necrotizing enterocolitis

Summary

Summary: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.

Top Publications

  1. Samanta M, Sarkar M, Ghosh P, Ghosh J, Sinha M, Chatterjee S. Prophylactic probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight newborns. J Trop Pediatr. 2009;55:128-31 pubmed publisher
    ..It also helps in establishing early full enteral feeding and reduces hospital stay. ..
  2. Lin H, Hsu C, Chen H, Chung M, Hsu J, Lien R, et al. Oral probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight preterm infants: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2008;122:693-700 pubmed publisher
    The goal was to investigate the efficacy of orally administered probiotics in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis for very low birth weight preterm infants...
  3. Siggers R, Siggers J, Boye M, Thymann T, Mølbak L, Leser T, et al. Early administration of probiotics alters bacterial colonization and limits diet-induced gut dysfunction and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs. J Nutr. 2008;138:1437-44 pubmed
    ..birth, bacterial colonization and enteral formula feeding predispose neonates to gut dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious gastrointestinal inflammatory disease...
  4. Dhingra K, Mandal S, Khurana N. Unsuspected intestinal mucormycosis in a neonate presenting as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2008;18:119-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These cases are usually diagnosed initially as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which leads to a delay in specific treatment...
  5. Halpern M, Weitkamp J, Mount Patrick S, Dobrenen H, Khailova L, Correa H, et al. Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter upregulation is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G623-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency of premature infants...
  6. Bertino E, Giuliani F, Prandi G, Coscia A, Martano C, Fabris C. Necrotizing enterocolitis: risk factor analysis and role of gastric residuals in very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;48:437-42 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) usually occurs in very low birth weight infants and is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in the neonatal intensive care unit...
  7. Gribar S, Sodhi C, Richardson W, Anand R, Gittes G, Branca M, et al. Reciprocal expression and signaling of TLR4 and TLR9 in the pathogenesis and treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis. J Immunol. 2009;182:636-46 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a common and often fatal inflammatory disorder affecting preterm infants that develops upon interaction of indigenous bacteria with the premature intestine...
  8. Dvorak B, Khailova L, Clark J, Hosseini D, Arganbright K, Reynolds C, et al. Comparison of epidermal growth factor and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor for prevention of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47:11-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease of prematurely born infants. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) have protective effects against intestinal injury...
  9. Maynard A, Dvorak K, Khailova L, Dobrenen H, Arganbright K, Halpern M, et al. Epidermal growth factor reduces autophagy in intestinal epithelium and in the rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G614-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease of premature infants. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the most promising candidates in NEC prophylaxis...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Liu Y, Zhu L, Fatheree N, Liu X, Pacheco S, Tatevian N, et al. Changes in intestinal Toll-like receptors and cytokines precede histological injury in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G442-50 pubmed publisher
    It is unclear whether the broad inflammatory response shown in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the cause or the effect of tissue injury...
  2. Shah D, Doyle L, Anderson P, Bear M, Daley A, Hunt R, et al. Adverse neurodevelopment in preterm infants with postnatal sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis is mediated by white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging at term. J Pediatr. 2008;153:170-5, 175.e1 pubmed publisher
    To test the hypothesis that the impact of postnatal sepsis/necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) on neurodevelopment may be mediated by white matter abnormality (WMA), which can be demonstrated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
  3. Leaphart C, Cavallo J, Gribar S, Cetin S, Li J, Branca M, et al. A critical role for TLR4 in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis by modulating intestinal injury and repair. J Immunol. 2007;179:4808-20 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of death from gastrointestinal disease in preterm infants and is characterized by translocation of LPS across the inflamed intestine...
  4. Murdoch E, Sinha A, Shanmugalingam S, Smith G, Kempley S. Doppler flow velocimetry in the superior mesenteric artery on the first day of life in preterm infants and the risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatrics. 2006;118:1999-2003 pubmed
    The purpose of this work was to relate Doppler indices of splanchnic perfusion and vascular resistance to the risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis.
  5. Chuang S, Hayes P, Ogundipe E, Haddad M, MacDonald T, Fell J. Cow's milk protein-specific T-helper type I/II cytokine responses in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009;20:45-52 pubmed publisher
    Enteral feeding, in particular with formula feeds, is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)...
  6. Moro M, Figueras Aloy J, Fernandez C, Domenech E, Jimenez R, Pérez Rodríguez J, et al. Mortality for newborns of birthweight less than 1500 g in Spanish neonatal units (2002-2005). Am J Perinatol. 2007;24:593-601 pubmed
    ..Our findings highlight the need to promote intrauterine transport and improve neonatal transport as well as the management of these infants in the delivery room and within the first 28 days of life. ..
