islets of langerhans

Summary

Summary: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.

Top Publications

  1. Nguyen L, Pozzoli M, Hraha T, Benninger R. Decreasing cx36 gap junction coupling compensates for overactive KATP channels to restore insulin secretion and prevent hyperglycemia in a mouse model of neonatal diabetes. Diabetes. 2014;63:1685-97 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduction of gap junction coupling allows sufficient glucose-stimulated [Ca(2+)]i and insulin secretion to prevent the emergence of diabetes. ..
  2. Atkinson M, Eisenbarth G, Michels A. Type 1 diabetes. Lancet. 2014;383:69-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This Seminar discusses current progress in epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes, and prospects for an improved future for individuals with this disease. ..
  3. Calderon B, Carrero J, Unanue E. The central role of antigen presentation in islets of Langerhans in autoimmune diabetes. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014;26:32-40 pubmed publisher
    The islets of Langerhans normally contain resident antigen presenting cells (APCs), which in normal conditions are mostly represented by macrophages, with a few dendritic cells (DC)...
  4. Wolden Kirk H, Rondas D, Bugliani M, Korf H, Van Lommel L, Brusgaard K, et al. Discovery of molecular pathways mediating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 protection against cytokine-induced inflammation and damage of human and male mouse islets of Langerhans. Endocrinology. 2014;155:736-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects may contribute to the beneficial effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 against the induction of autoimmune diabetes. ..
  5. Ashcroft F, Rorsman P. K(ATP) channels and islet hormone secretion: new insights and controversies. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2013;9:660-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Reinert R, Brissova M, Shostak A, Pan F, Poffenberger G, Cai Q, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-a and islet vascularization are necessary in developing, but not adult, pancreatic islets. Diabetes. 2013;62:4154-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that VEGF-A and islet vascularization have a lesser role in adult islet function and ?-cell mass. ..
  7. Bortell R, Yang C. The BB rat as a model of human type 1 diabetes. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;933:31-44 pubmed publisher
  8. Taborsky G, Mundinger T. Minireview: The role of the autonomic nervous system in mediating the glucagon response to hypoglycemia. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1055-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinically, restoring this glucagon response would allow more aggressive treatment of the chronic hyperglycemia that is linked to the debilitating long-term complications of this disease...
  9. Amyot J, Semache M, Ferdaoussi M, Fontes G, Poitout V. Lipopolysaccharides impair insulin gene expression in isolated islets of Langerhans via Toll-Like Receptor-4 and NF-?B signalling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36200 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we tested the hypothesis that LPS alters insulin gene expression via TLR4 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) in islets...
  10. Arkhipova V, Wendik B, Devos N, Ek O, Peers B, Meyer D. Characterization and regulation of the hb9/mnx1 beta-cell progenitor specific enhancer in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2012;365:290-302 pubmed publisher
    ..The data provide evidence for an Ngn3 independent pathway of beta-cell specification that requires function of currently not specified E-box binding factors...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Nguyen L, Pozzoli M, Hraha T, Benninger R. Decreasing cx36 gap junction coupling compensates for overactive KATP channels to restore insulin secretion and prevent hyperglycemia in a mouse model of neonatal diabetes. Diabetes. 2014;63:1685-97 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduction of gap junction coupling allows sufficient glucose-stimulated [Ca(2+)]i and insulin secretion to prevent the emergence of diabetes. ..
  2. Atkinson M, Eisenbarth G, Michels A. Type 1 diabetes. Lancet. 2014;383:69-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This Seminar discusses current progress in epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes, and prospects for an improved future for individuals with this disease. ..
  3. Calderon B, Carrero J, Unanue E. The central role of antigen presentation in islets of Langerhans in autoimmune diabetes. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014;26:32-40 pubmed publisher
    The islets of Langerhans normally contain resident antigen presenting cells (APCs), which in normal conditions are mostly represented by macrophages, with a few dendritic cells (DC)...
