oropharynx

Summary

Summary: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.

Top Publications

  1. Kim C, Ahmed J, Eidex R, Nyoka R, Waiboci L, Erdman D, et al. Comparison of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for the diagnosis of eight respiratory viruses by real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21610 pubmed publisher
    ..Many acute respiratory illness surveillance systems collect and test nasopharyngeal (NP) and/or oropharyngeal (OP) swab specimens, yet there are few studies assessing the relative measures of performance for NP versus OP specimens...
  2. Heiss E, Natchev N, Schwaha T, Salaberger D, Lemell P, Beisser C, et al. Oropharyngeal morphology in the basal tortoise Manouria emys emys with comments on form and function of the testudinid tongue. J Morphol. 2011;272:1217-29 pubmed publisher
    In tetrapods, the ability to ingest food on land is based on certain morphological features of the oropharynx in general and the feeding apparatus in particular...
  3. Agoston E, Robinson S, Mehra K, Birch C, Semmel D, Mirkovic J, et al. Polymerase chain reaction detection of HPV in squamous carcinoma of the oropharynx. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010;134:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is imperative that appropriate sensitivity controls be in place for such assays...
  4. Ho A, Shen F, Conti H, Patel N, Childs E, Peterson A, et al. IL-17RC is required for immune signaling via an extended SEF/IL-17R signaling domain in the cytoplasmic tail. J Immunol. 2010;185:1063-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Insight into the mechanisms by which IL-17RC signals helps shed light on IL-17-dependent inflammatory responses and may ultimately provide an avenue for therapeutic intervention in IL-17-mediated diseases...
  5. Hernes S, Quarsten H, Hagen E, Lyngroth A, Pripp A, Bjorvatn B, et al. Swabbing for respiratory viral infections in older patients: a comparison of rayon and nylon flocked swabs. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;30:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..swabs and nylon flocked swabs, comparable sets of mucosal samples were harvested from the nasopharynx and the oropharynx. The samples were analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods...
  6. Vicini C, de Vito A, Benazzo M, Frassineti S, Campanini A, Frasconi P, et al. The nose oropharynx hypopharynx and larynx (NOHL) classification: a new system of diagnostic standardized examination for OSAHS patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;269:1297-300 pubmed publisher
  7. de Smet A, Bonten M, Kluytmans J. For whom should we use selective decontamination of the digestive tract?. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012;25:211-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses the relevant studies on selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) published between 2009 and mid-2011...
  8. Durzynska J, Pacholska Bogalska J, Kaczmarek M, Hanć T, Durda M, Skrzypczak M, et al. HPV genotypes in the oral cavity/oropharynx of children and adolescents: cross-sectional survey in Poland. Eur J Pediatr. 2011;170:757-61 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA sequencing of MY-PCR products revealed only four HPV genotypes. The most frequent genotype was HPV11 (38/45 HPV-positive cases), while other more rare genotypes were HPV6 (3/45), HPV12 (3/45), and HPV57 (1/45)...
  9. Peters R, Nijsten N, Mutsaers J, Jansen C, Morre S, van Leeuwen A. Screening of oropharynx and anorectum increases prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in female STD clinic visitors. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:783-7 pubmed publisher
    The relevance of screening of oropharynx and anorectum in addition to endocervical tests for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is unclear in women, while there is a documented benefit of this approach ..

More Information

Publications64

  1. St Guily J, Jacquard A, Pretet J, Haesebaert J, Beby Defaux A, Clavel C, et al. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in oropharynx and oral cavity cancer in France--The EDiTH VI study. J Clin Virol. 2011;51:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies suggest an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and several head and neck cancers, especially oropharyngeal and oral cavity invasive carcinomas...
  2. Schultz M, Haas L. Antibiotics or probiotics as preventive measures against ventilator-associated pneumonia: a literature review. Crit Care. 2011;15:R18 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to SDD and SOD, a prescription of probiotics aims at the prevention of secondary colonization of the upper and/or lower digestive tract...
  3. Odutola A, Antonio M, Owolabi O, Bojang A, Foster Nyarko E, Donkor S, et al. Comparison of the prevalence of common bacterial pathogens in the oropharynx and nasopharynx of gambian infants. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75558 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, trials of pneumococcal protein vaccines need to evaluate their impact on carriage of other potentially pathogenic bacteria in addition to the pneumococcus...
