exocrine pancreas

Summary

Summary: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.

Top Publications

  1. Fendrich V, Esni F, Garay M, Feldmann G, Habbe N, Jensen J, et al. Hedgehog signaling is required for effective regeneration of exocrine pancreas. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:621-31 pubmed publisher
    Although both endocrine and the exocrine pancreas display a significant capacity for tissue regeneration and renewal, the existence of progenitor cells in the adult pancreas remains uncertain...
  2. Zhong B, Strnad P, Toivola D, Tao G, Ji X, Greenberg H, et al. Reg-II is an exocrine pancreas injury-response product that is up-regulated by keratin absence or mutation. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4969-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, Reg-II is a likely mouse exocrine pancreas cytoprotective candidate protein whose expression is regulated by keratin filament organization and ..
  3. Burghardt B, Nielsen S, Steward M. The role of aquaporin water channels in fluid secretion by the exocrine pancreas. J Membr Biol. 2006;210:143-53 pubmed
    The mammalian exocrine pancreas secretes a near-isosmotic fluid over a wide osmolarity range. The role of aquaporin (AQP) water channels in this process is now becoming clearer...
  4. Jørgensen M, Ahnfelt Rønne J, Hald J, Madsen O, Serup P, Hecksher Sørensen J. An illustrated review of early pancreas development in the mouse. Endocr Rev. 2007;28:685-705 pubmed
    ..We further discuss how this global analysis of the developing pancreas confirms and extends previous studies, and we envisage that this type of analysis can be instrumental for evaluating mutant phenotypes in the future...
  5. Palmieri V, Grattagliano I, Palasciano G. Ethanol induces secretion of oxidized proteins by pancreatic acinar cells. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2007;23:459-64 pubmed
    ..These findings may account for the decreased exocrine function, intraductular plug formation, and protein precipitation in alcoholic pancreatitis...
  6. Ito M, Nakagawa H, Okada T, Miyazaki S, Matsuo S. ER-stress caused by accumulated intracistanal granules activates autophagy through a different signal pathway from unfolded protein response in exocrine pancreas cells of rats exposed to fluoride. Arch Toxicol. 2009;83:151-9 pubmed publisher
    In rat exocrine pancreas cells, fluoride treatment causes autophagy resulting from intracisternal granule accumulation. Excessive autophagy might promote a type of programmed cell death different from apoptosis...
  7. Shen C, Marguerie A, Chien C, Dickson C, Slack J, Tosh D. All-trans retinoic acid suppresses exocrine differentiation and branching morphogenesis in the embryonic pancreas. Differentiation. 2007;75:62-74 pubmed
  8. Yoon W, Lee J, Lee K, Ryu J, Kim Y, Yoon Y. Cystic neoplasms of the exocrine pancreas: an update of a nationwide survey in Korea. Pancreas. 2008;37:254-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to update a previous study of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas (PCNs) conducted in Korea by the authors...
  9. Klein T, Heremans Y, Heimberg H, Pipeleers D, Madsen O, Serup P, et al. Investigation and characterization of the duct cell-enriching process during serum-free suspension and monolayer culture using the human exocrine pancreas fraction. Pancreas. 2009;38:36-48 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to characterize a serum-free culture system resulting in highly enriched duct cells from human exocrine pancreas. In addition, we tested the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on endothelial cell proliferation ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Gonzalez A, Pariente J, Salido G. Ethanol impairs calcium homeostasis following CCK-8 stimulation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Alcohol. 2008;42:565-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The actions of ethanol on CCK-8 stimulation of cells create a situation potentially leading to Ca2+ overload, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis...
  2. Li Y, Zhou Z, Xia Q, Zhang J, Li H, Cao G, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 detected in exocrine pancreas and the change of expression in cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2005;30:375-81 pubmed
    ..To detect Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and distribution in rat pancreas and the change of TLR4 expression in cerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP)...
  3. Klebl F, Bataille F, Huy C, Hofstadter F, Scholmerich J, Rogler G. Association of antibodies to exocrine pancreas with subtypes of Crohn's disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;17:73-7 pubmed
    ..This study tested whether antibodies against exocrine pancreatic tissue (PAbs) are associated with Vienna classification subtypes of CD...
