pylorus

Summary

Summary: The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.

Top Publications

  1. Tuorkey M, Abdul Aziz K. A pioneer study on the anti-ulcer activities of copper nicotinate complex [CuCl (HNA)2] in experimental gastric ulcer induced by aspirin-pylorus [corrected] ligation model (Shay model). Biomed Pharmacother. 2009;63:194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, superficial or deeper erosions are produced and bleeding takes place, within minutes...
  2. Goaillard J, Taylor A, Schulz D, Marder E. Functional consequences of animal-to-animal variation in circuit parameters. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1424-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These data illustrate the importance of making multidimensional measurements from single preparations for understanding how variability in circuit output is related to the variability of multiple circuit parameters...
  3. Chiaverini C, Charlesworth A, Meneguzzi G, Lacour J, Ortonne J. Epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy. Dermatol Clin. 2010;28:245-55, viii pubmed publisher
    ..PLEC mutations have also been found in 2 families with the rare dominant Ogna form of EBS. This article reviews current knowledge on EBS...
  4. Campbell B, McVay M, Lerer T, Lowe N, Smith S, Kokoska E. Ghosts in the machine: a multi-institutional comparison of laparoscopic and open pyloromyotomy. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:2026-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare laparoscopic and open pyloromyotomy using data from multiple centers in the United States...
  5. Udager A, Prakash A, Saenz D, Schinke M, Moriguchi T, Jay P, et al. Proper development of the outer longitudinal smooth muscle of the mouse pylorus requires Nkx2-5 and Gata3. Gastroenterology. 2014;146:157-165.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..study implicated NKX2-5, which encodes a transcription factor that is expressed in embryonic heart and pylorus, in the pathogenesis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis...
  6. Chijiiwa K, Imamura N, Ohuchida J, Hiyoshi M, Nagano M, Otani K, et al. Prospective randomized controlled study of gastric emptying assessed by (13)C-acetate breath test after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: comparison between antecolic and vertical retrocolic duodenojejunostomy. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2009;16:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..vertical retrocolic duodenojejunostomy is superior to antecolic duodenojejunostomy with respect to gastric emptying in a prospective, randomized, controlled study of patients undergoing pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PpPD).
  7. Gatt M, MacFie J. Bedside postpyloric feeding tube placement: a pilot series to validate this novel technique. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:523-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Secondary end points included the time taken to establish EN and the value of aspirate pH as an indicator of tube tip placement...
  8. Tomita R. Gastric emptying function in patients 5 years after pylorus-preserving distal gastrectomy with or without preserving pyloric and hepatic branches of the vagal nerve for early gastric cancer. World J Surg. 2009;33:2119-26 pubmed publisher
    To clarify the significance of preserving pyloric and hepatic branches of the vagal nerve (PHV) after pylorus preserving distal gastrectomy (PPG) for early gastric cancer, the author investigated the postgastrectomy syndrome and gastric ..
  9. Kennedy E, Brumbaugh J, Yeo C. Reconstruction following the pylorus preserving Whipple resection: PJ, HJ, and DJ. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010;14:408-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging procedures performed by general surgeons...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Zhang H, Rodgers E, Krenz W, Clark M, Baro D. Cell specific dopamine modulation of the transient potassium current in the pyloric network by the canonical D1 receptor signal transduction cascade. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:873-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that PD neurons express D2Rs, but not D1Rs, thus supporting the idea that cell specific effects of DA on I(A) are due to differences in receptor expression...
  2. Tanaka N, Katai H, Saka M, Morita S, Fukagawa T. Laparoscopy-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy: a matched case-control study. Surg Endosc. 2011;25:114-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) has been widely accepted as the standard treatment for early gastric cancer, and the laparoscopic approach has been gradually introduced...
  3. César J, Petroianu A, Gouvêa A, Alvin D. Reopening of the gastroduodenal pylorus after its closure in rats. J Surg Res. 2008;144:89-93 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to analyze differences between the time of gastroduodenal pylorus reopening after its closure with different suture materials and to verify the influence of vagotomy on local ..
