zollinger ellison syndrome


Summary: A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.

Top Publications

  1. Cattan D. Discussion on the effect of chronic hypergastrinemia on human enterochromaffin-like cells: insights from patients with sporadic gastrinomas. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:627; author reply 627-8 pubmed
  2. Hirschowitz B, Simmons J, Mohnen J. Clinical outcome using lansoprazole in acid hypersecretors with and without Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: a 13-year prospective study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3:39-48 pubmed
    ..The aims of this study were to heal and prevent relapse of acid/peptic lesions during acid suppression and to analyze benefits and risks during long-term lansoprazole treatment...
  3. Klose K, Heverhagen J. Localisation and staging of gastrin producing tumours using cross-sectional imaging modalities. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119:588-92 pubmed
    ..Due to the absent radiation exposure, MRI is increasingly utilized to monitor the response of metastases under systemic therapy, e.g. in clinical trials. ..
  4. Yang Z, Yu F, Wang Y, Wei J. Stereoselective Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of Proton Pump Inhibitors. Curr Drug Metab. 2016;: pubmed
    ..Esomeprazole, dexlansoprazole, ilaprazole and revaprazan, have recently been developed on these principles. However, due to debates on the necessity and superiority of these new drugs, more validation studies are needed. ..
  5. Capurso G, Annibale B, Osborn J, D Ambra G, Martino G, Lahner E, et al. Occurrence and relapse of bleeding from duodenal ulcer: respective roles of acid secretion and Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001;15:821-9 pubmed
    ..After H. pylori cure, gastric acid hypersecretion is not a risk factor for bleeding. However, duodenal ulcer recurrence with bleeding may occasionally occur in patients cured of H. pylori, even if acid output is normal. ..
  6. Yamamoto C, Aoyagi K, Iwata K, Morita I, Hotokezaka M, Funakoshi S, et al. Double doses of secretin contribute to diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in secretin and selective arterial secretion injection tests--a case report. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:2034-6 pubmed
  7. Morrow E, Norton J. Surgical management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; state of the art. Surg Clin North Am. 2009;89:1091-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of Whipple procedure, especially for MEN-1 cases, should be explored further. Laparoscopic and endoscopic treatments are more experimental, but may have a role. ..
  8. De Angelis C, Cortegoso Valdivia P, Venezia L, Bruno M, Pellicano R. Diagnosis and management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in 2018. Minerva Endocrinol. 2018;43:212-220 pubmed publisher
    ..A previous review was published in 2005 by our group, but in 12 years many things have changed: the diagnostic tools have been improved and many different therapeutical options are now available. ..
  9. Zhou H, Schweikert H, Wolff M, Fischer H. Primary peripancreatic lymph node gastrinoma in a woman with MEN1. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2006;13:477-81 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the only well-documented case of a primary lymph node gastrinoma in a patient with MEN1. Our case supports the idea that any gastrinoma in patients with MEN1 should be surgically resected for cure if possible...

More Information

Publications115 found, 100 shown here

  1. Orlando L, Lenard L, Orlando R. Chronic hypergastrinemia: causes and consequences. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52:2482-9 pubmed
    ..For this reason, we present a concise overview of the origin, causes, and potential risks of chronic hypergastrinemia. ..
  2. Metz D. Potential uses of intravenous proton pump inhibitors to control gastric acid secretion. Digestion. 2000;62:73-81 pubmed
    ..Although further studies are needed to define their roles clearly, the availability of intravenous formulations of proton pump inhibitors will certainly assist with the treatment of gastric acid-related disorders. ..
  3. Gualdi G, Casciani E, Polettini E. [Imaging of neuroendocrine tumors]. Clin Ter. 2001;152:107-21 pubmed
  4. Heymann M, Hamy A, Triau S, Miraillé E, Toquet C, Chomarat H, et al. Endocrine tumors of the duodenum. A study of 55 cases relative to clinicopathological features and hormone content. Hepatogastroenterology. 2004;51:1367-71 pubmed
    ..Duodenal endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia have a good prognosis, but can be associated with pancreatic plurihormonal tumors and metastases. ..
