gastroparesis

Summary

Summary: Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.

Top Publications

  1. Choi K, Kashyap P, Dutta N, Stoltz G, ORDOG T, Shea Donohue T, et al. CD206-positive M2 macrophages that express heme oxygenase-1 protect against diabetic gastroparesis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:2399-409, 2409.e1 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastroparesis is a well-recognized complication of diabetes. In diabetics, up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) in gastric macrophages protects against oxidative stress-induced damage...
  2. Grover M, Farrugia G, Lurken M, Bernard C, Faussone Pellegrini M, Smyrk T, et al. Cellular changes in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:1575-85.e8 pubmed publisher
    Cellular changes associated with diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis are not well described...
  3. Hyett B, Martinez F, Gill B, Mehra S, Lembo A, Kelly C, et al. Delayed radionucleotide gastric emptying studies predict morbidity in diabetics with symptoms of gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:445-52 pubmed publisher
    ..was to evaluate the prognostic value of gastric emptying studies on the morbidity associated with diabetic gastroparesis. This was a parallel cohort study of 3 groups...
  4. Haans J, Masclee A. Review article: The diagnosis and management of gastroparesis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;26 Suppl 2:37-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastroparesis is a disorder characterized by a delay in gastric emptying of a meal in the absence of a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. To provide an evidence based overview on diagnosis and management of gastroparesis...
  5. Chu H, Lin Z, Zhong L, McCallum R, Hou X. Treatment of high-frequency gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;27:1017-26 pubmed publisher
    ..assess the effects of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) on symptoms and gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis, and the effects of GES on the three subgroups of gastroparesis...
  6. Hasler W, Wilson L, Parkman H, Koch K, Abell T, Nguyen L, et al. Factors related to abdominal pain in gastroparesis: contrast to patients with predominant nausea and vomiting. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25:427-38, e300-1 pubmed publisher
    Factors associated with abdominal pain in gastroparesis are incompletely evaluated and comparisons of pain vs other symptoms are limited...
  7. McCallum R, Lin Z, Forster J, Roeser K, Hou Q, Sarosiek I. Gastric electrical stimulation improves outcomes of patients with gastroparesis for up to 10 years. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:314-319.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..with Enterra (Enterra Therapy System; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) in a large cohort of patients with severe gastroparesis. Gastroparesis patients (n=221; 142 diabetic, 48 idiopathic, and 31 postsurgical) treated with Enterra (..
  8. Welsch T, Borm M, Degrate L, Hinz U, Buchler M, Wente M. Evaluation of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery definition of delayed gastric emptying after pancreatoduodenectomy in a high-volume centre. Br J Surg. 2010;97:1043-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Major postoperative complications and ICU treatment, however, might limit its usefulness. The identified risk factors for DGE are not amenable to perioperative improvement. ..
  9. Mazzone A, Bernard C, Strege P, Beyder A, Galietta L, Pasricha P, et al. Altered expression of Ano1 variants in human diabetic gastroparesis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:13393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..gastrointestinal pacemaker cells, underlie a number of gastrointestinal motility disorders, including diabetic gastroparesis. In the muscle layers, ICC selectively express Ano1, thought to underlie classical Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Jung H, Choung R, Locke G, Schleck C, Zinsmeister A, Szarka L, et al. The incidence, prevalence, and outcomes of patients with gastroparesis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1996 to 2006. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1225-33 pubmed publisher
    The epidemiology of gastroparesis is unknown. We aimed to determine the incidence, prevalence, and outcome of gastroparesis in the community...
  2. Parkman H, Jacobs M, Mishra A, Hurdle J, Sachdeva P, Gaughan J, et al. Domperidone treatment for gastroparesis: demographic and pharmacogenetic characterization of clinical efficacy and side-effects. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:115-24 pubmed publisher
    Domperidone is a useful alternative to metoclopramide for treatment of gastroparesis due to better tolerability...
  3. Yin J, Chen J. Implantable gastric electrical stimulation: ready for prime time?. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:665-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Nagasako Y, Satoh S, Isogaki J, Inaba K, Taniguchi K, Uyama I. Impact of anastomotic complications on outcome after laparoscopic gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. Br J Surg. 2012;99:849-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with anastomotic complications had a significantly worse overall 5-year survival rate than those without (81 versus 94·2 per cent; P = 0·009). Anastomotic complications after LAG lead to worse long-term survival. ..
