Summary: That part of the STOMACH close to the opening from ESOPHAGUS into the stomach (cardiac orifice), the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION. The cardia is so named because of its closeness to the HEART. Cardia is characterized by the lack of acid-forming cells (GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS).

Top Publications

  1. Gonzalez C, Jakszyn P, Pera G, Agudo A, Bingham S, Palli D, et al. Meat intake and risk of stomach and esophageal adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98:345-54 pubmed
    ..We examined the risks of gastric cancer and esophageal adenocarcinoma associated with meat consumption within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort...
  2. Martin L, Jia C, Rouvelas I, Lagergren P. Risk factors for malnutrition after oesophageal and cardia cancer surgery. Br J Surg. 2008;95:1362-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Oesophageal cancer surgery is often followed by malnutrition, but the factors causing weight loss are unknown. The aim of this population-based study was to identify such risk factors...
  3. Tramacere I, La Vecchia C, Negri E. Tobacco smoking and esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis. Epidemiology. 2011;22:344-9 pubmed publisher
    Smoking has been related to esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, but the magnitude of the association is uncertain.
  4. Leodolter A, Nocon M, Vieth M, Lind T, Jaspersen D, Richter K, et al. Progression of specialized intestinal metaplasia at the cardia to macroscopically evident Barrett's esophagus: an entity of concern in the ProGERD study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012;47:1429-35 pubmed publisher
    Histological Barrett's esophagus, defined as specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM+) at the cardia without endoscopic suspicion of columnar epithelium, is found frequently in biopsies at the gastro-esophageal junction although its ..
  5. Hansen S, Vollset S, Derakhshan M, Fyfe V, Melby K, Aase S, et al. Two distinct aetiologies of cardia cancer; evidence from premorbid serological markers of gastric atrophy and Helicobacter pylori status. Gut. 2007;56:918-25 pubmed
    Non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma is positively associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and atrophic gastritis. The role of H pylori infection and atrophic gastritis in cardia cancer is unclear.
  6. Chak A, Faulx A, Eng C, Grady W, Kinnard M, Ochs Balcom H, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or cardia. Cancer. 2006;107:2160-6 pubmed
    ..strategy for detecting Barrett esophagus in subjects before the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or cardia. The aim of the current study was to determine what proportion of patients with cancer of the esophagus or cardia ..
  7. Ancona E, Cagol M, Epifani M, Cavallin F, Zaninotto G, Castoro C, et al. Surgical complications do not affect longterm survival after esophagectomy for carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus and cardia. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;203:661-9 pubmed
    ..The longterm prognosis for patients undergoing operation depends largely on the pathologic stage of the disease. The real impact of postoperative complications on survival is still under evaluation...
  8. Guo W, Dong Z, Chen Z, Yang Z, Wen D, Kuang G, et al. Aberrant CpG island hypermethylation of RASSF1A in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Cancer Invest. 2009;27:459-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, the promoter methylation status of the RASSF1A in 92 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and corresponding normal tissues were investigated using Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) ..
  9. Zhou Y, Zhang Z, Zhang Z, Wu J, Ren D, Yan X, et al. A rising trend of gastric cardia cancer in Gansu Province of China. Cancer Lett. 2008;269:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 5253 gastric cancer cases were identified. Cancers of the cardia, fundus, body and antrum account for 33.6%, 2.7%, 23.6% and 34.0% of all cases, respectively...

More Information


  1. Schuhmacher C, Gretschel S, Lordick F, Reichardt P, Hohenberger W, Eisenberger C, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with surgery alone for locally advanced cancer of the stomach and cardia: European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer randomized trial 40954. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:5210-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the value of purely preoperative chemotherapy in a phase III trial with strict preoperative staging and surgical resection guidelines...
  2. Verschuur E, Repici A, Kuipers E, Steyerberg E, Siersema P. New design esophageal stents for the palliation of dysphagia from esophageal or gastric cardia cancer: a randomized trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:304-12 pubmed
    Stents are often used for the palliation of inoperable esophageal or gastric cardia cancer. One of the drawbacks of the currently used stents is the high percentage of recurrent dysphagia due to stent migration and tissue growth...
  3. DiMusto P, Orringer M. Transhiatal esophagectomy for distal and cardia cancers: implications of a positive gastric margin. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83:1993-8; discussion 1998-9 pubmed
    A common operation for cancer of the esophagus and cardia consists of transhiatal esophagectomy, proximal gastrectomy, and a cervical esophagogastric anastomosis...
