Summary: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.

Top Publications

  1. Xiao Q, Hu G, Zhong S, Qian Y, Zeng Q, Hong S. Reconstruction of hypopharynx and cervical oesophagus for treatment of advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma and recurrent laryngeal carcinoma. Asian J Surg. 2010;33:14-9 pubmed publisher
    To review our treatment strategy and outcomes in reconstructing the hypopharynx and cervical oesophagus with five techniques for advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma and recurrent laryngeal carcinoma.
  2. Taguchi T, Tsukuda M, Mikami Y, Matsuda H, Horiuchi C, Yoshida T, et al. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, and leucovorin in patients with advanced resectable squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006;126:408-13 pubmed
    ..In terms of larynx preservation, the present regimen appears to be useful for patients with advanced resectable squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the larynx and hypopharynx.
  3. Shen Z, Kang C, Chen J, Ye D, Qiu S, Guo S, et al. Surface modification of polyurethane towards promoting the ex vivo cytocompatibility and in vivo biocompatibility for hypopharyngeal tissue engineering. J Biomater Appl. 2013;28:607-16 pubmed publisher
    ..e. good proliferation and differentiation of human hypopharynx fibroblast and skeletal muscle cell though the control poly(ester-urethane) indicated low toxicity to cells and ..
  4. Montemari G, Rocco A, Galla S, Damiani V, Bellocchi G. Hypopharynx reconstruction with pectoralis major myofascial flap: our experience in 45 cases. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2012;32:93-7 pubmed
  5. Bertino G, Benazzo M, Occhini A, Gatti P, Spasiano R, Alessiani M. Reconstruction of the hypopharynx after free jejunum flap failure: is a second free jejunum transfer feasible?. Oral Oncol. 2008;44:61-4 pubmed
    ..Pedicle flaps should be used only in the event of severe complications because of their high risk of post-operative salivary fistulas...
  6. Honda K, Tanaka S, Tamura Y, Asato R, Hirano S, Ito J. Vocal cord fixation caused by an impacted fish bone in hypopharynx: report of a rare case. Am J Otolaryngol. 2007;28:257-9 pubmed
    We report a rare case of vocal cord fixation caused by a fish bone in the hypopharynx. The patient was a 72-year-old woman. She presented with hoarseness that had appeared suddenly while eating baked fish...
  7. Nemec S, Formanek M, Noebauer Huhmann I, Krestan C, Frühwald J, Peloschek P, et al. [Pathological changes of the hypopharynx in the focus of imaging]. Radiologe. 2009;49:36-42 pubmed publisher
    The spectrum of pathological changes in anatomical sections of the hypopharynx ranges from benign pathologies to hypopharyngeal carcinoma...
  8. Liu J, Zhang X, Xie D, Peng A, Yang X, Yu F, et al. Acute mediastinitis associated with foreign body erosion from the hypopharynx and esophagus. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;146:58-62 pubmed publisher
    ..So far, no literature on a large scale has been reported. This investigation reviewed cases of mediastinitis associated with foreign body ingestion during the past 40 years...
  9. Disa J, Pusic A, Mehrara B. Reconstruction of the hypopharynx with the free jejunum transfer. J Surg Oncol. 2006;94:466-70 pubmed
    ..The jejunum fee flap is most useful for circumferential defects of the hypopharynx, but can also be used for partial defects...

More Information


  1. Yannopoulos P, Lytras D, Paraskevas K. Esophageal reconstruction with intraoperative dilatation of the hypopharynx for the management of chronic corrosive esophageal strictures. A technical tip. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006;30:940-2 pubmed
    Chronic corrosive strictures of the upper cervical esophagus and hypopharynx resulting from ingestion of caustic substances are a challenging surgical entity when repeated endoscopic dilatations fail to yield satisfactory results...
  2. I H, Kim J, Shim Y. Giant fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx: surgical treatment with the biappoach. J Korean Med Sci. 2006;21:749-51 pubmed
    Fibrovascular polyps of the esophagus and hypopharynx are benign tumors of the upper digestive tract...
