anus diseases


Summary: Diseases involving the ANUS.

Top Publications

  1. Nyitray A, Nielson C, Harris R, Flores R, Abrahamsen M, Dunne E, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection in heterosexual men. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1676-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that anal HPV infection may be common in heterosexual men. ..
  2. Chin Hong P, Husnik M, Cranston R, Colfax G, Buchbinder S, Da Costa M, et al. Anal human papillomavirus infection is associated with HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men. AIDS. 2009;23:1135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies that incorporate high-resolution anoscopy to more accurately identify HPV-associated disease are needed to determine the relationship between HPV-associated disease and HIV seroconversion. ..
  3. Pierangeli A, Scagnolari C, Degener A, Bucci M, Ciardi A, Riva E, et al. Type-specific human papillomavirus-DNA load in anal infection in HIV-positive men. AIDS. 2008;22:1929-35 pubmed publisher
    ..HPV genotype risk and viral load should be further evaluated for their potential predictive role in persistence and progression. ..
  4. Nyitray A, Carvalho da Silva R, Baggio M, Lu B, Smith D, Abrahamsen M, et al. Age-specific prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus (HPV) among men who have sex with women and men who have sex with men: the HPV in men (HIM) study. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Number of sex partners was associated with anal HPV infection in both MSW and MSM. Anal HPV infection in men may be mediated by age, duration of sexual relationship, and condom use. ..
  5. Vermeire S, Van Assche G, Rutgeerts P. Perianal Crohn's disease: classification and clinical evaluation. Dig Liver Dis. 2007;39:959-62 pubmed
    ..This review analyses and discusses current classifications of any perianal form of Crohn's disease. ..
  6. Rao S. Dyssynergic defecation and biofeedback therapy. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2008;37:569-86, viii pubmed publisher
    ..Development of user friendly approaches to biofeedback therapy and use of home biofeedback programs will significantly enhance the adoption of this treatment by gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons. ..
  7. Nyitray A, Smith D, Villa L, Lazcano Ponce E, Abrahamsen M, Papenfuss M, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection in men who have sex with women: a cross-national study. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1498-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Men who have a larger lifetime number of female sex partners, who are in a sexual relationship of <1 year in duration, and who have a history of oral or anal sex with men were most likely to have an anal HPV infection. ..
  8. Vajdic C, van Leeuwen M, Jin F, Prestage G, Medley G, Hillman R, et al. Anal human papillomavirus genotype diversity and co-infection in a community-based sample of homosexual men. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85:330-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A wide variety of HPV genotypes were detected, and co-infection with multiple genotypes was common. Anal HPV infection is more prevalent and more diverse in HIV-positive than HIV-negative homosexual men. ..
  9. Goldstone S, Lowe B, Rothmann T, Nazarenko I. Evaluation of the hybrid capture 2 assay for detecting anal high-grade dysplasia. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:1641-8 pubmed publisher
    ..AIN2+ was found in 20% of patients with benign cytology. Only nine AIN2+ specimens were HC2-. This prospective study indicates that HC2 may be useful when screening for anal dysplasia; however, a larger study is recommended. ..

More Information


  1. de Pokomandy A, Rouleau D, Ghattas G, Vezina S, Cote P, Macleod J, et al. Prevalence, clearance, and incidence of anal human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected men: the HIPVIRG cohort study. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:965-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Incidence and clearance rates were not similar among HPV types. Ongoing surveillance of this cohort will help our understanding of the determinants of HPV persistence and progression to lesions. ..
  2. Darwich L, Canadas M, Videla S, Coll J, Pinol M, Cobarsi P, et al. Condylomata, cytological abnormalities and human papillomavirus infection in the anal canal in HIV-infected men. HIV Med. 2012;13:549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings emphasize the importance of screening and follow-up for condylomata in the anal canal in HIV-infected men. ..
  3. Goldstone S, Palefsky J, Giuliano A, Moreira E, Aranda C, Jessen H, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Lifetime number of sexual partners was the most important modifiable risk factor for anogenital HPV infection. ..
