanian
Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass, USA
JAMA 289:2560-72. 2003
..Empathy builds trust and is a potent motivator. Finally, in presenting these guidelines, the committee recognizes that the responsible physician's judgment remains paramount...
- Evaluating the added predictive ability of a new marker: from area under the ROC curve to reclassification and beyond
Michael J Pencina
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Framingham Heart Study, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Stat Med 27:157-72; discussion 207-12. 2008
..We illustrate the use of these measures with an example from the Framingham Heart Study. We propose that scientists consider these types of measures in addition to the AUC when assessing the performance of newer biomarkers...
- Rosuvastatin and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing hemodialysis
Bengt C Fellström
Department of Medical Science, Renal Unit, University Hospital, SE 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden
N Engl J Med 360:1395-407. 2009
..Statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, a benefit of statins in such patients who are undergoing hemodialysis has not been proved...
- Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure
Aram V Chobanian
Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass, USA
Hypertension 42:1206-52. 2003
..Positive experiences, trust in the clinician, and empathy improve patient motivation and satisfaction. This report serves as a guide, and the committee continues to recognize that the responsible physician's judgment remains paramount...
- Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization
Alan S Go
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 2304, USA
N Engl J Med 351:1296-305. 2004
..End-stage renal disease substantially increases the risks of death, cardiovascular disease, and use of specialized health care, but the effects of less severe kidney dysfunction on these outcomes are less well defined...
- Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies
Lancet 360:1903-13. 2002
..The age-specific relevance of blood pressure to cause-specific mortality is best assessed by collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from the separate prospective studies...
- General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study
RALPH B D'AGOSTINO
Boston University, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, 111 Cummington St, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Circulation 117:743-53. 2008
..The present report presents a single multivariable risk function that predicts risk of developing all CVD and of its constituents...
- The metabolic syndrome--a new worldwide definition
K George M M Alberti
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Marys Hospital, London W2 1NY, UK
Lancet 366:1059-62. 2005
- Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein
Paul M Ridker
Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
N Engl J Med 359:2195-207. 2008
- Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association
Thomas A Pearson
Circulation 107:499-511. 2003
- Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome
Jean Pierre Despres
Quebec Heart Institute, Hôpital Laval Research Centre, 2725 Chemin Sainte Foy, Pavilion Marguerite D Youville, 4th Floor, Quebec City, QC G1V 4G5, Canada
Nature 444:881-7. 2006
..Better risk assessment algorithms are needed to quantify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk on a global scale...
- Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project
R M Conroy
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
Eur Heart J 24:987-1003. 2003
..The SCORE project was initiated to develop a risk scoring system for use in the clinical management of cardiovascular risk in European clinical practice...
- Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2024 E Monument, Suite 2 630, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
Lancet 375:2073-81. 2010
..We undertook a meta-analysis to assess the independent and combined associations of eGFR and albuminuria with mortality...
- The metabolic syndrome
Robert H Eckel
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, PO Box 6511, MS 8106, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Lancet 365:1415-28. 2005
..The fundamental approach is weight reduction and increased physical activity; however, drug treatment could be appropriate for diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk reduction...
- Definition of metabolic syndrome: Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition
Scott M Grundy
Circulation 109:433-8. 2004
- Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome
Department of Internal Medicine, Jakobstad Hospital, Finland
Diabetes Care 24:683-9. 2001
..To estimate the prevalence of and the cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new definition proposed by the World Health Organization..
- Major causes of death among men and women in China
Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
N Engl J Med 353:1124-34. 2005
..We studied the major causes of death and modifiable risk factors in a nationally representative cohort of 169,871 men and women 40 years of age and older in China...
- National Kidney Foundation practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification
Andrew S Levey
Tufts New England Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Ann Intern Med 139:137-47. 2003
..Because of the high prevalence of early stages of chronic kidney disease in the general population (approximately 11% of adults), this information is particularly important for general internists and specialists...
- ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: the Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS)
University Hospital Center Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 2, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
Eur Heart J 32:1769-818. 2011
..g. general practitioners (GPs) and cardiologists] interested in CVD prevention, but also specialists from lipid clinics or metabolic units who are dealing with dyslipidaemias that are more difficult to classify and treat...
- Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Peripheral Vessels Unit, 1st Department of Cardiology, Athens Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Greece
J Am Coll Cardiol 55:1318-27. 2010
..The purpose of this study was to calculate robust quantitative estimates of the predictive value of aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) for future cardiovascular (CV) events and all-cause mortality by meta-analyses of longitudinal studies...
- Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: part I: general considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization
Population Health Research Institute and Division of Cardiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Circulation 104:2746-53. 2001
..Part II of this article describes the burden of CV disease by specific region or ethnic group, the risk factors of importance, and possible strategies for prevention...
- Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease
Thomas J Wang
Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Mass, USA
Circulation 117:503-11. 2008
..A growing body of evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may adversely affect the cardiovascular system, but data from longitudinal studies are lacking...
- Circulating endothelial progenitor cells, vascular function, and cardiovascular risk
Jonathan M Hill
Cardiovascular Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1622, USA
N Engl J Med 348:593-600. 2003
- Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention
Mark J Sarnak
Circulation 108:2154-69. 2003
- Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes
Hertzel C Gerstein
N Engl J Med 358:2545-59. 2008
- Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee
Alice H Lichtenstein
Circulation 114:82-96. 2006
..By adhering to these diet and lifestyle recommendations, Americans can substantially reduce their risk of developing cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States...
- Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: four-year results of the Look AHEAD trial
Rena R Wing
Department of Psychiatry, The Miriam Hospital Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02860, USA
Arch Intern Med 170:1566-75. 2010
..We examined the effects of lifestyle intervention on changes in weight, fitness, and CVD risk factors during a 4-year study...
- Effect of a multifactorial intervention on mortality in type 2 diabetes
Steno Diabetes Center, Copenhagen, Denmark
N Engl J Med 358:580-91. 2008
..We evaluated whether this approach would have an effect on the rates of death from any cause and from cardiovascular causes...
- Sitting time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer
Peter T Katzmarzyk
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 4124, USA
Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:998-1005. 2009
..We prospectively examined sitting time and mortality in a representative sample of 17,013 Canadians 18-90 yr of age...
- Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes
Christopher P Cannon
Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction TIMI Study Group, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
N Engl J Med 350:1495-504. 2004
..Lipid-lowering therapy with statins reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, but the optimal level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is unclear...
- C-reactive protein: a critical update
Mark B Pepys
Centre for Amyloidosis and Acute Phase Proteins, Department of Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom
J Clin Invest 111:1805-12. 2003
- Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes
N Engl J Med 358:2560-72. 2008
..In patients with type 2 diabetes, the effects of intensive glucose control on vascular outcomes remain uncertain...
- Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments: association with metabolic risk factors in the Framingham Heart Study
Caroline S Fox
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Mass, USA
Circulation 116:39-48. 2007
..The incremental utility of measuring both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in association with metabolic risk factors and underlying heritability has not been well described in a population-based setting...
- Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials
British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
Lancet 375:735-42. 2010
..We aimed to establish by a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data whether any relation exists between statin use and development of diabetes...
- Uric acid and cardiovascular risk
Daniel I Feig
Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
N Engl J Med 359:1811-21. 2008
- Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects
Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden
N Engl J Med 357:741-52. 2007
..In fact, many observational studies suggest that weight reduction is associated with increased mortality...
- Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident cardiovascular events and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
Apoor S Gami
Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
J Am Coll Cardiol 49:403-14. 2007
..The purpose of this research was to assess the association between the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and cardiovascular events and mortality by meta-analyses of longitudinal studies...
- Television viewing and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis
Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, Department of Exercise Epidemiology, Center of Research in Childhood Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense
JAMA 305:2448-55. 2011
..However, a systematic and quantitative assessment of published studies is not available...
