encephalitis

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Brain inflammation in epilepsy: experimental and clinical evidence
    Annamaria Vezzani
    Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy
    Epilepsia 46:1724-43. 2005
  2. ncbi Toll-like receptor 3 mediates West Nile virus entry into the brain causing lethal encephalitis
    Tian Wang
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Med 10:1366-73. 2004
  3. pmc Paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Ann Neurol 61:25-36. 2007
  4. pmc The frequency of autoimmune N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis surpasses that of individual viral etiologies in young individuals enrolled in the California Encephalitis Project
    Mary S Gable
    Communicable Disease and Emergency Response Branch, Division of Communicable Disease Control, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:899-904. 2012
  5. pmc Clinical experience and laboratory investigations in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Lancet Neurol 10:63-74. 2011
  6. pmc Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Lancet Neurol 7:1091-8. 2008
  7. ncbi Interleukin 27 negatively regulates the development of interleukin 17-producing T helper cells during chronic inflammation of the central nervous system
    Jason S Stumhofer
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6008, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:937-45. 2006
  8. ncbi Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease and prion disease
    P Eikelenboom
    Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Glia 40:232-9. 2002
  9. ncbi Inflammation in ischemic brain injury: timing is important
    Jasna Kriz
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite Laval, 2705 Boulevard Laurier, Quebec, QC, G1V4G2, Canada
    Crit Rev Neurobiol 18:145-57. 2006
  10. pmc Cellular and synaptic mechanisms of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis
    Ethan G Hughes
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Neurosci 30:5866-75. 2010

Detail Information

Publications282 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Brain inflammation in epilepsy: experimental and clinical evidence
    Annamaria Vezzani
    Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy
    Epilepsia 46:1724-43. 2005
    ..The elucidation of this aspect may open new perspectives for the pharmacologic treatment of seizures...
  2. ncbi Toll-like receptor 3 mediates West Nile virus entry into the brain causing lethal encephalitis
    Tian Wang
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Med 10:1366-73. 2004
    ..Collectively, WNV infection leads to a Tlr3-dependent inflammatory response, which is involved in brain penetration of the virus and neuronal injury...
  3. pmc Paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Ann Neurol 61:25-36. 2007
    To report the autoantigens of a new category of treatment-responsive paraneoplastic encephalitis.
  4. pmc The frequency of autoimmune N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis surpasses that of individual viral etiologies in young individuals enrolled in the California Encephalitis Project
    Mary S Gable
    Communicable Disease and Emergency Response Branch, Division of Communicable Disease Control, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:899-904. 2012
    In 2007, the California Encephalitis Project (CEP), which was established to study the epidemiology of encephalitis, began identifying cases of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis...
  5. pmc Clinical experience and laboratory investigations in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Lancet Neurol 10:63-74. 2011
    Since its discovery in 2007, the encephalitis associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has entered the mainstream of neurology and other disciplines...
  6. pmc Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Lancet Neurol 7:1091-8. 2008
    A severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1-NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor was recently identified...
  7. ncbi Interleukin 27 negatively regulates the development of interleukin 17-producing T helper cells during chronic inflammation of the central nervous system
    Jason S Stumhofer
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6008, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:937-45. 2006
    ..IL-17)-producing T helper cells (T(H)-17 cells) associated with autoimmunity, such as experimental autoimmune encephalitis, but relatively little is known about the cytokines that antagonize T(H)-17 cell effector responses...
  8. ncbi Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease and prion disease
    P Eikelenboom
    Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Glia 40:232-9. 2002
    ....
  9. ncbi Inflammation in ischemic brain injury: timing is important
    Jasna Kriz
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite Laval, 2705 Boulevard Laurier, Quebec, QC, G1V4G2, Canada
    Crit Rev Neurobiol 18:145-57. 2006
    ..In addition, we discuss a potential role of post-ischemic inflammation in brain regeneration and modulation of synaptic plasticity...
  10. pmc Cellular and synaptic mechanisms of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis
    Ethan G Hughes
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Neurosci 30:5866-75. 2010
    We recently described a severe, potentially lethal, but treatment-responsive encephalitis that associates with autoantibodies to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and results in behavioral symptoms similar to those obtained with models of genetic ..
  11. pmc Diverse roles of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in neuroinflammation and cerebral ischemia
    E Candelario-Jalil
    Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, MSC10 5620, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Neuroscience 158:983-94. 2009
    ..Inhibitors of metalloproteinases are available, but balancing the beneficial and detrimental effects of these agents remains a challenge...
  12. pmc A new model for Hendra virus encephalitis in the mouse
    Johanna Dups
    CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Australia
    PLoS ONE 7:e40308. 2012
    ..HeV) infection in humans is characterized by an influenza like illness, which may progress to pneumonia or encephalitis and lead to death...
  13. pmc Analysis of behavior and trafficking of dendritic cells within the brain during toxoplasmic encephalitis
    Beena John
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002246. 2011
    Under normal conditions the immune system has limited access to the brain; however, during toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), large numbers of T cells and APCs accumulate within this site...
  14. ncbi Rat brain arachidonic acid metabolism is increased by a 6-day intracerebral ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide
    Thad A Rosenberger
    Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1582, USA
    J Neurochem 88:1168-78. 2004
    ..These observations suggest that selective alterations in brain arachidonic acid metabolism involving cytosolic and secretory PLA2 contribute to early pathology in neuroinflammation...
  15. ncbi A critical role for IL-10 in limiting inflammation during toxoplasmic encephalitis
    Emma H Wilson
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6008, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 165:63-74. 2005
    ..To address this paradox, the production and effect of IL-10 in the brain during toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) was investigated...
  16. pmc Encephalitis and antibodies to synaptic and neuronal cell surface proteins
    Eric Lancaster
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Neurology 77:179-89. 2011
    The identification of encephalitis associated with antibodies against cell surface and synaptic proteins, although recent, has already had a substantial impact in clinical neurology and neuroscience...
  17. ncbi Causes of encephalitis and differences in their clinical presentations in England: a multicentre, population-based prospective study
    Julia Granerod
    Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:835-44. 2010
    b>Encephalitis has many causes, but for most patients the cause is unknown. We aimed to establish the cause and identify the clinical differences between causes in patients with encephalitis in England.