  5. Ejskjaer N, Vestergaard E, Hellstrom P, Gormsen L, Madsbad S, Madsen J, et al. Ghrelin receptor agonist (TZP-101) accelerates gastric emptying in adults with diabetes and symptomatic gastroparesis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;29:1179-87 pubmed publisher
    TZP-101 is a synthetic, selective ghrelin agonist in development for gastroparesis. To assess safety and effects of TZP-101 in diabetes patients with symptomatic gastroparesis...
  6. Wang C, Kao C, Chen W, Lo W, Hsieh C. A single-blinded, randomized pilot study evaluating effects of electroacupuncture in diabetic patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14:833-9 pubmed publisher
    The current pharmacological management of diabetic gastroparesis remains difficult. Acupuncture has been widely used for gastrointestinal symptoms...
  7. Grover M, Bernard C, Pasricha P, Lurken M, Faussone Pellegrini M, Smyrk T, et al. Clinical-histological associations in gastroparesis: results from the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012;24:531-9, e249 pubmed publisher
    Cellular changes associated with diabetic (DG) and idiopathic gastroparesis (IG) have recently been described from patients enrolled in the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium...
  8. Camilleri M, Bharucha A, Farrugia G. Epidemiology, mechanisms, and management of diabetic gastroparesis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:5-12; quiz e7 pubmed publisher
    Recent evidence of the significant impact of gastroparesis on morbidity and mortality mandates optimized management of this condition...
  9. Grover M, Bernard C, Pasricha P, Parkman H, Abell T, Nguyen L, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFR?)-expressing "fibroblast-like cells" in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis of humans. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012;24:844-52 pubmed publisher
    ..distribution of PDGFR?-immunoreactive (ir) FLC in human gastric muscle and to determine if FLC are altered in gastroparesis, where ICC are reduced...
  10. Parkman H, Camilleri M, Farrugia G, McCallum R, Bharucha A, Mayer E, et al. Gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia: excerpts from the AGA/ANMS meeting. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:113-33 pubmed publisher
    Despite the relatively high prevalence of gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia, the aetiology and pathophysiology of these disorders remain incompletely understood...
  11. O Grady G, Angeli T, Du P, Lahr C, Lammers W, Windsor J, et al. Abnormal initiation and conduction of slow-wave activity in gastroparesis, defined by high-resolution electrical mapping. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:589-598.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Disrupted ICC networks and gastric dysrhythmias are each associated with gastroparesis. However, there are no data on the initiation and propagation of slow waves in gastroparesis because research ..
  12. Sharma D, Morrison G, Joseph F, Purewal T, Weston P. The role of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in patients with diabetic gastroparesis. Diabetologia. 2011;54:2768-70 pubmed publisher
    ..the effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in patients with symptomatic diabetic gastroparesis and unstable glycaemic control...
  13. Friedenberg F, Palit A, Parkman H, Hanlon A, Nelson D. Botulinum toxin A for the treatment of delayed gastric emptying. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:416-23 pubmed
    ..of botulinum toxin A (BoTN/A) reduces symptoms and accelerates gastric emptying in idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis. Our purpose was to determine whether botulinum toxin improves symptoms to a significantly greater extent than ..
  14. O Grady G, Du P, Lammers W, Egbuji J, Mithraratne P, Chen J, et al. High-resolution entrainment mapping of gastric pacing: a new analytical tool. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G314-21 pubmed publisher
    Gastric pacing has been investigated as a potential treatment for gastroparesis. New pacing protocols are required to improve symptom and motility outcomes; however, research progress has been constrained by a limited understanding of ..
  15. Lin Z, Sarosiek I, Forster J, Damjanov I, Hou Q, McCallum R. Association of the status of interstitial cells of Cajal and electrogastrogram parameters, gastric emptying and symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:56-61, e10 pubmed publisher
    ..ICC) and electrogastrogram (EGG) parameters, gastric emptying and symptoms in a large cohort of patients with gastroparesis. Forty-one patients with refractory gastroparesis who were referred for gastric electrical stimulation (GES) ..
  16. Faussone Pellegrini M, Grover M, Pasricha P, Bernard C, Lurken M, Smyrk T, et al. Ultrastructural differences between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:1573-81 pubmed publisher
    The ultrastructural changes in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis are not well studied and it is not known whether there are different defects in the two disorders...
  17. Boaz M, Kislov J, Dickman R, Wainstein J. Obesity and symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis in patients with type 2 diabetes and neuropathy. J Diabetes Complications. 2011;25:325-8 pubmed publisher
    Associated with neuropathy, symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and include nausea, vomiting, bloating and early satiety...