- The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial
Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Lancet 377:2181-92. 2011
..The SHARP trial aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the combination of simvastatin plus ezetimibe in such patients...
- Cardiovascular mortality and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution: epidemiological evidence of general pathophysiological pathways of disease
C Arden Pope
Brigham Young University, 130 FOB, Provo, UT 84602 2363, USA
Circulation 109:71-7. 2004
..Associations with specific cardiopulmonary diseases might be useful in exploring potential mechanistic pathways linking exposure and mortality...
- Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases
Department of Biostatistics, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
JAMA 295:1127-34. 2006
..5 microm in aerodynamic diameter [PM2.5]) is limited. Results from the new national monitoring network for PM2.5 make possible systematic research on health risks at national and regional scales...
- Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center and the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, Calif CA 94304, USA
N Engl J Med 346:793-801. 2002
..There is also uncertainty regarding the predictive power of exercise capacity relative to other clinical and exercise-test variables...
- Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss: an update of the 1997 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Obesity and Heart Disease from the Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical
Circulation 113:898-918. 2006
..It is associated with numerous comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes, hypertension, certain cancers, and sleep apnea/sleep-disordered breathing...
- Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines
Scott M Grundy
Circulation 110:227-39. 2004
..Finally, for people in lower-risk categories, recent clinical trials do not modify the goals and cutpoints of therapy...
- Risk of incident diabetes with intensive-dose compared with moderate-dose statin therapy: a meta-analysis
BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, 126 University Pl, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland, United Kingdom
JAMA 305:2556-64. 2011
..A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that statin therapy is associated with excess risk of developing diabetes mellitus...
- Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease
Luc F Van Gaal
University of Antwerp, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diabetology, Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition, Antwerp University Hospital, Wilrijkstraat 10, B 2650 Edegem, Belgium
Nature 444:875-80. 2006
..We are now beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms as well as the ways in which smoking and dyslipidaemia increase, and physical activity attenuates, the adverse effects of obesity on cardiovascular health...
- Projected effect of dietary salt reductions on future cardiovascular disease
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
N Engl J Med 362:590-9. 2010
..The U.S. diet is high in salt, with the majority coming from processed foods. Reducing dietary salt is a potentially important target for the improvement of public health...
- Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease
Penny M Kris-Etherton
Circulation 106:2747-57. 2002
- The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men
Hanna Maaria Lakka
Research Institute of Public Health, University of Kuopio, Finland
JAMA 288:2709-16. 2002
..Despite its high prevalence, little is known of the prospective association of the metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular and overall mortality...
- Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital
Cesar G Victora
Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil
Lancet 371:340-57. 2008
..Its prevention will probably bring about important health, educational, and economic benefits. Chronic diseases are especially common in undernourished children who experience rapid weight gain after infancy...
- Association of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Paul E Ronksley
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Calgary Institute for Population and Public Health, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
BMJ 342:d671. 2011
..To conduct a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the effect of alcohol consumption on multiple cardiovascular outcomes...
- Accruing evidence on benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on health: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis
Department of Medical and Surgical Critical Care, Thrombosis Centre, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Am J Clin Nutr 92:1189-96. 2010
..The Mediterranean diet has long been reported to be protective against the occurrence of several different health outcomes...
- Glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic adults
Department of Epidemiology and the Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
N Engl J Med 362:800-11. 2010
..Fasting glucose is the standard measure used to diagnose diabetes in the United States. Recently, glycated hemoglobin was also recommended for this purpose...
- Intensive lipid lowering with atorvastatin in patients with stable coronary disease
John C LaRosa
State University of New York Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
N Engl J Med 352:1425-35. 2005
..We prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of lowering LDL cholesterol levels below 100 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter) in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD)...
- Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial
Institut d Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer, Municipal Institut for Medical Research, University of Barcelona, and Catalan Institute of Health, Barcelona, Spain
Ann Intern Med 145:1-11. 2006
..The Mediterranean diet has been shown to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors...
- Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials
CTSU, Oxford University, Oxford, UK
Lancet 373:1849-60. 2009
..Low-dose aspirin is of definite and substantial net benefit for many people who already have occlusive vascular disease. We have assessed the benefits and risks in primary prevention...
- Metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus
Peter W F Wilson
The NHLBI s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts, USA
Circulation 112:3066-72. 2005
..The objective was to investigate risk for CVD, CHD, and T2DM according to metabolic syndrome traits...
- The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 20-year follow-up study
Department of Endocrinology, China Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China
Lancet 371:1783-9. 2008
..We aimed to assess whether intensive lifestyle interventions have a long-term effect on the risk of diabetes, diabetes-related macrovascular and microvascular complications, and mortality...
- Circulating microRNAs: biomarkers or mediators of cardiovascular diseases?
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine III, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 31:2383-90. 2011
..circulating miRs opens up intriguing possibilities to use the circulating miR patterns as biomarker for cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac injury as it occurs after acute myocardial infarction increases the circulating levels of ..
- Ankle brachial index combined with Framingham Risk Score to predict cardiovascular events and mortality: a meta-analysis
F G R Fowkes
JAMA 300:197-208. 2008
..Prediction models to identify healthy individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease have limited accuracy. A low ankle brachial index (ABI) is an indicator of atherosclerosis and has the potential to improve prediction...
- Circulating endothelial progenitor cells and cardiovascular outcomes
Division of Cardiology, Angiology, and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Saarland, Homburg Saar, Germany
N Engl J Med 353:999-1007. 2005
..The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells correlate inversely with cardiovascular risk factors, but the prognostic value associated with circulating endothelial progenitor cells has not been defined...
- Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials
Ronald P Mensink
Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands
Am J Clin Nutr 77:1146-55. 2003
..Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL cholesterol...
- Obesity and cardiovascular disease: risk factor, paradox, and impact of weight loss
Carl J Lavie
Cardiac Rehabilitation, Exercise Laboratories, Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70121 2483, USA
J Am Coll Cardiol 53:1925-32. 2009
- Television viewing time and mortality: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab)
D W Dunstan
Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, 250 Kooyong Rd, Caulfield, Victoria, Australia 3162
Circulation 121:384-91. 2010
..We examined the associations of prolonged television viewing time with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and non-CVD/noncancer mortality in Australian adults...
- Effects of torcetrapib in patients at high risk for coronary events
Philip J Barter
Heart Research Institute, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW, Australia
N Engl J Med 357:2109-22. 2007
..We investigated whether torcetrapib, a potent CETP inhibitor, might reduce major cardiovascular events. The trial was terminated prematurely because of an increased risk of death and cardiac events in patients receiving torcetrapib...
- 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of mortality in the general population
Michal L Melamed
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Ullmann 615, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Arch Intern Med 168:1629-37. 2008
..However, whether low serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with mortality in the general population is unknown...
- Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea: a population health perspective
Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:1217-39. 2002
..Primary care providers will be central to clinical approaches for addressing the burden and the development of cost-effective case-finding strategies and feasible treatment for mild obstructive sleep apnea warrants high priority...
- Cardiorespiratory fitness as a quantitative predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in healthy men and women: a meta-analysis
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tsukuba Institute of Clinical Medicine, 3 2 7 Miya machi, Mito, Ibaraki 310 0015, Japan
JAMA 301:2024-35. 2009
..Epidemiological studies have indicated an inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and coronary heart disease (CHD) or all-cause mortality in healthy participants...
- Elevated C-reactive protein levels in overweight and obese adults
Institute for Research in Extramural Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
JAMA 282:2131-5. 1999
..Human adipose tissue expresses and releases the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6, potentially inducing low-grade systemic inflammation in persons with excess body fat...