  4. Iida K, Li Y, McGrath B, Frank A, Cavener D. PERK eIF2 alpha kinase is required to regulate the viability of the exocrine pancreas in mice. BMC Cell Biol. 2007;8:38 pubmed
    ..To determine if the exocrine pancreatic atrophy is due to a cell-autonomous defect, the Perk gene was specifically ablated in acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas in mice.
  5. Ketola I, Otonkoski T, Pulkkinen M, Niemi H, Palgi J, Jacobsen C, et al. Transcription factor GATA-6 is expressed in the endocrine and GATA-4 in the exocrine pancreas. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;226:51-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that GATA-4 is a marker of exocrine pancreatic differentiation, whereas GATA-6 is a marker of endocrine pancreatic development...
  6. Ward A, Warga R, Prince V. Origin of the zebrafish endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1558-69 pubmed
    ..Endocrine vs. exocrine pancreas show a similar pattern of progenitors, consistent with descriptions of the dorsal bud being strictly ..
  7. Nakhai H, Siveke J, Mendoza Torres L, Schmid R. Conditional inactivation of Myc impairs development of the exocrine pancreas. Development. 2008;135:3191-6 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have shown that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is essential for development of the exocrine pancreas, but the role of beta-catenin-dependent target genes such as Myc during pancreatic development is not well known...
  8. Singh V, Bhagat L, Navina S, Sharif R, Dawra R, Saluja A. Protease-activated receptor-2 protects against pancreatitis by stimulating exocrine secretion. Gut. 2007;56:958-64 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanism by which it protects against pancreatitis still remains to be elucidated. Acute pancreatitis is associated with premature zymogen activation and a blockage in digestive enzyme secretion...
  9. Chen L, Li J, Silva S, Jackson L, Zhou Y, Watanabe H, et al. PKD3 is the predominant protein kinase D isoform in mouse exocrine pancreas and promotes hormone-induced amylase secretion. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:2459-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a novel distinction between the exocrine and endocrine cells of the pancreas and further identify PKD3 as a signaling molecule that promotes hormone-stimulated amylase secretion...
  10. Inada A, Nienaber C, Katsuta H, Fujitani Y, Levine J, Morita R, et al. Carbonic anhydrase II-positive pancreatic cells are progenitors for both endocrine and exocrine pancreas after birth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19915-9 pubmed publisher
    ..after replication undergo a regression to a less differentiated state and then can form new endocrine and exocrine pancreas. To directly test whether ductal cells serve as pancreatic progenitors after birth and give rise to new ..
  11. Lohr J, Faissner R, Koczan D, Bewerunge P, Bassi C, Brors B, et al. Autoantibodies against the exocrine pancreas in autoimmune pancreatitis: gene and protein expression profiling and immunoassays identify pancreatic enzymes as a major target of the inflammatory process. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:2060-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective was to identify novel markers of disease and to unravel the pathogenesis of AIP...
  12. Schnekenburger J, Mayerle J, Kruger B, Buchwalow I, Weiss F, Albrecht E, et al. Protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa and SHP-1 are involved in the regulation of cell-cell contacts at adherens junctions in the exocrine pancreas. Gut. 2005;54:1445-55 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that cell contacts between pancreatic acinar cells dissociate early in pancreatitis and that this is a prerequisite for the development of pancreatic oedema. Here we studied the underlying mechanism...
  13. McManaman J, Reyland M, Thrower E. Secretion and fluid transport mechanisms in the mammary gland: comparisons with the exocrine pancreas and the salivary gland. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2006;11:249-68 pubmed
    ..Comparisons of current secretion and transport models in the mammary gland, exocrine pancreas and salivary gland indicate that significant differences exist between the mammary gland and other exocrine ..
  14. Campbell F, Azadeh B. Cystic neoplasms of the exocrine pancreas. Histopathology. 2008;52:539-51 pubmed
    ..immunohistochemistry, molecular biology, pathogenesis and management of cystic neoplasms of the exocrine pancreas. These include the serous, the mucinous cystic, the intraductal papillary mucinous and the solid ..
  15. Baeyens L, Bouwens L. Can beta-cells be derived from exocrine pancreas?. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008;10 Suppl 4:170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It will now be important to translate these findings to human cells...
