palatine tonsil


Summary: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.

Top Publications

  1. Dileepan T, Smith E, Knowland D, Hsu M, Platt M, Bittner Eddy P, et al. Group A Streptococcus intranasal infection promotes CNS infiltration by streptococcal-specific Th17 cells. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:303-17 pubmed publisher
  2. Facciotti F, Gagliani N, Häringer B, Alfen J, Penatti A, Maglie S, et al. IL-10-producing forkhead box protein 3-negative regulatory T cells inhibit B-cell responses and are involved in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137:318-321.e5 pubmed publisher
  3. Cherkaoui A, Hajjij A, Ouatassi N, Oudidi A, El alami N. [Tuberculosis of the tonsils]. Pan Afr Med J. 2010;4:1 pubmed
  4. Skibinski G, Skibinska A, Deckers M, James K. Tonsil stromal-cell lines expressing FDC-like properties: isolation, characterization, and interaction with B lymphocytes. Dev Immunol. 1998;6:273-84 pubmed
    ..Coculturing of tonsilar B cells with stromal cells resulted in enhanced proliferation and also led to increased production of immunoglobulins and IL-6, suggesting crucial signaling between these populations. ..
  5. Victor A, Nalin A, Dong W, McClory S, Wei M, Mao C, et al. IL-18 Drives ILC3 Proliferation and Promotes IL-22 Production via NF-?B. J Immunol. 2017;199:2333-2342 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we identify a new mechanism by which human ILC3s proliferate and produce IL-22, and identify NF-?B as a potential therapeutic target to be considered in pathologic states characterized by overproduction of IL-18 and/or IL-22. ..
  6. McVicar J. Quantitative aspects of the transmission of African swine fever. Am J Vet Res. 1984;45:1535-41 pubmed
    ..13, 50% headsorbing units, respectively. A highly virulent isolate required approximately 10-fold more virus to cause infection by the intranasal/oral route. ..
  7. Eriksson M, Nilsson U, Bramhagen A, Idvall E, Ericsson E. Self-reported postoperative recovery in children after tonsillectomy compared to tonsillotomy. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;96:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The recovery process after TT causes less postoperative morbidity and a quicker return to normal activity compared to TE. ..
  8. Baglam T, Binnetoglu A, Fatih Topuz M, Baş Ikizoglu N, Ersu R, Turan S, et al. Pycnodysostosis at otorhinolaryngology. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;95:91-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This study, to the best of our knowledge, is the largest ENT case series on pycnodysostosis. ..
  9. Sadeghi M, Wang Y, Ramqvist T, Aaltonen L, Pyöriä L, Toppinen M, et al. Multiplex detection in tonsillar tissue of all known human polyomaviruses. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:409 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional evidence was acquired that the lymphoid system plays a role in HPyV infection and persistence. Thereby, shedding from this site during reactivation might take part in transmission of the newly found HPyVs. ..

More Information


  1. Guedez L, Stetler Stevenson W, Wolff L, Wang J, Fukushima P, Mansoor A, et al. In vitro suppression of programmed cell death of B cells by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:2002-10 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that TIMP-1 suppresses apoptosis in B cells and suggests a novel activity for TIMP-1 in tissue homeostasis. ..
  2. Thellin O, Coumans B, Zorzi W, Barnard R, Hennen G, Heinen E, et al. Expression of growth hormone receptors by lymphocyte subpopulations in the human tonsil. Dev Immunol. 1998;6:295-304 pubmed
    ..This highlights the link between the neuroendocrine system and the active immune defense. ..
  3. Bouzahzah F, Bosseloir A, Heinen E, Simar L. Human germinal center CD4+CD57+ T cells act differently on B cells than do classical T-helper cells. Dev Immunol. 1995;4:189-97 pubmed
    ..CD4+CD57- cells, however, enhance B-cell proliferation and differentiation, thus acting like the classical helper cells of the T-dependent areas. ..
  4. Puri K, Finger E, Gaudernack G, Springer T. Sialomucin CD34 is the major L-selectin ligand in human tonsil high endothelial venules. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:261-70 pubmed
    ..This suggests that L-selectin ligands and E-selectin ligands differ in more respects than presence of the MECA-79 epitope. ..
  5. Bollum L, Huse K, Oksvold M, Bai B, Hilden V, Forfang L, et al. BMP-7 induces apoptosis in human germinal center B cells and is influenced by TGF-? receptor type I ALK5. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177188 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, we identified BMP-7 as a negative regulator of GC B-cell survival. The effect was counteracted by truncated ALK5, suggesting greater complexity in regulating BMP-7 signaling than previously believed. ..