  4. Duus K, Lentchitsky V, Wagenaar T, Grose C, Webster Cyriaque J. Wild-type Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus isolated from the oropharynx of immune-competent individuals has tropism for cultured oral epithelial cells. J Virol. 2004;78:4074-84 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our results provide compelling evidence for KSHV transmission within infected oral epithelial cells derived from healthy, immunocompetent populations. ..
  5. Panchabhai T, Dangayach N, Krishnan A, Kothari V, Karnad D. Oropharyngeal cleansing with 0.2% chlorhexidine for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients: an open-label randomized trial with 0.01% potassium permanganate as control. Chest. 2009;135:1150-1156 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral cleansing with chlorhexidine decreases the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in patients after cardiac surgery. However, evidence of its benefit in ICU patients is conflicting...
  6. Borggreven P, Kuik D, Quak J, de Bree R, Snow G, Leemans C. Comorbid condition as a prognostic factor for complications in major surgery of the oral cavity and oropharynx with microvascular soft tissue reconstruction. Head Neck. 2003;25:808-15 pubmed
    ..Identification of factors, especially comorbidity, that affect the incidence and severity of complications in head and neck cancer patients...
  7. Maraki S, Margioris A, Orfanoudaki E, Tselentis Y, Koumantakis E, Kontoyiannis D, et al. Effects of doxycycline, metronidazole and their combination on Candida species colonization of the human oropharynx, intestinal lumen and vagina. J Chemother. 2003;15:369-73 pubmed
    ..The combination of doxycycline and metronidazole had a substantial effect, increasing the GI and vaginal colonization by Candida organisms...
  8. Klarin B, Molin G, Jeppsson B, Larsson A. Use of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299 to reduce pathogenic bacteria in the oropharynx of intubated patients: a randomised controlled open pilot study. Crit Care. 2008;12:R136 pubmed publisher
    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is usually caused by aspiration of pathogenic bacteria from the oropharynx. Oral decontamination with antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine (CHX) or antibiotics, has been used as prophylaxis against this ..
  9. Schachter J, Moncada J, Liska S, Shayevich C, Klausner J. Nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infections of the oropharynx and rectum in men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:637-42 pubmed publisher
  10. Thomas C, Aizin V. Brief report: a red streak in the lateral recess of the oropharynx predicts acute sinusitis. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:986-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the oropharyngeal red streak sign for diagnosing acute sinusitis...
  11. FitzGerald J, Chan C, Holroyde M, Boulet L. The CASE survey: patient and physician perceptions regarding asthma medication use and associated oropharyngeal symptoms. Can Respir J. 2008;15:27-32 pubmed
    ..Patterns of medication use, level of asthma control and association with OP symptoms are not often reported in a nonstudy setting...
  12. Crole M, Soley J. Gross morphology of the intra-oral rhamphotheca, oropharynx and proximal oesophagus of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Anat Histol Embryol. 2010;39:207-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-three heads from sub-adult (12-14 months) emus were used to provide a definitive description of the oropharynx and proximal oesophagus...
  13. Lieberman D, Lieberman D, Shimoni A, Keren Naus A, Steinberg R, Shemer Avni Y. Identification of respiratory viruses in adults: nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3439-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Sampling by all three methods is required for the maximal detection of respiratory viruses...
  14. Ohmit S, Sobel J, Schuman P, Duerr A, Mayer K, Rompalo A, et al. Longitudinal study of mucosal Candida species colonization and candidiasis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and at-risk HIV-seronegative women. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:118-27 pubmed
    ..In HIV-seropositive women, mucosal candidiasis is the consequence of multiple interacting factors...
  15. Glitza I, Ehrhard I, Muller Pebody B, Reintjes R, Breuer T, Ammon A, et al. Longitudinal study of meningococcal carrier rates in teenagers. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2008;211:263-72 pubmed
    ..6% with the same strain, 36.0% were carrier for at least 15 weeks. Over all three collection periods 36.7% of the adolescents acquired a new strain. The highest acquisition rate was related to PFGE type 12...
  16. Power M, Fraser C, Hobson A, Singh S, Tyrrell P, Nicholson D, et al. Evaluating oral stimulation as a treatment for dysphagia after stroke. Dysphagia. 2006;21:49-55 pubmed
    ..Therefore, with the parameters used in this study, oral stimulation does not offer an effective treatment for poststroke patients...