  18. ncbi Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation exacerbates tau pathology by a cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated pathway in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease
    Masashi Kitazawa
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California Irvine, California 92697 4545, USA
    J Neurosci 25:8843-53. 2005
    ..Therefore, this study clearly demonstrates that microglial activation exacerbates key neuropathological features such as tangle formation...
  19. ncbi Disrupted surface cross-talk between NMDA and Ephrin-B2 receptors in anti-NMDA encephalitis
    Lenka Mikasova
    CNRS, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neurosciences UMR 5297, Universite de Bordeaux, 146 rue Leo Saignat, Bordeaux, France
    Brain 135:1606-21. 2012
    ..The most frequent synaptic autoimmune encephalitis is associated with autoantibodies against extracellular domains of the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate ..
  20. ncbi Infectious encephalitis in france in 2007: a national prospective study
    Alexandra Mailles
    Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice, Grenoble, France
    Clin Infect Dis 49:1838-47. 2009
    b>Encephalitis is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, but its cause remains largely unknown...
  21. ncbi Neuropathology and pathogenesis of encephalitis following amyloid-beta immunization in Alzheimer's disease
    Isidre Ferrer
    Servei Anatomia Patològica, Institut de Neuropatologia, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain
    Brain Pathol 14:11-20. 2004
    ..Release of antigenic peptides derived from beta-amyloid processing may enhance T-cell inflammatory responses accounting for the meningoencephalitis following amyloid-beta peptide immunization...
  22. ncbi The role for intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of West Nile virus encephalitis
    Michael Haley
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Warren Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:e88-90. 2003
    ..IVIG) with high titers to West Nile virus was used as an adjuvant therapy for a patient with West Nile virus encephalitis that did not respond to supportive care...
  23. pmc Increased activation of Iba1+ microglia in pediatric epilepsy patients with Rasmussen's encephalitis compared with cortical dysplasia and tuberous sclerosis complex
    Martin Wirenfeldt
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 34:432-40. 2009
    Microgliosis is prominent in Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE), a disease with severe seizure activity. However, it is unclear if microglial activation is similar with different histopathologic substrates...
  24. pmc Encephalitis caused by flaviviruses
    L Turtle
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, The University of Liverpool, The Apex Building, 8 West Derby Street, Liverpool L69 7BE, UK
    QJM 105:219-23. 2012
    ..The genus includes several aetiological agents of encephalitis, the most significant being Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus...
  25. pmc Clinical and prognostic features among children with acute encephalitis syndrome in Nepal; a retrospective study
    Ajit Rayamajhi
    Department of Paediatrics, Kanti Children s Hospital, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu, Nepal
    BMC Infect Dis 11:294. 2011
    Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is commonly seen among hospitalized Nepali children. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) accounts for approximately one-quarter of cases...
  26. ncbi Review: The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 in neuroimmunity--a tale of conflict and conundrum
    M Muller
    School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 36:368-87. 2010
    ..The results of these studies have proven to be sometimes surprising and other times contradictory. Here we discuss the likely more subtle and perhaps divergent roles for these chemokines in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases...
  27. ncbi Clinical analysis of anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, 3 W Gates, Division of Neuro Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Brain 127:1831-44. 2004
    Increasing experience indicates that anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis differs from classical paraneoplastic limbic or brainstem encephalitis, and therefore may be unrecognized...
  28. pmc Cannabinoid receptor stimulation is anti-inflammatory and improves memory in old rats
    Yannick Marchalant
    Department of Psychology, Psychology Building, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 29:1894-901. 2008
    ..Stimulation of cannabinoid receptors may provide clinical benefits in age-related diseases that are associated with brain inflammation, such as Alzheimer's disease...
  29. ncbi Increased CXCL-13 levels in human African trypanosomiasis meningo-encephalitis
    Bertrand Courtioux
    Institut de Neurologie Tropicale, Universite de Limoges, Limoges, France
    Trop Med Int Health 14:529-34. 2009
    To determine the role of the B-cell attracting chemokine CXCL-13, which may initiate B-cell trafficking and IgM production in diagnosing HAT meningo-encephalitis.
  30. ncbi TNF alpha potentiates glutamate neurotoxicity by inhibiting glutamate uptake in organotypic brain slice cultures: neuroprotection by NF kappa B inhibition
    Jian Y Zou
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, CB 7178 Thurston Bowles Building, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7178, USA
    Brain Res 1034:11-24. 2005
    ..TNF alpha potentiation of glutamate neurotoxicity through the blockade of glutamate transporter activity may represent an important mechanism of neurodegeneration associated with neuroinflammation...
  31. ncbi Neuroinflammation alters the hippocampal pattern of behaviorally induced Arc expression
    Susanna Rosi
    Department of Neuroscience and Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    J Neurosci 25:723-31. 2005
    ..This activity-related alteration in Arc expression induced by neuroinflammation may contribute to the cognitive deficits found in diseases associated with inflammation, such as AD...
  32. pmc Human Hendra virus encephalitis associated with equine outbreak, Australia, 2008
    Elliott G Playford
    Pathology Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:219-23. 2010
    ..an incubation period of 9-16 days, influenza-like illnesses developed in the 2 persons before progressing to encephalitis; 1 died. Both patients were given ribavirin...
  33. pmc The relation between inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis brains
    Josa M Frischer
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 4, A 1090 Wien, Austria
    Brain 132:1175-89. 2009
    ..It further indicates that the disease processes of multiple sclerosis may die out in aged patients with long-standing disease...
  34. ncbi Therapeutic approaches to inflammation in neurodegenerative disease
    Andis Klegeris
    Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Curr Opin Neurol 20:351-7. 2007
    ..Here we review recent advances in our understanding of one such disorder, Parkinson's disease, in which anti-inflammatory drugs are now becoming a new therapeutic focus...
  35. ncbi Beyond viruses: clinical profiles and etiologies associated with encephalitis
    C A Glaser
    Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, California Department of Health Services, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:1565-77. 2006
    b>Encephalitis is a complex syndrome, and its etiology is often not identified...