  16. Landau Z, Forti E, Alcaly M, Birk R. Palmitate induced lipoapoptosis of exocrine pancreas AR42J cells. Apoptosis. 2006;11:717-24 pubmed
    ..The influence of fat overflow on the exocrine pancreas is not known...
  17. Stafford D, White R, Kinkel M, Linville A, Schilling T, Prince V. Retinoids signal directly to zebrafish endoderm to specify insulin-expressing beta-cells. Development. 2006;133:949-56 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that RA will have important applications in the quest to induce islets from stem cells for therapeutic uses...
  18. Desplat Jego S, Johanet C, Escande A, Goetz J, Fabien N, Olsson N, et al. Update on Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies, anti-nuclear associated anti-neutrophil antibodies and antibodies to exocrine pancreas detected by indirect immunofluorescence as biomarkers in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases: results of a mult. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:2312-8 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), anti-nuclear associated anti-neutrophil antibodies (NANA) and antibodies to exocrine pancreas (PAB), are serological tools for discriminating Crohn's disease (CrD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)...
  19. Moritani M, Yamasaki S, Kagami M, Suzuki T, Yamaoka T, Sano T, et al. Hypoplasia of endocrine and exocrine pancreas in homozygous transgenic TGF-beta1. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;229:175-84 pubmed
    ..endocrine and exocrine pancreatic hypoplasia, second that TGF-beta1decrease the final size of endocrine and exocrine pancreas presumably through regulating cell cycle via p15(INK4b) at least in endocrine pancreas, and third that ..
  20. Molinari I, Souare K, Lamireau T, Fayon M, Lemieux C, Cassaigne A, et al. Fecal chymotrypsin and elastase-1 determination on one single stool collected at random: diagnostic value for exocrine pancreatic status. Clin Biochem. 2004;37:758-63 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was to investigate the diagnostic advantage from measuring fecal proteases in stool samples collected for two or three consecutive days in comparison to one single stool sample collected at random...
  21. Singer M, Niebergall Roth E. Secretion from acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas: role of enteropancreatic reflexes and cholecystokinin. Cell Biol Int. 2009;33:1-9 pubmed publisher
    Although the molecular machinery and mechanism of cell secretion in acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas is well documented and clear, only recently has the pharmacophysiology of pancreatic exocrine secretion come to light...
  22. Wu H, Bhopale K, Ansari G, Kaphalia B. Ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells: role of fatty acid ethyl esters. Alcohol Alcohol. 2008;43:1-8 pubmed
    ..To understand the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis and role of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol) in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury...
  23. Augarten A, Ben Tov A, Madgar I, Barak A, Akons H, Laufer J, et al. The changing face of the exocrine pancreas in cystic fibrosis: the correlation between pancreatic status, pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis genotype. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;20:164-8 pubmed publisher
  24. Berkane A, Nguyen H, Tranchida F, Waheed A, Deyris V, Tchiakpe L, et al. Proteomic of lipid rafts in the exocrine pancreas from diet-induced obese rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;355:813-9 pubmed
    In the present work, we induced obesity in rats with high-energy-starch diet and studied exocrine pancreas response...
  25. Gerasimenko J, Flowerdew S, Voronina S, Sukhomlin T, Tepikin A, Petersen O, et al. Bile acids induce Ca2+ release from both the endoplasmic reticulum and acidic intracellular calcium stores through activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors and ryanodine receptors. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:40154-63 pubmed
    ..Bile acid-elicited intracellular Ca(2+) liberation from both the ER and the apical acidic stores depends on both RyRs and IP(3)Rs...
  26. Wallace K, Marek C, Currie R, Wright M. Exocrine pancreas trans-differentiation to hepatocytes--a physiological response to elevated glucocorticoid in vivo. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;116:76-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that a pathological response of the pancreas in vivo to elevated glucocorticoid is a differentiation of exocrine pancreatic cells or pancreatic progenitor cells to an hepatocyte-like phenotype...
  27. Futatsugi A, Nakamura T, Yamada M, Ebisui E, Nakamura K, Uchida K, et al. IP3 receptor types 2 and 3 mediate exocrine secretion underlying energy metabolism. Science. 2005;309:2232-4 pubmed
    ..Despite a normal caloric intake, the double mutants were hypoglycemic and lean. These results reveal IP3R2 and IP3R3 as key molecules in exocrine physiology underlying energy metabolism and animal growth...