  4. Zhang C, Zhan W, He Y, Chen C, Huang M, Cai S. Spleen preservation in radical surgery for gastric cardia cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14:1312-9 pubmed
    In gastric cardia cancer (GCC), the spleen is usually removed when the tumor is resected. This allows thorough lymph node dissection in the splenic hilus. However, the long-term effect of splenectomy on patient survival is controversial...
  5. Sundelöf M, Lagergren J, Ye W. Patient demographics and lifestyle factors influencing long-term survival of oesophageal cancer and gastric cardia cancer in a nationwide study in Sweden. Eur J Cancer. 2008;44:1566-71 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about the possible influence of demographic and aetiologic risk factors on the survival amongst patients with oesophageal and cardia cancer.
  6. Guo W, Dong Z, Guo Y, Chen Z, Yang Z, Kuang G. Association of polymorphisms in transforming growth factor-? receptors with susceptibility to gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:4301-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of Int7G24A and *6A polymorphisms of TGFBR1 and G-875A polymorphism of TGFBR2 with susceptibility to gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) in a population of North China...
  7. Saito H, Fukumoto Y, Osaki T, Fukuda K, Tatebe S, Tsujitani S, et al. Distinct recurrence pattern and outcome of adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia in comparison with carcinoma of other regions of the stomach. World J Surg. 2006;30:1864-9 pubmed
    ..We have therefore investigated patients with carcinoma of the gastric cardia in order to evaluate the underlying cause of this poor prognosis.
  8. Kostic S, Kjellin A, Ruth M, Lonroth H, Johnsson E, Andersson M, et al. Pneumatic dilatation or laparoscopic cardiomyotomy in the management of newly diagnosed idiopathic achalasia. Results of a randomized controlled trial. World J Surg. 2007;31:470-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore we designed a study in which pneumatic dilatation was compared to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy to which was added a partial posterior fundoplication...
  9. Ruffato A, Mattioli S, Perrone O, Lugaresi M, Di Simone M, D Errico A, et al. Esophagogastric metaplasia relates to nodal metastases in adenocarcinoma of esophagus and cardia. Ann Thorac Surg. 2013;95:1147-53 pubmed publisher
    Immunohistochemical profiles of esophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma differ according to the presence or absence of Barrett's epithelium (BIM) and gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) in the fundus and antrum...
  10. Shirai K, Ohmiya N, Taguchi A, Mabuchi N, Yatsuya H, Itoh A, et al. Interleukin-8 gene polymorphism associated with susceptibility to non-cardia gastric carcinoma with microsatellite instability. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21:1129-35 pubmed
    ..Recently, cytokine polymorphisms have been reported to affect the development of non-cardia GC. The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between cytokine polymorphisms and MSI phenotypes...
  11. Whitson B, Groth S, Li Z, Kratzke R, Maddaus M. Survival of patients with distal esophageal and gastric cardia tumors: a population-based analysis of gastroesophageal junction carcinomas. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;139:43-8 pubmed publisher
    Distal esophageal tumors and gastric cardia tumors, although only physically separated by centimeters, have different staging systems and are usually treated differently...
  12. Shen J, Cheong J, Hyung W, Kim J, Choi S, Noh S. Influence of a microscopic positive proximal margin in the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma of the cardia. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:3883-6 pubmed
    To investigate the influence of a positive proximal margin in total gastrectomy patients with gastric adenocarcinoma of the cardia.
  13. Ru Y, Zhang L, Chen Q, Gao S, Wang G, Qu Z, et al. Detection and clinical significance of lymph node micrometastasis in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. J Int Med Res. 2012;40:293-9 pubmed
    Lymph node micro metastasis was investigated in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) patients without lymph node metastasis on routine pathological examination...
  14. Akre O, Forssell L, Kaijser M, Norén Nilsson I, Lagergren J, Nyren O, et al. Perinatal risk factors for cancer of the esophagus and gastric cardia: a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:867-71 pubmed
    ..In this study, we aimed to test if there is an association between gestational duration and birth weight on the one hand, and risk of esophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma on the other.
  15. Kandulski A, Wex T, Kuester D, Peitz U, Gebert I, Roessner A, et al. Naturally occurring regulatory T cells (CD4+, CD25high, FOXP3+) in the antrum and cardia are associated with higher H. pylori colonization and increased gene expression of TGF-beta1. Helicobacter. 2008;13:295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..FOXP3 was shown to be expressed in a subset of Treg cells known as 'naturally occurring Treg cells'. These cells have not been sufficiently studied in context to H. pylori-induced inflammation in human gastric mucosa...
