encephalitis

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Brain inflammation in epilepsy: experimental and clinical evidence
    Annamaria Vezzani
    Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy
    Epilepsia 46:1724-43. 2005
  2. pmc Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Lancet Neurol 7:1091-8. 2008
  3. pmc Clinical experience and laboratory investigations in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Lancet Neurol 10:63-74. 2011
  4. ncbi Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease and prion disease
    P Eikelenboom
    Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Glia 40:232-9. 2002
  5. pmc Diverse roles of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in neuroinflammation and cerebral ischemia
    E Candelario-Jalil
    Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, MSC10 5620, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Neuroscience 158:983-94. 2009
  6. ncbi Inflammation in ischemic brain injury: timing is important
    Jasna Kriz
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite Laval, 2705 Boulevard Laurier, Quebec, QC, G1V4G2, Canada
    Crit Rev Neurobiol 18:145-57. 2006
  7. pmc Analysis of behavior and trafficking of dendritic cells within the brain during toxoplasmic encephalitis
    Beena John
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002246. 2011
  8. ncbi A critical role for IL-10 in limiting inflammation during toxoplasmic encephalitis
    Emma H Wilson
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6008, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 165:63-74. 2005
  9. pmc Investigations of caspr2, an autoantigen of encephalitis and neuromyotonia
    Eric Lancaster
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 19104, USA
    Ann Neurol 69:303-11. 2011
  10. ncbi Toll-like receptor 3 mediates West Nile virus entry into the brain causing lethal encephalitis
    Tian Wang
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Med 10:1366-73. 2004

Detail Information

Publications253 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Brain inflammation in epilepsy: experimental and clinical evidence
    Annamaria Vezzani
    Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy
    Epilepsia 46:1724-43. 2005
    ..The elucidation of this aspect may open new perspectives for the pharmacologic treatment of seizures...
  2. pmc Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Lancet Neurol 7:1091-8. 2008
    A severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1-NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor was recently identified...
  3. pmc Clinical experience and laboratory investigations in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Lancet Neurol 10:63-74. 2011
    Since its discovery in 2007, the encephalitis associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has entered the mainstream of neurology and other disciplines...
  4. ncbi Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease and prion disease
    P Eikelenboom
    Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Glia 40:232-9. 2002
    ....
  5. pmc Diverse roles of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in neuroinflammation and cerebral ischemia
    E Candelario-Jalil
    Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, MSC10 5620, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Neuroscience 158:983-94. 2009
    ..Inhibitors of metalloproteinases are available, but balancing the beneficial and detrimental effects of these agents remains a challenge...
  6. ncbi Inflammation in ischemic brain injury: timing is important
    Jasna Kriz
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite Laval, 2705 Boulevard Laurier, Quebec, QC, G1V4G2, Canada
    Crit Rev Neurobiol 18:145-57. 2006
    ..In addition, we discuss a potential role of post-ischemic inflammation in brain regeneration and modulation of synaptic plasticity...
  7. pmc Analysis of behavior and trafficking of dendritic cells within the brain during toxoplasmic encephalitis
    Beena John
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002246. 2011
    Under normal conditions the immune system has limited access to the brain; however, during toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), large numbers of T cells and APCs accumulate within this site...
  8. ncbi A critical role for IL-10 in limiting inflammation during toxoplasmic encephalitis
    Emma H Wilson
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6008, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 165:63-74. 2005
    ..To address this paradox, the production and effect of IL-10 in the brain during toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) was investigated...
  9. pmc Investigations of caspr2, an autoantigen of encephalitis and neuromyotonia
    Eric Lancaster
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 19104, USA
    Ann Neurol 69:303-11. 2011
    ..clinical and immunological investigations of contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2), an autoantigen of encephalitis and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH) previously attributed to voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC).
  10. ncbi Toll-like receptor 3 mediates West Nile virus entry into the brain causing lethal encephalitis
    Tian Wang
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Med 10:1366-73. 2004
    ..Collectively, WNV infection leads to a Tlr3-dependent inflammatory response, which is involved in brain penetration of the virus and neuronal injury...
  11. pmc Encephalitis and antibodies to synaptic and neuronal cell surface proteins
    Eric Lancaster
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Neurology 77:179-89. 2011
    The identification of encephalitis associated with antibodies against cell surface and synaptic proteins, although recent, has already had a substantial impact in clinical neurology and neuroscience...
  12. ncbi Rat brain arachidonic acid metabolism is increased by a 6-day intracerebral ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide
    Thad A Rosenberger
    Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1582, USA
    J Neurochem 88:1168-78. 2004
    ..These observations suggest that selective alterations in brain arachidonic acid metabolism involving cytosolic and secretory PLA2 contribute to early pathology in neuroinflammation...
  13. ncbi Interleukin 27 negatively regulates the development of interleukin 17-producing T helper cells during chronic inflammation of the central nervous system
    Jason S Stumhofer
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6008, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:937-45. 2006
    ..IL-17)-producing T helper cells (T(H)-17 cells) associated with autoimmunity, such as experimental autoimmune encephalitis, but relatively little is known about the cytokines that antagonize T(H)-17 cell effector responses...
  14. pmc Paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Ann Neurol 61:25-36. 2007
    To report the autoantigens of a new category of treatment-responsive paraneoplastic encephalitis.
  15. ncbi Clinical analysis of anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis
    Josep Dalmau
    Department of Neurology, 3 W Gates, Division of Neuro Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Brain 127:1831-44. 2004
    Increasing experience indicates that anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis differs from classical paraneoplastic limbic or brainstem encephalitis, and therefore may be unrecognized...
  16. ncbi Increased CXCL-13 levels in human African trypanosomiasis meningo-encephalitis
    Bertrand Courtioux
    Institut de Neurologie Tropicale, Universite de Limoges, Limoges, France
    Trop Med Int Health 14:529-34. 2009
    To determine the role of the B-cell attracting chemokine CXCL-13, which may initiate B-cell trafficking and IgM production in diagnosing HAT meningo-encephalitis.
  17. pmc Cannabinoid receptor stimulation is anti-inflammatory and improves memory in old rats
    Yannick Marchalant
    Department of Psychology, Psychology Building, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 29:1894-901. 2008
    ..Stimulation of cannabinoid receptors may provide clinical benefits in age-related diseases that are associated with brain inflammation, such as Alzheimer's disease...
