acute liver failure

Summary

Summary: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.

Top Publications

  1. Stravitz R, Larsen F. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute liver failure. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:S258-64 pubmed publisher
    Cerebral edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute liver failure, the syndrome of abrupt loss of liver function in a patient with a previously healthy liver...
  2. Steadman R, van Rensburg A, Kramer D. Transplantation for acute liver failure: perioperative management. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2010;15:368-73 pubmed publisher
    A number of conditions can lead to acute liver failure. Determining the cause has important prognostic implications that guide decisions regarding the likelihood of spontaneous recovery, or conversely, the need for transplantation...
  3. Ryska M, Laszikova E, Pantoflicek T, Ryska O, Prazak J, Koblihova E. Fractionated plasma separation and adsorption significantly decreases intracranial pressure in acute liver failure: experimental study. Eur Surg Res. 2009;42:230-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the influence of fractionated plasma separation and absorption (FPSA) on intracranial pressure (ICP) in acute liver failure (ALF). A surgical model of ALF in pigs (35-40 kg) was used...
  4. Newsome P, Henderson N, Nelson L, Dabos C, Filippi C, Bellamy C, et al. Development of an invasively monitored porcine model of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. BMC Gastroenterol. 2010;10:34 pubmed publisher
    The development of effective therapies for acute liver failure (ALF) is limited by our knowledge of the pathophysiology of this condition, and the lack of suitable large animal models of acetaminophen toxicity...
  5. Engelmann G, Meyburg J, Shahbek N, Al Ali M, Hairetis M, Baker A, et al. Recurrent acute liver failure and mitochondriopathy in a case of Wolcott-Rallison syndrome. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2008;31:540-6 pubmed publisher
    A 10-year-old Arabic boy of consanguineous parents has suffered eight episodes of acute liver failure with haemolysis triggered by intercurrent febrile illnesses...
  6. Dmello D, Cruz Flores S, Matuschak G. Moderate hypothermia with intracranial pressure monitoring as a therapeutic paradigm for the management of acute liver failure: a systematic review. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:210-3 pubmed publisher
    ..and efficacy of induced moderate hypothermia combined with ICP monitoring in critically ill patients with acute liver failure. We conducted a retrospective observational search of MEDLINE database using both OVID and PubMed with the ..
  7. Anderson A, Mosunjac M, Palmore M, Osborn M, Muir A. Development of fatal acute liver failure in HIV-HBV coinfected patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:4107-11 pubmed
    ..HIV-HBV coinfected patients often experience liver enzyme elevations after starting antiretroviral therapy, acute liver failure (ALF) is rare and typically occurs with older antiretroviral agents with known potential for hepatotoxicity...
  8. Le Minh K, Kuhla A, Abshagen K, Minor T, Stegemann J, Ibrahim S, et al. Uncoupling protein-2 deficiency provides protection in a murine model of endotoxemic acute liver failure. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:215-22 pubmed publisher
    Liver injury and cell death are prominent features in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 plays a controversial role in liver cell death through its involvement in the production of reactive oxygen ..
  9. Yukawa H, Noguchi H, Oishi K, Takagi S, Hamaguchi M, Hamajima N, et al. Cell transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells in combination with heparin attenuated acute liver failure in mice. Cell Transplant. 2009;18:611-8 pubmed
    The effect of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) in combination with heparin transplantation on acute liver failure mice with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) injection was investigated...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kitazawa T, Tsujimoto T, Kawaratani H, Fukui H. Salvage effect of E5564, Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist on d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver failure in rats. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:1009-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we sought to explore the salvage effect of TLR4 antagonist E5564 on GalN+LPS-induced acute liver failure (ALF) in rats...
  2. Bernal W, Auzinger G, Dhawan A, Wendon J. Acute liver failure. Lancet. 2010;376:190-201 pubmed publisher
    b>Acute liver failure is a rare disorder with high mortality and resource cost. In the developing world, viral causes predominate, with hepatitis E infection recognised as a common cause in many countries...
  3. Wendon J, Lee W. Encephalopathy and cerebral edema in the setting of acute liver failure: pathogenesis and management. Neurocrit Care. 2008;9:97-102 pubmed publisher
    Cerebral edema is a potential life-threatening complication in patients with acute liver failure who progress to grade III/IV encephalopathy...
