Summary: Invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, which may be clinically inapparent or result in local cellular injury. A local infection may persist and spread by extension to become an acute, subacute, or chronic clinical infection or disease state. It may also become systemic when the microorganisms gain access to the lymphatic or vascular system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Innate immune recognition
    Charles A Janeway
    Section of Immunobiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8011, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 20:197-216. 2002
  2. ncbi Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity
    Taro Kawai
    Laboratory of Host Defense, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
    Immunity 34:637-50. 2011
  3. pmc Monocyte recruitment during infection and inflammation
    Chao Shi
    Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Immunology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:762-74. 2011
  4. ncbi International study of the prevalence and outcomes of infection in intensive care units
    Jean Louis Vincent
    Department of Intensive Care, Erasme Hospital, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
    JAMA 302:2323-9. 2009
  5. ncbi Mortality after fluid bolus in African children with severe infection
    Kathryn Maitland
    Kilifi Clinical Trials Facility, Kenya Medical Research Institute KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya
    N Engl J Med 364:2483-95. 2011
  6. ncbi The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002
    Donald Maxwell Parkin
    Clinical Trials Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Headington, UK
    Int J Cancer 118:3030-44. 2006
  7. ncbi Hepcidin and the iron-infection axis
    Hal Drakesmith
    Molecular Immunology Group and Medical Research Council MRC Human Immunology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Science 338:768-72. 2012
  8. ncbi The endogenous Toll-like receptor 4 agonist S100A8/S100A9 (calprotectin) as innate amplifier of infection, autoimmunity, and cancer
    Jan M Ehrchen
    Institute of Immunology, University of Muenster, D 48149 Muenster, Germany
    J Leukoc Biol 86:557-66. 2009
  9. ncbi The CD14+ CD16+ blood monocytes: their role in infection and inflammation
    Loems Ziegler-Heitbrock
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Medical Sciences Building, University Road, Leicester, UK
    J Leukoc Biol 81:584-92. 2007
  10. ncbi Inflammasome activation and IL-1β and IL-18 processing during infection
    Frank L van de Veerdonk
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Trends Immunol 32:110-6. 2011

Detail Information

Publications276 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Innate immune recognition
    Charles A Janeway
    Section of Immunobiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8011, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 20:197-216. 2002
    The innate immune system is a universal and ancient form of host defense against infection. Innate immune recognition relies on a limited number of germline-encoded receptors...
  2. ncbi Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity
    Taro Kawai
    Laboratory of Host Defense, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
    Immunity 34:637-50. 2011
    ..In this review, we will focus on the role played by TLRs in mounting protective immune responses against infection and their crosstalk with other PRRs with respect to pathogen recognition.
  3. pmc Monocyte recruitment during infection and inflammation
    Chao Shi
    Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Immunology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:762-74. 2011
    ..The mechanisms that control monocyte trafficking under homeostatic, infectious and inflammatory conditions are being unravelled and are the focus of this Review...
  4. ncbi International study of the prevalence and outcomes of infection in intensive care units
    Jean Louis Vincent
    Department of Intensive Care, Erasme Hospital, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
    JAMA 302:2323-9. 2009
    b>Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. However, relatively little information is available about the global epidemiology of such infections.
  5. ncbi Mortality after fluid bolus in African children with severe infection
    Kathryn Maitland
    Kilifi Clinical Trials Facility, Kenya Medical Research Institute KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya
    N Engl J Med 364:2483-95. 2011
    ..The role of fluid resuscitation in the treatment of children with shock and life-threatening infections who live in resource-limited settings is not established...
  6. ncbi The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002
    Donald Maxwell Parkin
    Clinical Trials Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Headington, UK
    Int J Cancer 118:3030-44. 2006
    ..primarily by reviewing the evidence for the strength of the association (relative risk) and the prevalence of infection in different world areas. The estimated total of infection-attributable cancer in the year 2002 is 1...
  7. ncbi Hepcidin and the iron-infection axis
    Hal Drakesmith
    Molecular Immunology Group and Medical Research Council MRC Human Immunology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Science 338:768-72. 2012
    ..We describe how hepcidin integrates signals from diverse physiological inputs, forming a key molecular bridge between iron trafficking and response to infection.
  8. ncbi The endogenous Toll-like receptor 4 agonist S100A8/S100A9 (calprotectin) as innate amplifier of infection, autoimmunity, and cancer
    Jan M Ehrchen
    Institute of Immunology, University of Muenster, D 48149 Muenster, Germany
    J Leukoc Biol 86:557-66. 2009
    ..Thus, S100A8/S100A9 plays a pivotal role during amplification of inflammation and represents a promising new therapeutic target...
  9. ncbi The CD14+ CD16+ blood monocytes: their role in infection and inflammation
    Loems Ziegler-Heitbrock
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Medical Sciences Building, University Road, Leicester, UK
    J Leukoc Biol 81:584-92. 2007
    ..The review also covers the more recent description of homologues of these cells in other model species, which is expected to better define the role of monocyte subsets in disease...
  10. ncbi Inflammasome activation and IL-1β and IL-18 processing during infection
    Frank L van de Veerdonk
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Trends Immunol 32:110-6. 2011
    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 contribute to host defense against infection by augmenting antimicrobial properties of phagocytes and initiating Th1 and Th17 adaptive immune responses...
  11. ncbi Mucins in the mucosal barrier to infection
    S K Linden
    Mucosal Diseases Program, Mater Medical Research Institute and The University of Queensland, Level 3 Aubigny Place, Mater Hospitals, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    Mucosal Immunol 1:183-97. 2008
    ..Mucosal tissues represent the site of infection or route of access for the majority of viruses, bacteria, yeast, protozoa, and multicellular parasites that ..
  12. ncbi Neurodevelopmental and growth impairment among extremely low-birth-weight infants with neonatal infection
    Barbara J Stoll
    Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    JAMA 292:2357-65. 2004
    ..Neonatal infections are frequent complications of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants receiving intensive care...
  13. pmc A murine genital-challenge model is a sensitive measure of protective antibodies against human papillomavirus infection
    Stéphanie Longet
    Department of Urology, CHUV, c o IMUL, Bugnon 48, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Virol 85:13253-9. 2011 mediated by HPV type-restricted neutralizing antibodies that transudate or exudate at the sites of genital infection. However, a correlate of protection was not established in the clinical trials because few disease cases ..