  18. ncbi Importance of CD8(+)Vbeta8(+) T cells in IFN-gamma-mediated prevention of toxoplasmic encephalitis in genetically resistant BALB/c mice
    Xisheng Wang
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 25:338-44. 2005
    ..protective Toxoplasma gondii antigens and produces interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) for prevention of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), we found T cell receptor Vbeta8(+) cells to be the most frequent IFN-gamma-producing population ..
  19. pmc TNF signaling inhibition in the CNS: implications for normal brain function and neurodegenerative disease
    Melissa K McCoy
    Department of Physiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390 9040, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 5:45. 2008
    ....
  20. pmc Neuronal apoptosis is mediated by CXCL10 overexpression in simian human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis
    Yongjun Sui
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, Marion Merrell Dow Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA
    Am J Pathol 164:1557-66. 2004
    ..and its receptor, CXCR3, in the neurons in the brains of macaques with simian human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis. Using human fetal brain cultures, we showed that treatment of these cells with either SHIV89...
  21. ncbi Neuroinflammation alters the hippocampal pattern of behaviorally induced Arc expression
    Susanna Rosi
    Department of Neuroscience and Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    J Neurosci 25:723-31. 2005
    ..This activity-related alteration in Arc expression induced by neuroinflammation may contribute to the cognitive deficits found in diseases associated with inflammation, such as AD...
  22. ncbi The dynamics of the LPS triggered inflammatory response of murine microglia under different culture and in vivo conditions
    Søren Lund
    H Lundbeck A S, Valby, Denmark
    J Neuroimmunol 180:71-87. 2006
    ..Although most inflammatory genes induced in vitro were transferable to our in vivo model, the observed discrepancy for some genes potentially represents regulatory factors present in the central nervous system (CNS) but not in vitro...
  23. doi IL-33 receptor (T1/ST2) signalling is necessary to prevent the development of encephalitis in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii
    Leigh A Jones
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Eur J Immunol 40:426-36. 2010
    ..This study provides the first evidence of a specific role for IL-33 receptor signalling in the brain as well as highlighting the requirement of this mechanism in limiting infection with an intracellular parasite...
  24. pmc Human Hendra virus encephalitis associated with equine outbreak, Australia, 2008
    Elliott G Playford
    Pathology Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:219-23. 2010
    ..an incubation period of 9-16 days, influenza-like illnesses developed in the 2 persons before progressing to encephalitis; 1 died. Both patients were given ribavirin...
  25. pmc The immune response to herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in susceptible mice is a major cause of central nervous system pathology resulting in fatal encephalitis
    Patric Lundberg
    Division of Virology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 E Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    J Virol 82:7078-88. 2008
    This study was undertaken to investigate possible immune mechanisms in fatal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) after HSV-1 corneal inoculation...
  26. doi Review: The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 in neuroimmunity--a tale of conflict and conundrum
    M Muller
    School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 36:368-87. 2010
    ..The results of these studies have proven to be sometimes surprising and other times contradictory. Here we discuss the likely more subtle and perhaps divergent roles for these chemokines in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases...
  27. ncbi Patterns of gene dysregulation in the frontal cortex of patients with HIV encephalitis
    Eliezer Masliah
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 6232, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 157:163-75. 2004
    The neurodegenerative process in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) is associated with extensive damage to the dendritic and synaptic structure that often leads to cognitive impairment...
  28. pmc N-methyl-D-aspartate antibody encephalitis: temporal progression of clinical and paraclinical observations in a predominantly non-paraneoplastic disorder of both sexes
    Sarosh R Irani
    Department of Clinical Neurology, L6 West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Brain 133:1655-67. 2010
    ..Four patients, who only had temporal lobe epilepsy without oligoclonal bands, may represent restriction to the first stage...
  29. pmc Analysis of complement and plasma cells in the brain of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis
    E Martinez-Hernandez
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Neurology 77:589-93. 2011
    Most patients with anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis have intrathecal synthesis of antibodies, which cause a decrease of cell surface and synaptic NMDAR...
  30. ncbi Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis: clinical features of 62 cases and a subgroup associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome
    Masaaki Odaka
    Department of Neurology, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Shimotsuga, Tochigi, Japan
    Brain 126:2279-90. 2003
    ..This condition has been named Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE). One patient had gross flaccid weakness in the four limbs...
  31. pmc A dual role for microglia in promoting tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) expression in glial cells in response to neuroinflammatory stimuli
    Jennifer V Welser-Alves
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 8:61. 2011
    ..As such, it is important to define the TIMP expression profile in these cells, as well as the mechanisms of regulation by neuroinflammatory stimuli...
  32. ncbi Cannabinoids attenuate the effects of aging upon neuroinflammation and neurogenesis
    Yannick Marchalant
    Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 34:300-7. 2009
    ..Our results provide insight into the role of the endocannabinoid and vanilloid systems upon two different and detrimental aspects of normal and pathological aging, chronic neuroinflammation and decline in neurogenesis...
  33. doi Autoimmune and inflammatory mechanisms of CNS damage
    Minesh Kapadia
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Prog Neurobiol 95:301-33. 2011
    ....
  34. pmc Altered expression of apoptotic factors and synaptic markers in postmortem brain from bipolar disorder patients
    Hyung Wook Kim
    Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 37:596-603. 2010
    ..These differences may contribute to brain atrophy and progressive cognitive changes in BD...
  35. ncbi Therapeutic approaches to inflammation in neurodegenerative disease
    Andis Klegeris
    Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Curr Opin Neurol 20:351-7. 2007
    ..Here we review recent advances in our understanding of one such disorder, Parkinson's disease, in which anti-inflammatory drugs are now becoming a new therapeutic focus...
  36. ncbi The TIMPs tango with MMPs and more in the central nervous system
    Stephen J Crocker
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci Res 75:1-11. 2004
    ....
  37. ncbi Cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and epoxygenases in CNS: their role and involvement in neurological disorders
    John W Phillis
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Brain Res Rev 52:201-43. 2006
    ..Here, we review present knowledge of the functions of cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and epoxygenases in brain and their association with neurodegenerative diseases...
  38. ncbi Retrospective analysis of NMDA receptor antibodies in encephalitis of unknown origin
    H Pruss
    Charite University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neurology, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Neurology 75:1735-9. 2010
    Anti-NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe disorder that occurs in association with antibodies to the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR and results in a characteristic syndrome.