  36. ncbi IL-33 receptor (T1/ST2) signalling is necessary to prevent the development of encephalitis in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii
    Leigh A Jones
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Eur J Immunol 40:426-36. 2010
    ..This study provides the first evidence of a specific role for IL-33 receptor signalling in the brain as well as highlighting the requirement of this mechanism in limiting infection with an intracellular parasite...
  37. pmc Neuronal apoptosis is mediated by CXCL10 overexpression in simian human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis
    Yongjun Sui
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, Marion Merrell Dow Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA
    Am J Pathol 164:1557-66. 2004
    ..and its receptor, CXCR3, in the neurons in the brains of macaques with simian human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis. Using human fetal brain cultures, we showed that treatment of these cells with either SHIV89...
  38. pmc The immune response to herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in susceptible mice is a major cause of central nervous system pathology resulting in fatal encephalitis
    Patric Lundberg
    Division of Virology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 E Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    J Virol 82:7078-88. 2008
    This study was undertaken to investigate possible immune mechanisms in fatal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) after HSV-1 corneal inoculation...
  39. ncbi Astrocytes are a specific immunological target in Rasmussen's encephalitis
    Jan Bauer
    Division of Neuroimmunology, Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 4, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Ann Neurol 62:67-80. 2007
    The current histopathological criteria of Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) include the presence of T-cell-dominated inflammation, microglial activation, neuronal loss, and astrocytic activation...
  40. ncbi West Nile virus-associated encephalitis in recipients of renal and pancreas transplants: case series and literature review
    Kadiyala V Ravindra
    Department of Surgery, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 3285, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 38:1257-60. 2004
    ..We also review the literature on West Nile fever in organ transplant recipients. In areas where West Nile virus is endemic, one must have a high index of suspicion for the illness when dealing with fever in transplant recipients...
  41. pmc Lethal encephalitis in myeloid differentiation factor 88-deficient mice infected with herpes simplex virus 1
    Daniel S Mansur
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brasil
    Am J Pathol 166:1419-26. 2005
    ..simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a large DNA virus from the Herpesviridae family, is the major cause of sporadic lethal encephalitis and blindness in humans...
  42. ncbi The management of encephalitis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America
    Allan R Tunkel
    Dept of Medicine, Monmouth Medical Center, Long Branch, New Jersey 07740, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 47:303-27. 2008
    Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with encephalitis were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America...
  43. ncbi Selective modulation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokine expression and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways by dibutyryl-cAMP in BV2 microglial cells
    Moon Sook Woo
    Department of Neuroscience, Ewha Institute of Neuroscience, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, 70 Jongno 6 ga, Jongno gu, Seoul 110 783, South Korea
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 113:86-96. 2003
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that cAMP modulates microglia activation in a diverse and complex manner...
  44. ncbi Importance of CD8(+)Vbeta8(+) T cells in IFN-gamma-mediated prevention of toxoplasmic encephalitis in genetically resistant BALB/c mice
    Xisheng Wang
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 25:338-44. 2005
    ..protective Toxoplasma gondii antigens and produces interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) for prevention of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), we found T cell receptor Vbeta8(+) cells to be the most frequent IFN-gamma-producing population ..
  45. ncbi Pregnancy outcome following infections by coxsackie, echo, measles, mumps, hepatitis, polio and encephalitis viruses
    Asher Ornoy
    The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Jerusalem Institute of Child Development, Israeli Ministry of Health, Jerusalem
    Reprod Toxicol 21:446-57. 2006
    ..are discussed: coxsackie and echoviruses, measles and mumps, polioviruses, Japanese and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses, West Nile virus and hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D and E...
  46. ncbi Prevalence, associated factors, and prognostic determinants of AIDS-related toxoplasmic encephalitis in the era of advanced highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Andrea Antinori
    Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive Lazzaro Spallanzani, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Rome, Italy
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1681-91. 2004
    Characteristics, associated factors, and survival probability of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in the era of advanced highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have not been fully clarified.
  47. ncbi Patterns of gene dysregulation in the frontal cortex of patients with HIV encephalitis
    Eliezer Masliah
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 6232, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 157:163-75. 2004
    The neurodegenerative process in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) is associated with extensive damage to the dendritic and synaptic structure that often leads to cognitive impairment...
  48. ncbi NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis
    Sarosh R Irani
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Level 6, West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford OX39DS, UK
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 11:298-304. 2011
    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody encephalitis is a recently described immunotherapy-responsive panencephalitis with characteristic features that include a psychiatric onset and a later movement disorder...
  49. ncbi Destruction of neurons by cytotoxic T cells: a new pathogenic mechanism in Rasmussen's encephalitis
    Christian G Bien
    Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
    Ann Neurol 51:311-8. 2002
    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a progressive epileptic disorder characterized by unihemispheric lymphocytic infiltrates, microglial nodules, and neuronal loss leading to the destruction of the affected hemisphere...
  50. ncbi A substantial number of Rasmussen syndrome patients have increased IgG, CD4+ T cells, TNFalpha, and Granzyme B in CSF
    Yukitoshi Takahashi
    National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Shizuoka, Japan
    Epilepsia 50:1419-31. 2009
    ..We studied the immunologic molecules in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and discussed their evolutional changes in pediatric patients with Rasmussen syndrome (RS)...
  51. ncbi Diagnosis and staging of Rasmussen's encephalitis by serial MRI and histopathology
    C G Bien
    Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Germany
    Neurology 58:250-7. 2002
    To correlate MRI and histopathologic findings in patients with Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE).
  52. ncbi Extracellular proteolysis in brain injury and inflammation: role for plasminogen activators and matrix metalloproteinases
    Eng H Lo
    Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Neurosci Res 69:1-9. 2002
    ..As the mechanisms of deleterious vs. potentially beneficial PA and MMP actions become better defined, it is hoped that new therapeutic targets will emerge for ameliorating the sequelae of brain injury and inflammation...
  53. pmc N-methyl-D-aspartate antibody encephalitis: temporal progression of clinical and paraclinical observations in a predominantly non-paraneoplastic disorder of both sexes
    Sarosh R Irani
    Department of Clinical Neurology, L6 West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Brain 133:1655-67. 2010
    ..Four patients, who only had temporal lobe epilepsy without oligoclonal bands, may represent restriction to the first stage...
