gastric parietal cells

Summary

Summary: Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.

Top Publications

  1. Lindstrom E, Chen D, Norlen P, Andersson K, Hakanson R. Control of gastric acid secretion:the gastrin-ECL cell-parietal cell axis. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2001;128:505-14 pubmed
    ..Whether vagally stimulated acid secretion reflects an effect of the enteric nervous system on the ECL cells (neuropeptides) and/or a direct one on the parietal cells needs to be further investigated...
  2. Fujii T, Takahashi Y, Ikari A, Morii M, Tabuchi Y, Tsukada K, et al. Functional association between K+-Cl- cotransporter-4 and H+,K+-ATPase in the apical canalicular membrane of gastric parietal cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:619-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that KCC4 is expressed in the gastric parietal cells more abundantly at the luminal region of the gland than at the basal region...
  3. Karvar S, Yao X, Duman J, Hybiske K, Liu Y, Forte J. Intracellular distribution and functional importance of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 in gastric parietal cells. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:281-90 pubmed
    ..Here we studied the intracellular distribution and functional importance of one SNARE protein, vesicle associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2), in gastric parietal cells.
  4. Ueyama T, Shirasawa N, Numazawa M, Yamada K, Shelangouski M, Ito T, et al. Gastric parietal cells: potent endocrine role in secreting estrogen as a possible regulator of gastro-hepatic axis. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3162-70 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that gastric parietal cells play a potent endocrine role in secreting estrogen that may function as a regulator of the gastro-hepatic ..
  5. Ogawa K, Noguchi H, Tsuji M, Sasaki F. Starvation induces the formation of giant mitochondria in gastric parietal cells of guinea pigs. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 2003;52:217-25 pubmed
    ..Here, we report giant mitochondria in normal gastric parietal cells. Stomachs of guinea pigs fed freely, fasted or fasted and then injected with histamine were processed for ..
  6. Jain R, Al Menhali A, Keeley T, Ren J, El Zaatari M, Chen X, et al. Hip1r is expressed in gastric parietal cells and is required for tubulovesicle formation and cell survival in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2459-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies demonstrate that Hip1r plays a significant role in gastric physiology, mucosal architecture, and secretory membrane dynamics in parietal cells...
  7. Stepan V, Pausawasdi N, Ramamoorthy S, Todisco A. The Akt and MAPK signal-transduction pathways regulate growth factor actions in isolated gastric parietal cells. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:1150-61 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined the effect of prolonged stimulation (72 hours) of the parietal cells with epidermal growth factor...
  8. Scarff K, Judd L, Toh B, Gleeson P, van Driel I. Gastric H(+),K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase beta subunit is required for normal function, development, and membrane structure of mouse parietal cells. Gastroenterology. 1999;117:605-18 pubmed
    ..We have produced mice deficient in the H(+),K(+)-ATPase beta subunit to determine the role of the protein in the biosynthesis of this membrane system and the biology of gastric mucosa...
  9. Jöns T, Drenckhahn D. Anion exchanger 2 (AE2) binds to erythrocyte ankyrin and is colocalized with ankyrin along the basolateral plasma membrane of human gastric parietal cells. Eur J Cell Biol. 1998;75:232-6 pubmed

More Information

Publications62

  1. Schultheis P, Clarke L, Meneton P, Harline M, Boivin G, Stemmermann G, et al. Targeted disruption of the murine Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 2 gene causes reduced viability of gastric parietal cells and loss of net acid secretion. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:1243-53 pubmed
  2. Beales I. Gastrin and interleukin-1beta stimulate growth factor secretion from cultured rabbit gastric parietal cells. Life Sci. 2004;75:2983-95 pubmed
    ..Secretion of paracrine growth factors by parietal cells may be an important point of integration between the endocrine and inflammatory stimuli in determining mucosal responses to injury and inflammation...
  3. Hori K, Takahashi Y, Horikawa N, Furukawa T, Tsukada K, Takeguchi N, et al. Is the ClC-2 chloride channel involved in the Cl- secretory mechanism of gastric parietal cells?. FEBS Lett. 2004;575:105-8 pubmed
    It has been controversial whether the ClC-2 chloride channel is involved in hydrochloric acid secretion of gastric parietal cells. Here, we investigated whether ClC-2 is the apical Cl- channel associated with gastric acid secretion...
  4. Heitzmann D, Grahammer F, von Hahn T, Schmitt Gräff A, Romeo E, Nitschke R, et al. Heteromeric KCNE2/KCNQ1 potassium channels in the luminal membrane of gastric parietal cells. J Physiol. 2004;561:547-57 pubmed
    ..IKs124 could serve as a leading compound in the development of subunit-specific KCNE2/KCNQ1 blockers to treat peptic ulcers...