  39. pmc Neuroimmune mechanisms of cytokine-induced depression: current theories and novel treatment strategies
    Jennifer M Loftis
    Research and Development Service, Behavioral Health and Clinical Neurosciences Division, Portland VA Medical Center, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Rd, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 37:519-33. 2010
    ..Future research should aim to characterize these depression-related symptom constellations or syndromes better with the goal of optimizing treatment strategies...
  40. pmc Exaggerated sickness behavior and brain proinflammatory cytokine expression in aged mice in response to intracerebroventricular lipopolysaccharide
    Y Huang
    Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics and Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University, 333 W 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 29:1744-53. 2008
    ..Collectively, these data establish that activation of the central innate immune system leads to exacerbated neuroinflammation and prolonged sickness behavior in aged as compared to adult mice...
  41. pmc Cellular and synaptic mechanisms of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis
    Ethan G Hughes
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Neurosci 30:5866-75. 2010
    We recently described a severe, potentially lethal, but treatment-responsive encephalitis that associates with autoantibodies to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and results in behavioral symptoms similar to those obtained with models of genetic ..
  42. ncbi Extracellular proteolysis in brain injury and inflammation: role for plasminogen activators and matrix metalloproteinases
    Eng H Lo
    Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Neurosci Res 69:1-9. 2002
    ..As the mechanisms of deleterious vs. potentially beneficial PA and MMP actions become better defined, it is hoped that new therapeutic targets will emerge for ameliorating the sequelae of brain injury and inflammation...
  43. ncbi Causes of encephalitis and differences in their clinical presentations in England: a multicentre, population-based prospective study
    Julia Granerod
    Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:835-44. 2010
    b>Encephalitis has many causes, but for most patients the cause is unknown. We aimed to establish the cause and identify the clinical differences between causes in patients with encephalitis in England.
  44. ncbi The role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in CNS disease
    T M Kauppinen
    Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Neuroscience 145:1267-72. 2007
    ..PARP-1 activation has also been identified in Alzheimer's disease and in experimental allergic encephalitis, but the role of PARP-1 in these disorders remains to be established.
  45. doi Anti-inflammatory mechanism of ginseng saponins in activated microglia
    Jin Sun Park
    Department of Neuroscience and Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    J Neuroimmunol 209:40-9. 2009
    ..Therefore, the inhibition of microglial activation by ginseng saponins may a good potential therapeutic modality for neurodegenerative diseases...
  46. pmc Imaging neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease with radiolabeled arachidonic acid and PET
    Giuseppe Esposito
    Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Nucl Med 49:1414-21. 2008
    ..Data also indicate that neuroinflammation contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the basis of these observations, K* for AA was hypothesized to be elevated in patients with AD...
  47. pmc The role of interleukin-1 in neuroinflammation and Alzheimer disease: an evolving perspective
    Solomon S Shaftel
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 5:7. 2008
    ..Potentially adaptive functions of IL-1 elevation in AD warrant further mechanistic studies, and provide evidence that enhancement of these effects may help to alleviate the pathologic burden of disease...
  48. ncbi Protection of mice against dengue 2 virus encephalitis by immunization with the dengue 2 virus non-structural glycoprotein NS1
    J J Schlesinger
    J Gen Virol 68:853-7. 1987
    ..Induction of a protective immune response by NS1 suggests that it be considered for incorporation into possible synthetic or recombinant DNA DEN vaccines...
  49. pmc Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in children and adolescents
    Nicole R Florance
    Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Ann Neurol 66:11-8. 2009
    To report the clinical features of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in patients < or = 18 years old.
  50. pmc Microglia and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor/uPA system in innate brain inflammation
    Orla Cunningham
    FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, 20139 Milan, Italy
    Glia 57:1802-14. 2009
    ..These data are novel and suggest much wider involvement of the uPAR/uPA system in CNS function and pathology than previously supposed...
  51. ncbi Acute stress increases permeability of the blood-brain-barrier through activation of brain mast cells
    P Esposito
    Departments of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Brain Res 888:117-127. 2001
    ..These results expand the pathophysiology of mast cells and implicate them in CNS disorders, that may possibly be induced or exacerbated by stress...
  52. ncbi Microglia, major player in the brain inflammation: their roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease
    Yoon Seong Kim
    Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Exp Mol Med 38:333-47. 2006
    ..In the last part, microglial activation and their role in PD are discussed in depth...
  53. doi Causality in acute encephalitis: defining aetiologies
    J Granerod
    Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 138:783-800. 2010
    Defining the causal relationship between a microbe and encephalitis is complex. Over 100 different infectious agents may cause encephalitis, often as one of the rarer manifestations of infection...
  54. ncbi CNS dendritic cells: critical participants in CNS inflammation?
    Eileen J McMahon
    Department of Biology, Westmont College, 955 La Paz Rd, Santa Barbara, CA 93108, United States
    Neurochem Int 49:195-203. 2006
    ..This review will summarize DC subsets and function, overview the current research on DCs in the healthy and inflamed CNS, and address discrepancies between experimental studies...
  55. ncbi Prevalence, associated factors, and prognostic determinants of AIDS-related toxoplasmic encephalitis in the era of advanced highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Andrea Antinori
    Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive Lazzaro Spallanzani, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Rome, Italy
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1681-91. 2004
    Characteristics, associated factors, and survival probability of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in the era of advanced highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have not been fully clarified.
  56. pmc Neuroinflammation is associated with changes in glial mGluR5 expression and the development of neonatal excitotoxic lesions
    Janelle Drouin-Ouellet
    Centre de Recherche du CHUL CHUQ, Axe Neurosciences, RC 9800, 2705 Boulevard Laurier, Quebec, QC, Cananda, G1V 4G2
    Glia 59:188-99. 2011
    ....
  57. pmc LPS- induced inflammation exacerbates phospho-tau pathology in rTg4510 mice
    Daniel C Lee
    Byrd Alzheimer s Institute, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 7:56. 2010
    ....
  58. pmc Neuroinflammation and the plasticity-related immediate-early gene Arc
    Susanna Rosi
    Brain and Spinal Injury Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 25:S39-49. 2011
    ..This review discusses the use of Arc expression during activation of the innate immune system as a valid marker of altered plasticity and a predictor of cognitive dysfunction...
  59. doi Two patients with acute rotavirus encephalitis associated with cerebellar signs and symptoms
    Satoru Kobayashi
    Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    Eur J Pediatr 169:1287-91. 2010
    ..Recently several patients with acute encephalitis/encephalopathy due to rotavirus associated with cerebellar signs and symptoms have been reported...
