- Evolution of MRSA during hospital transmission and intercontinental spread
Simon R Harris
The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 15A, UK
Science 327:469-74. 2010
..The ability to interrogate and resolve bacterial populations is applicable to a range of infectious diseases, as well as microbial ecology...
- Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States
R Monina Klevens
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
JAMA 298:1763-71. 2007
..As the epidemiology of infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) changes, accurate information on the scope and magnitude of MRSA infections in the US population is needed...
- Multilocus sequence typing for characterization of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible clones of Staphylococcus aureus
M C Enright
Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3FY
J Clin Microbiol 38:1008-15. 2000
..MLST provides an unambiguous method for assigning MRSA and MSSA isolates to known clones or assigning them as novel clones via the Internet...
- Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology and clinical consequences of an emerging epidemic
Michael Z David
Department of Pediatrics and Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Clin Microbiol Rev 23:616-87. 2010
..It also addresses the therapy of these infections and strategies for their prevention...
- Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the antibiotic era
Henry F Chambers
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
Nat Rev Microbiol 7:629-41. 2009
..Here, we review the molecular epidemiology of the epidemic waves of penicillin- and methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus that have occurred since 1940, with a focus on the clinical and molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA...
- Typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a university hospital setting by using novel software for spa repeat determination and database management
Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
J Clin Microbiol 41:5442-8. 2003
..spa typing was valuable for tracking of epidemic isolates. The data show that disproval of epidemiologically suggested transmissions of MRSA is one of the main objectives of spa typing in departments with a high incidence of MRSA...
- The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections
Heiman F L Wertheim
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lancet Infect Dis 5:751-62. 2005
..We present an overview of the current knowledge of the determinants (both human and bacterial) and risks of S aureus nasal carriage. Studies on the population dynamics of S aureus are also summarised...
- Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Frank R Deleo
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
Lancet 375:1557-68. 2010
..Here we review the most up-to-date knowledge and provide a perspective for the future prophylaxis or new treatments for CA-MRSA infections...
- Changes in the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2001-2004
Rachel J Gorwitz
National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
J Infect Dis 197:1226-34. 2008
..Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of infection, particularly in persons colonized by this organism. Virulent strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have emerged in the general community...
- A field guide to pandemic, epidemic and sporadic clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany
PLoS ONE 6:e17936. 2011
..The data also indicate a high rate of genetic recombination in MRSA involving SCC elements, bacteriophages or other mobile genetic elements and large-scale chromosomal replacements...
- Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a novel mecA homologue in human and bovine populations in the UK and Denmark: a descriptive study
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, UK
Lancet Infect Dis 11:595-603. 2011
- Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe: a molecular-epidemiological analysis
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
PLoS Med 7:e1000215. 2010
..We aimed to map the geographic distribution of the dominant clones that cause invasive infections in Europe...
- Hospitalizations and deaths caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United States, 1999-2005
Resources for the Future, Washington DC, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 13:1840-6. 2007
..Our findings suggest that S. aureus and MRSA should be considered a national priority for disease control...
- Identification of novel cytolytic peptides as key virulence determinants for community-associated MRSA
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, US National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
Nat Med 13:1510-4. 2007
..Our study reveals a previously uncharacterized set of S. aureus virulence factors that account at least in part for the enhanced virulence of CA-MRSA...
- Complete genome sequence of USA300, an epidemic clone of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Binh An Diep
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Lancet 367:731-9. 2006
..Our aim was to sequence its genome and compare it with those of other strains of S aureus to try to identify genes responsible for its distinctive epidemiological and virulence properties...
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig farming
Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Emerg Infect Dis 11:1965-6. 2005
..While spa-type t108 is apparently a more widespread clone among pig farmers and their environment, we did find other spa-types...
- Recent human-to-poultry host jump, adaptation, and pandemic spread of Staphylococcus aureus
Bethan V Lowder
The Roslin Institute and Centre for Infectious Diseases, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:19545-50. 2009
..These data provide a new paradigm for the impact of human activities on the emergence of animal pathogens...
- Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the United States: establishing a national database
Linda K McDougal
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
J Clin Microbiol 41:5113-20. 2003
..Noticeably absent from the U.S. database were isolates with the previously described Brazilian and EMRSA15 PFGE patterns. These data suggest that there are a limited number of ORSA genotypes present in the United States...
- Treatment of infections associated with surgical implants
Rabih O Darouiche
Center for Prostheses Infection and the Infectious Disease Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
N Engl J Med 350:1422-9. 2004
- Clinical practice guidelines by the infectious diseases society of america for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in adults and children
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California94102, USA
Clin Infect Dis 52:e18-55. 2011
..Recommendations are provided regarding vancomycin dosing and monitoring, management of infections due to MRSA strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, and vancomycin treatment failures...
- MRSA harboring mecA variant gene mecC, France
Centre de Reference des Staphylocoques, Centre de Biologie Nord, Groupement Hospitalier Nord, 103 Grande Rue de la Croix Rousse, Lyon 69004, France
Emerg Infect Dis 18:1465-7. 2012
..Our report confirms that this new variant has a large distribution in Europe. It may represent a public health threat because phenotypic and genotypic tests seem unable to detect this new resistance mechanism...
- Nasal carriage as a source of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Study Group
C von Eiff
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Munster, Germany
N Engl J Med 344:11-6. 2001
..We examined S. aureus isolates from blood and from nasal specimens to determine whether the organisms in the bloodstream originated from the patient's own flora...
- Involvement of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia
Centre National de Référence de Toxémies Staphylococciques, Faculte de Medecine, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
Clin Infect Dis 29:1128-32. 1999
..It thus appears that PVL is mainly associated with necrotic lesions involving the skin or mucosa...
- Comparison of community- and health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection
Timothy S Naimi
Acute Disease Investigation and Control Section, Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis, USA
JAMA 290:2976-84. 2003
..However, MRSA has emerged in patients without established risk factors (community-associated MRSA)...
- Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus between the community and the hospitals in Asian countries: an ANSORP study
Jae Hoon Song
Division of Infectious Diseases, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
J Antimicrob Chemother 66:1061-9. 2011
..aureus infections. To understand the changing epidemiology of S. aureus infections in Asian countries, we performed a prospective, multinational surveillance study with molecular typing analysis...
- Detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type XI carrying highly divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr genes in human clinical isolates of clonal complex 130 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Anna C Shore
Microbiology Research Unit, Dublin Dental University Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3765-73. 2011
..aureus strains were predominantly from bovine sources. The highly divergent nature of SCCmec XI relative to other SCCmec elements indicates that it may have originated in another taxon...
- Transmissibility of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ST398) in Dutch hospitals
M W M Wassenberg
Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands
Clin Microbiol Infect 17:316-9. 2011
..28 (95% CI 0.09-0.90), which was not sensitive to adjustment for duration of hospitalization at time of detection. Nosocomial transmission of ST398 MRSA is 72% less likely than that of non-ST398 MRSA strains...
- Evolution of multidrug resistance during Staphylococcus aureus infection involves mutation of the essential two component regulator WalKR
Benjamin P Howden
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
PLoS Pathog 7:e1002359. 2011
..aureus infections and demonstrates the role played by walKR to increase drug resistance, control metabolism and alter the virulence potential of this pathogen...
- Risk and outcome of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in nasal carriers versus non-carriers
Heiman F L Wertheim
Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Dr Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam, Netherlands
Lancet 364:703-5. 2004
..006). S aureus nasal carriers and non-carriers differ significantly in risk and outcome of nosocomial S aureus bacteraemia. Genotyping revealed that 80% of strains causing bacteraemia in carriers were endogenous...
- Survey of infections due to Staphylococcus species: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Western Pacific region for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillanc
D J Diekema
Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
Clin Infect Dis 32:S114-32. 2001
..Given the increasing multidrug resistance among staphylococci and the possible emergence of vancomycin-resistant strains, global strategies are needed to control emergence and spread of multiply resistant staphylococci...
- Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 genotype as a major cause of health care-associated blood stream infections
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
Clin Infect Dis 42:647-56. 2006
..Whether community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genotypes (e.g., USA300) are a major cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and health care-associated infections has been poorly defined...
- The nosocomial transmission rate of animal-associated ST398 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Martin C J Bootsma
Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Utrecht University, CD Utrecht, The Netherlands
J R Soc Interface 8:578-84. 2011
..The R(A) ratio between non-ST398 MRSA and ST398 was 5.90 (95% CI 2.24-23.81). ST398 is 5.9 times less transmissible than non-ST398 MRSA in Dutch hospitals, which may allow less stringent transmission-control measures for ST398 MRSA...
- Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis
Sara E Cosgrove
Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Clin Infect Dis 36:53-9. 2003
..54-2.42; P<.001); significant heterogeneity was present. We explored the reasons for heterogeneity by means of subgroup analyses. MRSA bacteremia is associated with significantly higher mortality rate than is MSSA bacteremia...
- Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals and humans
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P O Box 80 176, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
Int J Med Microbiol 301:630-4. 2011
..Ongoing MRSA surveillance in humans and animals is needed to detect changes in epidemiology and to implement effective control measures...
- Staphylococcus epidermidis--the 'accidental' pathogen
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike Building 33 1W10, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Nat Rev Microbiol 7:555-67. 2009
..epidermidis in balancing the epithelial microflora and serving as a reservoir of resistance genes. In this Review, I discuss the molecular basis of the commensal and infectious lifestyles of S. epidermidis...
- Staphylococcal biofilms
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT, USA
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 322:207-28. 2008
..These recent advances constitute an important basis for the development of anti-staphylococcal drugs and vaccines...
- Autoinduction and signal transduction in the regulation of staphylococcal virulence
Richard P Novick
Program in Molecular Pathogenesis, Skirball Institute, Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 10016, USA
Mol Microbiol 48:1429-49. 2003
..This review is an attempt to integrate a large body of data into the beginnings of a model that will hopefully help to guide research towards a full-scale test...
- How clonal is Staphylococcus aureus?
Edward J Feil
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, United Kingdom
J Bacteriol 185:3307-16. 2003
- Antimicrobial resistance: the example of Staphylococcus aureus
Franklin D Lowy
Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Clin Invest 111:1265-73. 2003
- Is Panton-Valentine leukocidin the major virulence determinant in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease?
Jovanka M Voyich
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
J Infect Dis 194:1761-70. 2006
..Although the toxin may be a highly linked epidemiological marker for CA-MRSA strains, we conclude that PVL is not the major virulence determinant of CA-MRSA...
- Reclassification of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage types
Alex van Belkum
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
J Infect Dis 199:1820-6. 2009
..This study was performed to provide additional insight into staphylococcal carriage types...
- NOD2 contributes to cutaneous defense against Staphylococcus aureus through alpha-toxin-dependent innate immune activation
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12873-8. 2009
- Age- and gender-associated Staphylococcus aureus spa types found among nasal carriers in a general population: the Tromso Staph and Skin Study
Research Group for Host Microbe Interactions, Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
J Clin Microbiol 49:4213-8. 2011
..This may provide valuable clues to the multifactorial mechanisms, among them bacterial factors, involved in nasal colonization with S. aureus...
- Rapid detection, differentiation and typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harbouring either mecA or the new mecA homologue mecA(LGA251)
Department of Microbiological Surveillance and Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
Clin Microbiol Infect 18:395-400. 2012
..Over a 2-month period, among 203 samples tested, 12 new MRSA cases caused by isolates carrying mecA(LGA251) were identified, emphasizing the clinical importance of testing for these new MRSA isolates...
- Emergence and resurgence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a public-health threat
Centre for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Lancet 368:874-85. 2006
- The innate immune modulators staphylococcal complement inhibitor and chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus are located on beta-hemolysin-converting bacteriophages
Willem J B Van Wamel
Eijkman Winkler Institute, Room G04 614, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
J Bacteriol 188:1310-5. 2006
..In conclusion, the four human-specific innate immune modulators SCIN, CHIPS, SAK, and SEA form an IEC that is easily transferred among S. aureus strains by a diverse group of beta-hemolysin-converting bacteriophages...