  4. Wolden Kirk H, Rondas D, Bugliani M, Korf H, Van Lommel L, Brusgaard K, et al. Discovery of molecular pathways mediating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 protection against cytokine-induced inflammation and damage of human and male mouse islets of Langerhans. Endocrinology. 2014;155:736-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects may contribute to the beneficial effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 against the induction of autoimmune diabetes. ..
  5. Ashcroft F, Rorsman P. K(ATP) channels and islet hormone secretion: new insights and controversies. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2013;9:660-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Reinert R, Brissova M, Shostak A, Pan F, Poffenberger G, Cai Q, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-a and islet vascularization are necessary in developing, but not adult, pancreatic islets. Diabetes. 2013;62:4154-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that VEGF-A and islet vascularization have a lesser role in adult islet function and ?-cell mass. ..
  7. Bortell R, Yang C. The BB rat as a model of human type 1 diabetes. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;933:31-44 pubmed publisher
  8. Taborsky G, Mundinger T. Minireview: The role of the autonomic nervous system in mediating the glucagon response to hypoglycemia. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1055-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinically, restoring this glucagon response would allow more aggressive treatment of the chronic hyperglycemia that is linked to the debilitating long-term complications of this disease...
  9. Amyot J, Semache M, Ferdaoussi M, Fontes G, Poitout V. Lipopolysaccharides impair insulin gene expression in isolated islets of Langerhans via Toll-Like Receptor-4 and NF-?B signalling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36200 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we tested the hypothesis that LPS alters insulin gene expression via TLR4 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) in islets...
  10. Arkhipova V, Wendik B, Devos N, Ek O, Peers B, Meyer D. Characterization and regulation of the hb9/mnx1 beta-cell progenitor specific enhancer in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2012;365:290-302 pubmed publisher
    ..The data provide evidence for an Ngn3 independent pathway of beta-cell specification that requires function of currently not specified E-box binding factors...
  11. Cole B, Kuhn N, Green Mitchell S, Leone K, Raab R, Nadler J, et al. 12/15-Lipoxygenase signaling in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E654-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, reduction of 12/15-LO activity or expression could provide a new therapeutic target to reduce ER stress and downstream inflammation linked to obesity...
  12. Liu Z, Cort L, Eberwine R, Herrmann T, Leif J, Greiner D, et al. Prevention of type 1 diabetes in the rat with an allele-specific anti-T-cell receptor antibody: V?13 as a therapeutic target and biomarker. Diabetes. 2012;61:1160-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be possible to prevent autoimmune diabetes by targeting a limited element of the T-cell repertoire...
  13. Coppieters K, Dotta F, Amirian N, Campbell P, Kay T, Atkinson M, et al. Demonstration of islet-autoreactive CD8 T cells in insulitic lesions from recent onset and long-term type 1 diabetes patients. J Exp Med. 2012;209:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations provide the first direct proof for islet autoreactivity within human islets and underscore the heterogeneous and chronic disease course...
  14. Kruit J, Wijesekara N, Westwell Roper C, Vanmierlo T, de Haan W, Bhattacharjee A, et al. Loss of both ABCA1 and ABCG1 results in increased disturbances in islet sterol homeostasis, inflammation, and impaired ?-cell function. Diabetes. 2012;61:659-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that ABCA1 and ABCG1 each make complimentary and important contributions to ?-cell function by maintaining islet cholesterol homeostasis in vivo...
  15. Balamurugan A, Loganathan G, Bellin M, Wilhelm J, Harmon J, Anazawa T, et al. A new enzyme mixture to increase the yield and transplant rate of autologous and allogeneic human islet products. Transplantation. 2012;93:693-702 pubmed publisher
    ..The ECs consisted of purified, intact or truncated class 1 (C1) and class 2 (C2) collagenases from Clostridium histolyticum (Ch), and neutral protease (NP) from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus rokko (thermolysin) or Ch (ChNP)...