  14. ncbi HMGB1 is a therapeutic target for sterile inflammation and infection
    Ulf Andersson
    Department of Women s and Children s Health, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Annu Rev Immunol 29:139-62. 2011
    ..Experimental strategies that selectively target HMGB1 and TLR4 effectively reverse and prevent activation of innate immunity and significantly attenuate damage in diverse models of sterile and infection-induced threat.
  15. pmc Autophagy in infection
    Vojo Deretic
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, 915 Camino de Salud NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 22:252-62. 2010
    ..and infectious disease predisposition in human populations; second, demonstration of a role for autophagy in infection control in vivo in animal models; third, the definition of specific antiautophagic defenses in highly evolved ..
  16. ncbi Neutrophil apoptosis and the resolution of infection
    Adam D Kennedy
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Immunol Res 43:25-61. 2009
    ..PMNs are typically the first type of leukocyte recruited to sites of infection or areas of inflammation...
  17. ncbi Systemic infection, inflammation and acute ischemic stroke
    B W McColl
    Faculty of Life Sciences, Michael Smith Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    Neuroscience 158:1049-61. 2009
    ..Numerous conditions, including infection and chronic non-infectious diseases, that are established risk factors for stroke are associated with an ..
  18. ncbi Ageing and infection
    Gaetan Gavazzi
    Department of Geriatrics, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet Infect Dis 2:659-66. 2002
    ..features with respect to clinical presentation, laboratory results, microbial epidemiology, treatment, and infection control...
  19. pmc Profiling the humoral immune response to infection by using proteome microarrays: high-throughput vaccine and diagnostic antigen discovery
    D Huw Davies
    Center for Virus Research, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:547-52. 2005
    ..These results verify this platform as a rapid way to comprehensively scan humoral immunity from vaccinated or infected humans and animals...
  20. ncbi Histone deacetylase inhibitors impair innate immune responses to Toll-like receptor agonists and to infection
    Thierry Roger
    Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 46, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Blood 117:1205-17. 2011
    ..of HDAC inhibitors on microbial sensing by macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro and host defenses against infection in vivo...
  21. ncbi The role of inflammation and infection in preterm birth
    Roberto Romero
    Perinatology Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Semin Reprod Med 25:21-39. 2007
    ..Out of all of the suspected causes of preterm labor and delivery, infection and/or inflammation is the only pathological process for which both a firm causal link with preterm birth has ..
  22. ncbi miR-223: infection, inflammation and cancer
    M Haneklaus
    Inflammation Research Group and Immunology Research Centre, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
    J Intern Med 274:215-26. 2013
    Expression of the microRNA miR-223 is deregulated during influenza or hepatitis B infection and in inflammatory bowel disease, type 2 diabetes, leukaemia and lymphoma...
  23. ncbi Narcolepsy: autoimmunity, effector T cell activation due to infection, or T cell independent, major histocompatibility complex class II induced neuronal loss?
    Adriano Fontana
    Institute of Experimental Immunology, University Hospital Zurich, Haeldeliweg 4, CH 8044 Zurich, Switzerland
    Brain 133:1300-11. 2010
    ..Moreover the rate of streptococcal infection is increased at onset of narcolepsy...
  24. ncbi The IL-27R (WSX-1) is required to suppress T cell hyperactivity during infection
    Alejandro Villarino
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3800 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Immunity 19:645-55. 2003
    ..demonstrate that WSX-1 is not required for the generation of IFN-gamma-mediated immunity to this parasitic infection and identify a novel function for this receptor as a potent antagonist of T cell-mediated, immune hyperactivity.
  25. pmc Systemic diseases caused by oral infection
    X Li
    Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    Clin Microbiol Rev 13:547-58. 2000
    Recently, it has been recognized that oral infection, especially periodontitis, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, bacterial pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, and low ..
  26. ncbi Cell death in the host response to infection
    K Labbe
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada H3A 2B4
    Cell Death Differ 15:1339-49. 2008
    ..The question of whether cell death performs a physiologic function during infection is key to understanding host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis, and devising targeted therapeutic ..
  27. pmc Immunity to infection in IL-17-deficient mice and humans
    Sophie Cypowyj
    St Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA
    Eur J Immunol 42:2246-54. 2012
  28. ncbi How cigarette smoke skews immune responses to promote infection, lung disease and cancer
    Martin R Stampfli
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Centre for Gene Therapeutics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:377-84. 2009
    ..These adverse effects on the immune system not only occur in active smokers, but also in those exposed to smoke passively in contaminated environments, and may persist for decades after exposure has ended...
  29. pmc Frequency and risk factors for prevalent, incident, and persistent genital carcinogenic human papillomavirus infection in sexually active women: community based cohort study
    Pippa Oakeshott
    Division of Population Health Sciences, St George s, University of London SW17 0RE, UK
    BMJ 344:e4168. 2012
    ..To investigate frequency and risk factors for prevalent, incident, and persistent carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) in young women before the introduction of immunisation against HPV types 16 and 18 for schoolgirls...
  30. ncbi The impact of obesity on the immune response to infection
    J Justin Milner
    Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Proc Nutr Soc 71:298-306. 2012
    ..This is a review of research findings concerning the impact of obesity on the immune response to infection, including a discussion of possible mechanisms...
  31. pmc Insights into the role of progranulin in immunity, infection, and inflammation
    Jinlong Jian
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 93:199-208. 2013
    ..We then review the data supporting an emerging role of PGRN in the fields of the "Cubic of I", namely, immunity, infection, and inflammation, with special focus on its regulation of autoimmune syndromes...
  32. pmc Transcriptional insights into the CD8(+) T cell response to infection and memory T cell formation
    J Adam Best
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Nat Immunol 14:404-12. 2013
    After infection, many factors coordinate the population expansion and differentiation of CD8+ effector and memory T cells...