- Concept, design and implementation of a cardiovascular gene-centric 50 k SNP array for large-scale genomic association studies
Brendan J Keating
The Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia, USA
PLoS ONE 3:e3583. 2008
..These datasets will also facilitate more robust secondary analyses, such as explorations with alternative genetic models, epistasis and gene-environment interactions...
- Childhood obesity, other cardiovascular risk factors, and premature death
Paul W Franks
Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ, USA
N Engl J Med 362:485-93. 2010
..The effect of childhood risk factors for cardiovascular disease on adult mortality is poorly understood...
- European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive summary: Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (Constituted by r
Department of Cardiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Eur Heart J 28:2375-414. 2007
- The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update
John A Ambrose
Comprehensive Cardiovascular Center, Saint Vincent Catholic Medical Centers of New York, New York, New York 10011, USA
J Am Coll Cardiol 43:1731-7. 2004
..Recent experimental and clinical data support the hypothesis that cigarette smoke exposure increases oxidative stress as a potential mechanism for initiating cardiovascular dysfunction...
- Treatment of hypertension in patients 80 years of age or older
Nigel S Beckett
Care of the Elderly, Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
N Engl J Med 358:1887-98. 2008
..Whether the treatment of patients with hypertension who are 80 years of age or older is beneficial is unclear. It has been suggested that antihypertensive therapy may reduce the risk of stroke, despite possibly increasing the risk of death...
- Adipose tissue, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease
Anders H Berg
Department of Cell Biology, Bronx, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Circ Res 96:939-49. 2005
..The targeted suppression of various proinflammatory cascades in adipocytes specifically represents an exciting new therapeutic opportunity for the cardiovascular disease area...
- Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Department of Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, Calif, 90262, USA
Arch Intern Med 167:1159-65. 2007
..Results of several epidemiologic and clinical studies have suggested that there is an excess risk of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in persons with suboptimal intake of vitamin D...
- Sleep disordered breathing and mortality: eighteen-year follow-up of the Wisconsin sleep cohort
Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, USA
Sleep 31:1071-8. 2008
..SDB is linked to incident cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other morbidity. However, the risk of mortality with untreated SDB, determined by polysomnography screening, in the general population has not been established...
- Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention
Paul M Ridker
Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Division of Cardiology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02215, USA
Circulation 107:363-9. 2003
- Global burden of blood-pressure-related disease, 2001
Carlene M M Lawes
Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Lancet 371:1513-8. 2008
..Few studies have assessed the extent and distribution of the blood-pressure burden worldwide. The aim of this study was to quantify the global burden of disease related to high blood pressure...
- Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates
Frank M Sacks
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA
N Engl J Med 360:859-73. 2009
..The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year...
- Cause-specific excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity
Katherine M Flegal
National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA
JAMA 298:2028-37. 2007
..The association of body mass index (BMI) with cause-specific mortality has not been reported for the US population...
- Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part II: variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies
Population Health Research Institute and Division of Cardiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Circulation 104:2855-64. 2001
..Part II of this article describes the burden of CV disease by specific region or ethnic group, the risk factors of importance, and possible strategies for prevention...
- Severe hypoglycemia and risks of vascular events and death
George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
N Engl J Med 363:1410-8. 2010
..We analyzed data from a large study of intensive glucose lowering to explore the relationship between severe hypoglycemia and adverse clinical outcomes...
- HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular events
Heart Research Institute, Sydney, Australia
N Engl J Med 357:1301-10. 2007
..High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear whether this association is maintained at very low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol...
- Vitamin D supplementation and total mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, F 69372 Lyon, France
Arch Intern Med 167:1730-7. 2007
..We examined the risk of dying from any cause in subjects who participated in randomized trials testing the impact of vitamin D supplementation (ergocalciferol [vitamin D(2)] or cholecalciferol [vitamin D(3)]) on any health condition...
- Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the United States
Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
JAMA 298:2038-47. 2007
..Whether there have been changes in the prevalence of earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during this period is uncertain...
- Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence
Darren E R Warburton
School of Human Kinetics, University of British Columbia, and the Healthy Heart Program, St Paul s Hospital, Vancouver, BC
CMAJ 174:801-9. 2006
..There appears to be a linear relation between physical activity and health status, such that a further increase in physical activity and fitness will lead to additional improvements in health status...
- Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction: the CHARM-Preserved Trial
McMaster Clinic, Room 252, Hamilton General Hospital, 237 Barton Street East, ON, L8L 2X2, Hamilton, Canada
Lancet 362:777-81. 2003
..We investigated the effect of addition of an angiotensin-receptor blocker to current treatments...
- European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: full text. Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by represent
Department of Cardiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin, Ireland
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 14:S1-113. 2007
- Leukocyte telomere length and cardiovascular disease in the cardiovascular health study
Annette L Fitzpatrick
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Collaborative Health Studies Coordinating Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98115, USA
Am J Epidemiol 165:14-21. 2007
..22, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 8.02). These results support the hypotheses that telomere attrition may be related to diseases of aging through mechanisms involving oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression to CVD...
- Predicting cardiovascular risk in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QRISK2
Division of Primary Care, Tower Building, University Park, Nottingham NG2 7RD
BMJ 336:1475-82. 2008
- Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
Lancet 373:929-40. 2009
- Economic burden of cardiovascular diseases in the enlarged European Union
Department of Public Health, Health Economics Research Centre, Oxford University, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
Eur Heart J 27:1610-9. 2006
- Fine particulate air pollution and its components in association with cause-specific emergency admissions
Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA
Environ Health 8:58. 2009
..We explored whether the association between cause-specific hospital admissions and PM(2.5) was modified by PM(2.5) chemical composition...
- Systematic review of guidelines on cardiovascular risk assessment: Which recommendations should clinicians follow for a cardiovascular health check?
Bart S Ferket
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Arch Intern Med 170:27-40. 2010
..To appraise guidelines on cardiovascular risk assessment to guide selection of screening interventions for a health check...
- Fine particle sources and cardiorespiratory morbidity: an application of chemical mass balance and factor analytical source-apportionment methods
Jeremy A Sarnat
Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, 1518 Clifton Rd, Room 260, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Environ Health Perspect 116:459-66. 2008
..We analyzed a time-series of chemically speciated PM measurements in Atlanta, Georgia, and conducted an epidemiologic analysis using data from three distinct source-apportionment methods...
- Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: Part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Cou
Thomas G Pickering
Hypertension 45:142-61. 2005
..There is increasing evidence that a failure of blood pressure to fall during the night may be associated with increased risk. In obese patients and children, the use of an appropriate cuff size is of paramount importance...
- Prognostic value of aortic pulse wave velocity as index of arterial stiffness in the general population
Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen, Denmark
Circulation 113:664-70. 2006
..Few population studies addressed the prognostic significance of aortic pulse wave velocity (APWV) above and beyond other cardiovascular risk factors...
- Systematic review: glucose control and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes
Tanika N Kelly
Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Ann Intern Med 151:394-403. 2009
..Results from clinical trials examining the effect of intensive glucose control on cardiovascular disease have been conflicting...
- Hospital admissions and chemical composition of fine particle air pollution
Michelle L Bell
School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, 195 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179:1115-20. 2009
..5)) on human health. The hypothesis has been advanced to include the possibility that such differences might be due to variations in the PM(2.5) chemical composition, but evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking...
- Health consequences of obesity
J J Reilly
University of Glasgow Division of Developmental Medicine, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Yorkhill, Glasgow G3 8SJ, UK
Arch Dis Child 88:748-52. 2003
..The aim of the present review was therefore to provide a critically appraised, evidence based, summary of the consequences of childhood obesity in the short term (for the child) and longer term (in adulthood)...