  60. pmc A new model for Hendra virus encephalitis in the mouse
    Johanna Dups
    CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Australia
    PLoS ONE 7:e40308. 2012
    ..HeV) infection in humans is characterized by an influenza like illness, which may progress to pneumonia or encephalitis and lead to death...
  61. pmc The relation between inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis brains
    Josa M Frischer
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 4, A 1090 Wien, Austria
    Brain 132:1175-89. 2009
    ..It further indicates that the disease processes of multiple sclerosis may die out in aged patients with long-standing disease...
  62. pmc Pathogenesis of encephalitis induced in newborn mice by virulent and avirulent strains of Sindbis virus
    L A Sherman
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Virol 64:2041-6. 1990
    ..This lack of response does not lead to tolerance and persistent infection but rather to late virus clearance whenever the immune response is initiated...
  63. ncbi The role of astrocytes in the immunopathogenesis of toxoplasmic encephalitis
    Emma H Wilson
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6008, USA
    Int J Parasitol 34:543-8. 2004
    ..rarely leads to disease but in the immunocompromised host reactivation of these cysts can lead to toxoplasmic encephalitis. It is known that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are important in preventing reactivation of the parasite, ..
  64. ncbi In vitro correlates of Ld-restricted resistance to toxoplasmic encephalitis and their critical dependence on parasite strain
    Jennifer J Johnson
    University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    J Immunol 169:966-73. 2002
    Resistance to murine toxoplasmic encephalitis has been precisely and definitively mapped to the L(d) class I gene. Consistent with this, CD8(+) T cells can adoptively transfer resistance to toxoplasmic encephalitis...
  65. doi Neuropathogenesis of naturally occurring encephalitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in ruminants
    Anna Oevermann
    Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    Brain Pathol 20:378-90. 2010
    ..This study investigates the neuropathogenesis of listeric encephalitis in over 200 natural cases in cattle, sheep and goats by analyzing anatomical distribution, severity, bacterial ..
  66. ncbi A substantial number of Rasmussen syndrome patients have increased IgG, CD4+ T cells, TNFalpha, and Granzyme B in CSF
    Yukitoshi Takahashi
    National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Shizuoka, Japan
    Epilepsia 50:1419-31. 2009
    ..We studied the immunologic molecules in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and discussed their evolutional changes in pediatric patients with Rasmussen syndrome (RS)...
  67. ncbi Methamphetamine stimulates interferon inducible genes in HIV infected brain
    Ian Everall
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0603, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 170:158-71. 2005
    ..To study the synergism of HIV and methamphetamine...
  68. ncbi Spatial analysis of the distribution of LaCrosse encephalitis in Illinois, using a geographic information system and local and global spatial statistics
    U Kitron
    College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 57:469-75. 1997
    The spatial and temporal distribution of LaCrosse encephalitis cases in Illinois was analyzed using a geographic information system (GIS) and spatial statistics...
  69. doi Encephalitis and myelitis associated with dengue viral infection clinical and neuroimaging features
    Mohammad Wasay
    Department of Neurology, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 110:635-40. 2008
    The objective of this study was to identify clinical and neuroimaging features and outcome of patients with encephalitis and myelitis associated with dengue viral infection.
  70. ncbi Macrophage-induced inflammation affects hippocampal plasticity and neuronal development in a murine model of HIV-1 encephalitis
    Larisa Poluektova
    Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA
    Glia 52:344-53. 2005
    ..Activated MPs effect a giant cell encephalitis and neuroinflammatory responses that are mirrored in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice injected with ..
  71. doi Testicular teratoma and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-associated encephalitis
    A Eker
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:1082-3. 2008
  72. pmc Silencing early viral replication in macrophages and dendritic cells effectively suppresses flavivirus encephalitis
    Chunting Ye
    Paul L Foster School of Medicine, Center of Excellence in Infectious Diseases, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e17889. 2011
    West Nile (WN) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses can cause fatal neurological infection and currently there is neither a specific treatment nor an approved vaccine for these infections...
  73. ncbi Epstein-Barr virus infections of the central nervous system
    Hiroshi Fujimoto
    First Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume 830 0011
    Intern Med 42:33-40. 2003
    ..Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a lymphotropic herpes virus causing infectious mononucleosis (IM), also causes various central nervous system (CNS) infections. In the present study, EBV CNS infections were investigated...
  74. pmc Tumor necrosis factor alpha is reparative via TNFR2 [corrected] in the hippocampus and via TNFR1 [corrected] in the striatum after virus-induced encephalitis
    Moses Rodriguez
    Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Brain Pathol 19:12-26. 2009
    ..of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in parenchymal brain pathology resolution following virus-induced encephalitis from a picornavirus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)...
  75. ncbi Rasmussen's encephalitis: early characteristics allow diagnosis
    T Granata
    Division of Child Neurology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C Besta, Milan, Italy
    Neurology 60:422-5. 2003
    To identify early manifestations of Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) that can prompt early and reasonably secure diagnosis, allowing medical or surgical therapies at an early stage when they may be more effective in slowing the disease.
  76. pmc Rift Valley fever encephalitis
    Abdulrahman A Alrajhi
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:554-5. 2004
  77. doi Update on anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in children and adolescents
    Nicole Florance-Ryan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, and Division of Neuro Oncology, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Curr Opin Pediatr 22:739-44. 2010
    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently identified disorder that is increasingly recognized in children and adolescents. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important to obtain full recovery...
  78. pmc A patient with encephalitis associated with NMDA receptor antibodies
    Lauren H Sansing
    Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Nat Clin Pract Neurol 3:291-6. 2007
    ..There was muscle rigidity, frequent facial grimacing, rhythmic abdominal contractions, kicking motions of the legs, and intermittent dystonic postures of the right arm...
  79. ncbi Inflammatory and injury responses to ischemic stroke in obese mice
    Satoshi Terao
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA
    Stroke 39:943-50. 2008
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that obesity exacerbates the cerebrovascular dysfunction and tissue injury induced by brain ischemia and reperfusion...
  80. pmc Neurological response to early removal of ovarian teratoma in anti-NMDAR encephalitis
    M Seki
    Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:324-6. 2008
    We report an 18-year-old woman with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, who developed psychiatric symptoms, progressive unresponsiveness, dyskinesias, hypoventilation, hypersalivation and seizures...