  33. pmc Severe malnutrition with and without HIV-1 infection in hospitalised children in Kampala, Uganda: differences in clinical features, haematological findings and CD4+ cell counts
    Hanifa Bachou
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Makerere University Medical School, P O Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda
    Nutr J 5:27. 2006
    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features, haematological findings and CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts of severely malnourished children in relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
  34. ncbi Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Association for Prof
    John M Boyce
    Hospital of Saint Raphael, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 51:1-45, quiz CE1-4. 2002
    ..Recommendations concerning related issues (e.g., the use of surgical hand antiseptics, hand lotions or creams, and wearing of artificial fingernails) are also included...
  35. ncbi Procalcitonin assay in systemic inflammation, infection, and sepsis: clinical utility and limitations
    Kenneth L Becker
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
    Crit Care Med 36:941-52. 2008
    ..The use of procalcitonin (ProCT) as a marker of several clinical conditions, in particular, systemic inflammation, infection, and sepsis, will be clarified, and its current limitations will be delineated...
  36. ncbi Infection, inflammation, and chronic diseases: consequences of a modern lifestyle
    Stefan Ehlers
    Cluster of Excellence Inflammation at Interfaces Borstel Kiel Lübeck Plön, Research Center Borstel, Microbial Inflammation Research, Parkallee 1, D 23845 Borstel, Germany
    Trends Immunol 31:184-90. 2010
  37. ncbi Macrophage phagocytosis of neutrophils at inflammatory/infectious foci: a cooperative mechanism in the control of infection and infectious inflammation
    Manuel T Silva
    Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto, Portugal
    J Leukoc Biol 89:675-83. 2011
    ..foci accumulates two effects beneficial to the protective host immune response: help in the control of the infection and prevention of neutrophil autolysis, effects that converge to accelerate the resolution of the infection-..
  38. pmc Th17 cells: from precursors to players in inflammation and infection
    Amit Awasthi
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Louis Pasteur Avenue, HIM 780, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Int Immunol 21:489-98. 2009
    ..Here, we review the recent information on differentiation and effector functions of T(h)17 cells during inflammatory conditions...
  39. ncbi Role of acute infection in triggering acute coronary syndromes
    Vicente F Corrales-Medina
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:83-92. 2010
    ..Greater awareness of this association is likely to encourage research into ways of protecting patients who are at high risk...
  40. ncbi Acute phase proteins: Biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine
    P D Eckersall
    Division of Animal Production and Public Health, Institute of Comparative Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
    Vet J 185:23-7. 2010
    Acute phase proteins (APPs) have been used as biomarkers of inflammation, infection and trauma for decades in human medicine but have been relatively under-utilised in the context of veterinary medicine...
  41. ncbi Acute ischaemic stroke and infection: recent and emerging concepts
    Hedley C A Emsley
    Division of Neuroscience, The University of Liverpool, The Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Liverpool, UK
    Lancet Neurol 7:341-53. 2008
    The relation between acute ischaemic stroke and infection is complex. Infection appears to be an important trigger that precedes up to a third of ischaemic strokes and can bring about stroke through a range of potential mechanisms...
  42. pmc Malnutrition and infection: complex mechanisms and global impacts
    Ulrich E Schaible
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Immunology Unit, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 4:e115. 2007
  43. ncbi Neonatal infection and long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in the preterm infant
    Ira Adams-Chapman
    Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 19:290-7. 2006
    The relationship between infection, the inflammatory response and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants is slowly being elucidated...
  44. ncbi Effects of subclinical infection on plasma retinol concentrations and assessment of prevalence of vitamin A deficiency: meta-analysis
    D I Thurnham
    Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, UK
    Lancet 362:2052-8. 2003
    ..measurement of plasma retinol concentrations, but because plasma retinol is reduced by clinical and subclinical infection, this proxy measure can lead to overestimation...
  45. ncbi Neutrophils, from marrow to microbes
    Niels Borregaard
    The Granulocyte Research Laboratory, Department of Hematology, National University Hospital Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Immunity 33:657-70. 2010
    ..Neutrophils circulate in the blood as dormant cells. At sites of infection, endothelial cells capture bypassing neutrophils and guide them through the endothelial cell lining whereby the ..
  46. pmc Defining postpartum uterine disease and the mechanisms of infection and immunity in the female reproductive tract in cattle
    I Martin Sheldon
    Institute of Life Science, School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, UK
    Biol Reprod 81:1025-32. 2009
    ..b>Infection with Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and bovine herpesvirus 4 causes endometrial tissue damage...
  47. ncbi Predictors of infection in rheumatoid arthritis
    Michele F Doran
    Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Arthritis Rheum 46:2294-300. 2002
    ..This study was undertaken to identify predictors of serious infections among patients with RA. Identification of such factors is the necessary first step in reducing the excess risk of infection in RA.
  48. ncbi Systemic infection and inflammation in acute CNS injury and chronic neurodegeneration: underlying mechanisms
    J L Teeling
    CNS Inflammation Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Biomedical Sciences Building, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX, UK
    Neuroscience 158:1062-73. 2009
    We have all at some time experienced the non-specific symptoms that arise from being ill following a systemic infection. These symptoms, such as fever, malaise, lethargy and loss of appetite are often referred to as "sickness behavior" ..
  49. ncbi Diagnostic value of clinical features at presentation to identify serious infection in children in developed countries: a systematic review
    Ann Van den Bruel
    Department of General Practice, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Lancet 375:834-45. 2010
    Our aim was to identify which clinical features have value in confirming or excluding the possibility of serious infection in children presenting to ambulatory care settings in developed countries.
  50. ncbi Effects of prenatal infection on brain development and behavior: a review of findings from animal models
    Patricia Boksa
    Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Verdun, Quebec, Canada
    Brain Behav Immun 24:881-97. 2010
    Epidemiological studies with human populations indicate associations between maternal infection during pregnancy and increased risk in offspring for central nervous system (CNS) disorders including schizophrenia, autism and cerebral ..
  51. pmc Serious infection and mortality in patients with Crohn's disease: more than 5 years of follow-up in the TREAT™ registry
    Gary R Lichtenstein
    Division of Gastroenterology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 4283, USA
    Am J Gastroenterol 107:1409-22. 2012
    ..The objective of this study was to contribute long-term safety data for infliximab and other therapies in Crohn's disease (CD)...
  52. ncbi Smoking and the outcome of infection
    R Huttunen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, University of Tampere Medical School, Tampere, Finland
    J Intern Med 269:258-69. 2011
    ..Various aspects of the relation between smoking and the outcome of bacterial infection (e.g...
