Genomes and Genes
Summary: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Publications253 found, 100 shown here
- Brain inflammation in epilepsy: experimental and clinical evidenceAnnamaria Vezzani
Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy
Epilepsia 46:1724-43. 2005..The elucidation of this aspect may open new perspectives for the pharmacologic treatment of seizures...
- Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodiesJosep Dalmau
Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Lancet Neurol 7:1091-8. 2008A severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1-NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor was recently identified...
- Clinical experience and laboratory investigations in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitisJosep Dalmau
Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Lancet Neurol 10:63-74. 2011Since its discovery in 2007, the encephalitis associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has entered the mainstream of neurology and other disciplines...
- Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease and prion diseaseP Eikelenboom
Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Glia 40:232-9. 2002....
- Diverse roles of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in neuroinflammation and cerebral ischemiaE Candelario-Jalil
Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, MSC10 5620, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
Neuroscience 158:983-94. 2009..Inhibitors of metalloproteinases are available, but balancing the beneficial and detrimental effects of these agents remains a challenge...
- Inflammation in ischemic brain injury: timing is importantJasna Kriz
Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite Laval, 2705 Boulevard Laurier, Quebec, QC, G1V4G2, Canada
Crit Rev Neurobiol 18:145-57. 2006..In addition, we discuss a potential role of post-ischemic inflammation in brain regeneration and modulation of synaptic plasticity...
- Analysis of behavior and trafficking of dendritic cells within the brain during toxoplasmic encephalitisBeena John
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 7:e1002246. 2011Under normal conditions the immune system has limited access to the brain; however, during toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), large numbers of T cells and APCs accumulate within this site...
- A critical role for IL-10 in limiting inflammation during toxoplasmic encephalitisEmma H Wilson
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6008, USA
J Neuroimmunol 165:63-74. 2005..To address this paradox, the production and effect of IL-10 in the brain during toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) was investigated...
- Investigations of caspr2, an autoantigen of encephalitis and neuromyotoniaEric Lancaster
Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 19104, USA
Ann Neurol 69:303-11. 2011..clinical and immunological investigations of contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2), an autoantigen of encephalitis and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH) previously attributed to voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC).
- Toll-like receptor 3 mediates West Nile virus entry into the brain causing lethal encephalitisTian Wang
Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
Nat Med 10:1366-73. 2004..Collectively, WNV infection leads to a Tlr3-dependent inflammatory response, which is involved in brain penetration of the virus and neuronal injury...
- Encephalitis and antibodies to synaptic and neuronal cell surface proteinsEric Lancaster
Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Neurology 77:179-89. 2011The identification of encephalitis associated with antibodies against cell surface and synaptic proteins, although recent, has already had a substantial impact in clinical neurology and neuroscience...
- Rat brain arachidonic acid metabolism is increased by a 6-day intracerebral ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharideThad A Rosenberger
Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1582, USA
J Neurochem 88:1168-78. 2004..These observations suggest that selective alterations in brain arachidonic acid metabolism involving cytosolic and secretory PLA2 contribute to early pathology in neuroinflammation...
- Interleukin 27 negatively regulates the development of interleukin 17-producing T helper cells during chronic inflammation of the central nervous systemJason S Stumhofer
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6008, USA
Nat Immunol 7:937-45. 2006..IL-17)-producing T helper cells (T(H)-17 cells) associated with autoimmunity, such as experimental autoimmune encephalitis, but relatively little is known about the cytokines that antagonize T(H)-17 cell effector responses...
- Paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratomaJosep Dalmau
Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Ann Neurol 61:25-36. 2007To report the autoantigens of a new category of treatment-responsive paraneoplastic encephalitis.
- Clinical analysis of anti-Ma2-associated encephalitisJosep Dalmau
Department of Neurology, 3 W Gates, Division of Neuro Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Brain 127:1831-44. 2004Increasing experience indicates that anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis differs from classical paraneoplastic limbic or brainstem encephalitis, and therefore may be unrecognized...
- Increased CXCL-13 levels in human African trypanosomiasis meningo-encephalitisBertrand Courtioux
Institut de Neurologie Tropicale, Universite de Limoges, Limoges, France
Trop Med Int Health 14:529-34. 2009To determine the role of the B-cell attracting chemokine CXCL-13, which may initiate B-cell trafficking and IgM production in diagnosing HAT meningo-encephalitis.
- Cannabinoid receptor stimulation is anti-inflammatory and improves memory in old ratsYannick Marchalant
Department of Psychology, Psychology Building, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Neurobiol Aging 29:1894-901. 2008..Stimulation of cannabinoid receptors may provide clinical benefits in age-related diseases that are associated with brain inflammation, such as Alzheimer's disease...