- Staphylococcus epidermidis surfactant peptides promote biofilm maturation and dissemination of biofilm-associated infection in mice
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
J Clin Invest 121:238-48. 2011
- Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains as a cause of healthcare-associated infection
J A Otter
Directorate of Infection, King s College London and Guy s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
J Hosp Infect 79:189-93. 2011
- Global changes in Staphylococcus aureus gene expression in human blood
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
PLoS ONE 6:e18617. 2011
..These findings, along with a requirement of specific growth conditions for leukotoxin expression, may explain the apparent limited contribution of any single two-component leukotoxin to USA300 immune evasion and virulence...
- Are bloodstream leukocytes Trojan Horses for the metastasis of Staphylococcus aureus?
Guy E Thwaites
Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Nat Rev Microbiol 9:215-22. 2011
..Furthermore, we suggest how this can be experimentally confirmed and how it may prompt a change in the current paradigm of S. aureus bacteraemia and identify better treatment options for improved clinical outcomes...
- Nosocomial bloodstream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study
Department of Internal Medicine, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA
Clin Infect Dis 39:309-17. 2004
..Nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States...
- The emergence of Staphylococcus aureus ST398
Tara C Smith
Department of Epidemiology, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11:327-39. 2011
..We also discuss lingering research questions and implications for controlling spread of this bacterium in an agricultural environment and beyond...
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): burden of disease and control challenges in Europe
Institute of Hygiene, University Hospital Muenster, Muenster, Germany
Euro Surveill 15:19688. 2010
..Thereby, we aim at identifying unmet needs of surveillance, prevention and control of MRSA in Europe...
- Clinical practice guidelines by the infectious diseases society of america for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in adults and children: executive summary
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94102, USA
Clin Infect Dis 52:285-92. 2011
..Recommendations are provided regarding vancomycin dosing and monitoring, management of infections due to MRSA strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, and vancomycin treatment failures...
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain ST398 is present in midwestern U.S. swine and swine workers
Tara C Smith
Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA
PLoS ONE 4:e4258. 2009
..However, no studies to date have investigated carriage of MRSA among swine and swine farmers in the United States (U.S.)...
- Comparison of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pulsotypes USA300 and USA400 in a rat model of pneumonia
Christopher P Montgomery
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
J Infect Dis 198:561-70. 2008
..The explanation for this shift is unclear. We hypothesized that USA300 must be more pathogenic--specifically, that USA300 would have increased virulence when compared with USA400 in an animal model...
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in veterinary medicine
J Scott Weese
Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G2W1, Canada
Vet Microbiol 140:418-29. 2010
..The relative importance of these staphylococci on different animal species varies, as do the concerns about zoonotic transmission, yet it is clear that both present a challenge to veterinary medicine...
- Microarray based study on virulence-associated genes and resistance determinants of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cattle
Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Carl Gustav Carus at the Technical University of Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, D 01307, Dresden, Germany
Vet Microbiol 125:128-40. 2007
..The presence of these two strains highlights the possibility of transfers of S. aureus strains between different host species...
- Harmonization of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols for epidemiological typing of strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a single approach developed by consensus in 10 European laboratories and its application for tracing the spre
Laboratory of Hospital Infection, Central Public Health Laboratory, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
J Clin Microbiol 41:1574-85. 2003
..This highlights the need for closer international collaboration to monitor the spread of current epidemic strains as well as the emergence of new ones...
- Spa type distribution in Staphylococcus aureus originating from pigs, cattle and poultry
Technical University of Denmark, National Food Institute, Bulowsvej 27, 1790 Copenhagen V, Denmark
Vet Microbiol 141:326-31. 2010
..In conclusion, strains of MSSA CC398 were commonly present in pigs but not present at all in the other reservoirs tested...
- Coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections
Kathie L Rogers
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986280 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 6280, USA
Infect Dis Clin North Am 23:73-98. 2009
..This article deals with the clinical syndromes, epidemiology, prevention, and management of infections caused by this unique group of organisms...
- Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in different animal species
Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode Branch, Burgstrasse 37, 38855 Wernigerode, Germany
Int J Med Microbiol 300:109-17. 2010
..Mechanisms of host adaptation and their genomic background are poorly understood so far...
- Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in the United States, 2001-2002
Matthew J Kuehnert
National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
J Infect Dis 193:172-9. 2006
..Although methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection has become increasingly reported, population-based S. aureus and MRSA colonization estimates are lacking...
- Relationships between Staphylococcus aureus genetic background, virulence factors, agr groups (alleles), and human disease
Faculte de Medecine Laennec, Centre national de référence des toxémies à staphylocoques, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
Infect Immun 70:631-41. 2002
..While these results do not show a direct role of the agr type in the type of human disease caused by S. aureus, the agr group may reflect an ancient evolutionary division of S. aureus in terms of this species' fundamental biology...
- Staphylococcus and biofilms
Department of Microbial Genetics, Universitat Tubingen, Waldhäuser Str 70 8, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Mol Microbiol 43:1367-78. 2002
..Concepts for the prevention of obstinate polymer-associated infections include the search for new anti-infectives active in biofilms and new biocompatible materials that complicate biofilm formation and the development of vaccines...
- Mortality and hospital stay associated with resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteremia: estimating the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe
Marlieke E A de Kraker
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
PLoS Med 8:e1001104. 2011
- Pathogenesis of infections due to coagulase-negative staphylococci
Christof von Eiff
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Münster Hospital and Clinics, Munster, Germany
Lancet Infect Dis 2:677-85. 2002
- Cutting edge: TLR2-deficient and MyD88-deficient mice are highly susceptible to Staphylococcus aureus infection
Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology of Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Osaka, Japan
J Immunol 165:5392-6. 2000
..aureus is recognized not only by TLR2, but also by other TLR family members except for TLR4...
- Reemergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomics era
Frank R Deleo
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
J Clin Invest 119:2464-74. 2009
..This Review focuses on progress made toward understanding the success of community-associated MRSA as a human pathogen, with an emphasis on genome-wide approaches and virulence determinants...
- Infection and colonization with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 versus other MRSA in an area with a high density of pig farms
M W H Wulf
PAMM Laboratory for Medical Microbiology, de Run 6250, Veldhoven, The Netherlands
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:61-5. 2012
..ST398 isolates were more often multi-resistant than isolates of other spa-types. The emergence of MRSA ST398 led to an increase in both MRSA carriers and MRSA infections...
- Reduced vancomycin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus, including vancomycin-intermediate and heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate strains: resistance mechanisms, laboratory detection, and clinical implications
Benjamin P Howden
Department of Infectious Diseases, Austin Health, Victoria, Australia
Clin Microbiol Rev 23:99-139. 2010
..Given the subtleties of vancomycin susceptibility testing against S. aureus, it is imperative that diagnostic laboratories use well-standardized methods and have a framework for detecting reduced vancomycin susceptibility in S. aureus...
- Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in humans, Europe
Brigitte A G L van Cleef
Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Emerg Infect Dis 17:502-5. 2011
..Livestock-associated MRSA ST398 accounted for only a small proportion of MRSA isolates from humans; most were from the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, and Austria...
- Strengthening insights into host responses to mastitis infection in ruminants by combining heterogeneous microarray data sources
Parco Tecnologico Padano CERSA, Via Einstein, 26900 Lodi, Italy
BMC Genomics 12:225. 2011
..aureus. We combined different time points from those studies, testing different responses to mastitis infection: overall (common signature), early stage, late stage, and cattle-specific...