  53. pmc Autoreactive T cells bypass negative selection and respond to self-antigen stimulation during infection
    Sarah Enouz
    Swiss Vaccine Research Institute and Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital CHUV, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 209:1769-79. 2012
    ..Upon activation during an infection they cause autoimmunity and form memory cells...
  54. pmc Impenetrable barriers or entry portals? The role of cell-cell adhesion during infection
    Matteo Bonazzi
    Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 5236, CPBS, CNRS, 34293 Montpellier, France
    J Cell Biol 195:349-58. 2011
    ..The study of all these processes has contributed to the characterization of molecular machineries at the junctions of eukaryotic cells that have been better understood by using pathogens as probes...
  55. ncbi A multilayered defense against infection: combinatorial control of insect immune genes
    Hanna Uvell
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
    Trends Genet 23:342-9. 2007
    ..encoding AMPs are expressed at basal levels in barrier epithelia and are upregulated systemically in response to infection. To achieve this differentiated immune defense, Drosophila immune gene promoters combine tissue-specific ..
  56. ncbi Regulatory T cells in infection
    Rick M Maizels
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Adv Immunol 112:73-136. 2011
    ..Treg activity also benefits the host in many circumstances by controlling immunopathogenic reactions to infection. Interestingly, some pathogens are able to directly induce the conversion of naive T cells into suppressive ..
  57. ncbi Genetic variation, Fcγ receptors, KIRs and infection: the evolution of autoimmunity
    Marion Espeli
    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 139 Addenbrooke s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK
    Curr Opin Immunol 22:715-22. 2010
    ..the risk of autoimmune disease in both mice and humans, but can also have a profound impact on defence against infection. Using FcγRIIB and FcγRIIIB as examples, we demonstrate that variations associated with increased ..
  58. ncbi Peptidoglycan: a critical activator of the mammalian immune system during infection and homeostasis
    Matthew T Sorbara
    Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Immunol Rev 243:40-60. 2011
    ..of peptidoglycan is important in initiating and shaping the immune response under both homeostatic and infection conditions...
  59. pmc Osteoimmunology at the nexus of arthritis, osteoporosis, cancer, and infection
    Dallas Jones
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:2534-42. 2011
    ..and discoveries in osteoimmunology are discussed in the context of the diseases bridging these two organ systems, including arthritis, osteoporosis, cancer, and infection, and the targeted treatments used by clinicians to combat them.
  60. ncbi Control of infection by pyroptosis and autophagy: role of TLR and NLR
    Karina R Bortoluci
    Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo Campus Diadema, Rua Arthur Riedel Jardim Eldorado, Diadema, SP, Brazil
    Cell Mol Life Sci 67:1643-51. 2010
    ..Data presented here illustrate how the compartmentalization of the innate immune sensors can influence the outcome of infections by controlling the fate of host cells...
  61. pmc Regulation of inflammation, autoimmunity, and infection immunity by HVEM-BTLA signaling
    Jr Wen Shui
    La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle, San Diego, CA 92037, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 89:517-23. 2011
    ..severe mucosal inflammation in the gut and lung, autoimmune-like disease, and impaired immunity during bacterial infection. Here, we will summarize the current view about how HVEM-BTLA signaling is involved in the regulation of mucosal ..
  62. ncbi Antimicrobial peptides from marine invertebrates as a new frontier for microbial infection control
    Anselmo Jesus Otero-González
    Centro de Estudios de Proteínas, Universidad de La Habana, Havana, Cuba
    FASEB J 24:1320-34. 2010
    ..In invertebrates, antimicrobial peptides represent the major humoral defense system against infection, showing a diverse spectrum of action mechanisms, most of them related to plasma membrane disturbance and lethal ..
  63. ncbi Serum lactate as a predictor of mortality in emergency department patients with infection
    Nathan I Shapiro
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 45:524-8. 2005
    Little is known about risk-stratification biomarkers in emergency department (ED) patients with suspected infection, and lactate is a biologically plausible candidate...
  64. pmc Alternatively activated macrophages in infection and autoimmunity
    Delisa Fairweather
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Autoimmun 33:222-30. 2009
    ..Thus, women may be at an increased risk of M2-mediated autoimmunity due to estrogen's ability to increase Th2 responses...
  65. pmc Choice of fluids for resuscitation in children with severe infection and shock: systematic review
    Samuel Akech
    Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Programme, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya
    BMJ 341:c4416. 2010
    To systemically review the evidence from clinical trials comparing the use of crystalloids and colloids for fluid resuscitation in children with severe infection.
  66. ncbi A critical overview of the influence of inflammation and infection on P-glycoprotein expression and activity in the brain
    Derek J Roberts
    Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, 5849 University Avenue, Halifax, N S, B3H 4H7, Canada
    Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 4:1245-64. 2008
    ..P-glycoprotein is a blood-brain barrier efflux transporter that limits drug accumulation in the brain...
  67. ncbi The role of infection in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease
    Richard Hansen
    Gastrointestinal Research Group, Division of Applied Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen University, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
    J Gastroenterol 45:266-76. 2010
    ..The possibility that IBD is an infection has been debated since the first description of Crohn's disease...
  68. ncbi Role of blood platelets in infection and inflammation
    Matthias H F Klinger
    Department of Anatomy, University of Lubeck, D 23538 Lubeck, Germany
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 22:913-22. 2002
    ..Megakaryopoiesis is inhibited after acute infection with viruses or bacteria. In contrast, chronic inflammation is often associated with reactive thrombocytosis...
  69. ncbi FDG PET of infection and inflammation
    Charito Love
    Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, 270 05 76th Ave, New Hyde Park, NY 11040, USA
    Radiographics 25:1357-68. 2005
    Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the evaluation of infection and inflammation. Fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a readily available radiotracer that offers rapid, exquisitely sensitive high-resolution tomography...
  70. ncbi Instrumentation in patients with spinal infection
    Max C Lee
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neurosurg Focus 17:E7. 2004
    Placement of instrumentation in the setting of a spinal infection has always been controversial...
  71. ncbi T(14;18) translocation in chronic hepatitis C virus infection
    A L Zignego
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Florence, School of Medicine, 50134 Florence, Italy
    Hepatology 31:474-9. 2000
    Pathogenic mechanisms of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are unclear...