  54. ncbi Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis: clinical features of 62 cases and a subgroup associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome
    Masaaki Odaka
    Department of Neurology, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Shimotsuga, Tochigi, Japan
    Brain 126:2279-90. 2003
    ..This condition has been named Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE). One patient had gross flaccid weakness in the four limbs...
  55. pmc Analysis of complement and plasma cells in the brain of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis
    E Martinez-Hernandez
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Neurology 77:589-93. 2011
    Most patients with anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis have intrathecal synthesis of antibodies, which cause a decrease of cell surface and synaptic NMDAR...
  56. ncbi Cannabinoids attenuate the effects of aging upon neuroinflammation and neurogenesis
    Yannick Marchalant
    Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 34:300-7. 2009
    ..Our results provide insight into the role of the endocannabinoid and vanilloid systems upon two different and detrimental aspects of normal and pathological aging, chronic neuroinflammation and decline in neurogenesis...
  57. pmc Altered expression of apoptotic factors and synaptic markers in postmortem brain from bipolar disorder patients
    Hyung Wook Kim
    Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 37:596-603. 2010
    ..These differences may contribute to brain atrophy and progressive cognitive changes in BD...
  58. pmc A dual role for microglia in promoting tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) expression in glial cells in response to neuroinflammatory stimuli
    Jennifer V Welser-Alves
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 8:61. 2011
    ..As such, it is important to define the TIMP expression profile in these cells, as well as the mechanisms of regulation by neuroinflammatory stimuli...
  59. ncbi Autoimmune and inflammatory mechanisms of CNS damage
    Minesh Kapadia
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Prog Neurobiol 95:301-33. 2011
    ....
  60. ncbi Cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and epoxygenases in CNS: their role and involvement in neurological disorders
    John W Phillis
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Brain Res Rev 52:201-43. 2006
    ..Here, we review present knowledge of the functions of cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and epoxygenases in brain and their association with neurodegenerative diseases...
  61. ncbi Retrospective analysis of NMDA receptor antibodies in encephalitis of unknown origin
    H Pruss
    Charite University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neurology, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Neurology 75:1735-9. 2010
    Anti-NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe disorder that occurs in association with antibodies to the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR and results in a characteristic syndrome.
  62. ncbi The TIMPs tango with MMPs and more in the central nervous system
    Stephen J Crocker
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci Res 75:1-11. 2004
    ....
  63. ncbi Redox regulation of glial inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide and interferongamma
    Siddharama Pawate
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Neurosci Res 77:540-51. 2004
    ....
  64. ncbi The pathology of Rasmussen syndrome: stages of cortical involvement and neuropathological studies in 45 hemispherectomies
    Carlos A Pardo
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    Epilepsia 45:516-26. 2004
    ..To characterize the profile of cortical involvement in RS, we studied the pathological changes in the cerebral cortex of 45 hemispherectomies performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1985 and 2002...
  65. ncbi Elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in cerebrospinal fluid of autistic children
    Michael G Chez
    Department of Neurology, Rosalind Franklin University, and the Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, IL, USA
    Pediatr Neurol 36:361-5. 2007
    ..More controlled study of this potentially important observation may prove valuable...
  66. ncbi The dynamics of the LPS triggered inflammatory response of murine microglia under different culture and in vivo conditions
    Søren Lund
    H Lundbeck A S, Valby, Denmark
    J Neuroimmunol 180:71-87. 2006
    ..Although most inflammatory genes induced in vitro were transferable to our in vivo model, the observed discrepancy for some genes potentially represents regulatory factors present in the central nervous system (CNS) but not in vitro...
  67. pmc Investigations of caspr2, an autoantigen of encephalitis and neuromyotonia
    Eric Lancaster
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 19104, USA
    Ann Neurol 69:303-11. 2011
    ..clinical and immunological investigations of contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2), an autoantigen of encephalitis and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH) previously attributed to voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC).
  68. ncbi Activated glia induce neuron death via MAP kinase signaling pathways involving JNK and p38
    Zhong Xie
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, and Drug Discovery Program, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 E Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Glia 45:170-9. 2004
    ..These results show that p38 and JNK MAPKs, but not ERK1/2 MAPK, are important signal transduction pathways contributing to glia-induced neuron death...
  69. ncbi High dietary fat induces NADPH oxidase-associated oxidative stress and inflammation in rat cerebral cortex
    Xiaochun Zhang
    Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Graduate Neuroscience Program, University of Wyoming, Dept 3375, 10, 000 E University Avenue, Laramie, WY 82071 3375, USA
    Exp Neurol 191:318-25. 2005
    ....
  70. ncbi Absence of the chemokine receptor CCR2 protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice
    Oliver B Dimitrijevic
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0532, USA
    Stroke 38:1345-53. 2007
    ..This study evaluated the role of the CCL2/CCR2 axis in regulating postischemic inflammation, BBB breakdown, and vasogenic edema formation...
  71. ncbi Tickborne encephalitis in an area of high endemicity in lithuania: disease severity and long-term prognosis
    Aukse Mickiene
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Kaunas University of Medicine, 3021 Kaunas, Lithuania
    Clin Infect Dis 35:650-8. 2002
    ..nervous system (CNS) infections who were treated during a 1-year period, all 133 patients with tickborne encephalitis (TBE) were included in a prospective follow-up study. TBE presented as mild (meningeal) in 43...
  72. pmc Exaggerated sickness behavior and brain proinflammatory cytokine expression in aged mice in response to intracerebroventricular lipopolysaccharide
    Y Huang
    Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics and Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University, 333 W 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 29:1744-53. 2008
    ..Collectively, these data establish that activation of the central innate immune system leads to exacerbated neuroinflammation and prolonged sickness behavior in aged as compared to adult mice...
  73. pmc Neuroimmune mechanisms of cytokine-induced depression: current theories and novel treatment strategies
    Jennifer M Loftis
    Research and Development Service, Behavioral Health and Clinical Neurosciences Division, Portland VA Medical Center, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Rd, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 37:519-33. 2010
    ..Future research should aim to characterize these depression-related symptom constellations or syndromes better with the goal of optimizing treatment strategies...
  74. pmc Imaging neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease with radiolabeled arachidonic acid and PET
    Giuseppe Esposito
    Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Nucl Med 49:1414-21. 2008
    ..Data also indicate that neuroinflammation contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the basis of these observations, K* for AA was hypothesized to be elevated in patients with AD...