  5. Katkoori D, Samavedi S, Jorda M, Block N, Manoharan M. A rare case of renal gastrinoma. ScientificWorldJournal. 2009;9:501-4 pubmed publisher
    ..An African American male was diagnosed with Zollinger Ellison syndrome at the age of 15 years, when he underwent surgery for peritonitis secondary to duodenal ulcer ..
  6. Ramaesh K, Wharton S, Dhillon B. Conjunctival myxoma, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and abnormal thickening of the inter-atrial septum: a case report and review of the literature. Eye (Lond). 2001;15:309-12 pubmed
    ..A cardiac echogram showed thickening of the interatrial septum. Seventeen years previously he had had Zollinger Ellison syndrome due to gastrinoma of the pancreas which was treated by surgical removal...
  7. Desir B, Poitras P. Oral pantoprazole for acid suppression in the treatment of patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Can J Gastroenterol. 2001;15:795-8 pubmed
    ..An initial dose of 120 mg given before further titration of the drug regimen appears to be a reasonable therapeutic strategy. ..
  8. Chen Y, Vortmeyer A, Zhuang Z, Gibril F, Jensen R. X-chromosome loss of heterozygosity frequently occurs in gastrinomas and is correlated with aggressive tumor growth. Cancer. 2004;100:1379-87 pubmed
    ..1-22.3 over a 28.4-centimorgan region. X-chromosome LOH was common in gastrinoma specimens from female patients, and its presence was found to be a potentially useful molecular/genetic prognostic factor for aggressive growth. ..
  9. Mignon M. [Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-I): experience of the Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Research Group: Bichat 1958-1999]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 2003;187:1249-58; discussion 1259-60 pubmed
    ..Internal irradiation with 90 Ytrium-labelled octreotide is a new promising option, presently under evaluation (Novartis European trial). Preliminary results are promising. ..
  10. Luttwak E, Saltz N. The progressive Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in multiple endocrine neoplasia. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1988;167:415-9 pubmed
    ..After total gastrectomies (as life saving procedures), both patients are well...
  11. Maton P, Frucht H, Vinayek R, Wank S, Gardner J, Jensen R. Medical management of patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome who have had previous gastric surgery: a prospective study. Gastroenterology. 1988;94:294-9 pubmed
  12. Ruszniewski P, O Toole D. [Clinical spectrum of digestive neuroendocrine tumors]. Rev Prat. 2002;52:262-7 pubmed
  13. Hall N, Nichols S, Povoski S, James I, Wright C, Harris R, et al. Intraoperative Use of a Portable Large Field of View Gamma Camera and Handheld Gamma Detection Probe for Radioguided Localization and Prediction of Complete Surgical Resection of Gastrinoma: Proof of Concept. J Am Coll Surg. 2015;221:300-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach holds potential for improving long-term patient outcomes in patients with ZES. ..
  14. Buchler M, Beger H. [Peptic ulcer: status of resecting stomach surgery]. Z Gastroenterol. 1987;25 Suppl 3:188-93 pubmed
    ..The indication for partial gastrectomy in duodenal ulcer disease is: Recurrent ulcer after selective vagotomy (refractory to drugs), gastrin cell hyperplasia (hyper-function) and in rare cases of technical problems during surgery. ..
  15. Demeure M. Physiology of the APUD system. Semin Surg Oncol. 1993;9:362-7 pubmed
    ..Increasing understanding of the origins of APUDomas as well as the biochemistry and physiology of the hormones they produce, has led to improved methods of detection, imaging and treatment of afflicted patients...
  16. Thodiyil P, El Masry N, Williamson R. Achieving eugastrinaemia in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: resection or enucleation?. Dig Surg. 2001;18:118-23 pubmed
    ..Since normalisation of serum gastrin was achieved in 12 of 13 patients, laparotomy may well be worthwhile even if the gastrinoma cannot be localised pre-opera- tively. ..