- Importance of CD8(+)Vbeta8(+) T cells in IFN-gamma-mediated prevention of toxoplasmic encephalitis in genetically resistant BALB/c miceXisheng Wang
Center for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
J Interferon Cytokine Res 25:338-44. 2005..protective Toxoplasma gondii antigens and produces interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) for prevention of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), we found T cell receptor Vbeta8(+) cells to be the most frequent IFN-gamma-producing population ..
- TNF signaling inhibition in the CNS: implications for normal brain function and neurodegenerative diseaseMelissa K McCoy
Department of Physiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390 9040, USA
J Neuroinflammation 5:45. 2008....
- Neuronal apoptosis is mediated by CXCL10 overexpression in simian human immunodeficiency virus encephalitisYongjun Sui
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, Marion Merrell Dow Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA
Am J Pathol 164:1557-66. 2004..and its receptor, CXCR3, in the neurons in the brains of macaques with simian human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis. Using human fetal brain cultures, we showed that treatment of these cells with either SHIV89...
- Neuroinflammation alters the hippocampal pattern of behaviorally induced Arc expressionSusanna Rosi
Department of Neuroscience and Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
J Neurosci 25:723-31. 2005..This activity-related alteration in Arc expression induced by neuroinflammation may contribute to the cognitive deficits found in diseases associated with inflammation, such as AD...
- The dynamics of the LPS triggered inflammatory response of murine microglia under different culture and in vivo conditionsSøren Lund
H Lundbeck A S, Valby, Denmark
J Neuroimmunol 180:71-87. 2006..Although most inflammatory genes induced in vitro were transferable to our in vivo model, the observed discrepancy for some genes potentially represents regulatory factors present in the central nervous system (CNS) but not in vitro...
- IL-33 receptor (T1/ST2) signalling is necessary to prevent the development of encephalitis in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondiiLeigh A Jones
Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
Eur J Immunol 40:426-36. 2010..This study provides the first evidence of a specific role for IL-33 receptor signalling in the brain as well as highlighting the requirement of this mechanism in limiting infection with an intracellular parasite...
- Human Hendra virus encephalitis associated with equine outbreak, Australia, 2008Elliott G Playford
Pathology Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Emerg Infect Dis 16:219-23. 2010..an incubation period of 9-16 days, influenza-like illnesses developed in the 2 persons before progressing to encephalitis; 1 died. Both patients were given ribavirin...
- The immune response to herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in susceptible mice is a major cause of central nervous system pathology resulting in fatal encephalitisPatric Lundberg
Division of Virology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 E Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
J Virol 82:7078-88. 2008This study was undertaken to investigate possible immune mechanisms in fatal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) after HSV-1 corneal inoculation...
- Review: The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 in neuroimmunity--a tale of conflict and conundrumM Muller
School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 36:368-87. 2010..The results of these studies have proven to be sometimes surprising and other times contradictory. Here we discuss the likely more subtle and perhaps divergent roles for these chemokines in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases...
- Patterns of gene dysregulation in the frontal cortex of patients with HIV encephalitisEliezer Masliah
Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 6232, USA
J Neuroimmunol 157:163-75. 2004The neurodegenerative process in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) is associated with extensive damage to the dendritic and synaptic structure that often leads to cognitive impairment...
- N-methyl-D-aspartate antibody encephalitis: temporal progression of clinical and paraclinical observations in a predominantly non-paraneoplastic disorder of both sexesSarosh R Irani
Department of Clinical Neurology, L6 West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
Brain 133:1655-67. 2010..Four patients, who only had temporal lobe epilepsy without oligoclonal bands, may represent restriction to the first stage...
- Analysis of complement and plasma cells in the brain of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitisE Martinez-Hernandez
Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
Neurology 77:589-93. 2011Most patients with anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis have intrathecal synthesis of antibodies, which cause a decrease of cell surface and synaptic NMDAR...
- Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis: clinical features of 62 cases and a subgroup associated with Guillain-Barré syndromeMasaaki Odaka
Department of Neurology, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Shimotsuga, Tochigi, Japan
Brain 126:2279-90. 2003..This condition has been named Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE). One patient had gross flaccid weakness in the four limbs...
- A dual role for microglia in promoting tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) expression in glial cells in response to neuroinflammatory stimuliJennifer V Welser-Alves
Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
J Neuroinflammation 8:61. 2011..As such, it is important to define the TIMP expression profile in these cells, as well as the mechanisms of regulation by neuroinflammatory stimuli...