  75. ncbi Protection of mice against dengue 2 virus encephalitis by immunization with the dengue 2 virus non-structural glycoprotein NS1
    J J Schlesinger
    J Gen Virol 68:853-7. 1987
    ..Induction of a protective immune response by NS1 suggests that it be considered for incorporation into possible synthetic or recombinant DNA DEN vaccines...
  76. pmc The role of interleukin-1 in neuroinflammation and Alzheimer disease: an evolving perspective
    Solomon S Shaftel
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 5:7. 2008
    ..Potentially adaptive functions of IL-1 elevation in AD warrant further mechanistic studies, and provide evidence that enhancement of these effects may help to alleviate the pathologic burden of disease...
  77. ncbi Anti-inflammatory mechanism of ginseng saponins in activated microglia
    Jin Sun Park
    Department of Neuroscience and Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    J Neuroimmunol 209:40-9. 2009
    ..Therefore, the inhibition of microglial activation by ginseng saponins may a good potential therapeutic modality for neurodegenerative diseases...
  78. ncbi The role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in CNS disease
    T M Kauppinen
    Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Neuroscience 145:1267-72. 2007
    ..PARP-1 activation has also been identified in Alzheimer's disease and in experimental allergic encephalitis, but the role of PARP-1 in these disorders remains to be established.
  79. pmc TNF signaling inhibition in the CNS: implications for normal brain function and neurodegenerative disease
    Melissa K McCoy
    Department of Physiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390 9040, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 5:45. 2008
    ....
  80. ncbi Apoptotic PC12 cells exposing phosphatidylserine promote the production of anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecules by microglial cells
    Roberta De Simone
    Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 62:208-16. 2003
    ....
  81. pmc Inflammation, microglia, and Alzheimer's disease
    Brent Cameron
    Alzheimer Research Laboratory, Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 37:503-9. 2010
    ....
  82. ncbi Neurogenic inflammation is associated with development of edema and functional deficits following traumatic brain injury in rats
    A J Nimmo
    School of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
    Neuropeptides 38:40-7. 2004
    ....
  83. pmc Microglia and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor/uPA system in innate brain inflammation
    Orla Cunningham
    FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, 20139 Milan, Italy
    Glia 57:1802-14. 2009
    ..These data are novel and suggest much wider involvement of the uPAR/uPA system in CNS function and pathology than previously supposed...
  84. pmc Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in children and adolescents
    Nicole R Florance
    Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Ann Neurol 66:11-8. 2009
    To report the clinical features of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in patients < or = 18 years old.
  85. ncbi Acute stress increases permeability of the blood-brain-barrier through activation of brain mast cells
    P Esposito
    Departments of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Brain Res 888:117-127. 2001
    ..These results expand the pathophysiology of mast cells and implicate them in CNS disorders, that may possibly be induced or exacerbated by stress...
  86. ncbi Microglia, major player in the brain inflammation: their roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease
    Yoon Seong Kim
    Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Exp Mol Med 38:333-47. 2006
    ..In the last part, microglial activation and their role in PD are discussed in depth...
  87. ncbi Dengue infection in patients presenting with neurological manifestations in a dengue endemic population
    S T Jackson
    Department of Microbiology, The University of the West Indies, Kingston 7, Jamaica, West Indies
    West Indian Med J 57:373-6. 2008
    ..Clinical manifestations among dengue positive CNS cases included encephalitis in 51.8% (28/54), meningitis in 33.3% (18/54), seizures in 11...
  88. pmc APOE genotype-specific differences in the innate immune response
    Michael P Vitek
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 30:1350-60. 2009
    ..Overall, these data emphasize the important role of apolipoprotein E and of the APOE genotype on the immune responses that are evident in most, if not all, neurological disease...
  89. ncbi Causality in acute encephalitis: defining aetiologies
    J Granerod
    Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 138:783-800. 2010
    Defining the causal relationship between a microbe and encephalitis is complex. Over 100 different infectious agents may cause encephalitis, often as one of the rarer manifestations of infection...
  90. ncbi CNS dendritic cells: critical participants in CNS inflammation?
    Eileen J McMahon
    Department of Biology, Westmont College, 955 La Paz Rd, Santa Barbara, CA 93108, United States
    Neurochem Int 49:195-203. 2006
    ..This review will summarize DC subsets and function, overview the current research on DCs in the healthy and inflamed CNS, and address discrepancies between experimental studies...
  91. pmc LPS- induced inflammation exacerbates phospho-tau pathology in rTg4510 mice
    Daniel C Lee
    Byrd Alzheimer s Institute, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 7:56. 2010
    ....
  92. pmc Neuroinflammation and the plasticity-related immediate-early gene Arc
    Susanna Rosi
    Brain and Spinal Injury Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 25:S39-49. 2011
    ..This review discusses the use of Arc expression during activation of the innate immune system as a valid marker of altered plasticity and a predictor of cognitive dysfunction...
  93. pmc Neuroinflammation is associated with changes in glial mGluR5 expression and the development of neonatal excitotoxic lesions
    Janelle Drouin-Ouellet
    Centre de Recherche du CHUL CHUQ, Axe Neurosciences, RC 9800, 2705 Boulevard Laurier, Quebec, QC, Cananda, G1V 4G2
    Glia 59:188-99. 2011
    ....
  94. ncbi Two patients with acute rotavirus encephalitis associated with cerebellar signs and symptoms
    Satoru Kobayashi
    Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    Eur J Pediatr 169:1287-91. 2010
    ..Recently several patients with acute encephalitis/encephalopathy due to rotavirus associated with cerebellar signs and symptoms have been reported...
  95. pmc Pathogenesis of encephalitis induced in newborn mice by virulent and avirulent strains of Sindbis virus
    L A Sherman
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Virol 64:2041-6. 1990
    ..This lack of response does not lead to tolerance and persistent infection but rather to late virus clearance whenever the immune response is initiated...
  96. ncbi The role of astrocytes in the immunopathogenesis of toxoplasmic encephalitis
    Emma H Wilson
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6008, USA
    Int J Parasitol 34:543-8. 2004
    ..rarely leads to disease but in the immunocompromised host reactivation of these cysts can lead to toxoplasmic encephalitis. It is known that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are important in preventing reactivation of the parasite, ..