  4. Rohde H, Christ H. [Haemorrhoids are too often assumed and treated. Survey of 548 patients with anal discomfort]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2004;129:1965-9 pubmed
    ..Doctors should not be misled by patients' complaints into assuming the presence of haemorrhoids and treat them, because this would incur unnecessary cost and bring little success. ..
  5. Whiteford M, Kilkenny J, Hyman N, Buie W, Cohen J, Orsay C, et al. Practice parameters for the treatment of perianal abscess and fistula-in-ano (revised). Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:1337-42 pubmed
    ..The ultimate judgment regarding the propriety of any specific procedure must be made by the physician in light of all of the circumstances presented by the individual patient. ..
  6. Hernandez B, McDuffie K, Zhu X, Wilkens L, Killeen J, Kessel B, et al. Anal human papillomavirus infection in women and its relationship with cervical infection. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:2550-6 pubmed
    ..The relationship of anal to cervical infection as described in this study has implications for the development of anal malignancies in women. ..
  7. Dejaco C, Harrer M, Waldhoer T, Miehsler W, Vogelsang H, Reinisch W. Antibiotics and azathioprine for the treatment of perianal fistulas in Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003;18:1113-20 pubmed
    ..Antibiotics are useful to induce a short-term response in perianal Crohn's disease, and may provide a bridging strategy to azathioprine, which seems to be essential for the maintenance of fistula improvement. ..
  8. Piketty C, Darragh T, Da Costa M, Bruneval P, Heard I, Kazatchkine M, et al. High prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and anal cancer precursors among HIV-infected persons in the absence of anal intercourse. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138:453-9 pubmed
  9. Nagle D, Rolandelli R. Primary care office management of perianal and anal disease. Prim Care. 1996;23:609-20 pubmed
    ..Appropriate recognition of these processes allows for outpatient, office-based intervention. With the techniques and management described in this article, many patients' symptoms can be ameliorated expeditiously. ..
  10. Sonoda T, Hull T, Piedmonte M, Fazio V. Outcomes of primary repair of anorectal and rectovaginal fistulas using the endorectal advancement flap. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002;45:1622-8 pubmed
    ..Control of sepsis before endorectal advancement flap with drainage of a perianal abscess and/or seton placement, whenever possible, is indicated. ..
  11. Palefsky J, Holly E, Ralston M, Da Costa M -, Greenblatt R. Prevalence and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:383-91 pubmed
    ..80; 95% CI, 0.50-0.99), as did African American women (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72-1.0), compared with white women. Anal HPV infection is underrecognized in HIV-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women. ..
  12. Chin Hong P, Vittinghoff E, Cranston R, Buchbinder S, Cohen D, Colfax G, et al. Age-Specific prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection in HIV-negative sexually active men who have sex with men: the EXPLORE study. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:2070-6 pubmed
    ..This may reflect differences between these populations with respect to the number of new sex partners after the age of 30 and may explain the high incidence of anal cancer in MSM. ..
  13. Yamamoto T, Allan R, Keighley M. Effect of fecal diversion alone on perianal Crohn's disease. World J Surg. 2000;24:1258-62; discussion 1262-3 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, fecal diversion alone is effective in selected patients with perianal disease, but the prospect of restoring intestinal continuity is low. There were no parameters to identify those in whom a successful outcome is likely. ..
  14. Bohm M, Frieling U, Luger T, Bonsmann G. Successful treatment of anogenital lichen sclerosus with topical tacrolimus. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139:922-4 pubmed
    ..Lichen sclerosus of the anogenital area is a chronic inflammatory and fibrosclerotic disease associated with substantial morbidity. Topical ultrapotent corticosteroids are currently the treatment of choice...
  15. Panther L, Wagner K, Proper J, Fugelso D, Chatis P, Weeden W, et al. High resolution anoscopy findings for men who have sex with men: inaccuracy of anal cytology as a predictor of histologic high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia and the impact of HIV serostatus. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:1490-2 pubmed
    ..The presence of any abnormal anal cytological finding indicates a potential for high-grade dysplasia on histological examination of MSM. ..