  16. Steck A, Wong R, Wagner B, Johnson K, Liu E, Romanos J, et al. Effects of non-HLA gene polymorphisms on development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes in a population with high-risk HLA-DR,DQ genotypes. Diabetes. 2012;61:753-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-HLA susceptibility alleles may help estimate risk for development of type 1 diabetes in the general population. These findings require replication in different populations...
  17. Lind K, Richardson S, Leete P, Morgan N, Korsgren O, Flodstrom Tullberg M. Induction of an antiviral state and attenuated coxsackievirus replication in type III interferon-treated primary human pancreatic islets. J Virol. 2013;87:7646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our novel observations suggest that type III IFNs may regulate viral replication and thereby contribute to reduced tissue damage and promote islet cell survival during coxsackievirus infection...
  18. Dai C, Brissova M, Reinert R, Nyman L, Liu E, Thompson C, et al. Pancreatic islet vasculature adapts to insulin resistance through dilation and not angiogenesis. Diabetes. 2013;62:4144-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These compensatory changes in islet vascularization may influence whether ?-cells can adequately respond to insulin resistance and prevent the development of diabetes. ..
  19. Yu L, Dong F, Miao D, Fouts A, Wenzlau J, Steck A. Proinsulin/Insulin autoantibodies measured with electrochemiluminescent assay are the earliest indicator of prediabetic islet autoimmunity. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:2266-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated a novel electrochemiluminescent assay for insulin/proinsulin autoantibodies (ECL-IAA) as a new marker of the onset of islet autoimmunity and as a predictor of type 1 diabetes...
  20. Arnés L, Hill J, Gross S, Magnuson M, Sussel L. Ghrelin expression in the mouse pancreas defines a unique multipotent progenitor population. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52026 pubmed publisher
  21. Solomon T, Knudsen S, Karstoft K, Winding K, Holst J, Pedersen B. Examining the effects of hyperglycemia on pancreatic endocrine function in humans: evidence for in vivo glucotoxicity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:4682-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigating the impact of hyperglycemia on pancreatic endocrine function promotes our understanding of the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia-related disease...
  22. Wang A, Akers R, Jiang H. Short communication: Presence of G protein-coupled receptor 43 in rumen epithelium but not in the islets of Langerhans in cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:1371-5 pubmed publisher
    ..testing this possibility, we determined whether GPR43 was expressed in bovine rumen wall and the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Polyclonal antibody against a bovine GPR43 peptide was generated...
  23. Dayeh T, Olsson A, Volkov P, Almgren P, Rönn T, Ling C. Identification of CpG-SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes and differential DNA methylation in human pancreatic islets. Diabetologia. 2013;56:1036-46 pubmed publisher
  24. Muller I, Rössler O, Wittig C, Menger M, Thiel G. Critical role of Egr transcription factors in regulating insulin biosynthesis, blood glucose homeostasis, and islet size. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3040-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that Egr proteins play an important role in controlling insulin biosynthesis, glucose homeostasis, and islet size of pancreatic ?-cells in vivo...
  25. Soriano S, Alonso Magdalena P, García Arévalo M, Novials A, Muhammed S, Salehi A, et al. Rapid insulinotropic action of low doses of bisphenol-A on mouse and human islets of Langerhans: role of estrogen receptor ?. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31109 pubmed publisher
    ..We also investigated these effects of BPA in ?-cells and whole islets of Langerhans from humans...
  26. Khoo C, Yang J, Weinrott S, Kaestner K, Naji A, Schug J, et al. Research resource: the pdx1 cistrome of pancreatic islets. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:521-33 pubmed publisher
  27. Reinert R, Kantz J, Misfeldt A, Poffenberger G, Gannon M, Brissova M, et al. Tamoxifen-Induced Cre-loxP Recombination Is Prolonged in Pancreatic Islets of Adult Mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33529 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, investigators developing experimental approaches using Tm-inducible systems should consider both maximal recombination efficiency and the length of time that Tm-induced Cre-loxP recombination occurs...