- Staphylococcal infections: mechanisms of biofilm maturation and detachment as critical determinants of pathogenicity
Pathogen Molecular Genetics Section, Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1881, USA
Annu Rev Med 64:175-88. 2013
- Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus blood and skin and soft tissue infections in the US military health system, 2005-2010
Michael L Landrum
Infectious Disease Service, San Antonio Military Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas 78234, USA
JAMA 308:50-9. 2012
..Rates of hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are reported as decreasing, but recent rates of community-onset S. aureus infections are less known...
- Modelling the costs and effects of selective and universal hospital admission screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
PLoS ONE 6:e14783. 2011
..The objective of this study was to determine the long-term costs and health benefits of selective and universal screening for MRSA at hospital admission, using both PCR-based and chromogenic media-based tests in various settings...
- Are community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains replacing traditional nosocomial MRSA strains?
Kyle J Popovich
Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, and Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Stroger Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
Clin Infect Dis 46:787-94. 2008
..We describe the epidemiology of hospital-onset community-associated MRSA bloodstream infections using phenotypic and genotypic analysis...
- Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus: origin, evolution and public health threat
J Ross Fitzgerald
The Roslin Institute and Edinburgh Infectious Diseases, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Campus, Edinburgh EH25 NRG, UK
Trends Microbiol 20:192-8. 2012
..aureus clones affecting livestock has been highlighted. Here, I summarise recent developments in this emerging field and suggest questions of importance for future research efforts...
- A timescale for evolution, population expansion, and spatial spread of an emerging clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Robert Koch Institut, Wernigerode, Germany
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000855. 2010
..In addition, comparative genomics indicated complex bacteriophage dynamics...
- Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department
Gregory J Moran
Department of Emergency Medicine, Olive View UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, Calif 91342, USA
N Engl J Med 355:666-74. 2006
..Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasingly recognized in infections among persons in the community without established risk factors for MRSA...
- Dissemination of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in the community
Department of Bacteriology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
J Clin Microbiol 40:4289-94. 2002
..They multiplied much faster than health-care-associated MRSA and were resistant to fewer non-beta-lactam antibiotics. They seem to have been derived from more diverse S. aureus populations than health-care-associated MRSA strains...
- Tracking the in vivo evolution of multidrug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by whole-genome sequencing
Michael M Mwangi
Physics Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:9451-6. 2007
..As costs drop, whole-genome sequencing will become a useful tool in elucidating complex pathways of in vivo evolution in bacterial pathogens...
- Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers
Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada
Vet Microbiol 128:298-303. 2008
..This study demonstrates that MRSA is common in pigs in Ontario, Canada, and provides further support to concerns about transmission of MRSA between pigs and humans...
- Characterization of nasal and blood culture isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from patients in United States Hospitals
Fred C Tenover
Cepheid, Sunnyvale, California, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1324-30. 2012
..S. hospitalized patients, USA100 isolates of multiple spa types, while still common in the nares, have been replaced by USA300 isolates as the predominant MRSA strain type in positive blood cultures...
- Inflammasome-mediated production of IL-1beta is required for neutrophil recruitment against Staphylococcus aureus in vivo
Lloyd S Miller
Division of Dermatology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
J Immunol 179:6933-42. 2007
..aureus in vivo...
- Gene expression patterns in blood leukocytes discriminate patients with acute infections
Baylor National Institute of Allergy and Infections Diseases NIAID Cooperative Center for Translational Research on Human Immunology and Biodefense and Baylor Institute for Immunology Research, Dallas, TX 75204, USA
Blood 109:2066-77. 2007
..Thus, microarray analyses of patient peripheral blood leukocytes might assist in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases...
- Preventing surgical-site infections in nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus
Lonneke G M Bode
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
N Engl J Med 362:9-17. 2010
..Nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus are at increased risk for health care-associated infections with this organism. Decolonization of nasal and extranasal sites on hospital admission may reduce this risk...
- Staphylococcus aureus phenotype switching: an effective bacterial strategy to escape host immune response and establish a chronic infection
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital of Munster, Munster, Germany
EMBO Mol Med 3:129-41. 2011
..Our findings demonstrate that bacterial phenotype switching is an integral part of the infection process that enables the bacteria to hide inside host cells, which can be a reservoir for chronic and therapy-refractive infections...