  3. Richmon J, Brumund K. Reconstruction of the hypopharynx: current trends. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;15:208-12 pubmed
    Reconstruction of the hypopharynx continues to present a clinical challenge for the reconstructive surgeon...
  4. Righini C, Bettega G, Lequeux T, Chaffanjeon P, Lebeau J, Reyt E. Use of tubed gastro-omental free flap for hypopharynx and cervical esophagus reconstruction after total laryngo-pharyngectomy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;262:362-7 pubmed
    ..The TGO offers a safe method of reconstructing the pharyngoesophageal segment in a surgical field compromised of previous multimodal therapy...
  5. Morshed K, Szymanski M, Gołabek W. Reconstruction of the hypopharynx with U-shaped pectoralis major myocutaneous flap after total pharyngo-laryngectomy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;262:259-62 pubmed
    ..In 11 patients with hypopharynx and larynx cancer, total pharyngo-laryngectomy and excision of the cervical part of the esophagus and neck ..
  6. Becker M, Burkhardt K, Dulguerov P, Allal A. Imaging of the larynx and hypopharynx. Eur J Radiol. 2008;66:460-79 pubmed publisher
    ..is to review currently used imaging protocols for the evaluation of pathologic conditions of the larynx and hypopharynx, to describe key anatomic structures in the larynx and hypopharynx that are relevant to tumor spread and to ..
  7. Wycliffe N, Grover R, Kim P, Simental A. Hypopharyngeal cancer. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;18:243-58 pubmed
    ..Meticulous evaluation of the extent of the primary tumor with attention to spread to the subsites of the hypopharynx, larynx, and cartilage invasion are necessary for accurate staging...
  8. Jegoux F, Ferron C, Malard O, Espitalier F, Beauvillain de Montreuil C. Reconstruction of circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy using a 'horseshoe-shaped' pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. J Laryngol Otol. 2007;121:483-8 pubmed
    ..All tumours showed pharyngo-oesophageal junction invasion or circular involvement of the hypopharynx, requiring total, circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy...
  9. Franzen A, Theegarten D. [Carcinosarcoma of the larynx and hypopharynx]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2007;86:209-12 pubmed
    A carcinosarcoma is an uncommon neoplasm with both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal components. The tumor entity has been described in many epithelial organs. Manifestation in the larynx and the hypopharynx is rare.
  10. Vicini C, de Vito A, Benazzo M, Frassineti S, Campanini A, Frasconi P, et al. The nose oropharynx hypopharynx and larynx (NOHL) classification: a new system of diagnostic standardized examination for OSAHS patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;269:1297-300 pubmed publisher
  11. Chan J, Chow V, Chan R, Lau G. Oncological outcome after free jejunal flap reconstruction for carcinoma of the hypopharynx. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;269:1827-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Between 1996 and 2010, consecutive patients with carcinoma of the hypopharynx requiring laryngectomy, circumferential pharyngectomy and post-operative irradiation were recruited...
  12. Wang J, Han D, Ni X, Ma L, Ye J, Xiao Y. Fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx and esophagus. Chin Med J (Engl). 2011;124:3182-4 pubmed
    Fibrovascular polyp of the hypopharynx and esophagus, a rare, benign, intraluminal and submucosal tumor, is most commonly originated from the proximal esophagus...
  13. Cimino Mathews A, Broman J, Westra W, Illei P. Iron pill-induced tumefactive mucosal injury of the hypopharynx. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:1720-2 pubmed publisher
    ..We report iron-sulfate-induced mucosal injury of the hypopharynx in a patient receiving therapeutic oral iron supplementation...
  14. Chen J, Deng Y, Zhao J, Luo Z, Peng W, Yang J, et al. The polymorphism of IL-17 G-152A was associated with childhood asthma and bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx in bronchiolitis. J Clin Immunol. 2010;30:539-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of IL-17 (rs2275913, IL-17 G-152A) and asthma-related traits. Its effect on IL-17 production was also attractive...