  28. Yin N, Xu J, Ginhoux F, Randolph G, Merad M, Ding Y, et al. Functional specialization of islet dendritic cell subsets. J Immunol. 2012;188:4921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These data elucidate the phenotype and function of homeostatic and inflammatory islet DC, suggesting differential roles in islet immunity...
  29. Itoh T, Takita M, Sorelle J, Shimoda M, Sugimoto K, Chujo D, et al. Correlation of released HMGB1 levels with the degree of islet damage in mice and humans and with the outcomes of islet transplantation in mice. Cell Transplant. 2012;21:1371-81 pubmed
    ..Hence, released HMGB1 levels from islets should be a useful marker to evaluate the potency of isolated islets...
  30. Favaro E, Granata R, Miceli I, Baragli A, Settanni F, Cavallo Perin P, et al. The ghrelin gene products and exendin-4 promote survival of human pancreatic islet endothelial cells in hyperglycaemic conditions, through phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) sig. Diabetologia. 2012;55:1058-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether the ghrelin gene products and the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) display survival effects in human pancreatic islet microendothelial cells (MECs) exposed to chronic hyperglycaemia...
  31. Stamenkovic J, Olsson A, Nagorny C, Malmgren S, Dekker Nitert M, Ling C, et al. Regulation of core clock genes in human islets. Metabolism. 2012;61:978-85 pubmed publisher
    ..003). Core clock genes are regulated in human islets. The data suggest that perturbations of circadian clock components may contribute to islet pathophysiology in human type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  32. Jacobs Tulleneers Thevissen D, Chintinne M, Ling Z, Gillard P, Schoonjans L, Delvaux G, et al. Sustained function of alginate-encapsulated human islet cell implants in the peritoneal cavity of mice leading to a pilot study in a type 1 diabetic patient. Diabetologia. 2013;56:1605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined in immunodeficient mice whether alginate-encapsulated graft function was inferior to that of free grafts of the same size and composition...
  33. Stožer A, Dolensek J, Rupnik M. Glucose-stimulated calcium dynamics in islets of Langerhans in acute mouse pancreas tissue slices. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54638 pubmed publisher
    In endocrine cells within islets of Langerhans calcium ions couple cell stimulation to hormone secretion...
  34. Schulte B, Lanke K, Piganelli J, Kers Rebel E, Bottino R, Trucco M, et al. Cytokine and chemokine production by human pancreatic islets upon enterovirus infection. Diabetes. 2012;61:2030-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, we studied the response of human islets of Langerhans upon mock or CVB3 infection...
  35. Gregg B, Moore P, Demozay D, Hall B, Li M, Husain A, et al. Formation of a human ?-cell population within pancreatic islets is set early in life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:3197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Such compensation depends not only on environmental and genetic factors but also on the baseline ?-cell mass from which the expansion originates...
  36. Rorsman P, Braun M. Regulation of insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets. Annu Rev Physiol. 2013;75:155-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we consider the pathophysiology of insulin secretion and the interactions between genetics and environmental factors that may explain the current diabetes epidemic...
  37. Kornete M, Sgouroudis E, Piccirillo C. ICOS-dependent homeostasis and function of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in islets of nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol. 2012;188:1064-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, ICOS is critical for the homeostasis and functional stability of Foxp3(+) Tregs in prediabetic islets and maintenance of T1D protection...
  38. Fu W, Wojtkiewicz G, Weissleder R, Benoist C, Mathis D. Early window of diabetes determinism in NOD mice, dependent on the complement receptor CRIg, identified by noninvasive imaging. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to identifying regulators of disease progression, we show here that diabetes is set at an early age in NOD mice...
  39. Amisten S, Salehi A, Rorsman P, Jones P, Persaud S. An atlas and functional analysis of G-protein coupled receptors in human islets of Langerhans. Pharmacol Ther. 2013;139:359-91 pubmed publisher
    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate hormone secretion from islets of Langerhans, and recently developed therapies for type-2 diabetes target islet GLP-1 receptors...