  17. Hyrdel R, Bozíková J, Demeter M, Reznak I, Kovácik O, Beseda A, et al. [Diagnosis of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. I: Significance of anamnestic, clinical and laboratory examinations]. Vnitr Lek. 2002;48:567-72 pubmed
    ..8-1.2 ZES cases/1 million per year). ..
  18. Imamura M, Komoto I, Ota S. Changing treatment strategy for gastrinoma in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. World J Surg. 2006;30:1-11 pubmed
  19. Roy P, Venzon D, Feigenbaum K, Koviack P, Bashir S, Ojeaburu J, et al. Gastric secretion in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Correlation with clinical expression, tumor extent and role in diagnosis--a prospective NIH study of 235 patients and a review of 984 cases in the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2001;80:189-222 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results, a number of gastric secretory criteria are proposed, including some for the first time, and alterations in methodology are proposed that should prove useful in the diagnosis of ZES. ..
  20. Hirschowitz B, Simmons J, Johnson L, Mohnen J. Risk factors for esophagitis in extreme acid hypersecretors with and without Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;2:220-9 pubmed
    ..pylori appeared to protect the esophagus not by reduced acid, but through an elevated LESP. ..
  21. Blonski W, Katzka D, Lichtenstein G, Metz D. Idiopathic gastric acid hypersecretion presenting as a diarrheal disorder and mimicking both Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and Crohn's disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;17:441-4 pubmed
  22. Arakawa Y, Matsui T. [Gastrin]. Nihon Rinsho. 2005;63 Suppl 8:499-501 pubmed
  23. Song Y, Li X, Song T, Lin G, Chen Y. [Basic and translational research progress of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasmas]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2016;19:1217-1221 pubmed
    ..INSL5 can be used as a unique biomarker for rectal neuroendocrine neoplasmas. ..
  24. Maeda K. [Stomal ulcer]. Nihon Rinsho. 2002;60 Suppl 2:587-91 pubmed
  25. Wilcox C, Martin T, Phadnis M, Mohnen J, Worthington J, Hirschowitz B. Absence of gastrointestinal infections in a cohort of patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and other acid hypersecretors receiving long-term acid suppression with lansoprazole. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:18 pubmed publisher
    ..25 years. In a cohort of patients with gastric acid hypersecretion in whom acid secretion status was monitored on lansoprazole, all were free of significant gastrointestinal infections on long-term follow-up. NCT00204373. ..
  26. Smallfield G, Allison J, Wilcox C. Prospective evaluation of quality of life in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:3108-12 pubmed publisher
  27. Fritsch W, Hausamen T, Scholten T. [Gastrointestinal hormones. I. Hormones of the gastrin group]. Z Gastroenterol. 1977;15:264-76 pubmed
    ..Furthermore parietal cell hyperplasia could be the result of chronic hypergastrinaemia. ..
  28. Maev I, V iuchnova E, Grishchenko E. [Current principles of treatment of acid-dependent diseases]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2003;81:56-62 pubmed
    ..The paper reviews current treatments of acid-dependent diseases. The role of hydrochloric acid hypersecretion in pathogenesis of some gastroduodenal diseases is shown. Efficacy of antisecretory drugs from different groups is compared. ..
  29. Auernhammer C, Goke B. Medical treatment of gastrinomas. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119:609-15 pubmed
    ..Prospective future therapeutic strategies may include treatment with novel somatostatin analogues as well as angiogenesis inhibitors and kinase inhibitors targeting tumor-specific signaling cascades. ..
  30. Mortellaro V, Hochwald S, McGuigan J, Copeland E, Vogel S, Grobmyer S. Long-term results of a selective surgical approach to management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in patients with MEN-1. Am Surg. 2009;75:730-3 pubmed
    ..Operations rarely result in biochemical cures in patients with MEN-1 and ZES. In our experience, resection of localized gastrinomas often did not require extended surgical resection and were associated with excellent long-term outcomes. ..