- Cannabinoids attenuate the effects of aging upon neuroinflammation and neurogenesisYannick Marchalant
Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, USA
Neurobiol Dis 34:300-7. 2009..Our results provide insight into the role of the endocannabinoid and vanilloid systems upon two different and detrimental aspects of normal and pathological aging, chronic neuroinflammation and decline in neurogenesis...
- Autoimmune and inflammatory mechanisms of CNS damageMinesh Kapadia
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Prog Neurobiol 95:301-33. 2011....
- Altered expression of apoptotic factors and synaptic markers in postmortem brain from bipolar disorder patientsHyung Wook Kim
Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Neurobiol Dis 37:596-603. 2010..These differences may contribute to brain atrophy and progressive cognitive changes in BD...
- Therapeutic approaches to inflammation in neurodegenerative diseaseAndis Klegeris
Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Curr Opin Neurol 20:351-7. 2007..Here we review recent advances in our understanding of one such disorder, Parkinson's disease, in which anti-inflammatory drugs are now becoming a new therapeutic focus...
- The TIMPs tango with MMPs and more in the central nervous systemStephen J Crocker
Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
J Neurosci Res 75:1-11. 2004....
- Cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and epoxygenases in CNS: their role and involvement in neurological disordersJohn W Phillis
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
Brain Res Rev 52:201-43. 2006..Here, we review present knowledge of the functions of cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and epoxygenases in brain and their association with neurodegenerative diseases...
- Retrospective analysis of NMDA receptor antibodies in encephalitis of unknown originH Pruss
Charite University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neurology, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Neurology 75:1735-9. 2010Anti-NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe disorder that occurs in association with antibodies to the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR and results in a characteristic syndrome.
- Neuroimmune mechanisms of cytokine-induced depression: current theories and novel treatment strategiesJennifer M Loftis
Research and Development Service, Behavioral Health and Clinical Neurosciences Division, Portland VA Medical Center, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Rd, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Neurobiol Dis 37:519-33. 2010..Future research should aim to characterize these depression-related symptom constellations or syndromes better with the goal of optimizing treatment strategies...
- Exaggerated sickness behavior and brain proinflammatory cytokine expression in aged mice in response to intracerebroventricular lipopolysaccharideY Huang
Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics and Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University, 333 W 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Neurobiol Aging 29:1744-53. 2008..Collectively, these data establish that activation of the central innate immune system leads to exacerbated neuroinflammation and prolonged sickness behavior in aged as compared to adult mice...
- Cellular and synaptic mechanisms of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitisEthan G Hughes
Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
J Neurosci 30:5866-75. 2010We recently described a severe, potentially lethal, but treatment-responsive encephalitis that associates with autoantibodies to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and results in behavioral symptoms similar to those obtained with models of genetic ..
- Extracellular proteolysis in brain injury and inflammation: role for plasminogen activators and matrix metalloproteinasesEng H Lo
Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
J Neurosci Res 69:1-9. 2002..As the mechanisms of deleterious vs. potentially beneficial PA and MMP actions become better defined, it is hoped that new therapeutic targets will emerge for ameliorating the sequelae of brain injury and inflammation...
- Causes of encephalitis and differences in their clinical presentations in England: a multicentre, population-based prospective studyJulia Granerod
Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
Lancet Infect Dis 10:835-44. 2010b>Encephalitis has many causes, but for most patients the cause is unknown. We aimed to establish the cause and identify the clinical differences between causes in patients with encephalitis in England.
- The role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in CNS diseaseT M Kauppinen
Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
Neuroscience 145:1267-72. 2007..PARP-1 activation has also been identified in Alzheimer's disease and in experimental allergic encephalitis, but the role of PARP-1 in these disorders remains to be established.
- Anti-inflammatory mechanism of ginseng saponins in activated microgliaJin Sun Park
Department of Neuroscience and Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
J Neuroimmunol 209:40-9. 2009..Therefore, the inhibition of microglial activation by ginseng saponins may a good potential therapeutic modality for neurodegenerative diseases...
- Imaging neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease with radiolabeled arachidonic acid and PETGiuseppe Esposito
Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Nucl Med 49:1414-21. 2008..Data also indicate that neuroinflammation contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the basis of these observations, K* for AA was hypothesized to be elevated in patients with AD...
- The role of interleukin-1 in neuroinflammation and Alzheimer disease: an evolving perspectiveSolomon S Shaftel
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA
J Neuroinflammation 5:7. 2008..Potentially adaptive functions of IL-1 elevation in AD warrant further mechanistic studies, and provide evidence that enhancement of these effects may help to alleviate the pathologic burden of disease...