  15. Rice M, Mancuso A, Gibbs C, Morey T, Gravenstein N, Deitte L. Cricoid pressure results in compression of the postcricoid hypopharynx: the esophageal position is irrelevant. Anesth Analg. 2009;109:1546-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We designed this study to accurately define the anatomy of the Sellick maneuver and to investigate its efficacy...
  16. Wang J, Gao J, Li Y, Zhao X, Gao W, Peng L, et al. Functional polymorphisms in FAS and FASL contribute to risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx in a Chinese population. Gene. 2013;524:193-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, their roles in the development of larynx and hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were still unknown in the Chinese...
  17. Volavsek M, Bracko M, Gale N. Distribution and prognostic significance of cell cycle proteins in squamous carcinoma of the larynx, hypopharynx and adjacent epithelial hyperplastic lesions. J Laryngol Otol. 2003;117:286-93 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrated derailment of cell cycle regulation in almost all cases of SCC of the larynx and hypopharynx. However, only cyclin D1 expression had an independent prognostic value for cancer-specific survival...
  18. Kim J, Park K. Foregut duplication cyst of the hypopharynx: a rare cause of upper airway obstruction. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:E5-7 pubmed
    Foregut duplication cysts of the hypopharynx are extremely rare, and only 6 cases, all of which have been described as solid lesions and contained heterotopic gastric epithelium, could be found during our literature review...
  19. Dua K, Surapaneni S, Kuribayashi S, Hafeezullah M, Shaker R. Pharyngeal airway protective reflexes are triggered before the maximum volume of fluid that the hypopharynx can safely hold is exceeded. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;301:G197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to determine the relationship between the maximum capacity of fluid that can safely dwell in the hypopharynx [hypopharyngeal safe volume (HPSV)] before spilling into the larynx and the threshold volumes required to ..
  20. Wiedemann K, Graser A, Lang R, Rader T, Suckfuell M. [Persistent pharyngeocutaneous fistula after transcervical resection of a diverticulum of the hypopharynx]. HNO. 2009;57:1275-9 pubmed
    A 26-year-old white male patient had undergone resection of a diverticulum of the hypopharynx and myotomy of the cricopharyngeal muscle elsewhere...
  21. Donnelly L, Surdulescu V, Chini B, Casper K, Poe S, Amin R. Upper airway motion depicted at cine MR imaging performed during sleep: comparison between young Patients with and those without obstructive sleep apnea. Radiology. 2003;227:239-45 pubmed
    ..To compare the patterns of dynamic airway motion depicted on cine magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained during sleep between young patients with and those without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)...
  22. Yoo G, Moon J, LeBlanc M, Lonardo F, Urba S, Kim H, et al. A phase 2 trial of surgery with perioperative INGN 201 (Ad5CMV-p53) gene therapy followed by chemoradiotherapy for advanced, resectable squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx: report of the Southwest Oncology . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;135:869-74 pubmed publisher
    ..of treating patients with high-risk stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx with perioperative adenovirus-p53 (INGN 201) gene therapy along with surgery and chemoradiotherapy.
  23. Edwards J, Pearson S, Zalzal G. Foregut duplication cyst of the hypopharynx. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;131:1112-5 pubmed
  24. Koscielny S, Gottschall R. [Perforation of the hypopharynx as a rare life-threatening complication of endotracheal intubation]. Anaesthesist. 2006;55:45-52 pubmed
    ..Endotracheal intubation is regarded as the gold standard technique to secure the airway with a low complication rate, however, perforating tracheal or esophageal injuries are rare but severe complications...
  25. Nuyens M, Bhatti N, Flint P. Multiple synchronous fibrovascular polyps of the hypopharynx. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2004;66:341-4 pubmed
    To evaluate the clinical, radiological presentation and surgical management of fibrovascular polyps of the hypopharynx.
  26. Joo Y, Sun D, Cho K, Park J, Kim M. Fasciocutaneous free flap reconstruction for squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;268:289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to examine functional and surgical outcomes after fasciocutaneous free flap reconstruction of the hypopharynx. A retrospective review of the records of 48 consecutive patients that underwent hypopharyngectomy and ..