  18. Harrell S, Studts J, Dryden G, Eversmann J, Cai L, Wo J. A novel classification scheme for gastroparesis based on predominant-symptom presentation. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008;42:455-9 pubmed publisher
    Symptoms of gastroparesis are very diverse. Classifying patients by predominant symptom may improve management strategy...
  19. Noar M, Noar E. Gastroparesis associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease and corresponding reflux symptoms may be corrected by radiofrequency ablation of the cardia and esophagogastric junction. Surg Endosc. 2008;22:2440-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Growing clinical evidence shows that delayed gastric emptying (gastroparesis) may be a factor associated with severe reflux, dyspepsia, or both...
  20. Revicki D, Camilleri M, Kuo B, Norton N, Murray L, Palsgrove A, et al. Development and content validity of a gastroparesis cardinal symptom index daily diary. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;30:670-80 pubmed publisher
    The Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) is a patient-reported outcome for gastroparesis using a two-week recall period. To minimize potential patient recall effects, a daily diary version of the GCSI (GCSI-DD) was developed...
  21. Revicki D, Camilleri M, Kuo B, Szarka L, McCormack J, Parkman H. Evaluating symptom outcomes in gastroparesis clinical trials: validity and responsiveness of the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD). Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012;24:456-63, e215-6 pubmed publisher
    Patient-reported symptom scales are needed to evaluate treatments for gastroparesis. The Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD) was developed to assess daily symptoms of gastroparesis...
  22. Hummel M, Geigenberger G, Brand J, Ziegler A, Füchtenbusch M. [New therapeutic approaches to diabetic gastroparesis]. Med Klin (Munich). 2008;103:514-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: A 24-year-old man with type 1 diabetes, nonresponding to standard treatment for severe gastroparesis, was admitted to hospital due to persisting nausea and vomiting...
  23. Whitson B, Asolati M, Kandaswamy R, Sutherland D. Diabetic gastroparesis-associated bezoar resolution via "cola-lysis". Clin Transplant. 2008;22:242-4 pubmed publisher
    Phytobezoars associated with diabetic gastroparesis are often sources of diminished quality of life for patients. Poor blood sugar control has been associated with increasing gastroparesis...
  24. Frøkjaer J, Ejskjaer N, Rask P, Andersen S, Gregersen H, Drewes A, et al. Central neuronal mechanisms of gastric electrical stimulation in diabetic gastroparesis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008;43:1066-75 pubmed publisher
    ..A gastric electrical stimulator was implanted in seven diabetic patients with medically refractory gastroparesis. A double-blinded protocol was used to investigate the patients at baseline and one month after recovery with ..
  25. Ejskjaer N, Dimcevski G, Wo J, Hellstrom P, Gormsen L, Sarosiek I, et al. Safety and efficacy of ghrelin agonist TZP-101 in relieving symptoms in patients with diabetic gastroparesis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:1069-e281 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastroparesis, a chronic disorder of abnormal gastric motility, is common in patients with diabetes mellitus. A synthetic, selective ghrelin receptor agonist, TZP-101, is in clinical development for treatment of gastroparesis...
  26. McCallum R, SNAPE W, Brody F, Wo J, Parkman H, Nowak T. Gastric electrical stimulation with Enterra therapy improves symptoms from diabetic gastroparesis in a prospective study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;8:947-54; quiz e116 pubmed publisher
    Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) treats refractory gastroparesis by delivering electric current, via electrodes, to gastric smooth muscle...
  27. Nguyen Tat M, Pohl J, Gunter E, Manner H, Plum N, Pech O, et al. Severe paraneoplastic gastroparesis associated with anti-Hu antibodies preceding the manifestation of small-cell lung cancer. Z Gastroenterol. 2008;46:274-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastroparesis is a common but challenging disorder which can be idiopathic or induced by a variety of underlying diseases, most frequently by diabetes, or post-surgical conditions of the upper abdomen...
  28. Wang Y, Fisher R, Parkman H. Gastroparesis-related hospitalizations in the United States: trends, characteristics, and outcomes, 1995-2004. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:313-22 pubmed
    b>Gastroparesis is an increasingly recognized disorder. Its prevalence in the United States is unknown. We examined the trends, characteristics, and outcomes of gastroparesis-related hospitalizations during 1995-2004...