  6. Salinas C, Nuyen B, Jafari A, Nation J. Refractory sleep-disordered breathing due to unilateral lingual tonsillar hypertrophy in a child with Proteus Syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;95:114-116 pubmed publisher
    ..Endoscopic treatment with coblation effectively and safely treated the obstructive symptoms. ..
  7. Sawahata M, Nakamura Y, Sugiyama Y. Appendectomy, tonsillectomy, and risk for sarcoidosis - A hospital-based case-control study in Japan. Respir Investig. 2017;55:196-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Appendix and tonsil removal was associated with sarcoidosis onset, suggesting their potential protective role against sarcoidosis development. Further studies are needed to minimize possible confounding factors. ..
  8. Ahmed O, Lambert E. Obstructive sleep apnea in a 5 month old with tonsillar hypertrophy secondary to congenital neutropenia: Case report and literature review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;96:103-105 pubmed publisher
    ..It highlights the need for further research into the pathophysiology of TAH in immunocompromised children and the effects of G-CSF on Waldeyer's Ring. ..
  9. Hwang Y, Tsui P, Leung R, Kwong Y. Disseminated Langerhans cell histiocytosis associated with acute myeloid leukaemia: complete remission with daunorubicin and cytarabine. Ann Hematol. 2013;92:267-8 pubmed publisher
  10. Fekadu M, Shaddock J, Chandler F, Baer G. Rabies virus in the tonsils of a carrier dog. Arch Virol. 1983;78:37-47 pubmed
    ..At necropsy, viral antigen could be detected in the tonsils and the brain tissue, but viable virus was isolated from the Palatine tonsils only. ..
  11. Vojtěchová Z, Zavadil J, Klozar J, Grega M, Tachezy R. Comparison of the miRNA expression profiles in fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tonsillar tumors. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179645 pubmed publisher
  12. Schwab R, Leinwand S, Bearn C, Maislin G, Rao R, Nagaraja A, et al. Digital Morphometrics: A New Upper Airway Phenotyping Paradigm in OSA. Chest. 2017;152:330-342 pubmed publisher
    ..Digital morphometrics represent an efficient and cost-effective method of examining intraoral crowding and tongue size when examining large populations, genetics, or screening for OSA. ..
  13. Zhang X, Wang H, Zhou J, Zeng P, Zhao Y, Zhang Y, et al. Efficacy of minimally invasive tonsil surgery for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2017;50:e5846 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Minimally invasive tonsil surgery was a safe and effective method for treating OSAHS in children. ..
  14. Geisler K, Markwart R, Requardt R, Weigel C, Schubert K, Scherag A, et al. Functional characterization of T-cells from palatine tonsils in patients with chronic tonsillitis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183214 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations are consistent with the concept that tonsillar T-cells react to infections by eliciting specific immunological responses in chronic versus acute settings of inflammation. ..
  15. Norrback K, Dahlenborg K, Carlsson R, Roos G. Telomerase activation in normal B lymphocytes and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Blood. 1996;88:222-9 pubmed
  16. Yu Y, Song E, Lee K, Joo Y, Kim S, Moon C, et al. Therapeutic potential of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental murine colitis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183141 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that multiple injections with TMSC produced a therapeutic effect in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis. ..
  17. Kljajić Z, Roje Z, Becić K, Capkun V, Vilovic K, Ivanisević P, et al. Formula for the prediction of apnea / hypopnea index in children with obstructive sleep apnea without polysomnography according to the clinical parameters: Is it reliable?. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;100:168-173 pubmed publisher
    ..In developing countries like Croatia on time intervention with reduced procedure-associated costs is of the utmost importance. ..
  18. Alm F, Jaensson M, Lundeberg S, Ericsson E. Adherence to Swedish guidelines for pain treatment in relation to pediatric tonsil surgery: A survey of the multidisciplinary team. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;101:123-131 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, Swedish national guidelines, together with updated patient information on the website, were developed and implemented in 2013...
  19. Tang J, Gorelick G, Friedman M. Comparison between Awake Endoscopy and Computed Tomography to Define Lingual Tonsil Hypertrophy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017;157:898-902 pubmed publisher
    ..LTT measurements of LTG 1 and LTG 2 on awake endoscopy differed significantly from LTG 3. ..
  20. Iwasaki T, Sato H, Suga H, Takemoto Y, Inada E, Saitoh I, et al. Relationships among nasal resistance, adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture and maxillofacial form in Class II and Class III children. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2017;151:929-940 pubmed publisher
    ..007). Anterior tongue posture of the Class III group was significantly correlated with mandibular protrusion. The relationships of upper airway factors differ between Class II and Class III children. ..