- Protection of mice against dengue 2 virus encephalitis by immunization with the dengue 2 virus non-structural glycoprotein NS1J J Schlesinger
J Gen Virol 68:853-7. 1987..Induction of a protective immune response by NS1 suggests that it be considered for incorporation into possible synthetic or recombinant DNA DEN vaccines...
- Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in children and adolescentsNicole R Florance
Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Ann Neurol 66:11-8. 2009To report the clinical features of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in patients < or = 18 years old.
- Microglia and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor/uPA system in innate brain inflammationOrla Cunningham
FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, 20139 Milan, Italy
Glia 57:1802-14. 2009..These data are novel and suggest much wider involvement of the uPAR/uPA system in CNS function and pathology than previously supposed...
- Acute stress increases permeability of the blood-brain-barrier through activation of brain mast cellsP Esposito
Departments of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Brain Res 888:117-127. 2001..These results expand the pathophysiology of mast cells and implicate them in CNS disorders, that may possibly be induced or exacerbated by stress...
- Microglia, major player in the brain inflammation: their roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's diseaseYoon Seong Kim
Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
Exp Mol Med 38:333-47. 2006..In the last part, microglial activation and their role in PD are discussed in depth...
- Causality in acute encephalitis: defining aetiologiesJ Granerod
Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London NW9 5EQ, UK
Epidemiol Infect 138:783-800. 2010Defining the causal relationship between a microbe and encephalitis is complex. Over 100 different infectious agents may cause encephalitis, often as one of the rarer manifestations of infection...
- CNS dendritic cells: critical participants in CNS inflammation?Eileen J McMahon
Department of Biology, Westmont College, 955 La Paz Rd, Santa Barbara, CA 93108, United States
Neurochem Int 49:195-203. 2006..This review will summarize DC subsets and function, overview the current research on DCs in the healthy and inflamed CNS, and address discrepancies between experimental studies...
- Prevalence, associated factors, and prognostic determinants of AIDS-related toxoplasmic encephalitis in the era of advanced highly active antiretroviral therapyAndrea Antinori
Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive Lazzaro Spallanzani, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Rome, Italy
Clin Infect Dis 39:1681-91. 2004Characteristics, associated factors, and survival probability of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in the era of advanced highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have not been fully clarified.
- Neuroinflammation is associated with changes in glial mGluR5 expression and the development of neonatal excitotoxic lesionsJanelle Drouin-Ouellet
Centre de Recherche du CHUL CHUQ, Axe Neurosciences, RC 9800, 2705 Boulevard Laurier, Quebec, QC, Cananda, G1V 4G2
Glia 59:188-99. 2011....
- LPS- induced inflammation exacerbates phospho-tau pathology in rTg4510 miceDaniel C Lee
Byrd Alzheimer s Institute, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
J Neuroinflammation 7:56. 2010....
- Neuroinflammation and the plasticity-related immediate-early gene ArcSusanna Rosi
Brain and Spinal Injury Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
Brain Behav Immun 25:S39-49. 2011..This review discusses the use of Arc expression during activation of the innate immune system as a valid marker of altered plasticity and a predictor of cognitive dysfunction...
- Two patients with acute rotavirus encephalitis associated with cerebellar signs and symptomsSatoru Kobayashi
Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
Eur J Pediatr 169:1287-91. 2010..Recently several patients with acute encephalitis/encephalopathy due to rotavirus associated with cerebellar signs and symptoms have been reported...
- A new model for Hendra virus encephalitis in the mouseJohanna Dups
CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Australia
PLoS ONE 7:e40308. 2012..HeV) infection in humans is characterized by an influenza like illness, which may progress to pneumonia or encephalitis and lead to death...
- The relation between inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis brainsJosa M Frischer
Department of Neuroimmunology, Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 4, A 1090 Wien, Austria
Brain 132:1175-89. 2009..It further indicates that the disease processes of multiple sclerosis may die out in aged patients with long-standing disease...
- Pathogenesis of encephalitis induced in newborn mice by virulent and avirulent strains of Sindbis virusL A Sherman
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
J Virol 64:2041-6. 1990..This lack of response does not lead to tolerance and persistent infection but rather to late virus clearance whenever the immune response is initiated...
- The role of astrocytes in the immunopathogenesis of toxoplasmic encephalitisEmma H Wilson
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6008, USA
Int J Parasitol 34:543-8. 2004..rarely leads to disease but in the immunocompromised host reactivation of these cysts can lead to toxoplasmic encephalitis. It is known that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are important in preventing reactivation of the parasite, ..