  16. Daniel G, Longo W, Vernava A. Pruritus ani. Causes and concerns. Dis Colon Rectum. 1994;37:670-4 pubmed
    ..Symptoms suggestive of pruritus ani, especially those of long duration, should alert the surgeon to the potential for proximal colon and anorectal neoplasia. ..
  17. Mosley F, Bhasin N, Davies J, Ausobsky J. Life-threatening haemorrhage secondary to nicorandil-induced severe peri-anal ulceration. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2010;92:W39-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Whilst nicorandil should be considered in cases of chronic peri-anal and peristomal ulceration which fail to respond to conventional treatments, this case highlights its importance in the setting of acute surgical presentations...
  18. Twin J, Moore E, Garland S, Stevens M, Fairley C, Donovan B, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes among men who have sex with men in Australia. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the largest study of C. trachomatis serovars in MSM: it is the first to report C. trachomatis rectal loads, and provides an overview on C. trachomatis serovars and genotypic variants that circulate in Australian MSM communities. ..
  19. Vermaat H, Smienk F, Rustemeyer T, Bruynzeel D, Kirtschig G. Anogenital allergic contact dermatitis, the role of spices and flavour allergy. Contact Dermatitis. 2008;59:233-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinically relevant reactions were mainly found to spices and flavours. This is in contrast to the data reported in the literature that shows most contact allergies in vulval patients to ingredients of topical medication. ..
  20. Ranu H, Lee J, Chio M, Sen P. Tumour-like presentations of anogenital herpes simplex in HIV-positive patients. Int J STD AIDS. 2011;22:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These unusual presentations often lead to a delayed diagnosis. We describe five immunocompromised HIV-positive patients with CD4 counts ranging from 114 to 326 cells/?L with unusual presentations of anogenital herpes. ..
  21. Yeoh E, Holloway R, Fraser R, Botten R, Di Matteo A, Moore J, et al. Anorectal function after three- versus two-dimensional radiation therapy for carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence and pathophysiology of anorectal dysfunction 2 years after RT for prostate carcinoma was largely independent of the treatment techniques used in this study. ..
  22. Jones V, Smith S, Omar H. Nonsexual transmission of anogenital warts in children: a retrospective analysis. ScientificWorldJournal. 2007;7:1896-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, these patients should be handled differently by the legal system unless other reasons for suspicion exist. This study also showed the importance of maternal gynecologic history...
  23. Eglinton T, Reilly M, Chang C, Barclay M, Frizelle F, Gearry R. Ileal disease is associated with surgery for perianal disease in a population-based Crohn's disease cohort. Br J Surg. 2010;97:1103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Sex, age at diagnosis and disease location did not influence the time to first PSI. PSIs are frequent in patients with Crohn's disease, particularly those with ileal disease and those diagnosed at a young age. ..
  24. Dudding T, Thomas G, Hollingshead J, George A, Stern J, Vaizey C. Sacral nerve stimulation: an effective treatment for chronic functional anal pain?. Colorectal Dis. 2013;15:1140-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This study would suggest that SNS is not an effective treatment for chronic anal pain in the majority of patients. PNE is not an effective means of identifying which of these patients are likely to respond to permanent SNS. ..
  25. Goodman M, McDuffie K, Hernandez B, Wilkens L, Zhu X, Thompson P, et al. The influence of multiple human papillomavirus types on the risk of genotype-concordant incident infections of the anus and cervix: the Hawaii HPV cohort study. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential synergy in acquisition of cervical and anal HPV infections has implications for prophylactic vaccine effectiveness. ..
  26. Chang H, Ryu J, Oh J. Clinical characteristics and treatment of perianal abscess and fistula-in-ano in infants. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:1832-6 pubmed publisher
    ..7 ± 11.7 months. Conservative treatment of perianal abscess and fistula-in-ano has an excellent outcome and could be the first choice of treatment of these diseases. ..
  27. Zhang X, Yu J, Li M, Sun X, Han Q, Li M, et al. Prevalence and related risk behaviors of HIV, syphilis, and anal HPV infection among men who have sex with men from Beijing, China. AIDS Behav. 2013;17:1129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..quot;Ever found sexual partners in gay venues" was significantly associated with HIV infection as well. "Taking anilinction as regular sexual behavior" was observed to be a significant predictor for anal HPV infection. ..