  17. Shelburne S, Sumby P, Sitkiewicz I, Okorafor N, Granville C, Patel P, et al. Maltodextrin utilization plays a key role in the ability of group A Streptococcus to colonize the oropharynx. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4605-14 pubmed
    ..that maltodextrin acquisition is likely to be a key factor in the ability of GAS to successfully infect the oropharynx. Further investigation into carbohydrate transport and metabolism pathways may yield novel insights into GAS ..
  18. Koeman M, van der Ven A, Hak E, Joore H, Kaasjager K, de Smet A, et al. Oral decontamination with chlorhexidine reduces the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173:1348-55 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that oral decontamination with either chlorhexidine (CHX, 2%) or CHX/colistin (CHX/COL, 2%/2%) would reduce and postpone development of VAP, and oral and endotracheal colonization...
  19. Lindsay R, Barker I, Nayar G, Drebot M, Calvin S, Scammell C, et al. Rapid antigen-capture assay to detect West Nile virus in dead corvids. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1406-10 pubmed
    ..Swabs were taken from the oropharynx, cloaca, or both of 109 American Crows, 31 Blue Jays, 6 Common Ravens, and 4 Black-billed Magpies from Manitoba, ..
  20. Durand Joly I, Soula F, Chabé M, Dalle J, Lafitte J, Senechal M, et al. Long-term colonization with Pneumocystis jirovecii in hospital staffs: a challenge to prevent nosocomial pneumocystosis. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2003;50 Suppl:614-5 pubmed
  21. Deback C, Luyt C, Lespinats S, Depienne C, Boutolleau D, Chastre J, et al. Microsatellite analysis of HSV-1 isolates: from oropharynx reactivation toward lung infection in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. J Clin Virol. 2010;47:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..HSV-1 BPn is associated with HSV symptomatic or symptomless reactivation in the oropharynx.
  22. Klug C, Berzaczy D, Voracek M, Enislidis G, Rath T, Millesi W, et al. Experience with microvascular free flaps in preoperatively irradiated tissue of the oral cavity and oropharynx in 303 patients. Oral Oncol. 2005;41:738-46 pubmed
    This study examined free flap reconstruction of surgical defects of the oral cavity and oropharynx after preoperative radiochemotherapy...
  23. Hung C, Yang Y, Lauderdale T, McDonald L, Hsiao C, Cheng H, et al. Colonization of human immunodeficiency virus-infected outpatients in Taiwan with Candida species. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1600-3 pubmed
  24. Bellissimo Rodrigues F, Bellissimo Rodrigues W, Viana J, Teixeira G, Nicolini E, Auxiliadora Martins M, et al. Effectiveness of oral rinse with chlorhexidine in preventing nosocomial respiratory tract infections among intensive care unit patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009;30:952-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effectiveness of the oral application of a 0.12% solution of chlorhexidine for prevention of respiratory tract infections among intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
  25. Molimard M, Le Gros V, Robinson P, Bourdeix I. Prevalence and associated factors of oropharyngeal side effects in users of inhaled corticosteroids in a real-life setting. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2010;23:91-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Oropharyngeal disorders represent the most frequent side effect of these drugs, which may have a negative impact on adherence...
  26. Narumi T, Kozawa E, Heshiki A, Tomoda M, Shimizu Y. CT and MRI findings of a solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the oropharynx: case report. Radiat Med. 2005;23:574-7 pubmed
    We report a case of solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) of the oropharynx. A 53-year-old man presented who had had bloody phlegm and a sore throat for a few days...
  27. Prabhu R, Piper K, Litzow M, Steckelberg J, Patel R. Emergence of quinolone resistance among viridans group streptococci isolated from the oropharynx of neutropenic peripheral blood stem cell transplant patients receiving quinolone antimicrobial prophylaxis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;24:832-8 pubmed
    ..The frequency of occurrence of quinolone-resistant organisms colonizing the oropharynx during antibacterial prophylaxis with a quinolone is not well defined...
  28. Ellström P, Latorre Margalef N, Griekspoor P, Waldenstrom J, Olofsson J, Wahlgren J, et al. Sampling for low-pathogenic avian influenza A virus in wild Mallard ducks: oropharyngeal versus cloacal swabbing. Vaccine. 2008;26:4414-6 pubmed publisher
  29. Tantipong H, Morkchareonpong C, Jaiyindee S, Thamlikitkul V. Randomized controlled trial and meta-analysis of oral decontamination with 2% chlorhexidine solution for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:131-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the effectiveness of oral decontamination with 2% chlorhexidine solution for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)...