  28. Morrison C, Pohajdak B, Tam J, Wright J. Development of the islets, exocrine pancreas, and related ducts in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae). J Morphol. 2004;261:377-89 pubmed
    ..positive for all hormones tested (insulin, SST-14, SST-28, glucagon, and PYY), is partially surrounded by exocrine pancreas. However, the exocrine pancreas becomes more disseminated in older fish, following blood vessels along the ..
  29. Crozier S, Sans M, Wang J, Lentz S, Ernst S, Williams J. CCK-independent mTORC1 activation during dietary protein-induced exocrine pancreas growth. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G1154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Prolonged mTORC1 activation is thus required for dietary protein-induced pancreatic growth in the absence of CCK...
  30. Jiang Z, Song J, Qi F, Xiao A, An X, Liu N, et al. Exdpf is a key regulator of exocrine pancreas development controlled by retinoic acid and ptf1a in zebrafish. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e293 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, overexpression of exdpf resulted in an overgrowth of the exocrine pancreas and a severe reduction of the endocrine cell mass, suggesting an inhibitory role for exdpf in endocrine cell ..
  31. Baertschiger R, Bosco D, Morel P, Serre Beinier V, Berney T, Buhler L, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human exocrine pancreas express transcription factors implicated in beta-cell development. Pancreas. 2008;37:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to isolate, expand, and characterize cells from human exocrine pancreas and analyze their potential to differentiate into beta cells.
  32. Park S, Davison J, Rhee J, Hruban R, Maitra A, Leach S. Oncogenic KRAS induces progenitor cell expansion and malignant transformation in zebrafish exocrine pancreas. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:2080-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effects of oncogene activation within the pancreatic progenitor pool, we devised a system for real-time visualization of both normal and oncogenic KRAS-expressing pancreatic progenitor cells in living zebrafish embryos...
  33. Walkowiak J, Lisowska A, Blaszczynski M. The changing face of the exocrine pancreas in cystic fibrosis: pancreatic sufficiency, pancreatitis and genotype. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;20:157-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential appearance of this complication in individuals with pancreatic insufficiency demands elucidation...
  34. Algül H, Wagner M, Lesina M, Schmid R. Overexpression of ErbB2 in the exocrine pancreas induces an inflammatory response but not increased proliferation. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:1410-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, the role of ErbB2 in the exocrine pancreas was examined by ectopic overexpression under the control of the proximal rat elastase promoter...
  35. Graf R, Schiesser M, Reding T, Appenzeller P, Sun L, Fortunato F, et al. Exocrine meets endocrine: pancreatic stone protein and regenerating protein--two sides of the same coin. J Surg Res. 2006;133:113-20 pubmed
    ..Regenerating protein (reg) and pancreatic stone protein (PSP) have been discovered independently in the fields of diabetes and pancreatitis...
  36. Wells J, Esni F, Boivin G, Aronow B, Stuart W, Combs C, et al. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is required for development of the exocrine pancreas. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:4 pubmed
    ..A Pdx1-cre mouse line was used to delete a floxed beta-catenin allele specifically in the developing pancreas, and embryonic pancreata were studied by immunohistochemistry and microarray analysis...
  37. Wan H, Korzh S, Li Z, Mudumana S, Korzh V, Jiang Y, et al. Analyses of pancreas development by generation of gfp transgenic zebrafish using an exocrine pancreas-specific elastaseA gene promoter. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:1526-39 pubmed
    In contrast to what we know on development of endocrine pancreas, the formation of exocrine pancreas remains poorly understood...
  38. Kowalik A, Johnson C, Chadi S, Weston J, Fazio E, Pin C. Mice lacking the transcription factor Mist1 exhibit an altered stress response and increased sensitivity to caerulein-induced pancreatitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G1123-32 pubmed
    ..the Mist1 gene [Mist1 knockout (KO) mice] exhibit cellular disorganization and functional defects in the exocrine pancreas but no gross morphological defects...