- In vitro correlates of Ld-restricted resistance to toxoplasmic encephalitis and their critical dependence on parasite strainJennifer J Johnson
University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
J Immunol 169:966-73. 2002Resistance to murine toxoplasmic encephalitis has been precisely and definitively mapped to the L(d) class I gene. Consistent with this, CD8(+) T cells can adoptively transfer resistance to toxoplasmic encephalitis...
- Neuropathogenesis of naturally occurring encephalitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in ruminantsAnna Oevermann
Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Brain Pathol 20:378-90. 2010..This study investigates the neuropathogenesis of listeric encephalitis in over 200 natural cases in cattle, sheep and goats by analyzing anatomical distribution, severity, bacterial ..
- A substantial number of Rasmussen syndrome patients have increased IgG, CD4+ T cells, TNFalpha, and Granzyme B in CSFYukitoshi Takahashi
National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Shizuoka, Japan
Epilepsia 50:1419-31. 2009..We studied the immunologic molecules in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and discussed their evolutional changes in pediatric patients with Rasmussen syndrome (RS)...
- Methamphetamine stimulates interferon inducible genes in HIV infected brainIan Everall
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0603, USA
J Neuroimmunol 170:158-71. 2005..To study the synergism of HIV and methamphetamine...
- Spatial analysis of the distribution of LaCrosse encephalitis in Illinois, using a geographic information system and local and global spatial statisticsU Kitron
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA
Am J Trop Med Hyg 57:469-75. 1997The spatial and temporal distribution of LaCrosse encephalitis cases in Illinois was analyzed using a geographic information system (GIS) and spatial statistics...
- Encephalitis and myelitis associated with dengue viral infection clinical and neuroimaging featuresMohammad Wasay
Department of Neurology, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Clin Neurol Neurosurg 110:635-40. 2008The objective of this study was to identify clinical and neuroimaging features and outcome of patients with encephalitis and myelitis associated with dengue viral infection.
- Macrophage-induced inflammation affects hippocampal plasticity and neuronal development in a murine model of HIV-1 encephalitisLarisa Poluektova
Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA
Glia 52:344-53. 2005..Activated MPs effect a giant cell encephalitis and neuroinflammatory responses that are mirrored in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice injected with ..
- Testicular teratoma and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-associated encephalitisA Eker
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:1082-3. 2008
- Silencing early viral replication in macrophages and dendritic cells effectively suppresses flavivirus encephalitisChunting Ye
Paul L Foster School of Medicine, Center of Excellence in Infectious Diseases, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, Texas, United States of America
PLoS ONE 6:e17889. 2011West Nile (WN) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses can cause fatal neurological infection and currently there is neither a specific treatment nor an approved vaccine for these infections...
- Epstein-Barr virus infections of the central nervous systemHiroshi Fujimoto
First Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume 830 0011
Intern Med 42:33-40. 2003..Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a lymphotropic herpes virus causing infectious mononucleosis (IM), also causes various central nervous system (CNS) infections. In the present study, EBV CNS infections were investigated...
- Tumor necrosis factor alpha is reparative via TNFR2 [corrected] in the hippocampus and via TNFR1 [corrected] in the striatum after virus-induced encephalitisMoses Rodriguez
Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Brain Pathol 19:12-26. 2009..of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in parenchymal brain pathology resolution following virus-induced encephalitis from a picornavirus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)...
- Rasmussen's encephalitis: early characteristics allow diagnosisT Granata
Division of Child Neurology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C Besta, Milan, Italy
Neurology 60:422-5. 2003To identify early manifestations of Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) that can prompt early and reasonably secure diagnosis, allowing medical or surgical therapies at an early stage when they may be more effective in slowing the disease.
- Rift Valley fever encephalitisAbdulrahman A Alrajhi
Emerg Infect Dis 10:554-5. 2004
- Update on anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in children and adolescentsNicole Florance-Ryan
Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, and Division of Neuro Oncology, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
Curr Opin Pediatr 22:739-44. 2010Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently identified disorder that is increasingly recognized in children and adolescents. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important to obtain full recovery...
- A patient with encephalitis associated with NMDA receptor antibodiesLauren H Sansing
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Nat Clin Pract Neurol 3:291-6. 2007..There was muscle rigidity, frequent facial grimacing, rhythmic abdominal contractions, kicking motions of the legs, and intermittent dystonic postures of the right arm...
- Inflammatory and injury responses to ischemic stroke in obese miceSatoshi Terao
Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA
Stroke 39:943-50. 2008..This study tested the hypothesis that obesity exacerbates the cerebrovascular dysfunction and tissue injury induced by brain ischemia and reperfusion...