  72. ncbi Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection: is quality of patient knowledge enough for prevention?
    Mohsen Saleh El-Alfy
    Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
    Hematol J 5:77-80. 2004
    Fulminant, potentially life-threatening infection represents a major long-term risk after splenectomy. This study examines the impact of patient's knowledge and compliance on the prevention of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI).
  73. pmc Distinct innate immune responses to infection and wounding in the C. elegans epidermis
    Nathalie Pujol
    Centre d immunologie de Marseille Luminy, Universite de la Mediterranee, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France
    Curr Biol 18:481-9. 2008
    ..b>Infection of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by the natural fungal pathogen Drechmeria coniospora induces the ..
  74. ncbi Prenatal infection and risk for schizophrenia: IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNFalpha inhibit cortical neuron dendrite development
    John H Gilmore
    UNC Schizophrenia Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1221-9. 2004
    Prenatal exposure to infection increases risk for schizophrenia, and we have hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines, generated in response to maternal infection, alter neuron development and increase risk for schizophrenia...
  75. ncbi Mechanisms of action, physiological effects, and complications of hypothermia
    Kees H Polderman
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, USA
    Crit Care Med 37:S186-202. 2009
    ..In recent years important insights have been gained into the mechanisms underlying hypothermia's protective effects; in addition, physiological and pathophysiological changes associated with cooling have become better understood...
  76. pmc Initiation of tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists and the risk of hospitalization for infection in patients with autoimmune diseases
    Carlos G Grijalva
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 1500 21st Ave S, Ste 2600, The Village at Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
    JAMA 306:2331-9. 2011
    ..Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonists are increasingly used in place of nonbiologic comparator medications, their safety profile remains incomplete...
  77. ncbi The IL-12 family of cytokines in infection, inflammation and autoimmune disorders
    Katrina Gee
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen s University, Kingston ON, Canada
    Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 8:40-52. 2009
    ..macrophages, and dendritic cells which produce the members of the IL-12 family of cytokines in response to infection. IL-27 and IL-23 are two cytokines that are related to IL-12; these cytokines share homology at the subunit, ..
  78. ncbi Synergism of nutrition, infection, and immunity: an overview
    N S Scrimshaw
    Food and Nutrition Programme for Human and Social Development, United Nations University Program Office, Boston, MA 02114 0500, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 66:464S-477S. 1997
    ..of these effects depends on the previous nutritional status of the individual, the nature and duration of the infection, and the diet during the recovery period...
  79. ncbi Vitamin A, infection, and immune function
    C B Stephensen
    USDA Western Human Nutrition Research Center and Nutrition Department, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Annu Rev Nutr 21:167-92. 2001
    ..Vitamin A deficiency impairs innate immunity by impeding normal regeneration of mucosal barriers damaged by infection, and by diminishing the function of neutrophils, macrophages, and natural killer cells...
  80. ncbi The association of sepsis syndrome and organ dysfunction with mortality in emergency department patients with suspected infection
    Nathan Shapiro
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 48:583-90, 590.e1. 2006
  81. pmc Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Evolution of the human lifespan and diseases of aging: roles of infection, inflammation, and nutrition
    Caleb E Finch
    Davis School of Gerontology and the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1718-24. 2010
    ..These major differences in pathology of aging are discussed in terms of genes that mediate infection, inflammation, and nutrition...
  82. pmc A mechanistic model of infection: why duration and intensity of contacts should be included in models of disease spread
    Timo Smieszek
    Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich, Universitaetsstrasse 22, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Theor Biol Med Model 6:25. 2009
    ..In this paper, we show how a mechanistic model of disease transmission differs from this commonly used assumption of a constant per-contact transmission probability...
  83. pmc γδ-T cells: an unpolished sword in human anti-infection immunity
    Jian Zheng
    Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Cell Mol Immunol 10:50-7. 2013
    ..T cells have both 'innate' and 'adaptive' characteristics in the immune response, and their anti-infection activities are mediated by multiple pathways that are under elaborate regulation by other immune components...
  84. ncbi Serum ferritin levels predict all-cause and infection-cause 1-year mortality in diabetic patients on maintenance hemodialysis
    Chang Chyi Jenq
    From the Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Lin Kou Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan
    Am J Med Sci 337:188-94. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the serum ferritin level and the 1-year outcome in diabetic maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients...
  85. ncbi Partial protection against chlamydial reproductive tract infection by a recombinant major outer membrane protein/CpG/cholera toxin intranasal vaccine in the guinea pig Chlamydia caviae model
    Dean W Andrew
    Infectious Diseases Program, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Brisbane 4059, Australia
    J Reprod Immunol 91:9-16. 2011
    ..There is currently no vaccine to protect against chlamydial infection of the female reproductive tract...
  86. pmc Early alterations in hippocampal circuitry and theta rhythm generation in a mouse model of prenatal infection: implications for schizophrenia
    Guillaume Ducharme
    Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, Department of Psychiatry, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e29754. 2012
    ..To investigate this, we used a mouse model of prenatal infection with the viral mimic, polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (poly I:C), a model based on epidemiological ..
  87. ncbi Interactive role of infection, inflammation and traditional risk factors in atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease
    J L Mehta
    Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville 32610, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 31:1217-25. 1998
    ..We believe that in certain genetically susceptible people, infection with very common organisms, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae or cytomegalovirus, may lead to a localized infection ..
  88. ncbi Male accessory gland infection and sperm parameters (review)
    S La Vignera
    Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine and Master in Andrological, Human Reproduction and Biotechnology Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine and Systemic Diseases, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
    Int J Androl 34:e330-47. 2011
    Male accessory gland infection (MAGI) has been identified among those diagnostic categories which have a negative impact on the reproductive function and fertility in males (Rowe et al...
  89. ncbi Tetraspanins: gateways for infection
    Peter N Monk
    Department of Infection and Immunity, Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
    Infect Disord Drug Targets 12:4-17. 2012
    ..viruses, have "hijacked" tetraspanins as a means of entering, traversing and exiting cells during the course of infection. This article reviews current evidence for the role of tetraspanins in the uptake, trafficking and spread of ..