  4. Muller M, Friess H, Martin D, Hinz U, Dahmen R, Buchler M. Long-term follow-up of a randomized clinical trial comparing Beger with pylorus-preserving Whipple procedure for chronic pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 2008;95:350-6 pubmed
    Duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection according to Beger and the pylorus-preserving Whipple (ppWhipple) procedure were compared in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) in a randomized clinical trial...
  5. Keck T, Kuesters S, Wellner U, Hopt U, Karcz W. Laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreatic head resection and hybrid open reconstruction via pancreatogastrostomy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011;15:373-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Laparoscopic pancreatic surgery is ambitious and should only be performed in institutions with expert knowledge in pancreatic surgery...
  6. Shan Y, Hsieh Y, Yao W, Tsai M, Lin P. Impaired emptying of the retained distal stomach causes delayed gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. World J Surg. 2007;31:1606-15 pubmed
    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is the major morbidity after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). Gastroscintigraphy was used to characterize food distribution in the proximal and distal stomach during emptying.
  7. Pfab F, Nowak Machen M, Napadow V, Fleckenstein J. Alternatives to prokinetics to move the pylorus and colon. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012;15:166-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Gastrointestinal motility disorders (GMDs) are common in the ICU. When encountering these problems, one typically thinks of prokinetics. This review summarizes current evidence of treatments...
  8. Tang L, Taylor A, Rinberg A, Marder E. Robustness of a rhythmic circuit to short- and long-term temperature changes. J Neurosci. 2012;32:10075-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This shows that individual and variable neuronal circuits can behave similarly in normal conditions, but their behavior may diverge when confronted with extreme external perturbations...
  9. Suh Y, Han D, Kong S, Kwon S, Shin C, Kim W, et al. Laparoscopy-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy is better than laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for middle-third early gastric cancer. Ann Surg. 2014;259:485-93 pubmed publisher
    ..is to compare the surgical, oncologic safety and the nutritional, functional benefit of laparoscopy-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (LAPPG) with laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for middle-third early gastric ..
  10. Hackert T, Hinz U, Hartwig W, Strobel O, Fritz S, Schneider L, et al. Pylorus resection in partial pancreaticoduodenectomy: impact on delayed gastric emptying. Am J Surg. 2013;206:296-9 pubmed publisher
    Partial pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is complicated by postoperative delayed gastric emptying (DGE) in up to 45% of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pylorus resection on DGE following PD.
  11. Souzaki R, Tajiri T, Kinoshita Y, Tanaka S, Koga Y, Suminoe A, et al. Successful treatment of advanced pancreatoblastoma by a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy after radiation and high-dose chemotherapy. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26:1045-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This report presents the case of a 6-year-old female with advanced PB treated successfully by a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) after induction chemotherapy, radiation and stem cell transplantation (..
  12. Pedrazzoli S, Canton S, Sperti C. Duodenum-preserving versus pylorus-preserving pancreatic head resection for benign and premalignant lesions. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2011;18:94-102 pubmed publisher
    b>Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) is the treatment of choice for benign or premalignant pancreatic head lesions. Duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) has been reported in only 132 patients...
  13. Temporal S, Desai M, Khorkova O, Varghese G, Dai A, Schulz D, et al. Neuromodulation independently determines correlated channel expression and conductance levels in motor neurons of the stomatogastric ganglion. J Neurophysiol. 2012;107:718-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that neuromodulators regulate the correlated expression of ion channels at both the transcript and the protein levels...
  14. Ikeguchi M, Hatada T, Yamamoto M, Miyake T, Matsunaga T, Fukuda K, et al. Evaluation of a pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for patients preoperatively diagnosed with early gastric cancer located in the middle third of the stomach. Surg Today. 2010;40:228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..have two major surgical options, namely a conventional distal gastrectomy with Billroth I anastomosis (DG) or a pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG)...
  15. Self M, Geng X, Oliver G. Six2 activity is required for the formation of the mammalian pyloric sphincter. Dev Biol. 2009;334:409-17 pubmed publisher
    ..5, Sox9, and Gremlin) also appear to be required for the formation of this structure in mammals. Thus, we propose that Six2 activity regulates this gene network during the genesis of the pyloric sphincter in the mouse...