  40. Saito Y, Chan N, Hathout E. Partial hepatectomy improves the outcome of intraportal islet transplantation by promoting revascularization. Islets. 2012;4:138-44 pubmed publisher
    ..01). In the present study, partial hepatectomy (30%) improved the outcome of intraportal islet transplantation. Revascularization of islets transplanted into the liver may have been promoted by the induction of liver regeneration...
  41. Stožer A, Gosak M, Dolensek J, Perc M, Marhl M, Rupnik M, et al. Functional connectivity in islets of Langerhans from mouse pancreas tissue slices. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013;9:e1002923 pubmed publisher
    We propose a network representation of electrically coupled beta cells in islets of Langerhans. Beta cells are functionally connected on the basis of correlations between calcium dynamics of individual cells, obtained by means of confocal ..
  42. Pound L, Sarkar S, Ustione A, Dadi P, Shadoan M, Lee C, et al. The physiological effects of deleting the mouse SLC30A8 gene encoding zinc transporter-8 are influenced by gender and genetic background. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40972 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore sought to remove the conflicting effect of 129SvEv-specific modifier genes...
  43. Molnar C, Essand M, Wennberg L, Berne C, Larsson E, Tufveson G, et al. Islet engraftment and revascularization in clinical and experimental transplantation. Cell Transplant. 2013;22:243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, formation of an extensive intraislet capillary network, similar to that seen in native islets in the pancreas, was seen after clinical islet transplantation...
  44. Diz R, Garland A, Vincent B, Johnson M, Spidale N, Wang B, et al. Autoreactive effector/memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrating grafted and endogenous islets in diabetic NOD mice exhibit similar T cell receptor usage. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52054 pubmed publisher
  45. Qi M, Mørch Y, Lacik I, Formo K, Marchese E, Wang Y, et al. Survival of human islets in microbeads containing high guluronic acid alginate crosslinked with Ca2+ and Ba2+. Xenotransplantation. 2012;19:355-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Microencapsulation has been proposed as a means to protect transplanted islets from the host's immune system...
  46. Pepper A, Hasilo C, Melling C, Mazzuca D, Vilk G, Zou G, et al. The islet size to oxygen consumption ratio reliably predicts reversal of diabetes posttransplant. Cell Transplant. 2012;21:2797-804 pubmed publisher
    Cell replacement therapy by either whole-organ pancreas or islets of Langerhans transplantation can restore carbohydrate control to diabetic patients and reduces complications associated with the disease...
  47. Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Bone R, Cui W, Peng J, Siegal G, et al. Regeneration of pancreatic non-? endocrine cells in adult mice following a single diabetes-inducing dose of streptozotocin. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36675 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study demonstrated adult ?- and ?-cells could regenerate, and both self-duplication and regeneration from endocrine precursor cells were involved in their regeneration...
  48. Rodriguez Diaz R, Speier S, Molano R, Formoso A, Gans I, Abdulreda M, et al. Noninvasive in vivo model demonstrating the effects of autonomic innervation on pancreatic islet function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:21456-61 pubmed publisher
    ..is thought to modulate blood glucose homeostasis by regulating endocrine cell activity in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The role of islet innervation, however, has remained elusive because the direct effects of autonomic ..
  49. Omar B, Pacini G, Ahren B. Differential development of glucose intolerance and pancreatic islet adaptation in multiple diet induced obesity models. Nutrients. 2012;4:1367-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Different high fat diets are used and in order to determine which diet produces a model most accurately resembling human T2D, they need to be compared head-to-head...
  50. Williams S, Schwasinger Schmidt T, Zamierowski D, Stehno Bittel L. Diffusion into human islets is limited to molecules below 10 kDa. Tissue Cell. 2012;44:332-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the islet diffusion barrier leads to low viability and poor survival of large islets, but is not solely responsible for the reduced insulin secretion of large isolated islets...
  51. Oresic M, Gopalacharyulu P, Mykkänen J, Lietzén N, Mäkinen M, Nygren H, et al. Cord serum lipidome in prediction of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2013;62:3268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..94 (95% CI, 1.07-17.50). Reduction in choline-containing phospholipids in cord blood therefore is specifically associated with progression to T1D but not with development of ?-cell autoimmunity in general. ..