  5. Zhou R, Cao X, Watson C, Miao Y, Guo Z, Forte J, et al. Characterization of protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of ezrin in gastric parietal cell activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35651-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ezrin plays an important role in mediating the remodeling of the apical membrane cytoskeleton associated with acid secretion in parietal cells...
  6. Petrovic S, Ju X, Barone S, Seidler U, Alper S, Lohi H, et al. Identification of a basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger specific to gastric parietal cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;284:G1093-103 pubmed publisher
    ..in mouse stomach and kidney, with expression in the stomach limited to the basolateral membrane of gastric parietal cells. Tissue distribution studies by RT-PCR and Northern hybridizations demonstrated the exclusive expression ..
  7. Zhou R, Guo Z, Watson C, Chen E, Kong R, Wang W, et al. Polarized distribution of IQGAP proteins in gastric parietal cells and their roles in regulated epithelial cell secretion. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1097-108 pubmed
    ..b>Gastric parietal cells are polarized epithelial cells in which regulated acid secretion occurs in the apical membrane upon ..
  8. Yao X, Forte J. Cell biology of acid secretion by the parietal cell. Annu Rev Physiol. 2003;65:103-31 pubmed
    ..Emphasis is placed on identifying protein factors that serve as effectors for the mechanistic changes associated with cellular activation and the secretory response...
  9. Chen L, Sun X, Zhao J, Yang A, Huang W. Distribution, cloning and sequencing of GnRH, its receptor, and effects of gastric acid secretion of GnRH analogue in gastric parietal cells of rats. Life Sci. 2005;76:1351-65 pubmed
    ..hormone (GnRH) and its receptor, cloning and sequencing of GnRH and its receptor gene in cultured gastric parietal cells of rats...
  10. Pagliocca A, Hegyi P, Venglovecz V, Rackstraw S, Khan Z, Burdyga G, et al. Identification of ezrin as a target of gastrin in immature mouse gastric parietal cells. Exp Physiol. 2008;93:1174-89 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that in gastrin null mice there is reduced ezrin expression and a defect in ezrin subcellular distribution in gastric parietal cells, and that both can be reversed by priming with gastrin.
  11. Sawaguchi A, Aoyama F, Ohashi M, Ide S, Suganuma T. Ultrastructural transformation of gastric parietal cells reverting from the active to the resting state of acid secretion revealed in isolated rat gastric mucosa model processed by high-pressure freezing. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 2006;55:97-105 pubmed
    To elucidate a functional transformation of gastric parietal cells, we have newly developed an isolated rat gastric mucosa model whose parietal cells exhibited a reverting process from the active to the resting state of acid secretion...
  12. Lapierre L, Avant K, Caldwell C, Ham A, Hill S, Williams J, et al. Characterization of immunoisolated human gastric parietal cells tubulovesicles: identification of regulators of apical recycling. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G1249-62 pubmed
    b>Gastric parietal cells possess an amplified apical membrane recycling system dedicated to regulated apical recycling of H-K-ATPase...
  13. Wang F, Xia P, Wu F, Wang D, Wang W, Ward T, et al. Helicobacter pylori VacA disrupts apical membrane-cytoskeletal interactions in gastric parietal cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26714-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that VacA permeabilizes the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells and induces hypochlorhydria...
  14. Duman J, Tyagarajan K, Kolsi M, Moore H, Forte J. Expression of rab11a N124I in gastric parietal cells inhibits stimulatory recruitment of the H+-K+-ATPase. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:C361-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that rab11a is the prominent GTPase associated with gastric microsomes and that it plays a role in parietal cell activation. ..
  15. Tamura A, Kikuchi S, Hata M, Katsuno T, Matsui T, Hayashi H, et al. Achlorhydria by ezrin knockdown: defects in the formation/expansion of apical canaliculi in gastric parietal cells. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:21-8 pubmed
    ..Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy revealed that this achlorhydria was caused by defects in the formation/expansion of canalicular apical membranes in gastric parietal cells.
  16. Neu B, Randlkofer P, Neuhofer M, Voland P, Mayerhofer A, Gerhard M, et al. Helicobacter pylori induces apoptosis of rat gastric parietal cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;283:G309-18 pubmed
    ..In summary, cagE presence appears to be essential for H. pylori-induced apoptosis of gastric parietal cells, and this effect is dependent on the activation of NF-kappaB and production of nitric oxide.