  90. ncbi Synovial fluid leukocyte count and differential for the diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection
    Andrej Trampuz
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Am J Med 117:556-62. 2004
    ..Our aim was to define cutoff values for synovial fluid leukocyte count and neutrophil percentage for differentiating aseptic failure and prosthetic joint infection.
  91. ncbi Tertiary lymphoid organs in infection and autoimmunity
    Katrijn Neyt
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, VIB, Ghent, Belgium
    Trends Immunol 33:297-305. 2012
    ..Such a highly organized structure can also be formed in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) at sites of infection or chronic immune stimulation...
  92. pmc Severity of diabetic foot infection and rate of limb salvage
    Dane K Wukich
    Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Foot Ankle Int 34:351-8. 2013 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and proper classification of the severity of diabetic foot infection (DFI) is important in determining an effective antibiotic regimen, the need for hospitalization and surgery, and ..
  93. ncbi The agonists of formyl peptide receptors prevent development of severe sepsis after microbial infection
    Sang Doo Kim
    Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, South Korea
    J Immunol 185:4302-10. 2010
    ..These results suggest that the agonists of formyl peptide receptors effectively prevent development of severe sepsis following microbial infection partly via augmentation of type 1 and type 17 immune responses.
  94. pmc Endogenous control of immunity against infection: tenascin-C regulates TLR4-mediated inflammation via microRNA-155
    Anna M Piccinini
    Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Oxford University, 65 Aspenlea Road, London W6 8LH, UK
    Cell Rep 2:914-26. 2012
    ..Tenascin-C is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is specifically induced upon injury and infection. Here, we show that its expression is required to generate an effective immune response to bacterial ..
  95. ncbi The impact of the current epidemiology of pediatric musculoskeletal infection on evaluation and treatment guidelines
    Omar A Gafur
    University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA
    J Pediatr Orthop 28:777-85. 2008
    ..Staphylococcus aureus is thought to have led to an increase in the incidence of severe musculoskeletal infection in children...
  96. ncbi Improved quality of life, immunoglobulin G levels, and infection rates in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases during self-treatment with subcutaneous immunoglobulin G
    Melvin Berger
    Medical Affairs Department CSL Behring, King of Prussia, PA, USA
    South Med J 103:856-63. 2010
    ..We evaluated the long-term (12-month) experience with home-based self infusions of subcutaneous immune globulin (SCIG) in patients with PIDD on health-related QoL, rates of serious bacterial infections, and all other infections...
  97. ncbi IL-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor signaling in infection, inflammation, stress and neurodegeneration couples hyperexcitability and seizures
    Annamaria Vezzani
    Department of Neuroscience, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Via G La Masa 19, 20156 Milano, Italy
    Brain Behav Immun 25:1281-9. 2011
    ..of innate immune mechanisms and the subsequent inflammatory responses, that are induced in the brain by infection, febrile seizures, neurotrauma, stroke are well documented conditions associated with acute symptomatic seizures ..
  98. ncbi Inflammasome activation: from inflammatory disease to infection
    Aisling Dunne
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, and School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Biochem Soc Trans 39:669-73. 2011
    ..The present review discusses both aspects of NLR activation and will highlight the role of additional inflammasome complexes in sensing infection.
  99. ncbi Familial and acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
    G E Janka
    Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children s University Hospital, Hamburg, Germany
    Annu Rev Med 63:233-46. 2012
    ..Treatment of HLH includes immune-suppressive and immune-modulatory agents, cytostatic drugs, and biological response modifiers. For patients with FHL, stem cell transplantation is indicated and can be curative...
  100. ncbi Two brothers with a microduplication including the MECP2 gene: rapid head growth in infancy and resolution of susceptibility to infection
    Trine E Prescott
    Departments of Medical Genetics, Rikshospitalet Radiumhospitalet Medical Centre, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
    Clin Dysmorphol 18:78-82. 2009
    ..The younger boy had chronic constipation until the age of 3 years. For both boys, the susceptibility to infection subsided in the second year of life...
  101. pmc The PD-1/PD-L1 (B7-H1) pathway in chronic infection-induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte exhaustion
    Kimberly A Hofmeyer
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    J Biomed Biotechnol 2011:451694. 2011
    Cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a pivotal role in the control of infection. Activated CTLs, however, often lose effector function during chronic infection...

Research Grants74

  1. Reducing Preterm Births in Underserved Pregnant Women
    JAMES G CHRISTIAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..If the proposed system proves to be effective in reducing preterm births it can improve maternal and child quality of life as well as reduce the economic burden of preterm births in the U.S. ..
  2. Menstrual Cycle Control of HIV Infection in the Reproductive Tract
    CHARLES ROBERT WIRA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transmission and to understand how sex hormones modulate FRT HIV target cells to make women more susceptible to infection during the menstrual cycle...
  3. Multidisciplinary approaches to reproductive health in global health context
    Xu Qian; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is expected that this effort will help China and other developing countries to respond with increased success to local health challenges and thereby reduce disease burdens globally. ..
  4. DNase For Prevention Of Reproductive Tract Infections In Pregnancy
    ADAM JONATHAN RATNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If a suitable gel advances to the conclusion of the R33 phase with in vivo efficacy and an acceptable toxicologic profile, we will move forward with the eventual goal of human testing. ..
  5. Randomized Trial/Reduce Recurrence/Bacterial Vaginosis
    King Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION: (provided by applicant) Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common bacterial vaginal infection in women of reproductive ages, has been linked to female HIV-1 acquisition and infection in both cross sectional and prospective ..
  6. Oral and Vaginal Microbes, Human Genotype, and Preterm Birth
    Dawn P Misra; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Preterm birth is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in the U.S. and across the globe. Infection has consistently been identified as an important risk factor for preterm birth...
  7. Effect of Progesterone Contraceptives on the Vaginal Microbiome
    JASON DANIEL BELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..microbiome is important in maintaining reproductive tract health and provides defense against the acquisition of infection and bacterial colonization...
  8. A NanoGuard Vaginal Matrix as a Dual-Protection Contraceptive Microbicide
    Kim A Woodrow; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. Prevention Technologies for Sexual and Reproductive Health Conference
    Susan Ivey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Specific Aim #3. Foster new collaborations by bringing together established practitioners in the field of sexual and reproductive health with product developers and new investigators. ..