  7. Baregamian N, Mourot J, Ballard A, Evers B, Chung D. PPAR-gamma agonist protects against intestinal injury during necrotizing enterocolitis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:423-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a lethal condition for many premature infants...
  8. Meinzen Derr J, Poindexter B, Wrage L, Morrow A, Stoll B, Donovan E. Role of human milk in extremely low birth weight infants' risk of necrotizing enterocolitis or death. J Perinatol. 2009;29:57-62 pubmed publisher
    To determine the association between human milk (HM) intake and risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or death among infants 401 to 1000 g birth weight...
  9. Bagci S, Eis Hübinger A, Franz A, Bierbaum G, Heep A, Schildgen O, et al. Detection of astrovirus in premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:347-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight infants (<1500 g birth weight). Although the etiology remains unknown, infectious agents could play a key role...
  10. Moonen R, Paulussen A, Souren N, Kessels A, Rubio Gozalbo M, Villamor E. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase polymorphisms as a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Res. 2007;62:188-90 pubmed
    ..As plasma L-arginine concentrations are decreased in premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), we hypothesized that the CPS1 T1405N polymorphism would correlate with the presence of NEC...
  11. Lu J, Jilling T, Li D, Caplan M. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alters proinflammatory gene expression and reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal rat model. Pediatr Res. 2007;61:427-32 pubmed
    ..of preterm formula with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been shown to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in animal models and clinical trials, the mechanisms remain elusive...
  12. Stuart R, Tan K, Mahar J, Kirkwood C, Andrew Ramsden C, Andrianopoulos N, et al. An outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with norovirus genotype GII.3. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:644-7 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acute abdominal emergency of unknown etiology predominantly affecting preterm infants. We describe a cluster of NEC in a level III NICU involving 15 infants over a6-month period...
  13. Whitehouse J, Xu H, Shi Y, Noll L, Kaul S, Jones D, et al. Mesenteric nitric oxide and superoxide production in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. J Surg Res. 2010;161:1-8 pubmed publisher
    A proposed mechanism of intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) involves vascular dysfunction through altered nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity...
  14. Le Mandat Schultz A, Bonnard A, Barreau F, Aigrain Y, Pierre Louis C, Berrebi D, et al. Expression of TLR-2, TLR-4, NOD2 and pNF-kappaB in a neonatal rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1102 pubmed
    The etiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) results from a combination of several risk factors that act synergistically and occurs in the same circumstances as those which lead to innate immunity activation...
  15. Halpern M, Khailova L, Molla Hosseini D, Arganbright K, Reynolds C, Yajima M, et al. Decreased development of necrotizing enterocolitis in IL-18-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G20-6 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease predominantly of prematurely born infants, characterized in its severest from by extensive hemorrhagic inflammatory necrosis of the distal ileum and proximal colon...
  16. Kamoji V, Dorling J, Manktelow B, Draper E, Field D. Antenatal umbilical Doppler abnormalities: an independent risk factor for early onset neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. Acta Paediatr. 2008;97:327-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) emergency seen in neonatal units. Many factors have been considered as potentially important aetiologically, including gut ischaemia, sepsis and feeding...
  17. Sullivan S, Schanler R, Kim J, Patel A, Trawöger R, Kiechl Kohlendorfer U, et al. An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products. J Pediatr. 2010;156:562-7.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the health benefits of an exclusively human milk-based diet compared with a diet of both human milk and bovine milk-based products in extremely premature infants...
  18. Evennett N, Hall N, Pierro A, Eaton S. Urinary intestinal fatty acid-binding protein concentration predicts extent of disease in necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:735-40 pubmed publisher
    ..mucosal cell damage, has recently been proposed as a clinically useful measure in the early detection of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, there are no data on urinary i-FABP in more advanced (Bell stage II /III) NEC...
  19. Thuijls G, Derikx J, van Wijck K, Zimmermann L, Degraeuwe P, Mulder T, et al. Non-invasive markers for early diagnosis and determination of the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis. Ann Surg. 2010;251:1174-80 pubmed publisher
    To improve diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by noninvasive markers representing gut wall integrity loss (I-FABP and claudin-3) and gut wall inflammation (calprotectin)...