  97. ncbi In vitro correlates of Ld-restricted resistance to toxoplasmic encephalitis and their critical dependence on parasite strain
    Jennifer J Johnson
    University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    J Immunol 169:966-73. 2002
    Resistance to murine toxoplasmic encephalitis has been precisely and definitively mapped to the L(d) class I gene. Consistent with this, CD8(+) T cells can adoptively transfer resistance to toxoplasmic encephalitis...
  98. ncbi Neuropathogenesis of naturally occurring encephalitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in ruminants
    Anna Oevermann
    Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    Brain Pathol 20:378-90. 2010
    ..This study investigates the neuropathogenesis of listeric encephalitis in over 200 natural cases in cattle, sheep and goats by analyzing anatomical distribution, severity, bacterial ..
  99. ncbi Methamphetamine stimulates interferon inducible genes in HIV infected brain
    Ian Everall
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0603, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 170:158-71. 2005
    ..To study the synergism of HIV and methamphetamine...
  100. ncbi Epstein-Barr virus infections of the central nervous system
    Hiroshi Fujimoto
    First Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume 830 0011
    Intern Med 42:33-40. 2003
    ..Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a lymphotropic herpes virus causing infectious mononucleosis (IM), also causes various central nervous system (CNS) infections. In the present study, EBV CNS infections were investigated...
  101. pmc Rift Valley fever encephalitis
    Abdulrahman A Alrajhi
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:554-5. 2004

Research Grants73

  1. Regulation of HSV-1 Gene Expression and Replication by Nuclear Hormone Receptors
    SHAOCHUNG VICTOR HSIA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the most common viral infections affecting humans from mild cold sores to severe ocular keratitis and deadly encephalitis. The virus establishes a life-long latent infection within neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG)...
  2. Statin modulation of immunotherapy for Alzheimer disease
    Jun Tan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This will be tested by comparing behavior and brain health in several mouse groups including: A( vaccinated (alone) and those treated with lovastatin plus A( vaccination. ..
  3. Genomics of Antiviral Responses of Anopheles gambiae Against O'nyong-nyong Virus
    Young S Hong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Other mosquito-borne viruses (e.g., eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, La Crosse, and St. Louis encephalitis) infect thousands of people annually...
  4. Novel DNA-Launched Attenuated Vaccine for VEE Virus
    PETER M PUSHKO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a dangerous, NIH/NIAID category B human pathogen and a potential bioterrorism threat...
  5. The Neuroimmunology of Viral Infection
    DANIEL J CARR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..keratits, the leading cause of infectious corneal blindness in the industrialized world, and frank sporadic encephalitis, a rare but debilitating disease that can result in death...
  6. Identification and Analysis of Flavivirus Protease and RNA Helicase Inhibitors
    Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These viruses, in addition to flu-like symptoms, can cause hemorrhagic fevers (YFV and DEN) or encephalitis and/or meningo-encephalitis in susceptible humans...
  7. Studying the effects of vitamin D on FOXP3 and IL-17 expression in human CD4+ T c
    Insoo Kang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In fact, VD3 supplementation in patients with MS and mice with experimental allergic encephalitis (EAE, animal model of MS) reduced their disease...
  8. Viral and Host Determinants of New World Alphaviral Entry
    ASIM AMINSHARIF AHMED; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is one of the most highly pathogenic viruses in humans with 35-50% mortality and is an actively reemerging public health threat...
  9. Hospital - Based Surveillance of Acute Febrile Illness in Western Ghat Region of
    ARUNKUMAR GOVINDAKARNAVAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and Viruses ( KFD, Dengue, Japanese Encephalitis, West Nile Virus, Chikungunya virus, Tick borne Encephalitis virus, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus, ..
  10. The Role of Interleukin-10 During Fatal Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis
    KIRSTEN KULCSAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Sindbis virus (SV), the prototypic alphavirus, is related to Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalitis viruses, which cause seasonal outbreaks of encephalitis in the Americas...
  11. N-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) for the Treatment of Herpes and Pox Virus Infecti
    Aquilur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..High oral bioavailability (80-90%) in mice, rats and dogs 9) Crosses the blood-brain barrier to eliminate HSV-2 encephalitis in mice, in contrast to a lack of efficacy f ACV 10) No toxicity in dogs administered N-MCT orally on a daily ..
  12. Mechanisms of virus-induced injury in the brain and spinal cord
    Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Apoptosis is an established mechanism of virus-induced cell death during viral encephalitis and occurs in the brain following experimental infection with a wide variety of viruses...
  13. Canonical Transient Receptor Potential (TRPC) subfamily function in Hippocampus.
    David E Clapham; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Damage to the hippocampus, from oxygen starvation, encephalitis, medial temporal lobe epilepsy, tumors, and Alzheimer's disease, may result in amnesia, the inability to ..
  14. Modeling TH17 Cells in Acute GVHD
    JONATHAN STUART SERODY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple different autoimmune diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalitis, collagen-induced arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease...
  15. Study of zidovudine addition in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Albert Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..They have also shown that in a mouse model of HIV encephalitis, treatment with IFN-alpha blockade was associated with a benefit in working memory and decreased pathological ..
  16. Mechanisms of Early Growth Response Factor 1 (Egr-1) Induction by HSV-1 Lytic Inf
    SHAOCHUNG VICTOR HSIA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..type-1 (HSV-1) lytic infection causes diseases ranging from simple cold sores to dangerous keratitis and lethal encephalitis. The interaction between virus and host cells is being investigated extensively by many laboratories...
  17. RNA interference therapy for Huntington's disease: studies in non-human primates
    Beverly L Davidson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..for laboratories investigating RNAi therapy for other brain disorders in the NHP, such as neuropathic pain, encephalitis, various carcinomas, anxiety and depression...
  18. Virus-Host Interactions that Lead to Epilepsy
    Robert S Fujinami; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can result in encephalitis. Viral encephalitis is a risk factor for epilepsy. Epilepsy has an incidence of about 1 to 3% and affects about 2...