  4. Tuñón M, Alvarez M, Culebras J, Gonzalez Gallego J. An overview of animal models for investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies in acute hepatic failure. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:3086-98 pubmed
    ..In the present article an overview is given of the most widely used animal models of AHF, and their main advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. ..
  5. Takahashi K, Umehara Y, Umehara M, Nishimura A, Narumi S, Toyoki Y, et al. Plasma exchange-based plasma recycling dialysis system as an artificial liver support. Ther Apher Dial. 2008;12:264-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Safety of this PE-based PRD system was demonstrated and the removal of toxic substances was significant. This study confirmed the clinical utility of this system as an artificial liver support. ..
  6. Nguyen C, Rose N, Njoku D. Trifluoroacetylated IgG4 antibodies in a child with idiosyncratic acute liver failure after first exposure to halothane. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47:199-202 pubmed publisher
  7. Mindikoglu A, Magder L, Regev A. Outcome of liver transplantation for drug-induced acute liver failure in the United States: analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing database. Liver Transpl. 2009;15:719-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Acute liver failure (ALF) is an uncommon but potentially lethal drug-related adverse effect that often leads to liver transplantation (LT) or death...
  8. Jiang W, Desjardins P, Butterworth R. Direct evidence for central proinflammatory mechanisms in rats with experimental acute liver failure: protective effect of hypothermia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009;29:944-52 pubmed publisher
    It has been proposed that proinflammatory mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF)...
  9. Bernuau J, Nicand E, Durand F. Hepatitis E-associated acute liver failure in pregnancy: an Indian puzzle. Hepatology. 2008;48:1380-2 pubmed publisher
  10. Wasmuth J, Fischer H, Sauerbruch T, Dumoulin F. Fatal acute liver failure due to reactivation of hepatitis B following treatment with fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab for low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Eur J Med Res. 2008;13:483-6 pubmed
    ..The patient presented with acute liver failure after 6 cycles of rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide for low grade non-hodgkin's lymphoma...
  11. Bjerring P, Eefsen M, Hansen B, Larsen F. The brain in acute liver failure. A tortuous path from hyperammonemia to cerebral edema. Metab Brain Dis. 2009;24:5-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Acute liver failure (ALF) is a condition with an unfavourable prognosis...
  12. Lee W, Hynan L, Rossaro L, Fontana R, Stravitz R, Larson A, et al. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:856-64, 864.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..NAC), an antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, might benefit patients with non-acetaminophen-related acute liver failure. In a prospective, double-blind trial, acute liver failure patients without clinical or historical evidence ..
  13. Yen F, Wu T, Lin L, Cham T, Lin C. Naringenin-loaded nanoparticles improve the physicochemical properties and the hepatoprotective effects of naringenin in orally-administered rats with CCl(4)-induced acute liver failure. Pharm Res. 2009;26:893-902 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel naringenin-loaded nanoparticles system (NARN) was developed to resolve the restricted bioavailability of naringenin (NAR) and to enhance its hepatoprotective effects in vivo on oral administration...
  14. Kar P, Jilani N, Husain S, Pasha S, Anand R, Rai A, et al. Does hepatitis E viral load and genotypes influence the final outcome of acute liver failure during pregnancy?. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:2495-501 pubmed publisher
    ..To correlate and analyze the viral load and genotypes of HEV in acute liver failure with that of acute viral hepatitis among pregnant and nonpregnant women...
  15. Karvellas C, Bagshaw S, McDermid R, Stollery D, Gibney R. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure treated with single-pass albumin dialysis: report of a case. Int J Artif Organs. 2008;31:450-5 pubmed
    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) overdose is a leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF)...
  16. Grodzicki M, Kotulski M, Leonowicz D, Zieniewicz K, Krawczyk M. Results of treatment of acute liver failure patients with use of the prometheus FPSA system. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:3079-81 pubmed publisher
    Herein we have presented the results of treatment of acute liver failure (ALF) patients with the use of the Prometheus FPSA dialysis system...
  17. Padilla G, Garibay M, Hummel H, Avila R, Méndez A, Ramirez R. [Fulminant non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as lactic acidosis and acute liver failure: case report and literature review]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam. 2009;39:129-34 pubmed
    ..He developed refrac- tory hypoglycemia, further increase in serum lactate and died 5 days after admission. Acute liver failure is uncommon as the presenting feature of lymphoma...