  16. Zalecki M, Podlasz P, Pidsudko Z, Wojtkiewicz J, Kaleczyc J. Vagal projections to the pylorus in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica). Auton Neurosci. 2012;171:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..precise localization of the brainstem motor and primary sensory (nodose ganglion) vagal perikarya supplying the pylorus in the domestic pig...
  17. Koyuncu E, Malas M, Albay S, Cankara N, Karahan N. The development of fetal pylorus during the fetal period. Surg Radiol Anat. 2009;31:335-41 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to explore the localization of the pylorus, its macroscopic and microscopic development and relationship with neighboring structures.
  18. Küper M, Königsrainer I, Schmidt D, Kramer K, Granderath F, Schneider J, et al. Morbid obesity and subsequent pancreatic cancer: pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Obes Surg. 2009;19:385-8 pubmed publisher
    ..CA19-9 was elevated. After a pylorus-preserving pancreatic head resection, the postoperative course was uneventful...
  19. Kim J, Lee H, Kim M, Lee J, Kim S, Zo J. Balloon dilatation of the pylorus for delayed gastric emptying after esophagectomy. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2008;33:1105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pyloric balloon dilatation on the sustained delay of gastric emptying after esophagectomy...
  20. Han S, Kim S, Jang J, Park Y. A comparison of the long-term functional outcomes of standard pancreatoduodenectomy and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Hepatogastroenterology. 2007;54:1831-5 pubmed
    We compared the long-term functional outcomes of standard pancreatoduodenectomy (SPD) and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) patients.
  21. Iqbal N, Lovegrove R, Tilney H, Abraham A, Bhattacharya S, Tekkis P, et al. A comparison of pancreaticoduodenectomy with pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: a meta-analysis of 2822 patients. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008;34:1237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The gold-standard for surgical excision of peri-ampullary tumours has not been established despite numerous studies, due to conflicting outcomes...
  22. Tajima Y, Kuroki T, Ohno T, Furui J, Tsuneoka N, Adachi T, et al. Resectable carcinoma developing in the remnant pancreas 3 years after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas. Pancreas. 2008;36:324-7 pubmed publisher
  23. Murakami Y, Uemura K, Sudo T, Hayashidani Y, Hashimoto Y, Nakagawa N, et al. An antecolic Roux-en Y type reconstruction decreased delayed gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12:1081-6 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to identify a preferable procedure reducing the incidence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD)...
  24. Park D, Lee H, Jung H, Kim W, Lee K, Yang H. Clinical outcome of pylorus-preserving gastrectomy in gastric cancer in comparison with conventional distal gastrectomy with Billroth I anastomosis. World J Surg. 2008;32:1029-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) was originally a treatment option in gastric ulcer surgery and is now being performed as a limited surgery in some early gastric cancer cases...
  25. Jiang X, Hiki N, Nunobe S, Fukunaga T, Kumagai K, Nohara K, et al. Long-term outcome and survival with laparoscopy-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. Surg Endosc. 2011;25:1182-6 pubmed publisher
    Laparoscopically assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (LAPPG) is introduced as a function-preserving operation with minimal invasion for early gastric cancer (EGC)...
  26. UDAGER A, Prakash A, Gumucio D. Dividing the tubular gut: generation of organ boundaries at the pylorus. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2010;96:35-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The pylorus is a unique area of the gut tube because it not only marks an important organ boundary in the tubular gut (the ..
  27. Nunobe S, Sasako M, Saka M, Fukagawa T, Katai H, Sano T. Symptom evaluation of long-term postoperative outcomes after pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer. 2007;10:167-72 pubmed
    Since the early 1990s, pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) has been used in the treatment of patients with early gastric cancer in order to reduce postprandial symptoms...
  28. Alsaif F. Pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for peri-ampullary carcinoma, is it a good option?. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:75-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be performed with or without pylorus preservation...
  29. Oomen M, Hoekstra L, Bakx R, Heij H. Learning curves for pediatric laparoscopy: how many operations are enough? The Amsterdam experience with laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. Surg Endosc. 2010;24:1829-33 pubmed publisher
    ..A second goal of this study was to evaluate the pre- and postoperative data of OP versus LP for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis...