  29. Punkkinen J, Farkkila M, Matzke S, Korppi Tommola T, Sane T, Piirilä P, et al. Upper abdominal symptoms in patients with Type 1 diabetes: unrelated to impairment in gastric emptying caused by autonomic neuropathy. Diabet Med. 2008;25:570-7 pubmed publisher
    Diabetic gastroparesis is a common condition occurring in some 30-50% of patients with long-term diabetes. Some studies have found a relationship between autonomic neuropathy and diabetic gastroparesis...
  30. Borg J, Melander O, Johansson L, Uvnas Moberg K, Rehfeld J, Ohlsson B. Gastroparesis is associated with oxytocin deficiency, oesophageal dysmotility with hyperCCKemia, and autonomic neuropathy with hypergastrinemia. BMC Gastroenterol. 2009;9:17 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that disturbed peptide secretion may be part of the pathophysiology of digestive complications in diabetics. ..
  31. Camilleri M, Parkman H, Shafi M, Abell T, Gerson L. Clinical guideline: management of gastroparesis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:18-37; quiz 38 pubmed publisher
    This guideline presents recommendations for the evaluation and management of patients with gastroparesis. Gastroparesis is identified in clinical practice through the recognition of the clinical symptoms and documentation of delayed ..
  32. Qiu W, Wang Z, Wang W, Yan J, Zheng Q. Gastric motor effects of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 in diabetic mice with gastroparesis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:1419-24 pubmed
    ..Ghrelin and GHRP-6 accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis. In the presence of atropine or L-NAME, which delayed gastric emptying, ghrelin and GHRP-6 (100 microg/kg) ..
  33. Hasler W. Gastroparesis: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;8:438-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastroparesis is a prevalent condition that produces symptoms of delayed gastric emptying in the absence of physical blockage...
  34. Abell T, Johnson W, Kedar A, Runnels J, Thompson J, Weeks E, et al. A double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of temporary endoscopic mucosal gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;74:496-503.e3 pubmed publisher
    Endoscopically placed, temporary gastric electrical stimulation (tGES) may relieve symptoms of gastroparesis (Gp) and predict permanent gastric electrical stimulation (GES) outcomes...
  35. Soffer E, Abell T, Lin Z, Lorincz A, McCallum R, Parkman H, et al. Review article: gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis--physiological foundations, technical aspects and clinical implications. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;30:681-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Most studies focused on the use of electrical stimulation for gastroparesis, the only approved indication for such intervention...
  36. Moshiree B, McDonald R, Hou W, Toskes P. Comparison of the effect of azithromycin versus erythromycin on antroduodenal pressure profiles of patients with chronic functional gastrointestinal pain and gastroparesis. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:675-83 pubmed publisher
    Current pharmacologic treatments for gastroparesis have been disappointing due to the limited options available. Erythromycin ethylsuccinate is a potent prokinetic agent that stimulates gastric emptying...
  37. Pasricha P, Pehlivanov N, Gomez G, Vittal H, Lurken M, Farrugia G. Changes in the gastric enteric nervous system and muscle: a case report on two patients with diabetic gastroparesis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:21 pubmed publisher
    The pathophysiological basis of diabetic gastroparesis is poorly understood, in large part due to the almost complete lack of data on neuropathological and molecular changes in the stomachs of patients...
  38. Patrick A, Epstein O. Review article: gastroparesis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008;27:724-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastroparesis is a chronic disorder caused by stomach pump failure and characterized by profound nausea, vomiting and epigastric pain. Most often, the cause is unapparent and of the known associations, diabetes is the most common...
  39. Kumar A, Attaluri A, Hashmi S, Schulze K, Rao S. Visceral hypersensitivity and impaired accommodation in refractory diabetic gastroparesis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20:635-42 pubmed publisher
    The pathophysiology of persistent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with diabetic gastroparesis is poorly understood...
  40. Olausson E, Alpsten M, Larsson A, Mattsson H, Andersson H, Attvall S. Small particle size of a solid meal increases gastric emptying and late postprandial glycaemic response in diabetic subjects with gastroparesis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;80:231-7 pubmed publisher
    ..emptying rate and lessens the fall in postprandial blood glucose in seven subjects with Type 1 diabetes and gastroparesis. Two solid meals of identical composition but of different particle size, with 5MBq (99m)Tc added to the meals,..
  41. Choi K, Gibbons S, Nguyen T, Stoltz G, Lurken M, ORDOG T, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 protects interstitial cells of Cajal from oxidative stress and reverses diabetic gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:2055-64, 2064.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    Diabetic gastroparesis (delayed gastric emptying) is a well-recognized complication of diabetes that causes considerable morbidity and makes glucose control difficult...