  20. Lu J, Pierce M, Franklin A, Jilling T, Stafforini D, Caplan M. Dual roles of endogenous platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in a murine model of necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Res. 2010;68:225-30 pubmed publisher
    Human preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have increased circulating and luminal levels of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and decreased serum PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), the enzyme that inactivates PAF...
  21. Khailova L, Dvorak K, Arganbright K, Halpern M, Kinouchi T, Yajima M, et al. Bifidobacterium bifidum improves intestinal integrity in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G940-9 pubmed
    Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Oral administration of probiotics has been suggested as a promising strategy for prevention of NEC...
  22. Awad H, Mokhtar H, Imam S, Gad G, Hafez H, Aboushady N. Comparison between killed and living probiotic usage versus placebo for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in neonates. Pak J Biol Sci. 2010;13:253-62 pubmed
    ..role of killed (KP) Lactobacillus acidophilus with living (LP) in reducing incidence of sepsis (NS) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates...
  23. Sodhi C, Shi X, Richardson W, Grant Z, Shapiro R, Prindle T, et al. Toll-like receptor-4 inhibits enterocyte proliferation via impaired beta-catenin signaling in necrotizing enterocolitis. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:185-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), the leading cause of gastrointestinal death from gastrointestinal disease in preterm infants, is characterized by exaggerated TLR4 signaling and decreased enterocyte proliferation through unknown ..
  24. Cotten C, Taylor S, Stoll B, Goldberg R, Hansen N, Sanchez P, et al. Prolonged duration of initial empirical antibiotic treatment is associated with increased rates of necrotizing enterocolitis and death for extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2009;123:58-66 pubmed publisher
    ..days and to assess associations between the duration of the initial antibiotic course and subsequent necrotizing enterocolitis or death in extremely low birth weight infants with sterile initial postnatal culture results...
  25. Ng P, Ang I, Chiu R, Li K, Lam H, Wong R, et al. Host-response biomarkers for diagnosis of late-onset septicemia and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2989-3000 pubmed publisher
    ..life-threatening infections that are clinically difficult to detect, such as late-onset septicemia and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)...
  26. De Plaen I, Liu S, Tian R, Neequaye I, May M, Han X, et al. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB ameliorates bowel injury and prolongs survival in a neonatal rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Res. 2007;61:716-21 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of morbidity and death in premature infants...
  27. Morowitz M, Poroyko V, Caplan M, Alverdy J, Liu D. Redefining the role of intestinal microbes in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatrics. 2010;125:777-85 pubmed publisher
    Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among very low birth weight infants...
  28. Srinivasan P, Brandler M, D Souza A, Millman P, Moreau H. Allergic enterocolitis presenting as recurrent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates. J Perinatol. 2010;30:431-3 pubmed publisher
    An uncommon clinical entity mimicking necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is allergic enterocolitis secondary to cow's milk protein allergy...
  29. Chan K, Wong K, Luk J. Role of LPS/CD14/TLR4-mediated inflammation in necrotizing enterocolitis: pathogenesis and therapeutic implications. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:4745-52 pubmed
    ..lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/CD14/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammation in a rat model of human necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)...
  30. Radulescu A, Zorko N, Yu X, Besner G. Preclinical neonatal rat studies of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in protection of the intestines from necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:437-42 pubmed publisher
    ..in Escherichia coli decreases the incidence and severity of intestinal injury in a neonatal rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)...
  31. Bister V, Salmela M, Heikkila P, Anttila A, Rintala R, Isaka K, et al. Matrilysins-1 and -2 (MMP-7 and -26) and metalloelastase (MMP-12), unlike MMP-19, are up-regulated in necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;40:60-6 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal disease of premature infants characterized histologically by extensive tissue injury and inflammation...
  32. Chan K, Ho J, Chan K, Tam P. A study of gut immunity to enteral endotoxin in rats of different ages: a possible cause for necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:1435-40 pubmed
    Immature gut immunity can be a predisposing factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). The gut active immunity and innate defense to the Escherichia coli endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in immature and mature rats were studied...
  33. Halpern M, Holubec H, Dominguez J, Meza Y, Williams C, Ruth M, et al. Hepatic inflammatory mediators contribute to intestinal damage in necrotizing enterocolitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;284:G695-702 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a common and devastating gastrointestinal disease of premature infants...
  34. Diven S, Angel C, Hawkins H, Rowen J, Shattuck K. Intestinal zygomycosis due to Absidia corymbifera mimicking necrotizing enterocolitis in a preterm neonate. J Perinatol. 2004;24:794-6 pubmed
    ..forms of zygomycosis are cellulitis, disseminated, and gastrointestinal, and the last often mimics necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), complicating the diagnosis...