    Ellen Funkhouser; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..douching practices potentially one of the most distinguishing characteristics of women with and without an infection. Furthermore, the findings will be readily generalizable to a population that historically and currently has ..
  11. The altered lipid and protein metabolism of pediatric patients with HIV infection
    Farook Jahoor; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Knowledge gained from this project may lead to new nutritional therapies to help prevent these conditions. ..
  12. TLR4 as an LPS sendor and susceptibility locus
    Bruce Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In vivo, the Trif Lps2/Lps2 genotype dramatically diminishes sensitivity to LPS, and increases susceptibility to infection by mCMV (and most probably many other viruses) by ablating the type I interferon response...
  13. Inflammation and Infection as Risk Factors in Stroke
    Mitchell Elkind; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Serum markers of infection and inflammation have been associated with both incident myocardial infarction (Ml) and prognosis after Ml, but very little data about the relationship of these markers to stroke incidence or prognosis is ..
  14. Aromatic amino acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of kwashiorkor
    Farook Jahoor; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We also propose that infection-induced synthesis of positive acute phase proteins further limits the availability of AAAs for synthesis of ..
  15. Forward Genetic Analysis of the Innate Immune Contribution to MCMV Resistance
    Bruce Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Other germline genetic studies have, to date, implicated only 23 genes in innate resistance to MCMV infection; hence, most of the MCMV "resistome" is still unknown...
  16. Inflammatory and Infectious Burden and Risk of Stroke
    Mitchell Elkind; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The cross-sectional associations between inflammatory and infectious markers and quantitative MRI abnormalities will also be assessed. ..
  17. Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Treatment of Stroke
    Mitchell Elkind; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  18. Development of furanones for treatment of anthrax
    Martin Blaser; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In initial studies, spores will be given subcutaneosly. Efficacy parameters will be defined as above. Successful trials can lead to phase I studies in humans, and treatment studies in non-human primates. ..
  19. Role of innate immunity in autoimmune myocarditis
    Noel Rose; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..a role in the development of myocarditis, little is understood on how the early, innate immune response to CB3 infection effects the development of autoimmune disease...
  20. Pseudomonas in Cystic Fibrosis-Regulation of Mucoidy
    Vojo Deretic; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..aeruginosa are nonmucoid, but concomitantly with the establishment of a chronic infection, mucoid mutants overproducing the exopolysaccharide alginate emerge...
  21. Modulation of EAE with ligand-activated NKT cells
    Luc Van Kaer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These reagents will permit the selective activation of distinct adaptive immune responses in vivo, which could be exploited for therapeutic intervention in MS and other human autoimmune diseases. ..
  22. Cell/Tissue Damage and Autoimmune Response
    Noel Rose; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Overall, we anticipate a faculty of 25 to 30 speakers, and about 75 to 100 attendees. After the colloquium, our ultimate goal is to publish the meeting report in a well-circulated journal. ..
  23. Genetic mechanisms of autoimmune myocarditis
    Noel Rose; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We build on our preliminary data to propose hypothesis-driven aims to identify host genes that control susceptibility and characterize their mechanisms of action in a murine model of autoimmune myocarditis. ..
  24. HIV/STD Network Prevention Trial in Northern Vietnam
    Vivian Go; Fiscal Year: 2005
  25. The Regulatory Control Mechanisms of Cross-presentation by Toll-like Receptors
    JULIE MAGARIAN BLANDER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The new knowledge we gain will further the design of therapeutic anti-viral and anti-tumor vaccines, and broaden our understanding of autoimmunity ..
  26. Autophagy in Tuberculosis
    VOJO P DERETIC; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..tuberculosis during macrophage infection. Our main hypothesis is that induction of autophagy by pharmacological, physiological, and immunological means ..
  27. IgA-Antigen Uptake by Peyer's Patch M cells
    NICHOLAS MANTIS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The three year KO1 award will provide the applicant with-additional research training and career skills that will greatly facilitate his transition to becoming a successful independent research investigator. ..
  28. Mechanism of M. tuberculosis Phagosome Maturation Arrest
    Vojo Deretic; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..tuberculosis and provide a foundation for new interventions potentially combating both active disease and latent infection.
    Martin Blaser; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..pylori infections. ..
  30. Hyperacidification and Pseudomonas infections in CF
    Vojo Deretic; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..A clear connection between the genetic lesion in CF and Pseudomonas infection has not been unequivocally established...
    Martin Blaser; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Finally, the data generated can be used to develop a mathematical model of antigenic variation that focuses on the relationship between microbial recombination generating diversity and host selection determining the direction of change. ..
  32. Cellular Immunity to Chlamydua at the Epithelial Interface
    RAYMOND MORRIS JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..trachomatis disease has clearly demonstrated that T cells mediate protective immunity against reproductive tract infection. The central hypothesis of the grant is that Chlamydia-specific T cells responsible for sterilizing immunity ..
  33. Modulation of type I diabetes with NKT cells
    Luc Van Kaer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will provide a better understanding of the immunological mechanisms that result in autoimmunity, and may lead to the development of novel agents for treatment of type I diabetes and other autoimmune diseases. ..
    BARRY ROUSE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Our experiments may identify better methods of generating protective immunity against HSV. ..
    BARRY ROUSE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Our results should be applicable to the future design of vaccines against HSV and may have application to other situations that require immunomodulation. ..
  36. Immunobiology of Chlamydia
    Raymond Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..3) To determine the effect of adoptive transfer of mucosal CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes on the natural course of MoPn genital tract infections. ..
  37. Sex differences in Coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis
    Noel Rose; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Recently we have examined the role of the innate immune response to CB3 infection on the development of myocarditis and have found significantly increased levels of acute viral and autoimmune ..
  38. Effects of Dioxin on Vietnamese Civilians
    David Carpenter; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..7. ..
  39. Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Myocarditis
    Noel Rose; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We propose to broaden our knowledge of the pathogenesis of myocarditis, in order to rationalize new biologic approaches to treatment. ..
  40. Early Life Infection, Neuroinflammation, and Memory
    Staci D Bilbo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..An estimated 1/3 of pregnancies suffer complications involving infection or trauma of the uterus, fetus, or newborn, and one of the most common consequences of infection or inflammation ..