  30. Moldovanu R, Grecu F, Tarcoveanu E, Scripcariu V, Georgescu S, Burcoveanu C, et al. [Pancreaticoduodenectomy with or without pylorus preservation: a retrospective analysis of 137 patients]. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2007;102:651-64 pubmed
    We performed a retrospective study to assess the postoperative results, long-term survival and quality of life after pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) versus standard Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy (WPD).
  31. Kong S, Kim J, Lee H, Kim W, Lee K, Yang H. The safety of the dissection of lymph node stations 5 and 6 in pylorus-preserving gastrectomy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:3252-8 pubmed publisher
    This study was intended to examine the safety of possibly incomplete dissection of lymph node stations (LNS) 5 and 6 in pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) for gastric cancer.
  32. Leclair M, Plättner V, Mirallie E, Lejus C, Nguyen J, Podevin G, et al. Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:692-8 pubmed
    ..We performed a randomized controlled trial comparing LP to open circumumbilical pyloromyotomy (OP) for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis...
  33. Sogawa C, Wakizaka H, Aung W, Jin Z, Tsuji A, Furukawa T, et al. C-type natriuretic peptide specifically acts on the pylorus and large intestine in mouse gastrointestinal tract. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:172-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that treatment with CNP (1 or 2 mg/kg) increased transient cGMP production in the pylorus, colon, and rectum, with the higher dose (2 mg/kg) enhancing gastric emptying in mice; this increase in cGMP ..
  34. Morita S, Katai H, Saka M, Fukagawa T, Sano T, Sasako M. Outcome of pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. Br J Surg. 2008;95:1131-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy has been introduced as a function-preserving operation for early gastric cancer in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and radicality of the procedure.
  35. Jiang X, Hiki N, Nunobe S, Fukunaga T, Kumagai K, Nohara K, et al. Postoperative outcomes and complications after laparoscopy-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. Ann Surg. 2011;253:928-33 pubmed publisher
    Laparoscopy-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (LAPPG) was introduced as a function-preserving and minimally invasive operation for early gastric cancer (EGC) in Japan...
  36. Kawai M, Tani M, Hirono S, Miyazawa M, Shimizu A, Uchiyama K, et al. Pylorus ring resection reduces delayed gastric emptying in patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of pylorus-resecting versus pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Ann Surg. 2011;253:495-501 pubmed publisher
    To determine in a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) whether pylorus-resecting pancreatoduodenectomy (PrPD) with preservation of nearly the entire stomach reduces the incidence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) compared with ..
  37. Rodgers E, Fu J, Krenz W, Baro D. Tonic nanomolar dopamine enables an activity-dependent phase recovery mechanism that persistently alters the maximal conductance of the hyperpolarization-activated current in a rhythmically active neuron. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This DA-enabled, activity-dependent mechanism to preserve phase may be broadly relevant, as diminished dopaminergic tone has recently been shown to reduce I(h) in rhythmically active neurons in the mammalian brain...
  38. Rayes N, Seehofer D, Theruvath T, Mogl M, Langrehr J, Nussler N, et al. Effect of enteral nutrition and synbiotics on bacterial infection rates after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy: a randomized, double-blind trial. Ann Surg. 2007;246:36-41 pubmed
    ..Patients undergoing pancreas resection carry several risk factors for nosocomial bacterial infections. Pre- and probiotics (synbiotics) are potentially useful for prevention of these infections...
  39. Srinarmwong C, Luechakiettisak P, Prasitvilai W. Standard whipple's operation versus pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: a randomized controlled trial study. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91:693-8 pubmed
    A single-institution randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the results of standard whipple operation (SW) with those of pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD).
  40. Gao H, Yang Y, Zhuang Y, Wang W, Wu W, Wan Y, et al. [Influencing factor analysis of delayed gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2007;45:1048-51 pubmed
    To investigate the influencing factors of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) and its preventing managements.
  41. Mouser C, Nadim F, Bose A. Maintaining phase of the crustacean tri-phasic pyloric rhythm. J Math Biol. 2008;57:161-81 pubmed
    ..Since our model represents the core of the oscillatory pyloric network, the results of our analysis can be compared to experimental data and used to make predictions about the biological network...