  19. Prostaglandin signaling following seizures
    Jianxiong Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  20. Human cytomegalovirus entry into epithelial and endothelial cells
    David C Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..patients often cause severe disease including pneumonia, gastrointestinal syndromes, hepatitis, retinitis, and encephalitis. Importantly, HCMV frequently contributes to the rejection of transplanted organs...
  21. Mechanisms of diet-induced leptin resistance in ARC and VTA
    Philip J Scarpace; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An understanding of these mechanisms will provide new therapeutic strategies for obesity, including drugs that target inflammation/ER stress/ROS coupled with low fructose diets to resurrect leptin action. ..
  22. Control of alphavirous replacation in the nervous system
    Diane E Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..arbo) viruses, most importantly alphaviruses and flaviviruses, cause widespread epidemics of fever, encephalitis and arthritis and pose increasing threats to human populations through expansion into new geographic areas...
  23. Multiple Mechanisms of Nasal Chemoreception
    Diego Restrepo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..New York: Wiley-Liss), pp. 257-284. Turetsky,B.I., Moberg,P.J., Owzar,K., Johnson,S.C., Doty,R.L., and Gur,R.E. (2003). Physiologic impairment of olfactory stimulus processing in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 53, 403-411. ..
  24. Novel Therapeutics for Neurotropic Alphaviruses
    David J Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neurotropic alphaviruses such as western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, cause serious and potentially fatal central nervous system infections in ..
  25. Diagnostic array for aseptic encephalitis
    Darrell P Chandler; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): ABSTRACT Aseptic encephalitis and meningitis are potentially fatal diseases defined by acute swelling of the brain or protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord...
  26. Regulation of HIV-1 by Rad51 in CNS cells
    Kamel Khalili; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..increased levels of Rad51 in HIV-1 infected microglia and astrocytes in culture and in AIDS brain with HIV encephalitis. Rad51 is the major regulator of the homologous recombination repair pathway that in coordination with other ..
  27. Pathogenesis of Subtype IE Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus
    ALISON PAIGE ADAMS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Research: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a naturally emerging arbovirus that threatens human health throughout the Americas...
  28. Cellular Components Involved in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Entry
    Young Min Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The long-term goal of this laboratory is to understand how Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) gains access to the interior of human cells, the first step in an infection process that involves a cascade ..
  29. Novel Functions of S1P in Neuroinflammation
    TOMASZ K KORDULA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This proposal will enhance understanding of how the intricate interplay between IL-1, S1P and its receptors in astrocytes regulates inflammation and could pave the way for the design of even more effective MS therapies. ..
  30. INTERNATIONAL HERPESVIRUS WORKSHOP
    Jay A Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These include skin and eye ulcerations (HSV-1), genital lesions (HSV-2), meningitis and encephalitis (HSV-1 and HSV-2), infectious mononucleosis (EBV), chicken pox and shingles (VZV)...
  31. Role of microRNAs in Coronavirus-induced lethal encephalitis
    Sonia Navas-Martin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Unraveling the roles of miRNAs in viral encephalitis in humans is challenging...
  32. VEE Virus Infection on the Mosquito Vector
    Scott C Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An example is Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), an important, reemerging alphavirus pathogen of humans and equines in the New World, and also a ..
  33. Genetic Analysis of Mosquito Metamorphosis
    James T Nishiura; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..people die, or are seriously debilitated, from malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever and several forms of viral encephalitis. Hematophageous mosquitoes transmit the causative agents of these diseases [1, 2]...
  34. Murine coronavirus neurovirulence: role of type I interferon response
    Susan R Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), offers a convenient and compelling model for studying virus-induced encephalitis and chronic demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  35. Alternative regulation of ISGs in WNV-infected cells
    Margo A Brinton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many flaviviruses, including West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus, tick- borne encephalitis virus and dengue virus, are significant human pathogens...
  36. INTERNATIONAL HERPESVIRUS WORKSHOP
    Jay A Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..These include skin and eye ulcerations (HSV-1), genital lesions (HSV- 2), meningitis and encephalitis (HSV-1 and HSV-2), infectious mononucleosis (EBV), chicken pox and shingles (VZV)...
  37. Antiviral potential of helicase inhibitors
    David N Frick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..high global burdens of disease: hepatitis C virus (HCV), Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  38. The role of indolamine2,3-dioxygenase in the host response/pathogenesis of Venezu
    Robert Seymour; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..role of IDO (indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase) in the pathogenesis/host response to infection by Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEEV) viruses...
  39. Viral suppression of CNS autoimmunity
    Stephen A Stohlman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..significant demyelination, a hallmark of human multiple sclerosis (MS) and murine experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), without progressing to autoimmunity...
  40. Role of innate immune responses in the activity of an Alphavirus based adjuvant.
    Robert E Johnston; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One novel adjuvant is Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) replicon particles (VRP)...
  41. Rabies virus maintenance in bat populations
    APRIL DAWN DAVIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Louis encephalitis virus, may overwinter in bats (Calisher, 2008, Sulkin and Allen, 1974)...
  42. Regulation of B cells in the CNS
    Cornelia Bergmann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..diseases such as MS, without provoking emergence of endogenous viruses, as well as targeting acute viral encephalitis. Three Specific Aims are pursued...
  43. MOLECULAR BASIS OF ALPHAVIRUS ASSEMBLY
    Richard J Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of disease induced in humans and other animals, from sub-clinical infections with Sindbis virus to fatal encephalitis that can be seen with eastern and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses...
  44. International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12, 13 and 14)
    Louis M Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Microsporidia, both causing AIDS associated chronic diarrhea;Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause encephalitis in AIDS patients;and the free-living amebae which cause encephalitis in immune deficient people...
  45. Role of HSV Induced RNA Degradation in Pathogenesis
    David A Leib; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, HSV causes cold sores, genital sores, and is a leading cause of viral encephalitis. The HSV life cycle consists of a lytic phase at mucosal sites during which all virus genes are expressed, and ..
  46. Manganese Enhanced Multi-MRI for Murine HIV-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders
    Yutong Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The chronic and fluctuating forms of HIV dementia are more common. The pathological correlate of HAD is HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE)...
  47. Targeting the DNA damage response pathway for the treatment of HSV esophagitis
    Oleg Alekseev; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a wide range of human disease, including such well-known conditions as cold sores, keratoconjunctivitis, and encephalitis. HSV-1 has an expanded spectrum of pathologies in immunocompromised patients (e.g...