  41. Effect of Perinatal Nicotine Exposure on the Development of Autonomic Responses
    ..Aim 4: Examine specific actions of autonomic response by blocking sympathetic or parasympathetic pathways with pharmacologic agents. ..
    Anthony J Adams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It also aids identification of 'at risk'populations for clinical trials of candidate therapies, which may greatly reduce their cost by decreasing the size of the needed sample and the duration of the trial. ..
  43. APOE and the Effects of Malnutrition on Cognitive and Intestinal Development
    Richard L Guerrant; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will seek to identify potential mechanisms of these effects in the intestine and brain including studies of IGF-1, and will examine the effects of glutamine, zinc, and arginine interventions. ..
  44. Critical determinants of CD8+ T-cell-mediated protection
    Janko Nikolich Zugich; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These issues will be examined in a model of corneal infection with the Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)...
  45. Device use in Nursing Homes: Reducing Risk of Infection
    Lona Mody; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..primary research interest is epidemiology of nosocomial infections in long-term care and developing effective infection control strategies targeted at reducing these infections with a goal to reduce antimicrobial usage, ..
  46. Mechanisms of VSV-mediated Oncolysis
    Glen N Barber; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding how these pathways function has significant impact on understanding pathogenesis and for developing novel therapeutics and vaccines to combat disease. ..
  47. Regulation of gamma herpesvirus latency and tumorigenesis
    Herbert Virgin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..latency and tumorigenesis" which funded studies of the mechanisms of y-herpesvirus latency using infection with murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68) as a model...
  48. Risk Factrors Associated with CFS and CF Prognosis
    LEONARD JASON; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
    Yang Liu; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..More importantly, the proposed studies will provide animal models that can be used to screen monoclonal antibodies that are of therapeutic value for human cancer. ..
    Zoltan Spolarics; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
    Charles McCall; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The PEPOR of WFUSM will meet the challenge of training talented clinical investigators. ..
    LEONARD JASON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This study would be the first longitudinal evaluation of Oxford Houses, and it would provide important information on the nature and role of the Oxford House experience on long-term sobriety among recovering alcoholics. ..
  53. Genetic Polymorphisms in Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Eric Matteson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The mentorship program proposed in this grant is critical to this long-term goal. ..
  54. B Cell Tolerance Following Allograft Transplantation
    Anita Chong; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These insights could lead to new therapeutic strategies for inducing allograft tolerance and novel assays for the diagnosis of B cell tolerance in the clinic. ..
  55. Regulation of T cell immunity by indol 2,3 dioxygenase
    Andrew Mellor; Fiscal Year: 2006
  56. Genes that Mediate Tolerance to the Placental Allograft
    Bruce Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Yet, the maternal immune system remains competent to repel infection or to reject other forms of tissue allograft...
  57. SLS: Molecular Basis and Role in Invasive GAS Disease
    Victor Nizet; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These hypotheses will be tested by molecular genetic studies, attempts protein purification and antibody development, and the use of targeted SLS mutants in in vitro assays of phagocytic function and our in vivo mouse model of GAS NF. ..
  58. Labeled Bacteriophage for Infection-Specific Imaging
    Mary Rusckowski; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): There is a need for a bacteria-specific infection imaging agent in diagnostic nuclear medicine. At least two agents (Infecton and UBI) are currently under development to meet this need...
  59. Spleen regulation of beta-cell regeneration
    Anita Chong; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
    Andrew Mellor; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Yueh Hsiu Chien; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..and (iii) how T10/T22 specific gamma/delta T cells fit into the context of an immune response to Influenza virus infection. A clear understanding of how a useful gamma/delta TCR repertoire is regulated and how the T10/T22 specificity ..
  62. Autophagy: A Novel Antiviral Host Defense Pathway
    Beth Levine; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Together, these studies will provide novel insights about the role of autophagy in antiviral host defense and the role of viral evasion of autophagy in neurovirulence. ..
  63. Mutagenic analysis of LPS responses
    Bruce Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In the case of mutations that abolish LPS tolerance, we will attempt to determine the net impact on host resistance to infection.
  64. Akt activation sustains silica induced inflammation
    CELINE BEAMER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  65. Infant hearing for modulated tones
    Barbara Cone Wesson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This research will also result in methods for assessing threshold sensitivity and sound discrimination in infants that can be applied to those at risk for hearing loss or other auditory dysfunction. ..
    James George; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The information generated will provide information regarding the specific cellular and subcellular events that are critical to the induction and maintenance of tolerance in this system. ..
  67. Molecular Mechanisms in TCR Reactivity to Self Ligands
    STEPHEN JAMESON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This has health implications for recovery of the T-cell pool in patients suffering from T lymphopenia due to disease (e.g. AIDS), or therapeutic treatments (such as bone morrow transplant). ..
  68. A Novel Waveform for Electrical Nerve Conduction Block
    Kevin L Kilgore; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research will provide a significant tool in our ongoing efforts to reduce disability and improve quality of life. ..
  69. The Michigan Clinical Research Collaboratory
    Daniel Clauw; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Disseminate findings, tools, and strategies from this project to other re-engineered networks and Research Centers, and ultimately interface with a National Electronics Clinical Trials and Research (NECTAR) network...
  70. Dendritic Cell Vaccine in Metastatic Prostate Cancer
    Jacques Banchereau; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This study will permit us to establish the safety and tolerability of DCs loaded with killed allogeneic tumor cells as a source of TAA. It will also permit us to gain insights into the level of prostate cancer immunity induced by DCs. ..
  71. Chimeric Yellow Fever/West Nile Virus:Candidate Vaccine
    Rafi Ahmed; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The long-term goal of this project is to develop a safe and effective vaccine against West Nile virus infection. West Nile virus (WNV) has recently attracted considerable attention because of the outbreak in New York City in the summer ..
    H Deeg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Optimization of therapy, in turn, should reduce morbidity and mortality associated with MDS and improve the quality of life of patients with MDS. ..
    Jacques Banchereau; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  74. Antigen Presentation Pathway by CD1 Molecules
    Mitchell Kronenberg; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results from these studies will aid in our understanding of lipid antigen presentation, and they should help in the design of lipid antigen-based vaccines and in attempts to alter immune regulation by stimulating NK T cells. ..