  16. Derakhshan M, Malekzadeh R, Watabe H, Yazdanbod A, Fyfe V, Kazemi A, et al. Combination of gastric atrophy, reflux symptoms and histological subtype indicates two distinct aetiologies of gastric cardia cancer. Gut. 2008;57:298-305 pubmed
    Atrophic gastritis is a risk factor for non-cardia gastric cancer, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) for oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
  17. Viklund P, Wengstrom Y, Rouvelas I, Lindblad M, Lagergren J. Quality of life and persisting symptoms after oesophageal cancer surgery. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42:1407-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, patients who undergo oesophageal cancer resection suffer greatly from reduced QoL and several general and oesophageal-specific symptoms six months postoperatively...
  18. Ryan A, Rowley S, Fitzgerald A, Ravi N, Reynolds J. Adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia: male preponderance in association with obesity. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42:1151-8 pubmed
    ..patients presenting to a tertiary centre between 1994 and 2004 diagnosed with cancer of the oesophagus, gastric cardia or stomach. Data were compared with 893 healthy controls...
  19. Verschuur E, Steyerberg E, Kuipers E, Siersema P. Effect of stent size on complications and recurrent dysphagia in patients with esophageal or gastric cardia cancer. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;65:592-601 pubmed
    Stents are commonly used for the palliation of dysphagia from esophageal or gastric cardia cancer. A major drawback of stents is the occurrence of recurrent dysphagia...
  20. Merry A, Schouten L, Goldbohm R, van den Brandt P. Body mass index, height and risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia: a prospective cohort study. Gut. 2007;56:1503-11 pubmed
    In the last decades, the incidence of oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has increased rapidly in the Western world...
  21. Huang G, Zheng Z, Cai L. [DNA repair gene XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and susceptibility to cardia and non-cardia gastric cancer: a case-control study]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2006;27:420-3 pubmed
    To study the association between genetic polymorphisms of XRCC3 Thr241Met gene and susceptibility to gastric cardia and/non-cardia gastric cancer, and to investigate the combined effect between genes and surrounding environment.
  22. Kim D, Joo J, Ryu S, Park Y, Kim Y, Kim S. Clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of carcinoma of the gastric cardia. Dig Surg. 2006;23:313-8 pubmed
    The prognosis of patients with carcinoma of the gastric cardia (CGC) is poorer than that of patients with distal third gastric carcinoma (DTGC)...
  23. Ghoshal U, Rangan M, Misra A. Pneumatic dilation for achalasia cardia: reduction in lower esophageal sphincter pressure in assessing response and factors associated with recurrence during long-term follow up. Dig Endosc. 2012;24:7-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Data on utility of post-pneumatic dilation (PD) lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure measurement in evaluating short and long-term efficacy of dilation, which tears the non-relaxing LES in achalasia, are scanty...
  24. Guo W, Dong Z, Guo Y, Chen Z, Kuang G, Yang Z. Methylation-mediated repression of GADD45A and GADD45G expression in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2013;133:2043-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was to detect the role of GADD45 gene family in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and the relationship of GADD45A and GADD45G methylation to a series of pathological ..
  25. Liu L, Wu C, Wang Y, Zhong R, Wang F, Zhang X, et al. Association of candidate genetic variations with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma in Chinese population: a multiple interaction analysis. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:336-42 pubmed publisher
    Single genetic variation may only have a modest effect on risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) because this malignancy is believed to result from complex interactions among multiple genetic and environmental factors...
  26. Deans C, Yeo M, Soe M, Shabbir A, Ti T, So J. Cancer of the gastric cardia is rising in incidence in an Asian population and is associated with adverse outcome. World J Surg. 2011;35:617-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to examine the changing trends in incidence of gastric cardia cancer (type III) within this population and to compare the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome of ..
  27. Guo W, Dong Z, Guo Y, Chen Z, Yang Z, Kuang G, et al. Polymorphisms of transforming growth factor-?1 associated with increased risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma in north China. Int J Immunogenet. 2011;38:215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the association of TGF-?1 polymorphism with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) remains unclear...