  28. Puri P, Gosemann J. Variants of Hirschsprung disease. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2012;21:310-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This review article summarizes the current knowledge of the aforementioned entities of variant HD...
  29. Tozer P, Whelan K, Phillips R, Hart A. Etiology of perianal Crohn's disease: role of genetic, microbiological, and immunological factors. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:1591-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We examine these areas in a review of the current understanding of the etiology of Crohn's perianal fistulae. ..
  30. Upadhyaya P, Spilde T, Tsao K, Ostlie D. Anorectal hamartoma in a neonate: a unique anorectal mass. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:E31-3 pubmed
    ..The patient underwent mass excision at the bedside under local anesthesia. Histopathologic evaluation revealed benign hamartoma. This case is presented because of its rarity, unique presentation, and simplicity of management. ..
  31. Dwarkasing R, Schouten W, Geeraedts T, Mitalas L, Hop W, Krestin G. Chronic anal and perianal pain resolved with MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;200:1034-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In 39% of patients, MRI showed abnormalities that were clinically confirmed as the final diagnosis. Surgical treatment will especially benefit patients with suppurative lesions, resulting in relief of pain. ..
  32. Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Baron G, Walker F, Yeni P, Duval X. Systematic evaluation and description of anal pathology in HIV-infected patients during the HAART era. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009;52:1130-6 pubmed publisher
  33. Ogilvie J, Park I, Downs L, Anderson K, Hansberger J, Madoff R. Anal dysplasia in kidney transplant recipients. J Am Coll Surg. 2008;207:914-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these findings confirm their high risk for dysplasia, a larger sample is required to more accurately quantify risk factors for dysplasia and progression to cancer. ..
  34. Moktefi A, De Parades V, Flejou J. [Anal verruciform xanthoma in a transplant background for primary hyperoxaluria. Anal verruciform xanthoma after a combined hepato-renal transplantation]. Ann Pathol. 2013;33:335-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the second case of anal verruciform xanthoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of verruciform xanthoma in association with primary hyperoxaluria. ..
  35. Yong Ma J, Ryder N, Wray L, McNulty A. Low yield of anogenital examination among asymptomatic clients of an urban sexual health clinic. Sex Health. 2011;8:90-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Sexual health clinics should direct resources currently used to examine clients towards increasing the STI testing rate. ..
  36. Tonolini M, Matacena G, Bianco R. Anorectal opportunistic diseases in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients: spectrum of cross-sectional imaging findings. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2012;41:220-32 pubmed publisher
  37. Silvera R, Smith C, Swedish K, Goldstone S. Anal condyloma treatment and recurrence in HIV-negative men who have sex with men. Dis Colon Rectum. 2014;57:752-61 pubmed publisher
    ..No identified risk factors proved a significant predictor of recurrence. ..
  38. Dias C, Rodrigues P, da Costa Pereira A, Magro F. Clinical prognostic factors for disabling Crohn's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:3866-71 pubmed publisher
    ..42, 95%CI: 1.87-3.11) and with perianal disease (OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.41-2.85). Age at diagnosis, perianal disease, initial use of steroids and localization seem to be independent prognostic factors of disabling disease. ..
  39. Etienney I, De Parades V. Three-dimensional endoanal ultrasonography in daily proctological practice. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2011;35:260-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are crucial as the choice of treatment and its efficacy depend on accurate topographic assessment of the suppuration and the state of the sphincter apparatus. ..
  40. Windhofer C, Michlits W, Heuberger A, Papp C. Perineal reconstruction after rectal and anal disease using the local fascio-cutaneous-infragluteal flap: A new and reliable technique. Surgery. 2011;149:284-90 pubmed publisher
    ..5 months) from tumor metastasis. Local FCI flap for reconstruction of large perineal defects achieves good wound healing with only moderate morbidity in most patients after extensive resection owing to cancer or Crohn's disease. ..