  42. Li X, Udager A, Hu C, Qiao X, Richards N, Gumucio D. Dynamic patterning at the pylorus: formation of an epithelial intestine-stomach boundary in late fetal life. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:3205-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we define the dynamic transcriptome of stomach, pylorus, and intestinal tissues between E14.5 and E16.5...
  43. Akizuki E, Kimura Y, Nobuoka T, Imamura M, Nishidate T, Mizuguchi T, et al. Prospective nonrandomized comparison between pylorus-preserving and subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy from the perspectives of DGE occurrence and postoperative digestive functions. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12:1185-92 pubmed publisher
    To determine the influence of pylorus preservation after pancreaticoduodenectomy, we compared the postoperative course of subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (SSPPD) and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD).
  44. St Peter S, Tsao K, Sharp S, Holcomb G, Ostlie D. Predictors of emesis and time to goal intake after pyloromyotomy: analysis from a prospective trial. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:2038-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we performed analysis of prospective data obtained from a randomized trial to determine if outcome can be predicted from preoperative or intraoperative variables...
  45. Kurahara H, Takao S, Shinchi H, Mataki Y, Maemura K, Sakoda M, et al. Subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (SSPPD) prevents postoperative delayed gastric emptying. J Surg Oncol. 2010;102:615-9 pubmed publisher
    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is one of main complications after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) with regional lymph node dissection (RLND)...
  46. Pilichiewicz A, Chaikomin R, Brennan I, Wishart J, Rayner C, Jones K, et al. Load-dependent effects of duodenal glucose on glycemia, gastrointestinal hormones, antropyloroduodenal motility, and energy intake in healthy men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E743-53 pubmed
    ..These observations have implications for strategies to minimize postprandial glycemic excursions in type 2 diabetes...
  47. Hooper S. Phase maintenance in the pyloric pattern of the lobster (Panulirus interruptus) stomatogastric ganglion. J Comput Neurosci. 1997;4:191-205 pubmed
    ..The observed delay shifts thus suggest that, in response to changes in overall cycle frequency, these constants vary so as to maintain pattern phasing...
  48. Palmes D, Weilinghoff M, Colombo Benkmann M, Senninger N, Bruewer M. Effect of pyloric drainage procedures on gastric passage and bile reflux after esophagectomy with gastric conduit reconstruction. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2007;392:135-41 pubmed
    ..We analysed pyloric drainage methods for their potential effect on gastric outlet obstruction and bile reflux in patients undergoing esophagectomy...
  49. Weiss E, Burkart A, Yeo C. Fibromatosis of the remnant pancreas after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2006;10:679-88 pubmed
    ..The patient, a 63-year-old white man, developed the desmoid tumor following a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for an insulinoma...
  50. Ohtsuka T, Tanaka M, Miyazaki K. Gastrointestinal function and quality of life after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2006;13:218-24 pubmed
    The pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) has taken the place of the conventional Whipple pancreatoduodenectomy as the standard procedure for various periampullary disease...
  51. Baro D, Quinones L, Lanning C, Harris Warrick R, Ruiz M. Alternate splicing of the shal gene and the origin of I(A) diversity among neurons in a dynamic motor network. Neuroscience. 2001;106:419-32 pubmed
    ..While the function of alternate splicing of shal is not yet understood, our studies show that it does not by itself explain the biophysical diversity of I(A) seen in pyloric neurons...
  52. Applewhite A, Cornell K, Selcer B. Pylorogastric intussusception in the dog: a case report and literature review. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2001;37:238-43 pubmed
    ..This report documents the fourth reported case of pylorogastric (i.e., duodenogastric, gastrogastric) intussusception in the veterinary literature and is the first report that details the surgical management of the disease...
  53. Smith D, Nielsen C, Tabin C, Roberts D. Roles of BMP signaling and Nkx2.5 in patterning at the chick midgut-foregut boundary. Development. 2000;127:3671-81 pubmed
    ..This upregulation of Nkx2.5 is a cell-autonomous event within the mesoderm of the gizzard. We also find that Nkx2.5 is necessary and sufficient for establishing aspects of pyloric sphincter differentiation...