  18. Trotter J. Practical management of acute liver failure in the Intensive Care Unit. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2009;15:163-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Acute liver failure is an uncommon condition affecting about 2500 patients each year in the United States...
  19. Ytrebø L, Kristiansen R, Maehre H, Fuskevåg O, Kalstad T, Revhaug A, et al. L-ornithine phenylacetate attenuates increased arterial and extracellular brain ammonia and prevents intracranial hypertension in pigs with acute liver failure. Hepatology. 2009;50:165-74 pubmed publisher
    Hyperammonemia is a feature of acute liver failure (ALF), which is associated with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain herniation...
  20. Fontana R. Acute liver failure including acetaminophen overdose. Med Clin North Am. 2008;92:761-94, viii pubmed publisher
    b>Acute liver failure (ALF) is a dramatic, highly unpredictable clinical syndrome defined by the sudden onset of coagulopathy and encephalopathy...
  21. Arkadopoulos N, Vlahakos D, Kostopanagiotou G, Panagopoulos D, Karvouni E, Routsi C, et al. Iron chelation attenuates intracranial pressure and improves survival in a swine model of acute liver failure. Liver Transpl. 2008;14:1116-24 pubmed publisher
    Oxidative mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF)...
  22. Jiang W, Desjardins P, Butterworth R. Cerebral inflammation contributes to encephalopathy and brain edema in acute liver failure: protective effect of minocycline. J Neurochem. 2009;109:485-93 pubmed publisher
    Encephalopathy and brain edema are serious complications of acute liver failure (ALF)...
  23. Kim J, Choi J, Park C, Song M, Jang J, Bae S, et al. [Clinical features of patients with fulminant hepatitis A requiring emergency liver transplantation: comparison with acute liver failure due to other causes]. Korean J Hepatol. 2010;16:19-28 pubmed publisher
    According to recent prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, acute liver failure (ALF) due to HAV infection is observed frequently in parallel...
  24. An F, Yu D, Xie Q, Gong B, Wang H, Guo Q, et al. [The role of miRNA-122 expression during the acute liver failure in mice induced by D-GalN/LPS]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2010;18:527-32 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the expression of miR-122 and its relationship with progression and development of acute liver failure in mice induced by D-GalN/LPS, and to explore new biomarker(s) for early diagnosis of acute liver failure...
  25. Farci P, Diaz G, Chen Z, Govindarajan S, Tice A, Agulto L, et al. B cell gene signature with massive intrahepatic production of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen in hepatitis B virus-associated acute liver failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8766-71 pubmed publisher
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute liver failure (ALF) is a dramatic clinical syndrome due to a sudden loss of hepatic cells leading to multiorgan failure. The mechanisms whereby HBV induces ALF are unknown...
  26. Chavarria L, Oria M, Romero Gimenez J, Alonso J, Lope Piedrafita S, Cordoba J. Diffusion tensor imaging supports the cytotoxic origin of brain edema in a rat model of acute liver failure. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1566-73 pubmed publisher
    Brain edema is a severe complication of acute liver failure (ALF) that has been related to ammonia concentrations...
  27. McPhail M, Wendon J, Bernal W. Meta-analysis of performance of Kings's College Hospital Criteria in prediction of outcome in non-paracetamol-induced acute liver failure. J Hepatol. 2010;53:492-9 pubmed publisher
    Current techniques for predicting outcome and requirement for emergency liver transplantation (ELT) in acute liver failure (ALF) are imperfect, though The Kings College Criteria (KCC) are the most commonly applied tools for this purpose...
  28. Han C, Li G, Lim K, DeFrances M, Gandhi C, Wu T. Transgenic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in hepatocytes accelerates endotoxin-induced acute liver failure. J Immunol. 2008;181:8027-35 pubmed
    Bacterial LPS (endotoxin) is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure and several chronic inflammatory liver diseases...
  29. Feng B, Wu S, Lv S, Fang J, Liu F, Li Y, et al. Dynamic metabonomic analysis of BALB/c mice with different outcomes after D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Liver Transpl. 2008;14:1620-31 pubmed publisher
  30. Kumar R, Bhatia V, Khanal S, Sreenivas V, Gupta S, Panda S, et al. Antituberculosis therapy-induced acute liver failure: magnitude, profile, prognosis, and predictors of outcome. Hepatology. 2010;51:1665-74 pubmed publisher
    Antituberculosis therapy (ATT)-associated acute liver failure (ATT-ALF) is the commonest drug-induced ALF in South Asia. Prospective studies on ATT-ALF are lacking...