  48. MECHANISM OF PATHOGENIC ACTIVITY OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN
    Roman Dziarski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by bacterial products;(iii)peptidoglycan-induced arthritis;(iv) peptidoglycan-induced experimental autoimmune encephalitis;and (v) adjuvant activity of peptidoglycan for antibody response...
  49. Chronic imaging of cellular dynamics after cortical microhemorrhage
    Chris B Schaffer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  50. Efficacy of the antiviral state versus Sindbis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis
    William B Klimstra; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While this system is generally effective, we have found that the human-virulent alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), is much more resistant to the activity of the antiviral state than the human-avirulent Sindbis ..
  51. Virus Clearance from the Central Nervous System
    Rodney E Willoughby; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral encephalitis is a compelling bioterror disease target...
  52. Allergic Condition Susceptibility Polymorphisms and Glioma Risk
    Judith Schwartzbaum; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Data will be analyzed using logistic and Cox Proportional Hazards Regression, random forests, Bayesian Networks, and software to identify immune-related pathways to Public Health. ..
  53. Malaria vaccines modified with TLR agonist adjuvant
    Elizabeth H Nardin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..vaccines to influenza (currently in clinical trial) and flaviviruses such as West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Dengue virus by VaxInnate...
  54. Characterization of the La Crosse Virus glycoprotein fusion peptide
    SAMANTHA STANDISH SOLDAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    La Crosse virus (LACV), a NIAID Category B priority pathogen, is a common cause of pediatric encephalitis and aseptic meningitis in areas of the Midwestern United States where its principal mosquito vector, Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) ..
  55. INTERNATIONAL HERPESVIRUS WORKSHOP
    Jay A Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These include skin and eye ulcerations (HSV-1), genital lesions (HSV-2), meningitis and encephalitis (HSV-1 and HSV-2), infectious mononucleosis (EBV), chicken pox and shingles (VZV)...
  56. Mechanisms of blood-brain barrier disruption by an encephalitic virus
    Katherine R Spindler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral encephalitis is a potentially deadly sequela of viral infection for which there are few treatment options...
  57. Theiler?s virus as a potential cause of Vilyuisk encephalitis
    HOWARD LEE LIPTON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The goal of this R21 exploratory proposal is to determine whether the V-1 isolate, termed Vilyuisk human encephalitis virus (VHEV), which may represent a separate clade of theilovirus, is the causative agent of Vilyuisk ..
  58. In vivo phenotypic effects of naturally occuring sequence variations in WNV
    Robin M Moudy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by applicant): West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999 during an outbreak of encephalitis in New York, and since that time has spread across the contiguous United States, Canada, Mexico, and the ..
  59. Dissecting the Role of HIV-1 Tat &Chemokine Axis in Subtype-Specificity of HAD
    Vinayaka R Prasad; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..have generated new evidence for subtype- specificity of HAD using subtype B and C isolates using the SCID HIV encephalitis (HIVE) model in mice...
  60. NEUROVIROLOGY-MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
    Donald Gilden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Coxsackie and ECHO viruses), and the Togaviruses (the viruses that cause Eastern, Western and Venezuelan Equine encephalitis) and various Flaviviruses (most notably West Nile Virus)...
  61. Mucosal innate immune defense to Rift Valley fever virus
    Amy G Hise; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Human RVF disease manifests most commonly as an acute self-limiting febrile illness, but can also lead to encephalitis, retinitis, and hemorrhagic fever...
  62. Bioavailable proteasome inhibitors as broad-spectrum antivirals
    ALEXANDER NICLAS FREIBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Ebola), Paramyxoviridae (Nipah), Bunyaviridae (Rift Valley fever), Flaviviridae (Russian-Spring-Summer encephalitis), and Arenaviridae (Junin)...
  63. 2nd International Pathogenesis of Rare Neuroimmunologic Disorders
    Douglas Kerr; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..neuritis (ON), multiple sclerosis (MS), acute disseminated[unreadable] encephalomyelitis (ADEM), Hashimoto?s encephalitis, Rasmussen?s encephalitis, paraneoplastic[unreadable] encephalomyelitis (PE), and pediatric autoimmune ..
  64. Mechanisms of apoptosis in the central nervous system
    Kenneth Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Viral-induced encephalitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world...
  65. Innate immune evasion and/or antagonism by eastern equine encephalitis virus
    KATHERINE RYMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae, is classified in Category B of the NIH Priority Pathogens List, and as a high consequence livestock ..
  66. Replicon-based screening for inhibitors of alphaviruses
    PAUL OLIVO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We are particularly targeting the more pathogenic encephalitis-causing viruses from the alphavirus genus, such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine ..
  67. MECHANISM OF LATENCY OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS
    Nigel Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) can cause a wide range of diseases including skin lesions which are common, encephalitis which is rare, an HSV infection of the eye which is a leading cause of blindness in the USA (400,000 cases)...
  68. Ecological impacts of forest disturbance on La Crosse encephalitis virus dynamics
    MARIA RICHETTA CAMILLE HARRIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    La Crosse encephalitis virus (LAC), a devastating neurologic disease in children living in endemic areas like West Virginia and southwestern Virginia, is maintained through interactions between mosquito vectors and non-human vertebrate ..
  69. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEIN
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Alphaviruses and flaviviruses are the causative agents of severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis, polyarthritis, and dengue fever, with millions of cases in humans per year...
  70. ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2005
    DESCRIPTION: Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging arboviral disease and a public and veterinary health threat throughout the Americas, including the United States...
  71. YELLOW FEVER 17D-BASED CHIMERIC FLAVIVIRUS VACCINES
    William Wold; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses are important causes of human disease on a global scale and vaccine development against both viruses remains a public health priority...
  72. PURINE BOTTLENECKS FOR THE CHEMOTHERAPY OF TOXOPLASMOSIS
    ELMER PFEFFERKORN; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract): Toxoplasmic encephalitis is a common complication of AIDS...
  73. Viral Encephalitis, Chemokines and Sleep
    LARRY D contact SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..phase after inoculation with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a well- established animal model of viral encephalitis, and to determine the relationship these changes have to viral- induced changes in profiles of chemokines and ..