  31. Tonelli F, Giudici F, Nesi G, Batignani G, Brandi M. Operation for insulinomas in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: When pancreatoduodenectomy is appropriate. Surgery. 2017;161:727-734 pubmed publisher
    ..If the head of the pancreas is the most affected site and the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is concomitant, then pancreatoduodenectomy should be preferred over distal pancreatectomy. ..
  32. Zhang P, Zhang Y, Zhang C, Shi Y, Liu J, Liu Q, et al. [Subtype classification and clinicopathological characteristics of gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms: an analysis of 241 cases]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2016;19:1241-1246 pubmed
    ..Patients of type I( or type II( gastric NEN have good prognosis,while those of type III( and type IIII( have poor prognosis, and those of type IIII( have the worst prognosis. ..
  33. Lebtahi R, Le Cloirec J, Houzard C, Daou D, Sobhani I, Sassolas G, et al. Detection of neuroendocrine tumors: 99mTc-P829 scintigraphy compared with 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy. J Nucl Med. 2002;43:889-95 pubmed
    ..In patients with endocrine tumors, the detection rate of 99mTc-P829 scintigraphy was lower than that of 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy, which appeared to be more sensitive, especially for liver metastases. ..
  34. Gibril F, Jensen R. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome revisited: diagnosis, biologic markers, associated inherited disorders, and acid hypersecretion. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2004;6:454-63 pubmed
    ..Finally, almost every patient with ZES has marked gastric acid hypersecretion, and its current treatment as well as the long-term possible side effects are reviewed briefly...
  35. Rautou P, Corcos O, Hammel P, Cazals Hatem D, Slama J, Morin A, et al. [Pseudo Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in a patient with duodenal stenosis caused by tuberculosis]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2005;29:1164-8 pubmed
    ..The final diagnosis retained pseudo Zollinger-Ellison syndrome due to gastric outlet obstruction caused by duodenal stenosis of a tuberculosis origin. ..
  36. Anlauf M, Garbrecht N, Henopp T, Schmitt A, Schlenger R, Raffel A, et al. Sporadic versus hereditary gastrinomas of the duodenum and pancreas: distinct clinico-pathological and epidemiological features. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:5440-6 pubmed
    ..A considerable subset of tumors with immunohistochemical expression of gastrin but without evidence of ZES should be designated as functionally inactive NETs expressing gastrin, but not as gastrinomas. ..
  37. McColl K. Helicobacter pylori-negative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-negative ulcer. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2009;38:353-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibility of the Zollinger Ellison syndrome should be considered, remembering that proton pump inhibitor therapy will mitigate its classical, ..
  38. Alexander H, Bartlett D, Venzon D, Libutti S, Doppman J, Fraker D, et al. Analysis of factors associated with long-term (five or more years) cure in patients undergoing operation for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Surgery. 1998;124:1160-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this analysis was to identify perioperative factors associated with long-term (> or = 5 years) biochemical cures...
  39. Metz D, Forsmark C, Lew E, Starr J, Soffer E, Bochenek W, et al. Replacement of oral proton pump inhibitors with intravenous pantoprazole to effectively control gastric acid hypersecretion in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96:3274-80 pubmed
    ..Most ZES patients (93%) maintained effective control of AO previously established with oral PPIs when switched to 80 mg of i.v. pantoprazole b.i.d.; however, for difficult-to-control patients, doses > 80 mg b.i.d. may be required. ..
  40. Nechaĭ A, Ovampv G, Khizha V. [Meaning of the "final operation" in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 2002;161:95-8 pubmed
    ..The necessary succession of medical measures and choice of the operation volume are substantiated in the two given schemes of algorithms with explanations on the basis of personal experiences with treatment of 37 patients with ZES. ..