  27. Sang Hyuk Lee S, Lee N, Jin S, Rho Y, Jo S. Loss of heterozygosity of tumor suppressor genes (p16, Rb, E-cadherin, p53) in hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;145:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..However, few studies have focused on a specific site, hypopharynx. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between LOH and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (..
  28. Chu P, Chang S. Reconstruction of the hypopharynx after surgical treatment of squamous cell carcinoma. J Chin Med Assoc. 2009;72:351-5 pubmed publisher
    Squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx (HPSCC) tends to present with an advanced stage. Surgery with postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy has been the standard treatment for HPSCC...
  29. Graefe H, Stellmacher F, Sotlar K, Wollenberg B, Gehrking E. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the hypopharynx: clinical diagnosis, immunohistochemical findings and treatment of this rare disease. In Vivo. 2008;22:817-20 pubmed
    ..A transoral laser-assisted resection was performed in the case described here, resulting in a complete and lasting cure...
  30. Dirven R, Swinson B, Gao K, Clark J. The assessment of pharyngocutaneous fistula rate in patients treated primarily with definitive radiotherapy followed by salvage surgery of the larynx and hypopharynx. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:1691-5 pubmed publisher
  31. Kohmura T, Hasegawa Y, Matsuura H, Terada A, Takahashi M, Nakashima T. Clinical analysis of multiple primary malignancies of the hypopharynx and esophagus. Am J Otolaryngol. 2001;22:107-10 pubmed
    ..We reviewed cases of multiple primary squamous cell carcinomas of the hypopharynx and esophagus with regard to their frequency, incidence, and prognosis.
  32. Hicks D, Ours T, Abelson T, Vaezi M, Richter J. The prevalence of hypopharynx findings associated with gastroesophageal reflux in normal volunteers. J Voice. 2002;16:564-79 pubmed
    ..Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreement information is provided. The traditional attribution of hypopharynx irritation signs to reflux is challenged; the need for improved diagnostic specificity is highlighted.
  33. Ohashi K, Natori S, Kubo T. Change in the mode of gene expression of the hypopharyngeal gland cells with an age-dependent role change of the worker honeybee Apis mellifera L. Eur J Biochem. 1997;249:797-802 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the individual secretory cells of the acinus of the hypopharyngeal gland were shown to express these genes differently with the age-dependent role change of the worker bee...
  34. Bootz F, Weber A, Oeken J, Keiner S. [Reconstruction of hypopharynx after pharyngolaryngectomy with U-shaped radial forearm flap]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2002;81:17-21 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless it has some disadvantages as i. e. the increased donor morbidity, a rather high sensitivity to hypoxia and the tendency of shrinkage and formation of stenosis...
  35. Cantarella G, Neglia C, Civelli E, Roncoroni L, Radice F. Spindle cell lipoma of the hypopharynx. Dysphagia. 2001;16:224-7 pubmed
    Larynx and hypopharynx lipomas are reported to account for approximately 0.6% of benign laryngeal neoplasms...
  36. Stadlmann S, Fend F, Moser P, Obrist P, Greil R, Dirnhofer S. Epstein-Barr virus-associated extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type of the hypopharynx, in a renal allograft recipient: case report and review of literature. Hum Pathol. 2001;32:1264-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this rare entity in the posttransplant setting...
  37. Peracchia A, Bonavina L, Botturi M, Pagani M, Via A, Saino G. Current status of surgery for carcinoma of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus. Dis Esophagus. 2001;14:95-7 pubmed
    b>Hypopharynx and cervical esophagus represent a critical location for a squamous cell carcinoma, a neoplasm that usually requires extensive surgery...
  38. Spriano G, Pellini R, Roselli R. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for hypopharyngeal reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;110:1408-13; discussion 1414-6 pubmed
    ..The other reconstructive options require surgical transgression of the abdomen and/or thorax in patients affected by malnutrition and other chronic systemic disorders...