  39. Czako L, Hegyi P, Rakonczay Z, Wittmann T, Otsuki M. Interactions between the endocrine and exocrine pancreas and their clinical relevance. Pancreatology. 2009;9:351-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This may improve the nutritional condition of the patient and decrease the metabolic instability...
  40. Saluja A, Logsdon C, Garg P. Direct versus indirect action of cholecystokinin on human pancreatic acinar cells: is it time for a judgment after a century of trial?. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:357-60 pubmed publisher
  41. Sadacharan S, Singh B, Bowes T, Gupta R. Localization of mitochondrial DNA encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II in rat pancreatic zymogen granules and pituitary growth hormone granules. Histochem Cell Biol. 2005;124:409-21 pubmed
  42. Bohus E, Rácz A, Noszal B, Coen M, Beckonert O, Keun H, et al. Metabonomic investigations into the global biochemical sequelae of exposure to the pancreatic toxin 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene in the rat. Magn Reson Chem. 2009;47 Suppl 1:S26-35 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, it is suggested that the STOCSY approach may be of wider application in the identification of toxic versus nontoxic metabolites in drug metabolism studies...
  43. Lejonklou M, Edfeldt K, Johansson T, Stalberg P, Skogseid B. Neurogenin 3 and neurogenic differentiation 1 are retained in the cytoplasm of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 islet and pancreatic endocrine tumor cells. Pancreas. 2009;38:259-66 pubmed publisher
  44. Chen S, Li C, Yuan G, Xie F. Anatomical and histological observation on the pancreas in adult zebrafish. Pancreas. 2007;34:120-5 pubmed
    ..To investigate the anatomic structure of the pancreas and the distribution of the islets in adult zebrafish...
  45. Jaworek J. Ghrelin and melatonin in the regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion and maintaining of integrity. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;57 Suppl 5:83-96 pubmed
    ..The results of experimental studies indicated that melatonin and ghrelin could take a part in the protection of pancreatic tissue against the damage under physiological conditions...
  46. Deest G, Ahmed S, Causse X. [Exocrin pancreatic deficiency revealing an alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2008;32:906-9 pubmed publisher
    ..He was diagnosed with AAT deficiency. The phenotype was Pi SZ, with genotyping confirmation. The place of AAT deficiency in the midst of pancreatic diseases should be further studied...
  47. Cai J, Zhou W, Luo H, Peng L. Effect of proton pump inhibitor on amylase release from isolated pancreatic acini. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2007;43:25-7 pubmed
    ..In our in vitro study, all results suggest that omeprazole has no direct repression on amylase release from isolated pancreatic acini...
  48. Guillemain G, Filhoulaud G, Da Silva Xavier G, Rutter G, Scharfmann R. Glucose is necessary for embryonic pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:15228-37 pubmed
    ..We conclude that glucose interferes with the pancreatic endocrine cells development by regulating the transition between Ngn3 and upstream NeuroD...
  49. Cevasco M, Rodriguez J, Fernandez del Castillo C. Clinical challenges and images in GI: image 3. Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma with subcutaneous fat necrosis. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:1054, 1433 pubmed publisher
  50. Strowski M, Kaczmarek P, Mergler S, Wiedenmann B, Domin D, Szwajkowski P, et al. Insulinostatic activity of cerebellin--evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies in rats. Regul Pept. 2009;157:19-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we identify CER as an insulinostatic factor, which decreases intracellular cAMP production and calcium in INS-1 cells...
  51. Voronina S, Barrow S, Simpson A, Gerasimenko O, Da Silva Xavier G, Rutter G, et al. Dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP levels in pancreatic acinar cells. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1976-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we characterized the effects of these agents on ATP levels in the cytosol and mitochondria...
  52. Moudiou T, Galli Tsinopoulou A, Nousia Arvanitakis S. Effect of exocrine pancreatic function on resting energy expenditure in cystic fibrosis. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:1521-5 pubmed
    ..To prove the hypothesis that exocrine pancreatic function determines resting energy expenditure (REE) in cystic fibrosis (CF)...
  53. Deng X, Wood P, Eagon P, Whitcomb D. Rapid adaptation of pancreatic exocrine function to short-term alcohol feeding in rats. Pancreatology. 2005;5:183-95 pubmed
    ..However, the origin, nature and timing of hyperstimulation/hypersecretion are unknown...