  81. doi Successful treatment of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis presenting with catatonia
    M Schimmel
    Department of Paediatrics, Klinikum Augsburg, Stenglinstrasse 2, Augsburg, Germany
    Arch Dis Child 94:314-6. 2009
    ..girl with the typical clinical symptoms of the recently described anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is reported...
  82. pmc Role of brain inflammation in epileptogenesis
    Jieun Choi
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Northwestern University Children s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL 2300 Children s Plaza, Box 51, Children s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL 60614, USA
    Yonsei Med J 49:1-18. 2008
    ..We provide an overview of the current knowledge that implicates brain inflammation as a common predisposing factor in epilepsy, particularly childhood epilepsy...
  83. pmc Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: report of ten cases and comparison with viral encephalitis
    M S Gable
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, Fresno, CA, USA
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28:1421-9. 2009
    The California Encephalitis Project (CEP), established in 1998 to explore encephalitic etiologies, has identified patients with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies, the likely etiology of their encephalitis...
  84. ncbi The distinctive movement disorder of ovarian teratoma-associated encephalitis
    Timothy J Kleinig
    Department of Neurology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    Mov Disord 23:1256-61. 2008
    The movement disorder observed in four cases of ovarian teratoma associated encephalitis is described...
  85. doi Neuronal apoptosis does not play an important role in human rabies encephalitis
    Alan C Jackson
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Neurovirol 14:368-75. 2008
    It is generally accepted that there are not prominent features of neuronal cell death in rabies encephalitis. However, Hemachudha and coworkers recently reported widespread apoptosis in the central nervous system of several human rabies ..
  86. ncbi Chemokines are differentially expressed by astrocytes, microglia and inflammatory leukocytes in Toxoplasma encephalitis and critically regulated by interferon-gamma
    Andreas Strack
    Abteilung für Neuropathologie, Universitat zu Koln, Joseph Stelzmann Str 9, 50931 Koln, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 103:458-68. 2002
    ..defines the kinetics and cellular sources of T cell- and macrophage-attracting chemokines in murine Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) by ribonuclease protection assay, reverse transcription-PCR, in situ hybridization, and ..
  87. ncbi Raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) encephalitis: case report and field investigation
    S Y Park
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0136, USA
    Pediatrics 106:E56. 2000
    ..We report a case of severe raccoon roundworm (B procyonis) encephalitis in a young child to illustrate the unique clinical, diagnostic, and treatment aspects, as well as public health ..
  88. doi NF-kappaB signaling in cerebral ischemia
    D A Ridder
    Pharmacological Institute, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 366, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Neuroscience 158:995-1006. 2009
    ..Modulation of NF-kappaB signaling has the potential to interrupt multiple inflammatory and apoptotic mechanisms through one specific molecular target...
  89. ncbi Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures: case reports of this unusual post-encephalitic epilepsy
    Yoshiaki Saito
    Division of Child Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36 1 Nishi cho, Yonago 683 8504, Japan
    Brain Dev 29:147-56. 2007
    We report on three acute encephalitis patients with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS)...
  90. ncbi Randomized phase II trial of atovaquone with pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ACTG 237/ANRS 039 Study. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 237/Agence Nationale de Recherche
    Keith Chirgwin
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Brooklyn, NY, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 34:1243-50. 2002
    ..daily) as treatment for acute disease (for 6 weeks) and as maintenance therapy (for 42 weeks) for toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus...
  91. doi Epistasis in sporadic Alzheimer's disease
    Onofre Combarros
    Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Marques de Valdecilla University Hospital, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain
    Neurobiol Aging 30:1333-49. 2009
    ..We conclude that epistasis is a crucial feature of complex diseases, that its study is a promising approach to the genetics of AD and that larger and more rigorous studies are needed to establish interactions...
  92. doi Autoantibodies to glutamate receptors can damage the brain in epilepsy, systemic lupus erythematosus and encephalitis
    Mia Levite
    School of Behavioral Sciences, Academic College of TLV Yaffo, Israel The Weizmann Institue of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Expert Rev Neurother 8:1141-60. 2008
    ..to our attention, as they are found in many patients with epilepsy, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and encephalitis, and can unquestionably cause brain damage...
  93. ncbi Acanthamoeba encephalitis
    V Kaushal
    Department of Microbiology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana 141 001, Punjab, India
    Indian J Med Microbiol 26:182-4. 2008
    Central nervous system infection with free-living amoebae is rare. We present a fatal case of Acanthamoeba encephalitis in a 63-year-old female from India where acanthamoebae were demonstrated and cultured from CSF...
  94. ncbi A case of acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures, presenting autoantibody to glutamate receptor Gluepsilon2
    Hiromichi Ito
    Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3 18 15, Kuramoto Cho, Tokushima 770 8503, Japan
    Brain Dev 27:531-4. 2005
    ..We diagnosed him as encephalitis/encephalopathy, and treated him with artificial respiration, thiamylal sodium, mild hypothermia therapy, ..
  95. ncbi Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation exacerbates tau pathology by a cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated pathway in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease
    Masashi Kitazawa
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California Irvine, California 92697 4545, USA
    J Neurosci 25:8843-53. 2005
    ..Therefore, this study clearly demonstrates that microglial activation exacerbates key neuropathological features such as tangle formation...
  96. ncbi Challenge of the unknown. A systematic review of acute encephalitis in non-outbreak situations
    J Granerod
    Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, Virus Reference Department, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, UK
    Neurology 75:924-32. 2010
    The threat of emerging infections and recognition of novel immune-mediated forms of encephalitis has raised the profile of this condition in recent years. Incidence is poorly defined and most cases have an unknown cause...
  97. ncbi Brainstem encephalitis following influenza vaccination: favorable response to steroid treatment
    Recai Turkoglu
    Department of Neurology, Haydarpasa Numune State Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
    Vaccine 27:7253-6. 2009
    ..Our case implies that vaccination might be related with a wide range of clinical syndromes, including brainstem encephalitis.
  98. ncbi Nationwide survey of acute juvenile female non-herpetic encephalitis in Japan: relationship to anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis
    Satoshi Kamei
    Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo
    Intern Med 48:673-9. 2009
    To study the incidence and clinical features of acute juvenile female non-herpetic encephalitis (AJFNHE) in Japan.