  17. Chen D, Zhao C, Hakanson R, Samuelson L, Rehfeld J, Friis Hansen L. Altered control of gastric acid secretion in gastrin-cholecystokinin double mutant mice. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:476-87 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking gastrin or both gastrin and CCK were examined to determine the role of the hormones...
  18. Stepan V, Ramamoorthy S, Nitsche H, Zavros Y, Merchant J, Todisco A. Regulation and function of the sonic hedgehog signal transduction pathway in isolated gastric parietal cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15700-8 pubmed
    ..These effects might represent novel mechanisms mediating the actions of growth factors on gastric epithelial cell differentiation...
  19. Gerbino A, Hofer A, McKay B, Lau B, Soybel D. Divalent cations regulate acidity within the lumen and tubulovesicle compartment of gastric parietal cells. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:182-95 pubmed
    ..The goal of this study was to develop a method for monitoring the mechanisms that regulate acidity in the TV/L compartment...
  20. Sawaguchi A, McDonald K, Forte J. High-pressure freezing of isolated gastric glands provides new insight into the fine structure and subcellular localization of H+/K+-ATPase in gastric parietal cells. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004;52:77-86 pubmed
    ..rabbit gastric glands to reveal structural evidence that may be correlated with functional activity of gastric parietal cells. This approach provided well-preserved fine structure and excellent antigenicity of several parietal cell ..
  21. Gawenis L, Greeb J, Prasad V, Grisham C, Sanford L, Doetschman T, et al. Impaired gastric acid secretion in mice with a targeted disruption of the NHE4 Na+/H+ exchanger. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:12781-9 pubmed
    The NHE4 Na+/H+ exchanger is abundantly expressed on the basolateral membrane of gastric parietal cells. To test the hypothesis that it is required for normal acid secretion, NHE4-null mutant (NHE4-/-) mice were prepared by targeted ..
  22. Duman J, Pathak N, Ladinsky M, McDonald K, Forte J. Three-dimensional reconstruction of cytoplasmic membrane networks in parietal cells. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:1251-8 pubmed
    There is general agreement that stimulation and consequent secretion of gastric parietal cells result in a great expansion of the apical canalicular membrane at the expense of an extensive intracellular network of membranes rich in the ..
  23. Cao X, Ding X, Guo Z, Zhou R, Wang F, Long F, et al. PALS1 specifies the localization of ezrin to the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13584-92 pubmed publisher
    ..of parietal cells and couples the protein kinase A activation cascade to regulated HCl secretion in gastric parietal cells. Here, we show that the integrity of ezrin is essential for parietal cell activation and provide the first ..
  24. Recalde S, Muruzabal F, Looije N, Kunne C, Burrell M, Saez E, et al. Inefficient chronic activation of parietal cells in Ae2a,b(-/-) mice. Am J Pathol. 2006;169:165-76 pubmed
    ..These data reveal a critical role of Ae2a-Ae2b1-Ae2b2 isoforms in stimulated gastric acid secretion whereas residual Ae2c isoforms could account to a limited extent for basal acid secretion...
  25. Miller M, Judd L, van Driel I, Andringa A, Flagella M, Bell S, et al. The unique ultrastructure of secretory membranes in gastric parietal cells depends upon the presence of H+, K+ -ATPase. Cell Tissue Res. 2002;309:369-80 pubmed
    ..whether some of these transporters are necessary for the normal ultrastructure of secretory membranes in gastric parietal cells, mice lacking transporters for H+, K+, Cl-, and Na+ were examined for alterations in volume density (Vd) ..
  26. Rossmann H, Sonnentag T, Heinzmann A, Seidler B, Bachmann O, Vieillard Baron D, et al. Differential expression and regulation of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoforms in rabbit parietal and mucous cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;281:G447-58 pubmed
    ..The high NHE1 and NHE2 expression levels in mucous cells may reflect their special need for pH(i) regulation during high gastric acidity. NHE4 is likely involved in volume regulation during acid secretion...
  27. Sawaguchi A, Aoyama F, Ide S, Suganuma T. The cryofixation of isolated rat gastric mucosa provides new insights into the functional transformation of gastric parietal cells: an in vitro experimental model study. Arch Histol Cytol. 2005;68:151-60 pubmed
    ..To elucidate the functional transformation of gastric parietal cells, we have newly developed an in vitro experimental model, named the isolated gastric mucosa...