  41. Blonski W, Katzka D, Lichtenstein G, Metz D. Response to Dr Waldum's letter regarding 'Idiopathic gastric acid hypersecretion presenting as a diarrheal disorder and mimicking both Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and Crohn's disease'. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;17:1001 pubmed
  42. Niederle B. Hypergastrinemia--diagnosis and treatment. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119:561-3 pubmed
  43. Bordi C, Corleto V, Azzoni C, Pizzi S, Ferraro G, Gibril F, et al. The antral mucosa as a new site for endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndromes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:2236-42 pubmed
    ..These tumors did not express the phenotype of normal antral endocrine cells and, in at least two cases, were identified as ectopic ECL cell carcinoids. ..
  44. Quatrini M, Castoldi L, Rossi G, Cesana B, Peracchi M, Bardella M. A follow-up study of patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in the period 1966-2002: effects of surgical and medical treatments on long-term survival. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005;39:376-80 pubmed
    ..Curing gastrinoma or appropriately inhibiting gastric acid hypersecretion in ZES patients prevent death and favors long-term survival, regardless of gastrin levels and the size or number of tumors. ..
  45. Gauger P, Doherty G, Broome J, Miller B, Thompson N. Completion pancreatectomy and duodenectomy for recurrent MEN-1 pancreaticoduodenal endocrine neoplasms. Surgery. 2009;146:801-6; discussion 807-8 pubmed publisher
  46. Chen Y, Vortmeyer A, Zhuang Z, Huang S, Jensen R. Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1q in gastrinomas: occurrence and prognostic significance. Cancer Res. 2003;63:817-23 pubmed
    ..The high frequent allelic loss at 1q31-32 as well as 1q21-23, which was associated with tumor aggressive growth, suggests these two regions harbor putative tumor suppressor gene(s) that are important for aggressive growth of this tumor. ..
  47. Hubbard H, Goodgame R. Evaluation of possible gastrinoma. MedGenMed. 2007;9:31 pubmed
  48. Gregory R, Tracy H, Agarwal K, Grossman M. Aminoacid constitution of two gastrins isolated from Zollinger-Ellison tumour tissue. Gut. 1969;10:603-8 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented in respect of the one isolated in greater amount that its aminoacid sequence is probably identical with that of human gastrin type I...
  49. Mignon M, Cadiot G, Marmuse J, Lewin M. Is gastrinoma a medical disease?. Yale J Biol Med. 1996;69:289-300 pubmed
    ..Surgical treatment is usually precluded in such cases. Liver transplantation has not been successful in these patients...
  50. Mizuno N, Naruse S, Kitagawa M, Ishiguro H, Ito O, Ko S, et al. Insulinoma with subsequent association of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Intern Med. 2001;40:386-90 pubmed
    ..On autopsy, histologic examination revealed a mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for insulin, gastrin, and alpha1-antitrypsin...
  51. Berger A, Gibril F, Venzon D, Doppman J, Norton J, Bartlett D, et al. Prognostic value of initial fasting serum gastrin levels in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:3051-7 pubmed
    ..To assess the value of the initial fasting serum gastrin (FSG) at presentation in patients with Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) in predicting primary tumor characteristics and survival...
  52. Konturek S, Konturek P, Bielański W, Lorens K, Sito E, Konturek J, et al. Case presentation of gastrinoma combined with gastric carcinoid with the longest survival record -- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8:CS43-59 pubmed
    ..Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a very rare disease caused by tumor with gastrin producing cells accompanied by hypergastrinemia leading to gastric hypersecretion and peptic ulcers and their complications...
  53. Hirschowitz B, Worthington J, Mohnen J, Haber M. Chromogranin A in patients with acid hypersecretion and/or hypergastrinaemia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;26:869-78 pubmed
    ..Chromogranin has been proposed as a marker for gastrin-dependent enterochromaffin-like cell proliferation...