- Neurological response to early removal of ovarian teratoma in anti-NMDAR encephalitisM Seki
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:324-6. 2008We report an 18-year-old woman with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, who developed psychiatric symptoms, progressive unresponsiveness, dyskinesias, hypoventilation, hypersalivation and seizures...
- Successful treatment of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis presenting with catatoniaM Schimmel
Department of Paediatrics, Klinikum Augsburg, Stenglinstrasse 2, Augsburg, Germany
Arch Dis Child 94:314-6. 2009..girl with the typical clinical symptoms of the recently described anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is reported...
- Role of brain inflammation in epileptogenesisJieun Choi
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Northwestern University Children s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL 2300 Children s Plaza, Box 51, Children s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL 60614, USA
Yonsei Med J 49:1-18. 2008..We provide an overview of the current knowledge that implicates brain inflammation as a common predisposing factor in epilepsy, particularly childhood epilepsy...
- Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: report of ten cases and comparison with viral encephalitisM S Gable
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, Fresno, CA, USA
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28:1421-9. 2009The California Encephalitis Project (CEP), established in 1998 to explore encephalitic etiologies, has identified patients with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies, the likely etiology of their encephalitis...
- The distinctive movement disorder of ovarian teratoma-associated encephalitisTimothy J Kleinig
Department of Neurology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Mov Disord 23:1256-61. 2008The movement disorder observed in four cases of ovarian teratoma associated encephalitis is described...
- Neuronal apoptosis does not play an important role in human rabies encephalitisAlan C Jackson
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
J Neurovirol 14:368-75. 2008It is generally accepted that there are not prominent features of neuronal cell death in rabies encephalitis. However, Hemachudha and coworkers recently reported widespread apoptosis in the central nervous system of several human rabies ..
- Chemokines are differentially expressed by astrocytes, microglia and inflammatory leukocytes in Toxoplasma encephalitis and critically regulated by interferon-gammaAndreas Strack
Abteilung für Neuropathologie, Universitat zu Koln, Joseph Stelzmann Str 9, 50931 Koln, Germany
Acta Neuropathol 103:458-68. 2002..defines the kinetics and cellular sources of T cell- and macrophage-attracting chemokines in murine Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) by ribonuclease protection assay, reverse transcription-PCR, in situ hybridization, and ..
- Raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) encephalitis: case report and field investigationS Y Park
Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0136, USA
Pediatrics 106:E56. 2000..We report a case of severe raccoon roundworm (B procyonis) encephalitis in a young child to illustrate the unique clinical, diagnostic, and treatment aspects, as well as public health ..
- NF-kappaB signaling in cerebral ischemiaD A Ridder
Pharmacological Institute, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 366, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Neuroscience 158:995-1006. 2009..Modulation of NF-kappaB signaling has the potential to interrupt multiple inflammatory and apoptotic mechanisms through one specific molecular target...
- Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures: case reports of this unusual post-encephalitic epilepsyYoshiaki Saito
Division of Child Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36 1 Nishi cho, Yonago 683 8504, Japan
Brain Dev 29:147-56. 2007We report on three acute encephalitis patients with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS)...
- Randomized phase II trial of atovaquone with pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ACTG 237/ANRS 039 Study. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 237/Agence Nationale de RechercheKeith Chirgwin
Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Brooklyn, NY, USA
Clin Infect Dis 34:1243-50. 2002..daily) as treatment for acute disease (for 6 weeks) and as maintenance therapy (for 42 weeks) for toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus...
- Epistasis in sporadic Alzheimer's diseaseOnofre Combarros
Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Marques de Valdecilla University Hospital, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain
Neurobiol Aging 30:1333-49. 2009..We conclude that epistasis is a crucial feature of complex diseases, that its study is a promising approach to the genetics of AD and that larger and more rigorous studies are needed to establish interactions...
- Autoantibodies to glutamate receptors can damage the brain in epilepsy, systemic lupus erythematosus and encephalitisMia Levite
School of Behavioral Sciences, Academic College of TLV Yaffo, Israel The Weizmann Institue of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Expert Rev Neurother 8:1141-60. 2008..to our attention, as they are found in many patients with epilepsy, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and encephalitis, and can unquestionably cause brain damage...
- Acanthamoeba encephalitisV Kaushal
Department of Microbiology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana 141 001, Punjab, India
Indian J Med Microbiol 26:182-4. 2008Central nervous system infection with free-living amoebae is rare. We present a fatal case of Acanthamoeba encephalitis in a 63-year-old female from India where acanthamoebae were demonstrated and cultured from CSF...