  28. Spicer Z, Miller M, Andringa A, Riddle T, Duffy J, Doetschman T, et al. Stomachs of mice lacking the gastric H,K-ATPase alpha -subunit have achlorhydria, abnormal parietal cells, and ciliated metaplasia. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:21555-65 pubmed
  29. Sawaguchi A, McDonald K, Karvar S, Forte J. A new approach for high-pressure freezing of primary culture cells: the fine structure and stimulation-associated transformation of cultured rabbit gastric parietal cells. J Microsc. 2002;208:158-66 pubmed
    ..procedure for high-pressure freezing of primary culture cells provided excellent ultrastructure of rabbit gastric parietal cells. The isolated parietal cells were cultivated on Matrigel-coated aluminium plates for conventional ..
  30. Gawenis L, Ledoussal C, Judd L, Prasad V, Alper S, Stuart Tilley A, et al. Mice with a targeted disruption of the AE2 Cl-/HCO3- exchanger are achlorhydric. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30531-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that AE2 is essential for gastric acid secretion and for normal development of secretory canalicular and tubulovesicular membranes in mouse parietal cells...
  31. Kato Y, Fukamachi H, Takano Maruyama M, Aoe T, Murahashi Y, Horie S, et al. Reduction of SNAP25 in acid secretion defect of Foxl1-/- gastric parietal cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;320:766-72 pubmed
  32. Ogata T, Yamasaki Y. Morphological studies on the translocation of tubulovesicular system toward the intracellular canaliculus during stimulation of the gastric parietal cell. Microsc Res Tech. 2000;48:282-92 pubmed
    ..Special emphasis is made to demonstrate connections between the tubulovesicular system and the intracellular canaliculus...
  33. Fujita A, Horio Y, Higashi K, Mouri T, Hata F, Takeguchi N, et al. Specific localization of an inwardly rectifying K(+) channel, Kir4.1, at the apical membrane of rat gastric parietal cells; its possible involvement in K(+) recycling for the H(+)-K(+)-pump. J Physiol. 2002;540:85-92 pubmed
    ..With immunohistochemical analyses, Kir4.1 was found to be expressed in gastric parietal cells and localized specifically at their apical membrane. The current flowing through Kir4...
  34. Ogata T, Yamasaki Y. The tubulovesicular system of gastric parietal cells is connected to the intracellular canaliculus, rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. A study by high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2001;106:323-8 pubmed
    The three-dimensional configuration of the tubulovesicular system of resting rat gastric parietal cells was determined by ultra-hihg-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Rat gastric mucosae were fixed in 1...
  35. Calhoun B, Goldenring J. Rab proteins in gastric parietal cells: evidence for the membrane recycling hypothesis. Yale J Biol Med. 1996;69:1-8 pubmed
    ..the secretory pathway, and previous investigations established that Rab11 is highly expressed in gastric parietal cells. Recent discoveries in intra-Golgi transport and neuronal synaptic vesicle fusion have fortuitously ..
  36. Goldenring J, Soroka C, Shen K, Tang L, Rodriguez W, Vaughan H, et al. Enrichment of rab11, a small GTP-binding protein, in gastric parietal cells. Am J Physiol. 1994;267:G187-94 pubmed
    ..Shen, H. D. Vaughan, and I.M. Modlin. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 18419-18422, 1993), we sought to study rab11 in gastric parietal cells. A complete rab11 sequence was obtained, and the deduced amino acid sequence of rabbit rab11 was identical ..
  37. Presotto F, Sabini B, Cecchetto A, Plebani M, De Lazzari F, Pedini B, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric autoimmune diseases: is there a link?. Helicobacter. 2003;8:578-84 pubmed
    ..pylori infection in asymptomatic subjects with gastric parietal cell antibodies, as well as in patients with pernicious anemia, to evaluate a possible role of H. pylori gastric infection in gastric autoimmunity...
  38. Tatsuguchi A, Fukuda Y, Ishizaki M, Yamanaka N. Localization of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 in normal human and rabbit stomachs. Digestion. 1999;60:246-54 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study is to examine their localization and functions in the normal stomach...
  39. Fukushima Y, Ohmachi Y, Asano T, Nawano M, Funaki M, Anai M, et al. Localization of the histamine H(2) receptor, a target for antiulcer drugs, in gastric parietal cells. Digestion. 1999;60:522-7 pubmed
    ..This study is designed to determine the H(2) receptor localization immunohistochemically using an antibody against the newly cloned mouse histamine H(2) receptor...
  40. Charpin Elhamri G, Elbaba M, Descroix Vagne M, Pansu D, Perret J. Inhibitory effect of sorbin on pepsin secretion in conscious cats and rabbits. Peptides. 2000;21:65-72 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the inhibitory effect of sorbin is specific on chief cells because the acid parietal cell secretion in both species and lipase upper cell secretion of the fundic glands, in the rabbit, are not implicated...