  54. Kuiper P, Biemond I, Masclee A, Jansen J, Verspaget H, Lamers C. Diagnostic efficacy of the secretin stimulation test for the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: an intra-individual comparison using different dosages in patients and controls. Pancreatology. 2010;10:14-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated, by intra-individual comparison, which dose of secretin results in the highest diagnostic efficacy to identify the ZES...
  55. Buchanan K, Collins J, Varghese A, Johnston C, Shaw C. Sandostatin and the Belfast experience. Digestion. 1990;45 Suppl 1:11-4; discussion 15-6 pubmed
    ..In general, the response to Sandostatin appeared to decline as the tumour size increased and tumour markers rose. Side effects have not been a problem...
  56. Declich P, Ambrosiani L, Grassini R, Tavani E, Bellone S, Bortoli A, et al. Fundic gland polyps: a still elusive entity on the eve of the year 2000. Pol J Pathol. 2000;51:3-8 pubmed
    ..Ultimately, the nature of FGPs is still debated: some have interpreted them as hamartomatous lesions, others as a peculiar form of hyperplastic polyp...
  57. Zogakis T, Gibril F, Libutti S, Norton J, White D, Jensen R, et al. Management and outcome of patients with sporadic gastrinoma arising in the duodenum. Ann Surg. 2003;238:42-8 pubmed
    Primary duodenal gastrinomas are now recognized as a common etiology for patients with sporadic Zollinger Ellison Syndrome (ZES); however, the clinical and pathologic features of this condition and long-term outcome after operation are ..
  58. Pellicano R, De Angelis C, Resegotti A, Rizzetto M. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in 2006: concepts from a clinical point of view. Panminerva Med. 2006;48:33-40 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they have an antiproliferative effect. Chemotherapy, interferon and embolisation are indicated in rapidly evolving tumours or in cases in which the tumoral symptoms cannot be treated by other approaches...
  59. Meier J, Butler A, Galasso R, Rizza R, Butler P. Increased islet beta cell replication adjacent to intrapancreatic gastrinomas in humans. Diabetologia. 2006;49:2689-96 pubmed
    ..to tumour-adjacent islets or also present in tumour-distant islets? (3) Is new beta cell formation (beta cell replication and islet neogenesis) increased and beta cell apoptosis decreased in pancreas specimens from gastrinoma cases?..
  60. Grobmyer S, Vogel S, McGuigan J, Copeland E, Hochwald S. Reoperative surgery in sporadic Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: longterm results. J Am Coll Surg. 2009;208:718-22; discussion 722-4 pubmed publisher
    ..There is currently no consensus about managing patients with recurrent or persistent ZES. Our unit has historically maintained an aggressive approach toward monitoring and reoperation for patients with sporadic ZES...
  61. Franko T, Richter J. Proton-pump inhibitors for gastric acid-related disease. Cleve Clin J Med. 1998;65:27-34 pubmed
    ..Initial concerns over potential ill effects of hypergastrinemia due to long-term acid suppression with proton-pump inhibitors have been unfounded...
  62. Bown R. An overview of the pharmacology, efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of lansoprazole. Int J Clin Pract. 2002;56:132-9 pubmed
    ..This review aims to evaluate the pharmacology, efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of lansoprazole in acid-related disorders, with particular emphasis on its use in GORD and H. pylori eradication regimens...
  63. Peghini P, Iwamoto M, Raffeld M, Chen Y, Goebel S, Serrano J, et al. Overexpression of epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor receptors in a proportion of gastrinomas correlates with aggressive growth and lower curability. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8:2273-85 pubmed
    ..Whether this is true of neuroendocrine tumors such as gastrinomas is unclear...
  64. Elizalde I, Borda F. [Current treatment of carcinoid tumor]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002;25:508-13 pubmed
  65. Scherubl H, Schaaf L, Raue F, Faiss S, Zeitz M. [Hereditary neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2004;129:689-92 pubmed
  66. Doi R, Komoto I, Nakamura Y, Kawamura J, Fujimoto K, Wada M, et al. Pancreatic endocrine tumor in Japan. Pancreas. 2004;28:247-52 pubmed
    ..Further, the present use of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and the application of the laparoscopic surgery for pancreatic endocrine tumor in Japan are discussed...