  28. Haas M, Büttner M, Rau T, Fietkau R, Grabenbauer G, Distel L. Inflammation in gastric adenocarcinoma of the cardia: how do EBV infection, Her2 amplification and cancer progression influence tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes?. Virchows Arch. 2011;458:403-11 pubmed publisher
    ..stromal regulatory T cells (Treg) to be associated with a beneficial outcome in intestinal type cancer of the cardia. We undertook the present study to further evaluate the immunogenic and inflammatory environment in intestinal-..
  29. Egi Y, Ito M, Tanaka S, Imagawa S, Takata S, Yoshihara M, et al. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic inflammation in gastric cancer in the cardia. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2007;37:365-9 pubmed
    ..Recently, we reported that H. pylori is an important factor for the induction of cardiac inflammation. We examined the status of H. pylori-induced gastritis in patients with cardiac cancer...
  30. Parfitt J, Miladinovic Z, Driman D. Increasing incidence of adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction and distal stomach in Canada -- an epidemiological study from 1964-2002. Can J Gastroenterol. 2006;20:271-6 pubmed
    The increasing incidence of esophageal and proximal gastric (cardia) adenocarcinoma and the decreasing incidence of distal gastric (antropyloric) adenocarcinoma has been documented in several populations...
  31. Cronin Fenton D, Sharp L, Carsin A, Comber H. Patterns of care and effects on mortality for cancers of the oesophagus and gastric cardia: a population-based study. Eur J Cancer. 2007;43:565-75 pubmed
    ..We investigated temporal trends in treatment, and factors influencing treatment receipt and survival, for upper gastrointestinal cancers in routine community-based clinical practice...
  32. Kubo A, Corley D. Meta-analysis of antioxidant intake and the risk of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:2323-30; quiz 2331 pubmed
    ..statistical synthesis of studies that evaluated the associations between vitamin C, vitamin E, or beta-carotene/vitamin A and the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma or the adjacent gastric cardia (gastroesophageal junction) adenocarcinoma.
  33. Falk J, Carstens H, Lundell L, Albertsson M. Incidence of carcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia. Changes over time and geographical differences. Acta Oncol. 2007;46:1070-4 pubmed
    ..The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus is rising in many western countries including Sweden...
  34. Zhang X, Wang Y, Ge H, Cao Y, Chen Z, Wen D, et al. Association of CDH1 single nucleotide polymorphisms with susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cardia carcinomas. Dis Esophagus. 2008;21:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..investigate the influence of CDH1 SNP on susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCA), a case-control study was conducted among 333 ESCC patients, 239 GCA patients and 343 ..
  35. Zheng B, Chen Y, Hu Y, Wang J, Zhou Z, Fu J. Comparison of transthoracic and transabdominal surgical approaches for the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the cardia. Chin J Cancer. 2010;29:747-51 pubmed
    Transthoracic and transabdominal approaches are commonly used for the surgical treatment of adenocarcinoma of the cardia. Which approach is better has been controversial for quite a long time...
  36. Cavaleiro Pinto M, Peleteiro B, Lunet N, Barros H. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cardia cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22:375-87 pubmed publisher
    Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important risk factor for gastric cancer, but no association with cardia cancer has been recognized...
  37. Schlöbe D, Hölzle D, Hatz D, von Meyer L, Tricker A, Richter E. 4-Hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-releasing DNA adducts in lung, lower esophagus and cardia of sudden death victims. Toxicology. 2008;245:154-61 pubmed publisher
    ..ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) to samples of peripheral lung, lower esophagus and cardia from tumor-free sudden death victims (primarily road traffic accidents, suicide and sudden cardiac arrest)...
  38. Kubo A, Corley D. Body mass index and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus or gastric cardia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:872-8 pubmed
    ..We did a systematic review and statistical synthesis of studies that evaluated the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma or the adjacent gastric cardia adenocarcinoma.
  39. Wen D, Shan B, Wang S, Zhang L, Wei L, Zhou W, et al. A positive family history of esophageal/gastric cardia cancer with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma is associated with a younger age at onset and more likely with another synchronous esophageal/gastric cardia cancer in a Chinese high-risk area. Eur J Med Genet. 2010;53:250-5 pubmed publisher
    To find a genetic component in gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCA).
  40. Liu J, Jamieson G, Wu T, Zhu G, Drew P. A preliminary study on the postoperative survival of patients given aspirin after resection for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus or adenocarcinoma of the cardia. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:1397-402 pubmed publisher
    We examined the effect of aspirin on survival following resection for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus or adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia.