  99. ncbi Comparison of high and low doses of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for primary prevention of toxoplasmic encephalitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients
    E Ribera
    Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital General Vall d Hebron, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
    Clin Infect Dis 29:1461-6. 1999
    ..61). These results indicate that high doses of co-trimoxazole appear to be more effective than low doses for lowering the risk of toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients and that rifampin therapy may reduce the efficacy of co-trimoxazole...
  100. doi Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis in a four-year-old girl
    Roberta Biancheri
    Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, G Gaslini Institute and University of Genova, Largo G Gaslini 5, 16147 Genova, Italy
    J Pediatr 156:332-4. 2010
    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis is a recently identified autoimmune disorder...
  101. doi Cortical hypometabolism demonstrated by PET in relapsing NMDA receptor encephalitis
    Sekhar C Pillai
    Neuroimmunology Group, Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, The Children s Hospital at Westmead, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Pediatr Neurol 43:217-20. 2010
    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a newly defined type of autoimmune encephalitis...

Research Grants86

  1. Regulation of HSV-1 Gene Expression and Replication by Nuclear Hormone Receptors
    SHAOCHUNG VICTOR HSIA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of the most common viral infections affecting humans from mild cold sores to severe ocular keratitis and deadly encephalitis. The virus establishes a life-long latent infection within neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG)...
  2. Genomics of Antiviral Responses of Anopheles gambiae Against O'nyong-nyong Virus
    Young Hong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Other mosquito-borne viruses (e.g., eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, La Crosse, and St. Louis encephalitis) infect thousands of people annually...
  3. Genomics of Antiviral Responses of Anopheles gambiae Against O'nyong-nyong Virus
    Young S Hong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Other mosquito-borne viruses (e.g., eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, La Crosse, and St. Louis encephalitis) infect thousands of people annually...
  4. Inhibition of the Membrane Fusion Proteins of Flaviviruses and Alphaviruses
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..and alphaviruses are spread by mosquito and tick vectors and cause severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever...
  5. 2nd International Pathogenesis of Rare Neuroimmunologic Disorders
    Douglas Kerr; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..neuritis (ON), multiple sclerosis (MS), acute disseminated[unreadable] encephalomyelitis (ADEM), Hashimoto?s encephalitis, Rasmussen?s encephalitis, paraneoplastic[unreadable] encephalomyelitis (PE), and pediatric autoimmune ..
  6. Vaccine and Therapeutics Development:
    David Heimbrook; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Western Equine Encephalitis virus (WEEV), Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV), and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV) are ..
  7. CHEMOKINE-MEDIATED NEUROPROTECTION AND REPAIR DURING WNV ENCEPHALITIS
    ROBYN SUE KLEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and their receptors in contributing to viral clearance, immunopathology and repair in a murine model of WNV encephalitis. Murine WNV infection is well-accepted flavivirus encephalitis model whereby subcutaneous infection with low ..
  8. Mechanisms of apoptosis in the central nervous system
    Kenneth Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Viral-induced encephalitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world...
  9. Statin modulation of immunotherapy for Alzheimer disease
    Jun Tan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This will be tested by comparing behavior and brain health in several mouse groups including: A( vaccinated (alone) and those treated with lovastatin plus A( vaccination. ..
  10. Genetic Analysis of Mosquito Metamorphosis
    JAMES NISHIURA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..people die, or are seriously debilitated, from malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever and several forms of viral encephalitis. Hematophageous mosquitoes transmit the causative agents of these diseases [1, 2]...
  11. Innate immune evasion and/or antagonism by eastern equine encephalitis virus
    KATHERINE RYMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae, is classified in Category B of the NIH Priority Pathogens List, and as a high consequence livestock ..
  12. Innate immune evasion and/or antagonism by eastern equine encephalitis virus
    KATHERINE RYMAN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae, is classified in Category B of the NIH Priority Pathogens List, and as a high consequence livestock ..
  13. Human monoclonal antibodies (huMAbs) for medically important arboviruses
    Carol Blair; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..that are NIAID Category A, B and C Priority Pathogens, approved vaccines are available only for Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and yellow fever virus (YFV)...
  14. Structural studies of small enveloped viruses
    Timothy Baker; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..arthropod-transmitted viruses with more than 70 members that include yellow fever, West Nile, tick-borne encephalitis, and Japanese encephalitis viruses...
  15. Identification and Characterization of Novel Flavivirus Antivirals
    Nigel Bourne; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The viruses come from multiple families, and the diseases they cause are diverse. They include West Nile encephalitis and dengue fever both caused by flaviviruses, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and chikungunya caused by ..
  16. CNS Delivery of Activated Antiviral Drugs with Reduced Neurotoxicity (Nano-NRTIs)
    SERGUEI V contact VINOGRADOV; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..processes make a negative impact on the viability of neurons and result in the development of HIV-induced encephalitis (HIVE) and dementia...
  17. The Role of Interleukin-10 During Fatal Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis
    KIRSTEN KULCSAR; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Sindbis virus (SV), the prototypic alphavirus, is related to Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalitis viruses, which cause seasonal outbreaks of encephalitis in the Americas...
  18. Invasion of California by West Nile Virus
    William Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Louis encephalitis virus [SLE] transmission provides a unique natural experiment to test the hypothesis that similarities in ..
  19. Invasion of California by West Nile Virus
    William Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Louis encephalitis virus [SLE] transmission provides a unique natural experiment to test the hypothesis that similarities in ..
  20. Invasion of California by West Nile Virus
    William Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Louis encephalitis virus [SLE] transmission provides a unique natural experiment to test the hypothesis that similarities in ..
  21. Invasion of California by West Nile Virus
    William Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Louis encephalitis virus [SLE] transmission provides a unique natural experiment to test the hypothesis that similarities in ..
  22. Invasion of California by West Nile Virus
    William Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Louis encephalitis virus [SLE] transmission provides a unique natural experiment to test the hypothesis that similarities in ..
  23. Characterization of the La Crosse Virus glycoprotein fusion peptide
    Francisco Gonzalez Scarano; Fiscal Year: 2009
    La Crosse virus (LACV), a NIAID Category B priority pathogen, is a common cause of pediatric encephalitis and aseptic meningitis in areas of the Midwestern United States where its principal mosquito vector, Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) ..