  52. Volkmar M, Dedeurwaerder S, Cunha D, Ndlovu M, Defrance M, Deplus R, et al. DNA methylation profiling identifies epigenetic dysregulation in pancreatic islets from type 2 diabetic patients. EMBO J. 2012;31:1405-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings offer new insights into the intricate mechanisms of T2D pathogenesis, underscore the important involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in diabetic islets and may advance our understanding of T2D aetiology...
  53. Dall M, Calloe K, Haupt Jorgensen M, Larsen J, Schmitt N, Josefsen K, et al. Gliadin fragments and a specific gliadin 33-mer peptide close KATP channels and induce insulin secretion in INS-1E cells and rat islets of langerhans. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66474 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that gliadin fragments may contribute to the beta-cell hyperactivity observed prior to the development of type 1 diabetes...
  54. Cai Q, Brissova M, Reinert R, Pan F, Brahmachary P, Jeansson M, et al. Enhanced expression of VEGF-A in ? cells increases endothelial cell number but impairs islet morphogenesis and ? cell proliferation. Dev Biol. 2012;367:40-54 pubmed publisher
  55. Wikstrom J, Sereda S, Stiles L, Elorza A, Allister E, Neilson A, et al. A novel high-throughput assay for islet respiration reveals uncoupling of rodent and human islets. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33023 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, high-throughput and user-friendly assays for islet respiration are lacking. The aim of this study was to develop such an assay and to examine bioenergetic efficiency of rodent and human islets...
  56. Lei X, Zhang S, Bohrer A, Barbour S, Ramanadham S. Role of calcium-independent phospholipase A(2)? in human pancreatic islet ?-cell apoptosis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E1386-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that modulation of iPLA(2)? activity might reduce ?-cell apoptosis and this would be beneficial in delaying or preventing ?-cell dysfunction associated with diabetes...
  57. Agudo J, Ayuso E, Jimenez V, Casellas A, Mallol C, Salavert A, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated islet hypervascularization and inflammation contribute to progressive reduction of ?-cell mass. Diabetes. 2012;61:2851-61 pubmed publisher
  58. Granata R, Gallo D, Luque R, Baragli A, Scarlatti F, Grande C, et al. Obestatin regulates adipocyte function and protects against diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation. FASEB J. 2012;26:3393-411 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence of a novel role for obestatin in adipocyte function and glucose metabolism and suggest potential therapeutic perspectives in insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunctions...
  59. Ziegler A, Rewers M, Simell O, Simell T, Lempainen J, Steck A, et al. Seroconversion to multiple islet autoantibodies and risk of progression to diabetes in children. JAMA. 2013;309:2473-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Type 1 diabetes usually has a preclinical phase identified by circulating islet autoantibodies, but the rate of progression to diabetes after seroconversion to islet autoantibodies is uncertain...
  60. Annes J, Ryu J, Lam K, Carolan P, Utz K, Hollister Lock J, et al. Adenosine kinase inhibition selectively promotes rodent and porcine islet ?-cell replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3915-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Short-term in vivo treatment with an ADK-I also increases ?-cell replication but not exocrine cell or hepatocyte replication. Therefore, we propose ADK inhibition as a strategy for the treatment of diabetes...
  61. Kitzmann J, Law L, Shome A, Muzina M, Elliott R, Mueller K, et al. Real-time assessment of encapsulated neonatal porcine islets prior to clinical xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation. 2012;19:333-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied the validated assay for oxygen consumption rate normalized for DNA content (OCR/DNA) to characterize ENPI viability...
  62. Kalwat M, Yoder S, Wang Z, Thurmond D. A p21-activated kinase (PAK1) signaling cascade coordinately regulates F-actin remodeling and insulin granule exocytosis in pancreatic ? cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013;85:808-16 pubmed publisher