Summary: A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.

Top Publications

  1. Hainaux B, Agneessens E, Bertinotti R, De Maertelaer V, Rubesova E, Capelluto E, et al. Accuracy of MDCT in predicting site of gastrointestinal tract perforation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187:1179-83 pubmed
    ..007) were strong predictors of the site of bowel perforation. MDCT is highly accurate for predicting the site of gastrointestinal tract perforations. Three of eight CT findings significantly correlate with surgical diagnosis. ..
  2. Bette M, Nusing R, Mutters R, Zamora Z, Menendez S, Schulz S. Efficiency of tazobactam/piperacillin in lethal peritonitis is enhanced after preconditioning of rats with O3/O2-pneumoperitoneum. Shock. 2006;25:23-9 pubmed
    Insufflation of ozonized oxygen into the peritoneum (O3/O2-pneumoperitoneum [O3/O2-PP]) of rats reduced the lethality of peritonitis...
  3. Ghekiere O, Lesnik A, Hoa D, Laffargue G, Uriot C, Taourel P. Value of computed tomography in the diagnosis of the cause of nontraumatic gastrointestinal tract perforation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2007;31:169-76 pubmed
    ..gastroduodenal ulcer perforations from other causes of perforations in patients with a non-traumatic-free pneumoperitoneum. Computed tomographic scans of 81 patients with a non-traumatic-free pneumoperitoneum were reviewed for ..
  4. Chan Y, Tsai Y, Fang S. Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pneumoperitoneum during colonoscopic balloon dilation: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2010;26:669-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Chest X-ray revealed diffuse subcutaneous emphysema and bilateral pneumothorax. We discuss the possible mechanism and management of this uncommon complication during therapeutic colonoscopy...
  5. Khan T, Rawat J, Ahmed I, Rashid K, Maletha M, Wakhlu A, et al. Neonatal pneumoperitoneum: a critical appraisal of its causes and subsequent management from a developing country. Pediatr Surg Int. 2009;25:1093-7 pubmed publisher
    The diagnosis and management of neonatal pneumoperitoneum revolves around necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in most of the published literature...
  6. Garcia P, Pizanis A, Massmann A, Reischmann B, Burkhardt M, Tosounidis G, et al. Bilateral pneumothoraces, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum, and subcutaneous emphysema after thoracoscopic anterior fracture stabilization. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:E371-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Case report and clinical discussion...
  7. Chawla S, Yalamarthi S, Shaikh I, Tagore V, Skaife P. An unusual presentation of sclerosing mesenteritis as pneumoperitoneum: case report with a review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:117-20 pubmed
    ..An unusual presentation of this condition, which led to difficult preoperative assessment and diagnosis, is described. This report is followed by a comprehensive review of the literature. ..
  8. Breen M, Dorfman M, Chan S. Pneumoperitoneum without peritonitis: a case report. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26:841.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    b>Pneumoperitoneum (PP), or air within the abdominal cavity, is frequently the harbinger of serious abdominal pathology and frequently represents visceral perforation. Most cases of PP ultimately need surgical exploration and intervention...
  9. Ghekiere O, Lesnik A, Millet I, Hoa D, Guillon F, Taourel P. Direct visualization of perforation sites in patients with a non-traumatic free pneumoperitoneum: added diagnostic value of thin transverse slices and coronal and sagittal reformations for multi-detector CT. Eur Radiol. 2007;17:2302-9 pubmed
    ..axial reconstructions for direct visualization of the perforation site in patients with non-traumatic free pneumoperitoneum was assessed...