  24. Characterization of the La Crosse Virus glycoprotein fusion peptide
    Francisco Gonzalez Scarano; Fiscal Year: 2009
    La Crosse virus (LACV), a NIAID Category B priority pathogen, is a common cause of pediatric encephalitis and aseptic meningitis in areas of the Midwestern United States where its principal mosquito vector, Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) ..
  25. Characterization of the La Crosse Virus glycoprotein fusion peptide
    Francisco Gonzalez Scarano; Fiscal Year: 2010
    La Crosse virus (LACV), a NIAID Category B priority pathogen, is a common cause of pediatric encephalitis and aseptic meningitis in areas of the Midwestern United States where its principal mosquito vector, Ochlerotatus (formerly Aedes) ..
  26. Flaviviruses: Yin-yang of Heterologous Immunity
    Sharon Green; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..g. dengue, yellow fever (YF)] and encephalitis viruses [e.g. West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JE)]...
  27. Replicon-based screening for inhibitors of alphaviruses
    PAUL OLIVO; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We are particularly targeting the more pathogenic encephalitis-causing viruses from the alphavirus genus, such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine ..
  28. Replicon-based screening for inhibitors of alphaviruses
    PAUL OLIVO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We are particularly targeting the more pathogenic encephalitis-causing viruses from the alphavirus genus, such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine ..
  29. ACUTE ALPHAVIRUAL ENCEPHALITIS
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..are important causes of mosquito-borne encephalomyelitis and western, eastern and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses are considered category B agents of bioterrorist concern. VEEV has been weaponized...
  30. ACUTE ALPHAVIRUAL ENCEPHALITIS
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..are important causes of mosquito-borne encephalomyelitis and western, eastern and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses are considered category B agents of bioterrorist concern. VEEV has been weaponized...
  31. ACUTE ALPHAVIRUAL ENCEPHALITIS
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..are important causes of mosquito-borne encephalomyelitis and western, eastern and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses are considered category B agents of bioterrorist concern. VEEV has been weaponized...
  32. ACUTE ALPHAVIRUAL ENCEPHALITIS
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..are important causes of mosquito-borne encephalomyelitis and western, eastern and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses are considered category B agents of bioterrorist concern. VEEV has been weaponized...
  33. Novel Therapeutics for Neurotropic Alphaviruses
    David J Miller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neurotropic alphaviruses such as western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, cause serious and potentially fatal central nervous system infections in ..
  34. Theiler?s virus as a potential cause of Vilyuisk encephalitis
    HOWARD LEE LIPTON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The goal of this R21 exploratory proposal is to determine whether the V-1 isolate, termed Vilyuisk human encephalitis virus (VHEV), which may represent a separate clade of theilovirus, is the causative agent of Vilyuisk ..
  35. Theiler?s virus as a potential cause of Vilyuisk encephalitis
    HOWARD LIPTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The goal of this R21 exploratory proposal is to determine whether the V-1 isolate, termed Vilyuisk human encephalitis virus (VHEV), which may represent a separate clade of theilovirus, is the causative agent of Vilyuisk ..
  36. Enabling Technologies for Low Resource Molecular Diagnostics
    Abhay N Vats; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The viruses of the family Flaviviridae, e.g. dengue, West Nile, and Japanese Encephalitis, are insect-borne viruses important to both human and veterinary medicine...
  37. Pathogenesis of Subtype IE Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus
    ALISON PAIGE ADAMS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Research: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a naturally emerging arbovirus that threatens human health throughout the Americas...
  38. MECHANISM OF LATENCY OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS
    Nigel Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) can cause a wide range of diseases including skin lesions which are common, encephalitis which is rare, an HSV infection of the eye which is a leading cause of blindness in the USA (400,000 cases)...
  39. Virus-Host Interactions that Lead to Epilepsy
    Robert S Fujinami; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can result in encephalitis. Viral encephalitis is a risk factor for epilepsy. Epilepsy has an incidence of about 1 to 3% and affects about 2...
  40. Virus-Host Interactions that Lead to Epilepsy
    Robert S Fujinami; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can result in encephalitis. Viral encephalitis is a risk factor for epilepsy. Epilepsy has an incidence of about 1 to 3% and affects about 2...
  41. MECHANISM OF LATENCY OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS
    Nigel Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) can cause a wide range of diseases including skin lesions which are common, encephalitis which is rare, an HSV infection of the eye which is a leading cause of blindness in the USA (400,000 cases)...
  42. Ecological impacts of forest disturbance on La Crosse encephalitis virus dynamics
    MARIA RICHETTA HARRIS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    La Crosse encephalitis virus (LAC), a devastating neurologic disease in children living in endemic areas like West Virginia and southwestern Virginia, is maintained through interactions between mosquito vectors and non-human vertebrate ..
  43. Ecological impacts of forest disturbance on La Crosse encephalitis virus dynamics
    MARIA RICHETTA CAMILLE HARRIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    La Crosse encephalitis virus (LAC), a devastating neurologic disease in children living in endemic areas like West Virginia and southwestern Virginia, is maintained through interactions between mosquito vectors and non-human vertebrate ..
  44. ACUTE ALPHAVIRAL ENCEPHALITIS
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Alphaviruses, such as Eastern and Western equine encephalitis viruses, are important causes of mosquito-borne encephalitis in the Americas, and infected individuals have disease manifestations ranging from a mild febrile illness to fatal ..
  45. Viral Encephalitis, Chemokines and Sleep
    LARRY SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..phase after inoculation with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a well- established animal model of viral encephalitis, and to determine the relationship these changes have to viral- induced changes in profiles of chemokines and ..
  46. Modeling and empirical studies of arboviruses in Florida
    CYNTHIA LORD; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In 2002, there were over 4000 human cases of West Nile (WN) fever or encephalitis in the US. Other arboviruses such as St...
  47. Identification and Analysis of Flavivirus Protease and RNA Helicase Inhibitors
    Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These viruses, in addition to flu-like symptoms, can cause hemorrhagic fevers (YFV and DEN) or encephalitis and/or meningo-encephalitis in susceptible humans...
  48. Identification and Analysis of Flavivirus Protease and RNA Helicase Inhibitors
    Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These viruses, in addition to flu-like symptoms, can cause hemorrhagic fevers (YFV and DEN) or encephalitis and/or meningo-encephalitis in susceptible humans...
  49. Modeling and empirical studies of arboviruses in Florida
    CYNTHIA LORD; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In 2002, there were over 4000 human cases of West Nile (WN) fever or encephalitis in the US. Other arboviruses such as St...