  42. Sivarao D, Mashimo H, Goyal R. Pyloric sphincter dysfunction in nNOS-/- and W/Wv mutant mice: animal models of gastroparesis and duodenogastric reflux. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:1258-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In nNOS(-/-) mice, loss of nitrergic pyloric inhibition leads to gastric stasis and bezoars. In contrast, basal pyloric hypotension with normal nitrergic inhibition predisposes W/W(v) mice to duodenogastric bile reflux. ..
  43. Harberson J, Thomas R, Harbison S, Parkman H. Gastric neuromuscular pathology in gastroparesis: analysis of full-thickness antral biopsies. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:359-70 pubmed publisher
    Pathologic assessment of gastric tissue in patients with gastroparesis is limited. Aims To evaluate gastric histopathology in patients with gastroparesis.
  44. Briley L, Harrell S, Woosley A, Eversmann J, Wo J. National survey of physicians' perception of the cause, complications, and management of gastroparesis. South Med J. 2011;104:412-7 pubmed publisher
    Manifestations of gastroparesis are heterogeneous and clinical complications are poorly defined. Misconceptions of gastroparesis may be common...
  45. Hasler W. Gastroparesis--current concepts and considerations. Medscape J Med. 2008;10:16 pubmed
  46. Choung R, Locke G, Schleck C, Zinsmeister A, Melton L, Talley N. Risk of gastroparesis in subjects with type 1 and 2 diabetes in the general population. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107:82-8 pubmed publisher
    In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and upper gastrointestinal symptoms, a diagnosis of diabetic gastroparesis is often considered, but population-based data on the epidemiology of diabetic gastroparesis are lacking...
  47. Wo J, Ejskjaer N, Hellstrom P, Malik R, Pezzullo J, Shaughnessy L, et al. Randomised clinical trial: ghrelin agonist TZP-101 relieves gastroparesis associated with severe nausea and vomiting--randomised clinical study subset data. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;33:679-88 pubmed publisher
    Limited therapeutic options exist for severe gastroparesis, where severe nausea and vomiting can lead to weight loss, dehydration and malnutrition due to inadequate caloric and fluid intake...
  48. Jones K, Russo A, Berry M, Stevens J, Wishart J, Horowitz M. A longitudinal study of gastric emptying and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Med. 2002;113:449-55 pubmed
    ..In patients with diabetes mellitus, we did not observe any marked changes in either gastric emptying or upper gastrointestinal symptoms during a 12-year period. ..
  49. Abell T, McCallum R, Hocking M, Koch K, Abrahamsson H, Leblanc I, et al. Gastric electrical stimulation for medically refractory gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:421-8 pubmed
    This study investigated the efficacy of gastric electrical stimulation for the treatment of symptomatic gastroparesis unresponsive to standard medical therapy...
  50. Mason R, Lipham J, Eckerling G, Schwartz A, Demeester T. Gastric electrical stimulation: an alternative surgical therapy for patients with gastroparesis. Arch Surg. 2005;140:841-6; discussion 847-8 pubmed
    Gastric electrical stimulation is an alternative to gastrectomy in patients with refractory gastroparesis. Retrospective case series with a median follow-up of 20 months...
  51. Lin Z, McElhinney C, Sarosiek I, Forster J, McCallum R. Chronic gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis reduces the use of prokinetic and/or antiemetic medications and the need for hospitalizations. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:1328-34 pubmed
    ..2) These data provide evidence of the positive economic impact of this new therapy on long-term clinical outcomes in gastroparetic patients not responding to standard medical therapy. ..
  52. Xie W, Xing D, Zhao Y, Su H, Meng Z, Chen Y, et al. A new tactic to treat postprandial hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats with gastroparesis by improving gastrointestinal transit. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;510:113-20 pubmed
    ..transit was thought to be a new tactic to treat postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetic individuals with gastroparesis. Diabetic gastroparesis, lipid load testing, and the effect of domperidone or aqueous extract of rhizomes of ..
  53. Lin Z, Forster J, Sarosiek I, McCallum R. Treatment of diabetic gastroparesis by high-frequency gastric electrical stimulation. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1071-6 pubmed
    ..the long-term efficacy of high-frequency gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for treating diabetic gastroparesis. This is a retrospective review of 48 adult diabetic patients with refractory gastroparesis who had a GES ..