  41. Zhang X, Zhong R, Liu L, Wang Y, Yuan J, Wang P, et al. Smoking and COX-2 functional polymorphisms interact to increase the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma in Chinese population. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21894 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to explore the interaction between smoking and functional polymorphisms of COX-2 in modulation of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) risk.
  42. Abrams J, Gonsalves L, Neugut A. Diverging trends in the incidence of reflux-related and Helicobacter pylori-related gastric cardia cancer. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;47:322-7 pubmed publisher
    To describe historical incidence trends of 2 subtypes of gastric cardia cancer.
  43. Bafandeh Y, Hashemzadeh S, Sokouti M, Esmaili H. Clinicopathologic characteristics of esophageal cancer patients in northwest Iran--very low incidence of adenocarcinomas. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006;7:480-2 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we hypothesized that esophageal AC would also be lower than in the Western world. The aim of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic characteristics of esophageal cancer in comparison the data from western populations...
  44. Takubo K, Aida J, Naomoto Y, Sawabe M, Arai T, Shiraishi H, et al. Cardiac rather than intestinal-type background in endoscopic resection specimens of minute Barrett adenocarcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:65-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, it seems better to define Barrett esophagus as metaplastic columnar-lined esophagus alone, without requiring the presence of goblet cells, in accordance with histogenetic and practical standpoints...
  45. Zhou N, Liu X, Liang C, Tian X, Liu Y, Yuan Y. [The application of stapling device in surgery of carcinoma of the esophagus and cardia]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006;86:1450-2 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the application of circular stapler in upper digestive tract reconstruction...
  46. Turati F, Tramacere I, La Vecchia C, Negri E. A meta-analysis of body mass index and esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Ann Oncol. 2013;24:609-17 pubmed publisher
    The incidence rates of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (EGCA) have increased over recent years in several countries, and overweight/obesity has been suggested to play a major role in these trends...
  47. Zhang M, Li Z, Ma Y, Zhu G, Zhang H, Xue Y. Prognostic predictors of patients with carcinoma of the gastric cardia. Hepatogastroenterology. 2012;59:930-3 pubmed publisher
    This study gives insight into survival predictors and clinicopathological features of carcinoma of the gastric cardia.
  48. Inoue H, Ikeda H, Hosoya T, Onimaru M, Yoshida A, Eleftheriadis N, et al. Submucosal endoscopic tumor resection for subepithelial tumors in the esophagus and cardia. Endoscopy. 2012;44:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the submucosal tunnel created by the technique of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), we report the first series describing the new technique of submucosal endoscopic tumor resection (SET) for tumors of the esophagus and cardia.
  49. Haas M, Dimmler A, Hohenberger W, Grabenbauer G, Niedobitek G, Distel L. Stromal regulatory T-cells are associated with a favourable prognosis in gastric cancer of the cardia. BMC Gastroenterol. 2009;9:65 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the prognostic significance of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in intestinal-type gastric cardiac cancer...
  50. Kim H, Kim H, Cho H, Kim S, Song K, Hyung W, et al. The ratio of intra-tumoral regulatory T cells (Foxp3+)/helper T cells (CD4+) is a prognostic factor and associated with recurrence pattern in gastric cardia cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2011;104:728-33 pubmed publisher
    TILs have been reported to be a prognostic factor in human cancers. We assessed the prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells in gastric cardia cancer.
  51. Kouznetsova I, Kalinski T, Peitz U, Monkemuller K, Kalbacher H, Vieth M, et al. Localization of TFF3 peptide in human esophageal submucosal glands and gastric cardia: differentiation of two types of gastric pit cells along the rostro-caudal axis. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;328:365-74 pubmed
    ..Here, we have systematically investigated TFF3 expression in the esophagus and gastric cardia by the use of reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and immunohistochemistry...
  52. Peters C, Rees J, Hardwick R, Hardwick J, Vowler S, Ong C, et al. A 4-gene signature predicts survival of patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, junction, and gastric cardia. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:1995-2004.e15 pubmed publisher
    ..Current staging is limited in its ability to predict survival which has ramifications for treatment choices. The aim of this study was to generate and validate a molecular prognostic signature for esophageal adenocarcinoma...
  53. Cheng Y, Zhang J, Li Y, Wang Y, Gong J. Proteome analysis of human gastric cardia adenocarcinoma by laser capture microdissection. BMC Cancer. 2007;7:191 pubmed
    ..The incidence of gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma (GCA) has been increasing in the past two decades in China, but the molecular changes relating to carcinogenesis have not been well characterised...