  39. Schmalfuss I. Imaging of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2002;10:495-509, vi pubmed
    Cross-sectional imaging with CT and MR imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of cancers of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus...
  40. Benazzo M, Occhini A, Rossi V, Aresi G, Alessiani M. Jejunum free flap in hypopharynx reconstruction: case series. BMC Cancer. 2002;2:13 pubmed
    ..Historically, many techniques have been used in order to achieve a safe and functional reconstruction. Jejunum interposition is generally considered the best reconstructive technique...
  41. Peng J, Su C, Chang H, Chai C, Hung W. Overexpression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 in squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx. Hum Pathol. 2002;33:100-4 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined COX-2 expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx. COX-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was detected in 87% (20 ..
  42. Teknos T, Myers L, Bradford C, Chepeha D. Free tissue reconstruction of the hypopharynx after organ preservation therapy: analysis of wound complications. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:1192-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of wound complications in these patients when microvascular free tissue transfers are used for reconstruction of the hypopharynx.
  43. Bier H, Hoffmann T, Hauser U, Wink M, Ochler M, Kovar A, et al. Clinical trial with escalating doses of the antiepidermal growth factor receptor humanized monoclonal antibody EMD 72 000 in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2001;47:519-24 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, EMD 72000 was very well tolerated in patients with advanced stage SCCHN. The pharmacokinetic data from this trial suggest the feasibility of conducting future studies with weekly doses of 200 mg EMD 72000...
  44. Spector J, Sessions D, Haughey B, Chao K, Simpson J, El Mofty S, et al. Delayed regional metastases, distant metastases, and second primary malignancies in squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:1079-87 pubmed
    To determine the impact of delayed regional metastases, distant metastases, and second primary tumors on the therapeutic outcomes in squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx.
  45. Disa J, Cordeiro P. Reconstruction of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus. Clin Plast Surg. 2001;28:349-60 pubmed
    b>Hypopharynx and cervical esophageal defects are challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Prior surgery and radiation therapy contribute to the difficulty in managing these patients...
  46. Tan N, Yeh M, Shih H, Nebres R, Yang J, Kuo Y. Single free anterolateral thigh flap for simultaneous reconstruction of composite hypopharyngeal and external neck skin defect after head and neck cancer ablation. Microsurgery. 2011;31:524-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, one-staged reconstruction of complex pharyngoesophageal and external skin defects after extensive oncological resection is feasible using a single ALT fasciocutaneous free flap. ..
  47. Li Y, Chen X, Gao Z. [Diagnosis and treatment of diverticulums in laryngopharynx and cervical esophagus]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012;92:559-61 pubmed
    ..For symptomatic diverticulum, the most common treatment is surgical resection of diverticulectom and the prognosis is satisfactory. But for asymptomatic diverticulum, observation suffices. ..
  48. Kochar G, Chakranarayan A, Kohli S, Kohli V, Khanna V, Jayan B, et al. Effect of surgical mandibular advancement on pharyngeal airway dimensions: a three-dimensional computed tomography study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;45:553-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Linear, cross-sectional area (CSA), and volumetric parameters of the velopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx were evaluated. Parameters were compared with paired samples t-tests...
  49. Zheng D, Wang X, Ma D, Zhou Y, Zhang J. Upper airway asymmetry in skeletal Class III malocclusions with mandibular deviation. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12185 pubmed publisher
    ..area, mean cross-sectional area, volume of subdivisions (nasopharynx, palatopharynx, glossopharynx, hypopharynx) were assessed paired t test...
  50. Shanti R, O Malley B. Surgical Management of Oral Cancer. Dent Clin North Am. 2018;62:77-86 pubmed publisher
    Today, most head and neck cancer subsites, such as the larynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, and oropharynx, are treated with radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy as a primary treatment modality...
  51. Conradie W, Gebremariam F. Can computed tomography esophagography reliably diagnose traumatic penetrating upper digestive tract injuries?. Clin Imaging. 2015;39:1039-45 pubmed publisher
    ..There were 20 confirmed upper digestive tract injuries; 11 (55.0%) in the hypopharynx and 9 (45.0%) in the esophagus...