  21. Hong S, Min H, Kim K. Refractory sleep apnea caused by tubal tonsillar hypertrophy. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;95:84-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that tubal tonsil hypertrophy should be taken into account of the cause of refractory sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy, and volume reduction with radiofrequency may be an effective method. ..
  22. Miller S, Miles B, Guo K, Folkvord J, Meditz A, McCarter M, et al. Follicular Regulatory T Cells Are Highly Permissive to R5-Tropic HIV-1. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides new insight into HIV-1 replication and a potential new cell type to target for future treatment. ..
  23. González Motos V, Jürgens C, Ritter B, Kropp K, Durán V, Larsen O, et al. Varicella zoster virus glycoprotein C increases chemokine-mediated leukocyte migration. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006346 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that VZV gC activity facilitates the recruitment and subsequent infection of leukocytes and thereby enhances VZV systemic dissemination in humans. ..
  24. Assadian F, Kamel W, Laurell G, Svensson C, Punga T, Akusjarvi G. Expression profile of Epstein-Barr virus and human adenovirus small RNAs in tonsillar B and T lymphocytes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177275 pubmed publisher
    ..The small RNA profile further showed that the 5´ mivaRNA from VA RNAI and the 3´ mivaRNA from VA RNAII were as predicted, whereas the 3´ mivaRNA from VA RNAI showed an aberrant processing upstream of the expected Dicer cleavage site. ..
  25. Pantaleo G, Graziosi C, Demarest J, Butini L, Montroni M, Fox C, et al. HIV infection is active and progressive in lymphoid tissue during the clinically latent stage of disease. Nature. 1993;362:355-8 pubmed
    ..HIV disease is active in the lymphoid tissue throughout the period of clinical latency, even at times when minimal viral activity is demonstrated in blood. ..
  26. King G, Payne S, Walker F, Murray G. A highly sensitive detection method for immunohistochemistry using biotinylated tyramine. J Pathol. 1997;183:237-41 pubmed
    ..In addition, many other antibodies can be used at significantly higher dilutions. ..
  27. Wu J, Gu M, Chen S, Chen W, Ni K, Xu H, et al. Factors related to pediatric obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in different age groups. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8281 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypoxia may be an important factor causing ADHD. OSAHS should be treated as early as possible to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children...
  28. Cetin M, Bozan N. The effects of adenotonsillar hypertrophy corrective surgery on left ventricular functions and pulmonary artery pressure in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;101:41-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of left ventricular functions in preoperative and postoperative periods of children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) who have findings of upper airway obstruction (UAO), using echocardiographic parameters...
  29. Liu Y, Barthelemy C, de Bouteiller O, Arpin C, Durand I, Banchereau J. Memory B cells from human tonsils colonize mucosal epithelium and directly present antigen to T cells by rapid up-regulation of B7-1 and B7-2. Immunity. 1995;2:239-48 pubmed
    ..The unique anatomical localization of memory B cells beneath the surface of mucosa, together with their strong APC capacity, may explain the well-known prompt and robust secondary antibody responses. ..
  30. Martinez Valdez H, Guret C, de Bouteiller O, Fugier I, Banchereau J, Liu Y. Human germinal center B cells express the apoptosis-inducing genes Fas, c-myc, P53, and Bax but not the survival gene bcl-2. J Exp Med. 1996;183:971-7 pubmed
  31. Haase A, Henry K, Zupancic M, Sedgewick G, Faust R, Melroe H, et al. Quantitative image analysis of HIV-1 infection in lymphoid tissue. Science. 1996;274:985-9 pubmed
    ..The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment. ..
  32. Jiang N, Chen C, Gong Q, Shields K, Li Y, Chen Y, et al. Flow cytometric sorting coupled with exon capture sequencing identifies somatic mutations in archival lymphoma tissues. Lab Invest. 2017;97:1364-1374 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach is also useful in enriching the tumor component in samples with heterogeneous components and low tumor content. ..
  33. Virtanen E, Laurila P, Hagstrom J, Nieminen P, Auvinen E. Testing for high-risk HPV in cervical and tonsillar paraffin-embedded tissue using a cartridge-based assay. APMIS. 2017;125:910-915 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to establish whether test sensitivity is sufficient to reliably differentiate between hrHPV positive and hrHPV negative head and neck carcinomas. ..