  41. Szaszak M, Christian F, Rosenthal W, Klussmann E. Compartmentalized cAMP signalling in regulated exocytic processes in non-neuronal cells. Cell Signal. 2008;20:590-601 pubmed
    ..cAMP-potentiated exocytic processes in an endocrine cell, and cAMP- or Ca2+ -triggered H+ secretion from gastric parietal cells as an exocytic process in an exocrine cell are discussed...
  42. Erten G, Gurol A, Deniz G, Satman I, Yilmaz M. Organ specific autoantibodies in preclinical and early clinical type 1 diabetes in Turkey. Ups J Med Sci. 2007;112:231-43 pubmed
    ..Even at the time of diagnosis of T1D, screening for thyrogastric autoimmunity might be recommended for early detection of the relevant diseases...
  43. Berg A, Redeen S, Sjöstrand S, Ericson A. Effect of nitric oxide on histamine-induced cytological transformations in parietal cells in isolated human gastric glands. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52:126-36 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that NO inhibits secretion of fluid into the canalicular lumen without affecting membrane recruitment and that this effect is Ca2+-insensitive...
  44. Waldum H, Qvigstad G. Achlorhydria, parietal cell hyperplasia, and multiple gastric carcinoids: a new disorder?. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:919 pubmed
  45. Maeda A, Akimoto M, Goto Y, Ogihara Y, Debas H, Yamashiata K. Reciprocal effect of unsulfated and sulfated forms of cholecystokinin-octapeptide on gastric acid secretion in the rat. Pharmacol Res. 2000;42:333-6 pubmed
    ..These observations in the rat are different from those in the dog where desulfation of tyrosine renders the CCK analog, caerulein, ineffective in its ability to stimulate acid secretion...
  46. De Block C, De Leeuw I, Decochez K, Winnock F, Van Autreve J, Van Campenhout C, et al. The presence of thyrogastric antibodies in first degree relatives of type 1 diabetic patients is associated with age and proband antibody status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:4358-63 pubmed
    ..The presence of these antibodies in relatives is associated with age and proband antibody status, but not with beta-cell antibodies or human leukocyte antigen-DQ type...
  47. Nakajima T, Konda Y, Izumi Y, Kanai M, Takeuchi T, Chiba T. Gastrin interferes with the differentiation of gastric pit cells and parietal cells. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16 Suppl 2:3-9 pubmed
    ..Gastrin is known to have stimulatory effects on gastric mucosa; however, long-term effect of gastrin stimulation is not well known...
  48. Jeggli S, Steiner D, Joller H, Tschopp A, Steffen R, Hotz P. Hepatitis E, Helicobacter pylori, and gastrointestinal symptoms in workers exposed to waste water. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61:622-7 pubmed
    ..Workers exposed to sewage may have an increased risk of infection by Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis E virus (HEV)...
  49. Chew C, Parente J, Chen X, Chaponnier C, Cameron R. The LIM and SH3 domain-containing protein, lasp-1, may link the cAMP signaling pathway with dynamic membrane restructuring activities in ion transporting epithelia. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 11):2035-45 pubmed
    ..Agonist-dependent changes in lasp-1 phosphorylation may also serve to regulate actin-associated ion transport activities, not only in the parietal cell but also in certain other F-actin-rich secretory epithelial cell types...
  50. Tari A, Kuruhara Y, Yonei Y, Yamauchi R, Okahara S, Sumii K, et al. Effects of omeprazole and pirenzepine on enterochromaffin-like cells and parietal cells in rat stomach. J Gastroenterol. 2001;36:375-85 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the regulation of histamine synthesis in enterochromaffin-like cells, chemically and structurally, by treatment with omeprazole and pirenzepine...
  51. Hong T, Grabel L. Migration of F9 parietal endoderm cells is regulated by the ERK pathway. J Cell Biochem. 2006;97:1339-49 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the ERK pathway regulates PE cell migration by affecting the formation of focal adhesions and lamellipodia through the action of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)...
  52. Karvar S, Yao X, Crothers J, Liu Y, Forte J. Localization and function of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein-25 and vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 in functioning gastric parietal cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50030-5 pubmed
  53. Rotte A, Mack A, Bhandaru M, Kempe D, Beier N, Scholz W, et al. Pioglitazone induced gastric acid secretion. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;24:193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, pioglitazone increases gastric acid secretion, an effect at least partially due to stimulation of SGK1 expression and SGK1-dependent upregulation of KCNQ1...