- A case of acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures, presenting autoantibody to glutamate receptor Gluepsilon2Hiromichi Ito
Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3 18 15, Kuramoto Cho, Tokushima 770 8503, Japan
Brain Dev 27:531-4. 2005..We diagnosed him as encephalitis/encephalopathy, and treated him with artificial respiration, thiamylal sodium, mild hypothermia therapy, ..
- Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation exacerbates tau pathology by a cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated pathway in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's diseaseMasashi Kitazawa
Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California Irvine, California 92697 4545, USA
J Neurosci 25:8843-53. 2005..Therefore, this study clearly demonstrates that microglial activation exacerbates key neuropathological features such as tangle formation...
- Challenge of the unknown. A systematic review of acute encephalitis in non-outbreak situationsJ Granerod
Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, Virus Reference Department, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, UK
Neurology 75:924-32. 2010The threat of emerging infections and recognition of novel immune-mediated forms of encephalitis has raised the profile of this condition in recent years. Incidence is poorly defined and most cases have an unknown cause...
- Brainstem encephalitis following influenza vaccination: favorable response to steroid treatmentRecai Turkoglu
Department of Neurology, Haydarpasa Numune State Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
Vaccine 27:7253-6. 2009..Our case implies that vaccination might be related with a wide range of clinical syndromes, including brainstem encephalitis.
- Nationwide survey of acute juvenile female non-herpetic encephalitis in Japan: relationship to anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitisSatoshi Kamei
Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo
Intern Med 48:673-9. 2009To study the incidence and clinical features of acute juvenile female non-herpetic encephalitis (AJFNHE) in Japan.
- Comparison of high and low doses of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for primary prevention of toxoplasmic encephalitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patientsE Ribera
Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital General Vall d Hebron, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
Clin Infect Dis 29:1461-6. 1999..61). These results indicate that high doses of co-trimoxazole appear to be more effective than low doses for lowering the risk of toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients and that rifampin therapy may reduce the efficacy of co-trimoxazole...
- Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis in a four-year-old girlRoberta Biancheri
Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, G Gaslini Institute and University of Genova, Largo G Gaslini 5, 16147 Genova, Italy
J Pediatr 156:332-4. 2010Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis is a recently identified autoimmune disorder...
- Cortical hypometabolism demonstrated by PET in relapsing NMDA receptor encephalitisSekhar C Pillai
Neuroimmunology Group, Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, The Children s Hospital at Westmead, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Pediatr Neurol 43:217-20. 2010N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a newly defined type of autoimmune encephalitis...
- Inhibition of the Membrane Fusion Proteins of Flaviviruses and AlphavirusesMargaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2007..and alphaviruses are spread by mosquito and tick vectors and cause severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever...
- 2nd International Pathogenesis of Rare Neuroimmunologic DisordersDouglas Kerr; Fiscal Year: 2006..NMO), optic neuritis (ON), multiple sclerosis (MS), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), Hashimoto?s encephalitis, Rasmussen?s encephalitis, paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PE), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric ..
- CHEMOKINE-MEDIATED NEUROPROTECTION AND REPAIR DURING WNV ENCEPHALITISROBYN SUE KLEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010..and their receptors in contributing to viral clearance, immunopathology and repair in a murine model of WNV encephalitis. Murine WNV infection is well-accepted flavivirus encephalitis model whereby subcutaneous infection with low ..
- Mechanisms of apoptosis in the central nervous systemKenneth Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2009Viral-induced encephalitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world...
- Innate immune evasion and/or antagonism by eastern equine encephalitis virusKATHERINE RYMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae, is classified in Category B of the NIH Priority Pathogens List, and as a high consequence livestock pathogen by the USDA because it is highly lethal for ..
- Invasion of California by West Nile VirusWilliam Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2007..Louis encephalitis virus [SLE] transmission provides a unique natural experiment to test the hypothesis that similarities in ..
- Characterization of the La Crosse Virus glycoprotein fusion peptideFrancisco Gonzalez Scarano; Fiscal Year: 2009La Crosse virus (LACV), a NIAID Category B priority pathogen, is a common cause of pediatric encephalitis and aseptic meningitis in areas of the Midwestern United States where its principal mosquito vector, Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) ..
- Characterization of the La Crosse Virus glycoprotein fusion peptideFrancisco Gonzalez Scarano; Fiscal Year: 2010La Crosse virus (LACV), a NIAID Category B priority pathogen, is a common cause of pediatric encephalitis and aseptic meningitis in areas of the Midwestern United States where its principal mosquito vector, Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) ..