More Information


  1. Quek R, Lim S, Tan E. Pneumoperitoneum following percutaneous lung biopsy. Lancet. 2006;368:1794 pubmed
  2. Lu T, Chen S, Wang H, Lee C, Chen S. Tension pneumoperitoneum following upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006;105:431-3 pubmed
    Tension pneumoperitoneum is a potentially lethal complication of numerous iatrogenic procedures, including upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy...
  3. Ozgonul A, Cece H, Sogut O, Demir D, Kurkcuoglus I. Pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum and bilateral pneumothorax caused by ERCP. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60:60-1 pubmed
    ..Life-threatening complications such as pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax related to this procedure ..
  4. Lin P, Tsai M, Chang J, Chen W, Huang C. Gastric distension: a risk factor of pneumoperitoneum during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Am J Emerg Med. 2006;24:878-9 pubmed
  5. Nam J, Yi S. Massive pneumoperitoneum and pneumomediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;2:xxii pubmed
  6. Besic N, Zgajnar J, Kocijancic I. Pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, and pneumoperitoneum caused by peridiverticulitis of the colon: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:766-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the only report in the literature about pneumopericardium caused by peridiverticulitis of the colon. ..
  7. Marwan K, Farmer K, Varley C, Chapple K. Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum and subcutaneous emphysema following diagnostic colonoscopy. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2007;89:W20-1 pubmed
    ..We present a case of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum and extensive subcutaneous emphysema resulting from a diagnostic colonoscopy...
  8. Omori H, Asahi H, Inoue Y, Irinoda T, Saito K. Pneumoperitoneum without perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. Dig Surg. 2003;20:334-8 pubmed
    b>Pneumoperitoneum (PP) is usually the result of perforation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with associated peritonitis...
  9. Sekiya K, Hojyo T, Yamada H, Toyama K, Ryo H, Kimura K, et al. Pneumoperitoneum recurring concomitantly with asthmatic exacerbation. Intern Med. 2008;47:47-9 pubmed
    We report a patient with pneumoperitoneum that recurred concomitantly with asthmatic exacerbation. The patient was a 71-year-old man with a medical history of bronchial asthma...
  10. Jablonski C, Alifano M, Regnard J, Gompel A. Pneumoperitoneum associated with catamenial pneumothorax in women with thoracic endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:930.e19-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Three case reports. Academic hospital. Three women with pneumoperitoneum concomitant to CP. Thoracic/abdominal computed tomography scans and chest x-rays...
  11. Dave S, Farhat W, Pace K, Navarro O, Hebert D, Khoury A. Effect of donor pneumoperitoneum on early allograft perfusion following renal transplantation in pediatric patients: an intraoperative Doppler ultrasound study. Pediatr Transplant. 2008;12:522-6 pubmed
    ..034). The creatinine values, creatinine clearances (at 24 h, one, four wk and last follow-up) and AR episodes were similar in both groups. Pneumoperitoneum during LDN does not appear to have an adverse impact on early graft reperfusion.
  12. Cirt N, de Lajarte Thirouard A, Olivie D, Pagenault M, Bretagne J. [Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum and retropneumoperitoneum following a colonoscopy with mucosectomy]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2006;30:779-82 pubmed
    ..We report a case of this complication revealed by subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum and retro-pneumoperitoneum after colonic mucosectomy.
  13. Lin Y, Zuo Z, Lo P, Hseu S, Chang W, Chan K, et al. Bilateral tension pneumothorax and tension pneumoperitoneum secondary to tracheal tear in a patient with relapsing polychondritis. J Chin Med Assoc. 2009;72:488-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present a case of life-threatening bilateral tension pneumothorax and tension pneumoperitoneum that developed after a tracheal tear during Montgomery T-tube insertion in a patient with tracheal stenosis ..
  14. Ade Ajayi N, Veys P, Stanton M, Drake D, Pierro A. Conservative management of pneumatosis intestinalis and pneumoperitoneum following bone-marrow transplantation. Pediatr Surg Int. 2002;18:692-5 pubmed
    Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI), with or without pneumoperitoneum (PP), may complicate allogenic bone-marrow transplantation (BMT)...
  15. Muramori K, Takahashi Y, Handa N, Aikawa H. Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and pneumoretroperitoneum by insufflation of compressed air at the external genitalia in a child. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44:E5-8 pubmed publisher
    A 7-year-old girl with concurrent subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and pneumoretroperitoneum arrived at our facility...
  16. Ruh J, Testa G, Von Deimling F, Schaper J, Kremens B, Broelsch C. Management of pneumatosis coli with free intraperitoneal gas mimicking abdominal hollow organ perforation in a 13-year-old patient following bone marrow transplantation. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:1542-4 pubmed
  17. Brill S, Skipworth J, Stoker D. Conservative management of pneumatosis intestinalis and massive pneumoperitoneum in the acute abdomen: a case report. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2008;90:W11-3 pubmed publisher
    We present a case of massive pneumoperitoneum in association with pneumatosis intestinalis that was successfully managed without surgery despite a clinical picture of an acute abdomen and biochemical evidence of inflammation and systemic ..
  18. Arana Arri E, Cortés H, Cabriada V, Lekerika N, García Verdugo A, Shengelia Shapiro L. Giant faecaloma causing perforation of the rectum presented as a subcutaneous emphysema, pneumoperitoneum and pneumomediastinum: a case report. Eur J Emerg Med. 2007;14:351-3 pubmed
    ..of 75-year-old woman, with a massive faecal impaction, which resulted in a rectum perforation, presented as a pneumoperitoneum, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema...
  19. Tam W, Bertholini D. Tension pneumoperitoneum, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and cardiorespiratory collapse following gastroscopy. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2007;35:307-9 pubmed
  20. Alster C, Zantut L, Lorenzi F, Marchini G, Onofrio B, Nakashima A, et al. An unusual case of pneumoperitoneum: nephrocolic fistula due to a giant renal staghorn calculus. Br J Radiol. 2007;80:e1-3 pubmed
    Gastrointestinal perforations usually lead to pneumoperitoneum and peritonitis...
  21. Schulenburg A, Herold C, Eisenhuber E, Oberhuber G, Volc Platzer B, Greinix H, et al. Pneumatosis [correction of Pneumocystis] cystoides intestinalis with pneumoperitoneum and pneumoretroperitoneum in a patient with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1999;24:331-3 pubmed
    ..male with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the gut and skin who developed PCI with pneumoperitoneum and pneumoretroperitoneum...
  22. Ortega Carnicer J, Ruiz Lorenzo F, Ceres F. Tension pneumoperitoneum due to gastric perforation. Resuscitation. 2002;54:215-6 pubmed
  23. Ukikusa M, Inomoto T, Kitai T, Ino K, Higashiyama H, Arimoto A, et al. Pneumoperitoneum following the spontaneous rupture of a gas-containing pyogenic liver abscess: report of a case. Surg Today. 2001;31:76-9 pubmed
    We report herein the case of a ruptured liver abscess that resulted in pneumoperitoneum. A patient with diabetes mellitus presented with symptoms of acute abdomen...