  67. Clark C, Ryan J. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome caused by solitary gastrinoma blocking the pancreatic duct: enucleation and pancreatic duct repair. Surgery. 2005;138:111-2 pubmed
  68. Waldum H. Assessment of the risk of iatrogenic hypergastrinaemia from patients with gastrinoma. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006;98:3 pubmed
  69. Mayer A, Sheiner E, Holcberg G. Zollinger Ellison syndrome, treated with lansoprazole, during pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;276:171-3 pubmed
    b>Zollinger Ellison syndrome (ZES), an ulcerative disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract that involves the production of high levels of gastrin and gastric acid, is a rare, symptomatic, endocrine neoplastic disease.
  70. Kariya Y, Kato K, Hayashizaki Y, Himeno S, Tarui S, Matsubara K. Expression of human gastrin gene in normal and gastrinoma tissues. Gene. 1986;50:345-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, the overproduction of gastrin in this tumor is likely to be due to an aberrant expression control system of the cell, rather than a change in the control region of the gastrin gene...
  71. Cadiot G, Cattan D, Mignon M. Diagnosis and treatment of ECL cell tumors. Yale J Biol Med. 1998;71:311-23 pubmed
    ..Considering the good prognosis of these tumors, aggressive surgery could be limited to selected patients. Multicentric studies should be undertaken to determine the best treatment modalities...
  72. Lamers C. [25 years of gastric acid blockers]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1999;143:2501-4 pubmed
    ..At present the most important syndromes in which acid secretion inhibitors are used are gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcers and acid-related dyspepsia...
  73. Fujimoto M, Shimizu I, Horie T, Inoue H, Okazaki M, Niki M, et al. Recurrent giant longitudinal duodenal ulcer with massive hemorrhage in a Helicobacter pylori-negative patient. J Med Invest. 2001;48:210-5 pubmed
    ..The ulcer was cured by endoscopic hemostasis and repeated blood transfusions. Attention must be paid to Hp-negative post-bulbar duodenal ulcers because of the frequent complications including hemorrhage...
  74. Jordan P, Barroso A, Sweeney J. Gastric carcinoids in patients with hypergastrinemia. J Am Coll Surg. 2004;199:552-5 pubmed
    ..Hypergastrinemia in patients with pernicious anemia is a major regulator contributing to enterochromaffin-cell hyperplasia and, ultimately, to gastric carcinoids...
  75. Kianmanesh R, O Toole D, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J. [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors]. J Chir (Paris). 2005;142:132-49 pubmed
    ..The long-term prognosis is nevertheless fairly good. But the eventual development of liver metastases which are the most common cause of mortality still argues for an aggressive surgical approach in the early stages of the disease...
  76. Tonelli F, Fratini G, Nesi G, Tommasi M, Batignani G, Falchetti A, et al. Pancreatectomy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related gastrinomas and pancreatic endocrine neoplasias. Ann Surg. 2006;244:61-70 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of pancreatic resection in pancreatic endocrine neoplasias (PENs) in patients affected by multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome...
  77. Berna M, Hoffmann K, Long S, Serrano J, Gibril F, Jensen R. Serum gastrin in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: II. Prospective study of gastrin provocative testing in 293 patients from the National Institutes of Health and comparison with 537 cases from the literature. evaluation of diagnostic criteria, proposal of. Medicine (Baltimore). 2006;85:331-64 pubmed
    ..For secretin testing, the criterion with the highest sensitivity and specificity is an increase of > or =120 pg/mL, which should replace other criteria commonly used today...
  78. Kloppel G, Anlauf M. Gastrinoma--morphological aspects. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119:579-84 pubmed
    ..The prognosis of duodenal gastrinomas is better than that of pancreatic gastrinomas, since despite early lymph node metastasis they progress slowly to liver metastasis...