- Replicon-based screening for inhibitors of alphavirusesPAUL OLIVO; Fiscal Year: 2005..We are particularly targeting the more pathogenic encephalitis-causing viruses from the alphavirus genus, such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine ..
- ACUTE ALPHAVIRUAL ENCEPHALITISDiane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007..are important causes of mosquito-borne encephalomyelitis and western, eastern and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses are considered category B agents of bioterrorist concern. VEEV has been weaponized...
- Novel Therapeutics for Neurotropic AlphavirusesDavid J Miller; Fiscal Year: 2010Neurotropic alphaviruses such as western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, cause serious and potentially fatal central nervous system infections in humans, and are considered NIAID ..
- Virus-Host Interactions that Lead to EpilepsyRobert S Fujinami; Fiscal Year: 2010Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can result in encephalitis. Viral encephalitis is a risk factor for epilepsy. Epilepsy has an incidence of about 1 to 3% and affects about 2...
- Virus-Host Interactions that Lead to EpilepsyRobert S Fujinami; Fiscal Year: 2011DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can result in encephalitis. Viral encephalitis is a risk factor for epilepsy. Epilepsy has an incidence of about 1 to 3% and affects about 2...
- MECHANISM OF LATENCY OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUSNigel Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2007Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) can cause a wide range of diseases including skin lesions which are common, encephalitis which is rare, an HSV infection of the eye which is a leading cause of blindness in the USA (400,000 cases)...
- ACUTE ALPHAVIRAL ENCEPHALITISDiane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 1999Alphaviruses, such as Eastern and Western equine encephalitis viruses, are important causes of mosquito-borne encephalitis in the Americas, and infected individuals have disease manifestations ranging from a mild febrile illness to fatal ..
- Identification and Analysis of Flavivirus Protease and RNA Helicase InhibitorsRadhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2009..These viruses, in addition to flu-like symptoms, can cause hemorrhagic fevers (YFV and DEN) or encephalitis and/or meningo-encephalitis in susceptible humans...
- Modeling and empirical studies of arboviruses in FloridaCYNTHIA LORD; Fiscal Year: 2007..In 2002, there were over 4000 human cases of West Nile (WN) fever or encephalitis in the US. Other arboviruses such as St...
- Identification and Analysis of Flavivirus Protease and RNA Helicase InhibitorsRadhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2007..These viruses, in addition to flu-like symptoms, can cause hemorrhagic fevers (YFV and DEN) or encephalitis and/or meningo-encephalitis in susceptible humans...
- MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEINMargaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2006Alphaviruses and flaviviruses are the causative agents of severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis, polyarthritis, and dengue fever, with millions of cases in humans per year...
- Immunity to brain Ma proteins: A remote effect of cancerJosep Dalmau; Fiscal Year: 2010..We identified this disorder in men with testicular tumors and brainstem and limbic encephalitis (LE) who developed antibodies to neuronal proteins expressed by the tumors...
- Immunity to brain Ma proteins: A remote effect of cancerJosep Dalmau; Fiscal Year: 2009..We identified this disorder in men with testicular tumors and brainstem and limbic encephalitis (LE) who developed antibodies to neuronal proteins expressed by the tumors...
- ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITISScott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2005DESCRIPTION: Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging arboviral disease and a public and veterinary health threat throughout the Americas, including the United States...
- MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEINMargaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2010Alphaviruses and flaviviruses cause severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis, polyarthritis, and dengue fever, with millions of cases in humans per year...
- MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEINMargaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2009Alphaviruses and flaviviruses cause severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis, polyarthritis, and dengue fever, with millions of cases in humans per year...
- YELLOW FEVER 17D-BASED CHIMERIC FLAVIVIRUS VACCINESThomas Chambers; Fiscal Year: 2001Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses are important causes of human disease on a global scale and vaccine development against both viruses remains a public health priority...
- YELLOW FEVER 17D-BASED CHIMERIC FLAVIVIRUS VACCINESWilliam Wold; Fiscal Year: 2002Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses are important causes of human disease on a global scale and vaccine development against both viruses remains a public health priority...
- Viral Encephalitis, Chemokines and SleepLARRY D contact SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010..phase after inoculation with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a well- established animal model of viral encephalitis, and to determine the relationship these changes have to viral- induced changes in profiles of chemokines and ..
- Stable Micronized Vaccines Against Smallpox and Japanese EncephalitisVICTOR BRONSHTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2007..In recent years, mosquito-borne infections are reemerging or emerging worldwide at an alarming rate. Japanese Encephalitis is a potential agent of bioterrorism; it has been designated as Category C Priority Pathogen...