  50. Modeling and empirical studies of arboviruses in Florida
    CYNTHIA LORD; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In 2002, there were over 4000 human cases of West Nile (WN) fever or encephalitis in the US. Other arboviruses such as St...
  51. Identification and Analysis of Flavivirus Protease and RNA Helicase Inhibitors
    Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These viruses, in addition to flu-like symptoms, can cause hemorrhagic fevers (YFV and DEN) or encephalitis and/or meningo-encephalitis in susceptible humans...
  52. Modeling and empirical studies of arboviruses in Florida
    CYNTHIA LORD; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In 2002, there were over 4000 human cases of West Nile (WN) fever or encephalitis in the US. Other arboviruses such as St...
  53. Development of novel subbunit vaccine targeting mutiple alphaviruses
    KENNETH OLSON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Eastern and Western equine encephalitis viruses (EEEV and WEEV;Alphavirus;Togaviridae) are mosquitoborne alphaviruses causing severe encephalitis in humans. There are no human vaccines for alphaviruses in case of widespread disease...
  54. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEIN
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Alphaviruses and flaviviruses are the causative agents of severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis, polyarthritis, and dengue fever, with millions of cases in humans per year...
  55. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEIN
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Alphaviruses and flaviviruses are the causative agents of severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis, polyarthritis, and dengue fever, with millions of cases in humans per year...
  56. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEIN
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Alphaviruses and flaviviruses are the causative agents of severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis, polyarthritis, and dengue fever, with millions of cases in humans per year...
  57. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEIN
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Alphaviruses and flaviviruses are the causative agents of severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis, polyarthritis, and dengue fever, with millions of cases in humans per year...
  58. Immunity to brain Ma proteins: A remote effect of cancer
    Josep Dalmau; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We identified this disorder in men with testicular tumors and brainstem and limbic encephalitis (LE) who developed antibodies to neuronal proteins expressed by the tumors...
  59. Immunity to brain Ma proteins: A remote effect of cancer
    Josep Dalmau; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We identified this disorder in men with testicular tumors and brainstem and limbic encephalitis (LE) who developed antibodies to neuronal proteins expressed by the tumors...
  60. ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2003
    DESCRIPTION: Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging arboviral disease and a public and veterinary health threat throughout the Americas, including the United States...
  61. ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2001
    DESCRIPTION: Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging arboviral disease and a public and veterinary health threat throughout the Americas, including the United States...
  62. ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION: Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging arboviral disease and a public and veterinary health threat throughout the Americas, including the United States...
  63. ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION: Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging arboviral disease and a public and veterinary health threat throughout the Americas, including the United States...
  64. ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2003
    DESCRIPTION: Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging arboviral disease and a public and veterinary health threat throughout the Americas, including the United States...
  65. ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2005
    DESCRIPTION: Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging arboviral disease and a public and veterinary health threat throughout the Americas, including the United States...
  66. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEIN
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Alphaviruses and flaviviruses cause severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis, polyarthritis, and dengue fever, with millions of cases in humans per year...
  67. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEIN
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Alphaviruses and flaviviruses cause severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis, polyarthritis, and dengue fever, with millions of cases in humans per year...
  68. YELLOW FEVER 17D-BASED CHIMERIC FLAVIVIRUS VACCINES
    Thomas Chambers; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses are important causes of human disease on a global scale and vaccine development against both viruses remains a public health priority...
  69. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEIN
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Alphaviruses and flaviviruses cause severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis, polyarthritis, and dengue fever, with millions of cases in humans per year...
  70. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEIN
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Alphaviruses and flaviviruses cause severe human and animal illnesses such as encephalitis, polyarthritis, and dengue fever, with millions of cases in humans per year...
  71. YELLOW FEVER 17D-BASED CHIMERIC FLAVIVIRUS VACCINES
    Thomas Chambers; Fiscal Year: 2000
    Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses are important causes of human disease on a global scale and vaccine development against both viruses remains a public health priority...
  72. YELLOW FEVER 17D-BASED CHIMERIC FLAVIVIRUS VACCINES
    Thomas Chambers; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses are important causes of human disease on a global scale and vaccine development against both viruses remains a public health priority...
  73. YELLOW FEVER 17D-BASED CHIMERIC FLAVIVIRUS VACCINES
    William Wold; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses are important causes of human disease on a global scale and vaccine development against both viruses remains a public health priority...
  74. BUNYAVIRUS ENCEPHALITIS: GENETIC APPROACH
    Neal Nathanson; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Members of the California serogroup of bunyaviruses are a cause of arthropod-borne encephalitis in the United States and Europe. Mice provide an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of this infection...
  75. PERSISTENCE OF DISEASE VIRUS IN ASTROCYTES
    Kathryn Carbone; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..BDV infection in the rat is one of only a few models of chronic viral encephalitis. In rats, the first signs of Borna disease are aggression and ataxia (acute disease), followed by listlessness ..
  76. PURINE BOTTLENECKS FOR THE CHEMOTHERAPY OF TOXOPLASMOSIS
    ELMER PFEFFERKORN; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract): Toxoplasmic encephalitis is a common complication of AIDS...
  77. Cellular genes and signaling pathways as therapeutic targets for virus-induced CN
    Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral encephalitis is a major source of morbidity and mortality both in the U.S. and throughout the world...
  78. TRANSOVARIAL TRANSMISSION OF ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES
    Leon Rosen; Fiscal Year: 1980
    The objective of the proposed research is to determine if transovarial transmission of Japanese encephalitis, St...
  79. Viral Encephalitis, Chemokines and Sleep
    LARRY D contact SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..phase after inoculation with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a well- established animal model of viral encephalitis, and to determine the relationship these changes have to viral- induced changes in profiles of chemokines and ..
  80. Stable Micronized Vaccines Against Smallpox and Japanese Encephalitis
    VICTOR BRONSHTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In recent years, mosquito-borne infections are reemerging or emerging worldwide at an alarming rate. Japanese Encephalitis is a potential agent of bioterrorism; it has been designated as Category C Priority Pathogen...
  81. Stable Micronized Vaccines Against Smallpox and Japanese Encephalitis
    VICTOR BRONSHTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In recent years, mosquito-borne infections are reemerging or emerging worldwide at an alarming rate. Japanese Encephalitis is a potential agent of bioterrorism; it has been designated as Category C Priority Pathogen...