  52. Van Looij M, Feenstra L. [Two patients with a perforation of the esophagus and hypopharynx, respectively, caused by a bone in their food]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003;147:714-7 pubmed
    ..If, based on the anamnesis, physical examination or radiological evaluation, there is suspicion of a foreign body in the oesophagus, or if the examination is incomplete, then oesophagoscopy should be performed. ..
  53. Kountouras J, Zavos C, Chatzopoulos D. The role of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection in laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;136:334; author reply 334-5 pubmed
  54. Kitazawa M, Koide N, Saito H, Kamimura S, Uehara T, Miyagawa S. Killian-Jamieson diverticulitis with cervical cellulitis: report of a case. Surg Today. 2010;40:257-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The recurrent laryngeal nerve was carefully preserved before the resection of the diverticulum. Accurate differential diagnosis between K-J and Zenker's diverticula is necessary before surgery to preserve the recurrent laryngeal nerve...
  55. Weide D, Betz O. Head morphology of selected Staphylinoidea (Coleoptera: Staphyliniformia) with an evaluation of possible groundplan features in Staphylinidae. J Morphol. 2009;270:1503-23 pubmed publisher
    ..1, 17, 28, 29, 30). Our analysis of the general organization of the hypopharynx-prementum-complex has revealed that this complex is organized in a similar way in the investigated ..
  56. Vaezi M. Review article: the role of pH monitoring in extraoesophageal gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;23 Suppl 1:40-9 pubmed
  57. Bobek S, Bell R, Dierks E, Potter B. Tracheotomy in the unprotected airway. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69:2198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..1%) in 19 of 325 patients (5.8%). Tracheotomy is an alternative to cricothyroidotomy as a surgical airway in patients with deteriorating respiratory status who cannot be safely intubated by nonsurgical means. ..
  58. Schade G, Fleischer S, Muller F, Kutta H, Hess M. [Influence of the head position in laryngoscopy]. HNO. 2004;52:921-6 pubmed
    ..On rotation of the head, the hypopharynx of the same side became narrower. This is well known and is used worldwide in the therapy of dysphagia...
  59. Hachem R, Rangarajan S, Beer Furlan A, Prevedello D, Ozer E, Carrau R. The Role of Robotic Surgery in Sinonasal and Ventral Skull Base Malignancy. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2017;50:385-395 pubmed publisher
    ..safe and associated with acceptable oncological and superior functional outcomes for surgery of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, supraglottis, and glottis; thus, changing the paradigm for the management of tumors in these anatomic ..
  60. Nishimura G, Horiuchi C, Yoshida T, Kawakami M, Yabuki K, Matsuda H, et al. Fibromatous polyp of the hypopharynx. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2006;33:333-6 pubmed
    ..This type of polyp is considered to enlarge gradually and it can cause asphyxia and/or dysphagia, so complete ablation should be performed as soon as possible. ..
  61. Mein E, Lewis S, Mein J. An unusual complication of dental radiography: case report. Br Dent J. 2006;200:614-5 pubmed
    ..The case highlights the potential risks of even the simplest procedures, and makes a good argument for using radiograph film holders, when possible. ..
  62. Samuels T, Johnston N. Pepsin as a causal agent of inflammation during nonacidic reflux. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;141:559-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that refluxed pepsin may contribute to laryngeal inflammation associated with nonacidic gastric reflux, including that experienced by patients despite maximal acid suppression therapy. ..
  63. Chiesa Estomba C, Betances Reinoso F, Martinez Villasmil V, Gonzalez Cortés M, Santidrián Hidalgo C. Persistent Tracheostomy after Organ Preservation Protocol in Patients Treated for Larynx and Hypopharynx Cancer. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;21:377-381 pubmed publisher
    ..A more thorough selection of the patients is needed to improve the quality of life and reduce permanent tracheostomy dependence...