  41. Nahas C, da Silva Filho E, Segurado A, Genevcius R, Gerhard R, Gutierrez E, et al. Screening anal dysplasia in HIV-infected patients: is there an agreement between anal pap smear and high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy?. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009;52:1854-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Following baseline high-resolution anoscopy, these individuals could be followed with serial anal cytology to dictate the need for future high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsies. ..
  42. Erdag G, Qureshi H, Greer K, Patterson J. Immunoglobulin A pemphigus involving the perianal skin and oral mucosa: an unusual presentation. Cutis. 2007;80:218-20 pubmed
    ..We report an unusual case of IgA pemphigus involving anal/ perianal skin and oral mucosa that demonstrated a successful response to dapsone treatment. ..
  43. Wyndaele M, de Winter B, van Roosbroeck S, Van Outryve M, De Wachter S, Van Hal G, et al. Development and psychometric evaluation of a dutch questionnaire for the assessment of anorectal and lower urinary tract symptoms. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2011;74:295-303 pubmed
    ..It can provide further insights into the epidemiology of concomitant bowel and bladder disorders and, accordingly, can contribute to a more efficient diagnostic and therapeutic approach in patients with such disorders. ..
  44. Wiese D, Schwartz D. Managing Perianal Crohn’s Disease. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2012;14:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..New experimental therapies are limited by lack of research to support their use. ..
  45. Vasiliu V, Suarez F, Canioni D, Hermine O, Varet B, Brousse N. Anorectal Epstein-Barr virus infection mimicking Hodgkin lymphoma in an immunocompetent man. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:1715-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight years later, the complete resolution of the lesion without any treatment is a strong argument against a malignant lymphoid process and raises doubts as to the reality of isolated anorectal HL in immunocompetent participants. ..
  46. Spanos C. Anal skin tags: removal made simple. Colorectal Dis. 2012;14:e747-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We decribe a simple method of anal skin tag removal during stapled anopexy. This involves utilizing the circular anal dilator provided with the stapling kit. ..
  47. Saglam M, Bozlar U, Kantarci F, Ay H, Battal B, Coskun U. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on flow-mediated vasodilation: an ultrasound study. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27:209-14 pubmed
    ..This may suggest chronic stress on the vascular endothelium after HBO. ..
  48. Soerensen M, Buntzen S, Bek K, Laurberg S. Complete obstetric anal sphincter tear and risk of long-term fecal incontinence: a cohort study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2013;56:992-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Anal sphincter rupture is the only independent risk factor for fecal incontinence. The severity of fecal incontinence had the same impact on quality of life in both groups. ..
  49. Li X, Qiang J, He C, Ji X, Zhang B. [Magnetic resonance imaging study of perianal abscess]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2011;14:868-70 pubmed
    ..MRI is a noninvasive, convenient and highly accurate procedure for diagnosing perianal abscess, which can demonstrate the anatomical relationship between abscess and anal canal. ..
  50. Eglinton T, Roberts R, Pearson J, Barclay M, Merriman T, Frizelle F, et al. Clinical and genetic risk factors for perianal Crohn's disease in a population-based cohort. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107:589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this paper represents the first report of an association of the NCF4 gene with perianal disease. ..
  51. Dang T, Jaton Ogay K, Flepp M, Kovari H, Evison J, Fehr J, et al. High prevalence of anorectal chlamydial infection in HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Switzerland. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:1532-5 pubmed publisher
    ..9%) of 147 men, mainly among asymptomatic patients and patients having >20 sexual partners. These results support routine anorectal Chlamydia screening in HIV-infected MSM who report unprotected anal intercourse. ..
  52. Sanclemente G, Herrera S, Tyring S, Rady P, Zuleta J, Correa L, et al. Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:1054-60 pubmed
  53. Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Ravaud P, Walker F, Rioux C, Jestin C, et al. Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors. AIDS. 2007;21:1457-65 pubmed
    ..76 for history of anal condyloma, and OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.18-8.44 for receptive anal intercourse). The high rate of condyloma and histological dysplasia seen argues for a systematic screening for these lesions in HIV-infected individuals. ..