  31. Pathikonda M, Munoz S. Acute liver failure. Ann Hepatol. 2010;9:7-14 pubmed
    b>Acute liver failure is a rare but often catastrophic illness affecting the liver and multiple organ systems. Patients with acute liver failure require a multidisciplinary approach for adequate management...
  32. Posfay Barbe K, Schrenzel J, Frey J, Studer R, Korff C, Belli D, et al. Food poisoning as a cause of acute liver failure. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:846-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result of rapid identification of the microorganism and supportive care, liver transplantation was avoided, and she recovered fully. ..
  33. Song H, Lv S, Liu P. The roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in colon tight junction protein expression and intestinal mucosa structure in a mouse model of acute liver failure. BMC Gastroenterol. 2009;9:70 pubmed publisher
    ..bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common clinical disease and one of the most severe complications of acute liver failure (ALF). Although the mechanism responsible for SBP is unclear, cytokines play an important role...
  34. Kramer D, Canabal J, Arasi L. Application of intensive care medicine principles in the management of the acute liver failure patient. Liver Transpl. 2008;14 Suppl 2:S85-9 pubmed publisher
    1. Acute liver failure is a paradigm for multiple system organ failure that develops as a consequence of sepsis. 2...
  35. Adukauskiene D, Dockiene I, Naginiene R, Kevelaitis E, Pundzius J, Kupcinskas L. Acute liver failure in Lithuania. Medicina (Kaunas). 2008;44:536-40 pubmed
    b>Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening condition that can rapidly progress into coma and death due to the cerebral edema and multi-organ dysfunction...
  36. Gilbert J, Rutledge H, Koch A. Diffuse malignant infiltration of the liver manifesting as a case of acute liver failure. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;5:405-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Laboratory investigations, chest radiograph, portal duplex, CT of the abdomen and pelvis, liver serologies and autopsy. Fulminant hepatic failure secondary to metastatic small-cell lung carcinoma. Supportive care. ..
  37. Jin S, Meng X, Han M, Sun X, Sun L, Liu B. Stromal cell derived factor-1 enhances bone marrow mononuclear cell migration in mice with acute liver failure. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:2657-64 pubmed
    ..05; 39.47 +/- 5.39 vs 78.34 +/- 4.50, P < 0.05; 28.94 +/- 2.70 vs 56.44 +/- 4.28, P < 0.05; 30.77 +/- 5.45 vs 42.50 +/- 6.28, P < 0.05). SDF-1 can promote the migration of BMMC to the liver of mice with acute liver failure.
  38. Stravitz R. Critical management decisions in patients with acute liver failure. Chest. 2008;134:1092-1102 pubmed publisher
    Few admissions to the ICU present a greater clinical challenge than the patient with acute liver failure (ALF), the syndrome of abrupt loss of liver function in a previously unaffected individual...
  39. Rudnick D, Dietzen D, Turmelle Y, Shepherd R, Zhang S, Belle S, et al. Serum alpha-NH-butyric acid may predict spontaneous survival in pediatric acute liver failure. Pediatr Transplant. 2009;13:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Aab and the Aab:Leu ratio may predict clinical outcomes in PALF...
  40. Rama Rao K, Jayakumar A, Tong X, Curtis K, Norenberg M. Brain aquaporin-4 in experimental acute liver failure. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010;69:869-79 pubmed publisher
    ..caused by brain edema and associated astrocyte swelling is a potentially lethal complication of acute liver failure (ALF)...
  41. Lv S, Wang J, Liu F, Gao Y, Fei R, Du S, et al. Senescence marker protein 30 in acute liver failure: validation of a mass spectrometry proteomics assay. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:17 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that the senescence marker protein (SMP30) is selectively present in the plasma of a murine model of acute liver failure (ALF)...
  42. Chastre A, Jiang W, Desjardins P, Butterworth R. Ammonia and proinflammatory cytokines modify expression of genes coding for astrocytic proteins implicated in brain edema in acute liver failure. Metab Brain Dis. 2010;25:17-21 pubmed publisher
    There is evidence to suggest that, in acute liver failure (ALF), brain ammonia and proinflammatory cytokines may act synergistically to cause brain edema and its complications (intracranial hypertension, brain herniation)...