  79. Maye P, Bisetti A, Burger A, Docter R, Gaillard R, Griessen M, et al. Hyperprealbuminemia, euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia, Zollinger-Ellison-like syndrome and hypercorticism in a pancreatic endocrine tumour. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1989;120:87-91 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the concomitant tumoural production of gastrin-releasing peptide was responsible for the gastric hyperacidity and hypergastrinemia. This hormone probably also accounted for a moderate hypercorticism...
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    ..This observation is the basis of a discussion on the multisecretory aspect of endocrine tumors of the pancreas...
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    ..In this case, the utility of the scintigraphy with octreotide to facilitate the localization and extent of the neuroendocrine tumors is demonstrated...
  82. Brown M, Yang R. Impact of acid-related disorders in the United States. Manag Care. 2001;10:7-10 pubmed
    ..PPIs are used to control the effects of excessive acid secretion. This class of drugs has a unique mechanism of action that inhibits the final pathway to gastric acid secretion--the parietal cell proton pump...
  83. Norton J, Alexander H, Fraker D, Venzon D, Gibril F, Jensen R. Possible primary lymph node gastrinoma: occurrence, natural history, and predictive factors: a prospective study. Ann Surg. 2003;237:650-7; discussion 657-9 pubmed
    ..To analyze the results of a prospective study of 176 patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) (138 sporadic, 38 MEN1) undergoing 207 operations over a 17-year period...
  84. Weinberg B, Oh D, Ohning G, Pisegna J. Reflux laryngitis in a patient with Zollinger Ellison syndrome and the role of epidermal growth factor. Dig Dis Sci. 2004;49:693-6 pubmed
  85. Corral de la Calle M, Giménez Bascuñana A, Cegarra Navarro F, De Alcalá Martínez Gómez D. [Vomiting and diarrhea with important general repercussion in middle aged male]. Rev Clin Esp. 2006;206:297-9 pubmed
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    ..To define both risks and costs of optimal care of patients with gastric acid hypersecretion...
  87. Emery B, White M, Igarashi Y, Mullol J, Berkebile C, Peden D, et al. The effect of IL-4 on human nasal mucosal responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1992;90:772-81 pubmed
    ..The relationships among increases in nasal lavage histamine, vascular unresponsiveness to histamine, and the sensation of nasal congestion are unclear...
  88. Ng T, Maziak D, Shamji F. Esophageal perforation: a rare complication of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;72:592-3 pubmed
    ..We present a rare case of reflux esophagitis-induced esophageal perforation in a patient with ZES. Presence of a gastrinoma should be considered when recurrent or complicated reflux esophagitis is encountered...
  89. Norton J, Alexander H, Fraker D, Venzon D, Gibril F, Jensen R. Comparison of surgical results in patients with advanced and limited disease with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Ann Surg. 2001;234:495-505; discussion 505-6 pubmed
    ..To determine the role of surgery in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) with either limited or advanced pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs)...
  90. Hirschowitz B, Simmons J, Mohnen J. Long-term lansoprazole control of gastric acid and pepsin secretion in ZE and non-ZE hypersecretors: a prospective 10-year study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001;15:1795-806 pubmed
    ..The majority of patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome require lifelong treatment with proton pump inhibitors...
  91. Arnalsteen L, Alesina P, Quiereux J, Farrel S, Patton F, Carnaille B, et al. Long-term results of less than total parathyroidectomy for hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Surgery. 2002;132:1119-24; discussion 1124-5 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to assess long-term results after less than total parathyroidectomy for hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1...
  92. Zollinger R, Ellison E. A history of the Ohio State University Department of Surgery. Am J Surg. 2003;186:208-10 pubmed
    ..He recounts the history of the Ohio State University Department of Surgery from the evolution of the Ohio State University College of Medicine to the years of the department's reorganization and growth after World War II...