- Veterans Affairs initiative to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections
Patient Care Services, Veterans Affairs Central Office, and the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, USA
N Engl J Med 364:1419-30. 2011
..Health care-associated infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been an increasing concern in Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals...
- Repair of global regulators in Staphylococcus aureus 8325 and comparative analysis with other clinical isolates
Microbial Genetics, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
Infect Immun 78:2877-89. 2010
..If this mutation were repaired, Newman would be considerably improved as a model strain...
- Determining confidence intervals when measuring genetic diversity and the discriminatory abilities of typing methods for microorganisms
Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Nottingham, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, United Kingdom
J Clin Microbiol 39:4190-2. 2001
..This approach facilitates the comparison of the genetic population structure of microorganisms isolated from different environments and improves the objective assessment of the discriminatory power of typing techniques...
- Multiplex PCR strategy for subtyping the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: 'SCCmec IV multiplex'
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal
J Antimicrob Chemother 60:42-8. 2007
..To develop and validate a new multiplex PCR strategy for subtyping SCCmec type IV methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains-SCCmec IV multiplex PCR...
- Two distinct clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with the same USA300 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile: a potential pitfall for identification of USA300 community-associated MRSA
Anders Rhod Larsen
National Center for Antimicrobials and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut, B 47, Artillerivej 5, DK 2300 Copenhagen
J Clin Microbiol 47:3765-8. 2009
..The second (ST8-IVa, t024, and PVL negative) had different molecular characteristics and epidemiology, suggesting independent evolution. We recommend spa typing and/or PCR to discriminate between the two clones...
- Rapid neutrophil destruction following phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus
Scott D Kobayashi
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Research Technologies Section, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
J Innate Immun 2:560-75. 2010
..aureus pore-forming toxins. We propose that the ability of CA-MRSA strains to induce programmed necrosis of neutrophils is a component of enhanced virulence...
- Are host genetics the predominant determinant of persistent nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage in humans?
EA3964 Université Paris Diderot and Centre National de Référence, Résistance bactérienne dans les flores commensales, Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, Paris, France
J Infect Dis 202:924-34. 2010
..Therefore, we concomitantly assessed the epidemiological, microbiological, and human-genetic carriage-related factors in a nearly closed population...
- Staphylococcus aureus: Staphylokinase
Maria I Bokarewa
Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Guldhedsgatan 10, SE 41346 Göteborg, Sweden
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 38:504-9. 2006
..Our observations indicate that staphylokinase favours symbiosis of staphylococci with the host that makes it an important colonization factor...
- Subtle genetic changes enhance virulence of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus
Sarah K Highlander
Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
BMC Microbiol 7:99. 2007
..Epidemiological studies suggest that USA300 is more virulent than other CA-MRSA. The genetic determinants that render virulence and dominance to USA300 remain unclear...
- Mouse model of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited defect in phagocyte superoxide production
J D Pollock
Department of Pediatrics, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
Nat Genet 9:202-9. 1995
..This animal model should aid in developing new treatments for CGD and in evaluating the role of phagocyte-derived oxidants in inflammation...
- Molecular epidemiology of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Europe
Jonathan A Otter
Department of Infection, King s College London and St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
Lancet Infect Dis 10:227-39. 2010
..An understanding of the epidemiology of community-associated MRSA is essential to guide new control initiatives to prevent these organisms from becoming endemic in Europe...
- Clonal distribution of superantigen genes in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates
Institut fur Immunologie, Universitat Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
J Clin Microbiol 45:2669-80. 2007
..In summary, we show here that the simultaneous assessment of virulence gene profiles and the genetic background increases the discriminatory power of genetic investigations into the mechanisms of S. aureus pathogenesis...
- Accessory gene regulator (agr) locus in geographically diverse Staphylococcus aureus isolates with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin
Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1492-502. 2002
..These findings imply that compromised agr function is advantageous to clinical isolates of S. aureus toward the development of vancomycin heteroresistance, perhaps through the development of vancomycin tolerance...