  64. Hung L, Huang H, Wang L, Yang M, Chu P. Oncologic results and quality of life in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of hypopharynx after transoral laser microsurgery. Lasers Surg Med. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) is an alternative method for organ preservation in squamous cell carcinoma of hypopharynx (HPSCC)...
  65. Cross K, Koomalsingh K, Fahey T, Sample J. Hypopharyngeal rupture secondary to blunt trauma: presentation, evaluation, and management. J Trauma. 2007;62:243-6 pubmed
  66. Sabra O, Sabri A, Sfeir P. Airway obstruction secondary to thoracic aortic aneurysm leak. A case report. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;263:1144-6 pubmed
    ..We believe that our case is the second case of retropharyngeal hematoma caused by a leaking aortic aneurysm. A case discussion and management is presented in this article. ..
  67. Nanan R, Peek M. Asthma and neonatal airway colonization. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:423-5; author reply 423-5 pubmed
  68. Silva R, Mesquita N, Nunes P, Cardoso E, Pinto R, Dias L. Tracheobronchial Polyflex stents for the management of benign refractory hypopharyngeal strictures. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:551-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although technically feasible, placement of a tracheobronchial SEPS is associated with a high risk of complications. Small diameter stents must be kept in place for longer than 3 mo to allow adequate time for stricture remodeling. ..
  69. Tutuian R, Castell D. Diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;12:174-9 pubmed
    ..Studies in normal volunteers indicate that a minimal number of reflux episodes reach the hypopharynx. The correlation between laryngeal signs and symptoms and pH-documented reflux is less than perfect, whereas ..
  70. Hughes Davies T. Asthma and neonatal airway colonization. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:424; author reply 424-5 pubmed
  71. Suskind D, Thompson D, Gulati M, Huddleston P, Liu D, Baroody F. Improved infant swallowing after gastroesophageal reflux disease treatment: a function of improved laryngeal sensation?. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1397-403 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to describe improvements in pediatric swallowing after gastroesophageal reflux treatment...
  72. Baum E, Elden L, Handler S, Tom L. Management of hypopharyngeal and esophageal perforations in children: three case reports and a review of the literature. Ear Nose Throat J. 2008;87:44-7 pubmed
    ..Perforations of the hypopharynx and esophagus in children during endoscopy or insertion of endotracheal and nasogastric tubes are not uncommon...
  73. Hoppo T, Sanz A, Nason K, Carroll T, Rosen C, Normolle D, et al. How much pharyngeal exposure is "normal"? Normative data for laryngopharyngeal reflux events using hypopharyngeal multichannel intraluminal impedance (HMII). J Gastrointest Surg. 2012;16:16-24; discussion 24-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) can cause atypical symptoms, asthma, and pulmonary fibrosis. The aim of this study was to establish the normative data for LPR using hypopharyngeal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (HMII)...
  74. Thompson C, Bhuta S, Abemayor E. Solitary fibrous tumor of the hypopharynx: case report and literature review. Am J Otolaryngol. 2013;34:545-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Transoral surgical excision resulted in relief of symptoms. Treatment options are discussed and a literature review of this uncommon disorder presented...
  75. Wegener J, Huang Z, Lorenz M, Bienefeld K. Regulation of hypopharyngeal gland activity and oogenesis in honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers. J Insect Physiol. 2009;55:716-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that hypopharyngeal glands may belong to a previously described group of reproduction-related traits that are pleiotropically regulated in workers. A possible role for ecdysteroids in honey bee reproduction is discussed...
  76. Hinojar A, Díaz Díaz M, Pun Y, Hinojar A. Management of hypopharyngeal and cervical oesophageal perforations. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2003;30:175-82 pubmed
    Perforations of the hypopharynx and the cervical oesophagus are infrequent severe situations, which may even be life-threatening for patients.
  77. Kamiya K, Suzuki S, Mineta H, Konno H. Tonometer pHi monitoring of free jejunal grafts following pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy for hypopharyngeal or cervical esophageal cancer. Dig Surg. 2007;24:214-20 pubmed
    ..In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of intramucosal pH (pHi) measurement using a tonometer to assess the graft viability...