  30. Müller F, Staudigel A, Salvenmoser S, Tredup A, Miltenberger R, Herrmann J. Cross-resistance to medical and agricultural azole drugs in yeasts from the oropharynx of human immunodeficiency virus patients and from environmental Bavarian vine grapes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:3014-6 pubmed
    ..Precautions against the unnecessary widespread use of azoles in the environment and human medicine are strongly recommended to prevent patients from acquiring azole-resistant yeasts...
  31. Stambuk H, Karimi S, Lee N, Patel S. Oral cavity and oropharynx tumors. Radiol Clin North Am. 2007;45:1-20 pubmed
    ..The clinical behavior and outcome of tumors in the oral cavity is distinct from those of the oropharynx. As a general rule, surgical resection is the primary treatment for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, whereas ..
  32. Castro T, Bussoloti Filho I. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cavity and oropharynx. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;72:272-82 pubmed
    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the oral cavity and oropharynx has not yet been as well studied as its infection of the vaginal tract. However, new study are emerge after the development of molecular biology techniques...
  33. Levy R, Leyden J, Margolis D. Colonisation rates of Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in the oropharynx of a young adult population. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005;11:153-5 pubmed
    ..This finding may have important clinical consequences in certain populations, and requires further investigation...
  34. Cox S, Voyce C, Parida S, Reid S, Hamblin P, Paton D, et al. Protection against direct-contact challenge following emergency FMD vaccination of cattle and the effect on virus excretion from the oropharynx. Vaccine. 2005;23:1106-13 pubmed
    ..to protect cattle from a heterologous direct-contact challenge and the effect on virus excretion from the oropharynx were examined...
  35. Lieberman D, Shleyfer E, Castel H, Terry A, Harman Boehm I, Delgado J, et al. Nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for isolation of potential respiratory pathogens in adults. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:525-8 pubmed
    ..The objectives of the present study were to compare the sensitivities of sampling the nasopharynx and the oropharynx for identification of PRP colonization and to compare the sensitivities of samples from the nasopharynx by swab ..
  36. Gazi H, Kurutepe S, Surucuoglu S, Teker A, Ozbakkaloglu B. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens in the oropharynx of healthy school children in Turkey. Indian J Med Res. 2004;120:489-94 pubmed
    ..The present study was undertaken to determine the carriage rates and antimicrobial resistance of these bacterial pathogens in such children aged 6-14 yr in Manisa, Turkey...
  37. Ridgway J, Armstrong W, Guo S, Mahmood U, Su J, Jackson R, et al. In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132:1074-81 pubmed
    ..Image pixel resolution approached 10 microm. The mucosa of the oral cavity and oropharynx were examined in 41 patients during operative endoscopy...
  38. de Smet A, Hopmans T, Minderhoud A, Blok H, Gossink Franssen A, Bernards A, et al. Decontamination of the digestive tract and oropharynx: hospital acquired infections after discharge from the intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:1609-13 pubmed publisher
  39. Bernstein K, Stephens S, Barry P, Kohn R, Philip S, Liska S, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission from the oropharynx to the urethra among men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:1793-7 pubmed publisher
    Limited data exist on the risk of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission from oropharynx to urethra. We examined urethral C. trachomatis and N...
  40. Yoo G, Moon J, LeBlanc M, Lonardo F, Urba S, Kim H, et al. A phase 2 trial of surgery with perioperative INGN 201 (Ad5CMV-p53) gene therapy followed by chemoradiotherapy for advanced, resectable squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx: report of the Southwest Oncology . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;135:869-74 pubmed publisher
    ..the feasibility of treating patients with high-risk stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx with perioperative adenovirus-p53 (INGN 201) gene therapy along with surgery and ..
  41. Ozdemir H, Demirdag K, Ozturk T, Kocakoc E. Anthrax of the gastrointestinal tract and oropharynx: CT findings. Emerg Radiol. 2010;17:161-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the computed tomography findings of anthrax of the GI tract and oropharyngeal involvement which include inflammatory lesion in the oropharynx and GI hemorrhage.
  42. Segers P, Speekenbrink R, Ubbink D, van Ogtrop M, de Mol B. Prevention of nosocomial infection in cardiac surgery by decontamination of the nasopharynx and oropharynx with chlorhexidine gluconate: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;296:2460-6 pubmed
    ..Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Decolonization of endogenous potential pathogenic microorganisms is important in the prevention of nosocomial infections...