  43. Greenberg M, Daugherty T, Elihu A, Sharaf R, Concepcion W, Druzin M, et al. Acute liver failure at 26 weeks' gestation in a patient with sickle cell disease. Liver Transpl. 2009;15:1236-41 pubmed publisher
    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for acute liver failure (ALF) during pregnancy is an uncommon occurrence with variable outcomes...
  44. Kuhla A, Eipel C, Siebert N, Abshagen K, Menger M, Vollmar B. Hepatocellular apoptosis is mediated by TNFalpha-dependent Fas/FasLigand cytotoxicity in a murine model of acute liver failure. Apoptosis. 2008;13:1427-38 pubmed publisher
    ..in vivo the relevance of the Fas/FasL pathway to hepatocellular apoptosis in a TNFalpha-driven model of acute liver failure. Livers of galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (Gal/LPS)-exposed Fas wild-type mice highly expressed both Fas ..
  45. Tsai M, Chen Y, Lien J, Tian Y, Peng Y, Fang J, et al. Hemodynamics and metabolic studies on septic shock in patients with acute liver failure. J Crit Care. 2008;23:468-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Acute liver failure is often accompanied by hyperdynamic circulation, which is also a characteristic of septic shock. Pre-existing acute liver failure may worsen the hemodynamic impairment and prognosis in sepsis...
  46. Bemeur C, Qu H, Desjardins P, Butterworth R. IL-1 or TNF receptor gene deletion delays onset of encephalopathy and attenuates brain edema in experimental acute liver failure. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:213-5 pubmed publisher
    ..cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF)...
  47. Chen F, Ohashi N, Li W, Eckman C, Nguyen J. Disruptions of occludin and claudin-5 in brain endothelial cells in vitro and in brains of mice with acute liver failure. Hepatology. 2009;50:1914-23 pubmed publisher
    Brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF) remains lethal. The role of vasogenic mechanisms of brain edema has not been explored...
  48. Novelli G, Rossi M, Ferretti G, Pugliese F, Ruberto F, Lai Q, et al. Predictive criteria for the outcome of patients with acute liver failure treated with the albumin dialysis molecular adsorbent recirculating system. Ther Apher Dial. 2009;13:404-12 pubmed publisher
    ..For patients with an improvement of neurological status, cytokines, lactate, and hemodynamic parameters, LTx was no longer necessary and their treatment continued with MARS and standard medical therapy. ..
  49. Antoniades C, Berry P, Wendon J, Vergani D. The importance of immune dysfunction in determining outcome in acute liver failure. J Hepatol. 2008;49:845-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Acute liver failure (ALF) shares striking similarities with septic shock with regard to the features of systemic inflammation, progression to multiple organ dysfunction and functional immunoparesis...
  50. Alexopoulou A, Koskinas J, Deutsch M, Delladetsima J, Kountouras D, Dourakis S. Acute liver failure as the initial manifestation of hepatic infiltration by a solid tumor: report of 5 cases and review of the literature. Tumori. 2006;92:354-7 pubmed
    b>Acute liver failure is a rare complication of metastatic liver disease with a high mortality. Recognition of malignant infiltration of the liver as the cause of acute liver failure could be a diagnostic challenge.
  51. Lv S, Song H, Zhou Y, Li L, Cui W, Wang W, et al. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha affects blood-brain barrier permeability and tight junction-associated occludin in acute liver failure. Liver Int. 2010;30:1198-210 pubmed publisher
    Cerebral oedema leading to cerebral herniation is a major cause of death during acute liver failure (ALF), but the underlying mechanism is not clear...
  52. Strnad P, Zhou Q, Hanada S, Lazzeroni L, Zhong B, So P, et al. Keratin variants predispose to acute liver failure and adverse outcome: race and ethnic associations. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:828-35, 835.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..15 total exons and their exon-intron boundaries) to determine the frequency of K8/K18 variants in 344 acute liver failure (ALF) patients (49% acetaminophen-related) and 2 control groups (African-American [n = 245] and previously ..
  53. Singhal S, Chakravarty A, Das B, Kar P. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and soluble Fas ligand as biomarkers in non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Biomarkers. 2009;14:347-53 pubmed publisher
    Cytokines as prognostic markers in acute liver failure (ALF) have not been evaluated in the Indian subcontinent with hepatitis E as the commonest aetiological agent...