  34. Pelucchi C, Grigoryan L, Galeone C, Esposito S, Huovinen P, Little P, et al. Guideline for the management of acute sore throat. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18 Suppl 1:1-28 pubmed publisher
    ..If antibiotics are indicated, penicillin V, twice or three times daily for 10 days is recommended. At the present, there is no evidence enough that indicates shorter treatment length. ..
  35. Kim J, Kwon S, Lee E, Yoon Y. Can Intracapsular Tonsillectomy Be an Alternative to Classical Tonsillectomy? A Meta-analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017;157:178-189 pubmed publisher
    ..It can increase the risk of remnant tonsils; however, it does not increase the risk of recurrent infection. ..
  36. Holinka L, O Donnell V, Risatti G, Azzinaro P, Arzt J, Stenfeldt C, et al. Early protection events in swine immunized with an experimental live attenuated classical swine fever marker vaccine, FlagT4G. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177433 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of systemic levels of 19 different cytokines in vaccinated animals demonstrated an increase of IFN-? three days after FlagT4Gv inoculation compared with mock infected controls. ..
  37. Greiner A, Knorr C, Qin Y, Schultz A, Marx A, Kroczek R, et al. CD40 ligand and autoantigen are involved in the pathogenesis of low-grade B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Dev Immunol. 1998;6:187-95 pubmed
  38. Heit A, Schmitz F, Gerdts S, Flach B, Moore M, Perkins J, et al. Vaccination establishes clonal relatives of germinal center T cells in the blood of humans. J Exp Med. 2017;214:2139-2152 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we postulate that vaccination establishes clonal relatives of GCTfh within the circulating memory CD4+CXCR5+PD1+ T cell pool that expand upon reencounter of their cognate antigen. ..
  39. Gudnadottir G, Tennvall G, Stalfors J, Hellgren J. Indirect costs related to caregivers' absence from work after paediatric tonsil surgery. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;274:2629-2636 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that the choice of surgical method affects the indirect costs, favouring the use of tonsillotomy over tonsillectomy for the treatment of children with SDB, due to less postoperative pain. ..
  40. Hu B, Lee S, Marin E, Ryan D, Insel R. Telomerase is up-regulated in human germinal center B cells in vivo and can be re-expressed in memory B cells activated in vitro. J Immunol. 1997;159:1068-71 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that longevity of B cell memory is maintained, despite multiple cell divisions in the generation of a memory B cell, by up-regulation of telomerase in germinal center and activated memory B cells. ..
  41. Pynnonen M, Brinkmeier J, Thorne M, Chong L, Burton M. Coblation versus other surgical techniques for tonsillectomy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;8:CD004619 pubmed publisher
    ..However, given the rarity of these events, randomised trials lack the power to detect a difference. Data from large-scale registries will provide a better estimate of any difference in these rare outcomes. ..
  42. Hill A, Zeidler M, Ironside J, Collinge J. Diagnosis of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by tonsil biopsy. Lancet. 1997;349:99-100 pubmed
  43. Ozturk M. Transcervical ultrasonographic examination of palatine tonsil size and its correlation with age, gender and body-mass index in healthy children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;95:24-28 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to assess the palatine tonsil size with transcervical ultrasonography in healthy children and to analyze whether the palatine tonsil size is correlated with age, gender and body-mass index (BMI)...
  44. Okayama Y, Benyon R, Rees P, Lowman M, Hillier K, Church M. Inhibition profiles of sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium on mediator release from mast cells of human skin, lung, tonsil, adenoid and intestine. Clin Exp Allergy. 1992;22:401-9 pubmed
  45. Asimakopoulos P, Pennell D, Mamais C, Veitch D, Stafrace S, Engelhardt T. Ultrasonographic assessment of tonsillar volume in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;95:1-4 pubmed publisher
  46. Zhang W, Hubbard A, Jones T, Racolta A, Bhaumik S, Cummins N, et al. Fully automated 5-plex fluorescent immunohistochemistry with tyramide signal amplification and same species antibodies. Lab Invest. 2017;97:873-885 pubmed publisher
    ..This technology enables automated mIHC using unmodified 1°Abs from same species and the corresponding anti-species 2°Ab on a clinically established automated platform to ensure staining quality, reliability and reproducibility. ..
  47. Yenigun A, Elbay A, Hafiz A, Ozturan O. Choroidal thickness evaluation in paediatric patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. J Laryngol Otol. 2017;131:768-772 pubmed publisher
    ..038 and p = 0.048). There was a significant association between decreased choroidal thickness and adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy may play an important role in decreased choroidal thickness. ..