  43. Shelburne S, Okorafor N, Sitkiewicz I, Sumby P, Keith D, Patel P, et al. Regulation of polysaccharide utilization contributes to the persistence of group a streptococcus in the oropharynx. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2981-90 pubmed
    ..transcriptional regulator MalR influences the expression of such genes and whether MalR helps GAS infect the oropharynx. Analysis of 32 strains of 17 distinct M protein serotypes revealed that MalR is highly conserved across GAS ..
  44. Greenberg D, Broides A, Blancovich I, Peled N, Givon Lavi N, Dagan R. Relative importance of nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from healthy and sick individuals varies with age. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4604-9 pubmed
    ..We performed a study to determine which sampling site, nasopharynx (NP) or oropharynx (OP), yields the highest rate of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae isolation at different ages...
  45. Nilsson A, Björkman P, Persson K. Polymerase chain reaction is superior to serology for the diagnosis of acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and reveals a high rate of persistent infection. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:93 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR-positive individuals were followed longitudinally to assess the persistence of MP DNA in throat secretions. We also studied carriage of MP among household contacts and school children...
  46. Watt J, O Brien K, Katz S, Bronsdon M, Elliott J, Dallas J, et al. Nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for detection of pneumococcal carriage in adults. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4974-6 pubmed
    ..a flexible calcium alginate wire swab either nasally to the posterior nasopharynx or orally to the posterior oropharynx. Swabs were placed in skim milk-tryptone-glucose-glycerin medium and frozen at -70 degrees C...
  47. Lakatos H, Burgess H, Thatcher T, Redonnet M, Hernady E, Williams J, et al. Oropharyngeal aspiration of a silica suspension produces a superior model of silicosis in the mouse when compared to intratracheal instillation. Exp Lung Res. 2006;32:181-99 pubmed
    ..Oropharyngeal aspiration should be considered as an alternative to intratracheal instillation of silica and other particulates in studies of respiratory toxicity and lung disease...
  48. Gugnani H, Becker K, Fegeler W, Basu S, Chattopadhya D, Baveja U, et al. Oropharyngeal carriage of Candida species in HIV-infected patients in India. Mycoses. 2003;46:299-306 pubmed
    ..The azole-resistant isolates reported here endorse the role of antifungal susceptibility testing whenever antifungal treatment with azoles is planned...
  49. Cheng Q, Nelson D, Zhu S, Fischetti V. Removal of group B streptococci colonizing the vagina and oropharynx of mice with a bacteriophage lytic enzyme. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:111-7 pubmed
    ..In a mouse model, a single dose of PlyGBS significantly reduced bacterial colonization in both the vagina and oropharynx. As an alternative strategy for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, this approach may be used to reduce vaginal ..
  50. Soros P, Lalone E, Smith R, Stevens T, Theurer J, Menon R, et al. Functional MRI of oropharyngeal air-pulse stimulation. Neuroscience. 2008;153:1300-8 pubmed publisher
    Although the posterior oral cavity and oropharynx play a major role in swallowing, their central representation is poorly understood...
  51. Buhl R. Local oropharyngeal side effects of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with asthma. Allergy. 2006;61:518-26 pubmed
    ..Local side effects result from deposition of an active ICS in the oropharynx during administration of the drug...
  52. de Smet A, Kluytmans J, Cooper B, Mascini E, Benus R, van der Werf T, et al. Decontamination of the digestive tract and oropharynx in ICU patients. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:20-31 pubmed publisher
  53. Yassaei S, Bahrololoomi Z, Sorush M. Changes of tongue position and oropharynx following treatment with functional appliance. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2007;31:287-90 pubmed
    ..Treatment with functional appliance leads to significant alterations in tongue position and significantly increases the extent of oropharyngeal space...
  54. Martin B, Maudsley S, White C, Egan J. Hormones in the naso-oropharynx: endocrine modulation of taste and smell. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2009;20:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Because endocrine signaling in the naso-oropharynx is likely to influence food intake, satiety and general metabolic control, it is important to examine some of ..
  55. Fereidouni S, Werner O, Starick E, Beer M, Harder T, Aghakhan M, et al. Avian influenza virus monitoring in wintering waterbirds in Iran, 2003-2007. Virol J. 2010;7:43 pubmed publisher
    ..Samples originated from 6 different provinces representative for the 15 most important wintering sites of migratory waterbirds in Iran...