  35. Lodha A, de Silva N, Petric M, Moore A. Human torovirus: a new virus associated with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Acta Paediatr. 2005;94:1085-8 pubmed
    Toroviruses have been associated with gastroenteritis in both animals and humans. The aim of this study was to examine the fecal excretion of torovirus in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).
  36. Lin H, Su B, Chen A, Lin T, Tsai C, Yeh T, et al. Oral probiotics reduce the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2005;115:1-4 pubmed
    We evaluated the efficacy of probiotics in reducing the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants...
  37. Szebeni B, Szekeres R, Rusai K, Vannay A, Veres G, Treszl A, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of CD14, toll-like receptor 4, and caspase-recruitment domain 15 are not associated with necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;42:27-31 pubmed
    ..system to bacterial antigens present in the intestinal flora may play a role in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)...
  38. Blakely M, Tyson J, Lally K, McDonald S, Stoll B, Stevenson D, et al. Laparotomy versus peritoneal drainage for necrotizing enterocolitis or isolated intestinal perforation in extremely low birth weight infants: outcomes through 18 months adjusted age. Pediatrics. 2006;117:e680-7 pubmed
    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; < or =1000 g) infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or isolated intestinal perforation (IP) are treated surgically with either initial laparotomy or peritoneal drain placement...
  39. Bin Nun A, Bromiker R, Wilschanski M, Kaplan M, Rudensky B, Caplan M, et al. Oral probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates. J Pediatr. 2005;147:192-6 pubmed
    ..probiotics would provide a natural defense, thereby reducing both the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates...
  40. Hackam D, Upperman J, Grishin A, Ford H. Disordered enterocyte signaling and intestinal barrier dysfunction in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2005;14:49-57 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of death from gastrointestinal disease in neonates, and is characterized by the development of diffuse intestinal necrosis in the stressed, pre-term infant...
  41. Mandel D, Lubetzky R, Mimouni F, Dollberg S. Lactobezoar and necrotizing enterocolitis in a preterm infant. Isr Med Assoc J. 2003;5:895-6 pubmed
  42. Ren Y, Lin C, Li Z, Chen X, Huang X, Lui V, et al. Up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in infants with acute neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Histopathology. 2005;46:659-67 pubmed
    ..the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its downstream cytokine cascade in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)...
  43. Caplan M, Simon D, Jilling T. The role of PAF, TLR, and the inflammatory response in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2005;14:145-51 pubmed
    The pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis remains poorly understood...
  44. Halpern M, Clark J, Saunders T, Doelle S, Hosseini D, Stagner A, et al. Reduction of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis with anti-TNF-alpha. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;290:G757-64 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal disease of premature infants. However, despite significant morbidity and mortality, the etiology and pathogenesis of NEC are poorly understood...
  45. Halpern M, Holubec H, Dominguez J, Williams C, Meza Y, McWilliam D, et al. Up-regulation of IL-18 and IL-12 in the ileum of neonatal rats with necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Res. 2002;51:733-9 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a common and devastating gastrointestinal disease of premature infants...
  46. Sawardekar K. Shigellosis caused by Shigella boydii in a preterm neonate, masquerading as necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:184-5 pubmed
    ..The roles of breast-feeding, hand-washing and surveillance for enteric infections in the prevention of shigellosis in low risk settings such as a special care baby unit are highlighted...
  47. Updegrove K. Necrotizing enterocolitis: the evidence for use of human milk in prevention and treatment. J Hum Lact. 2004;20:335-9 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the diagnoses for which donor human milk is regularly prescribed. The role of human milk in both prevention and treatment of NEC has long been recognized...
  48. Jilling T, Simon D, Lu J, Meng F, Li D, Schy R, et al. The roles of bacteria and TLR4 in rat and murine models of necrotizing enterocolitis. J Immunol. 2006;177:3273-82 pubmed
    Bacteria are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but it is unknown whether their interaction with the epithelium can participate in the initiation of mucosal injury or they can act only following ..
  49. Fell J. Neonatal inflammatory intestinal diseases: necrotising enterocolitis and allergic colitis. Early Hum Dev. 2005;81:117-22 pubmed
  50. Halpern M, Dominguez J, Dvorakova K, Holubec H, Williams C, Meza Y, et al. Ileal cytokine dysregulation in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis is reduced by epidermal growth factor. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2003;36:126-33 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal disease of premature infants...
  51. Waligora Dupriet A, Dugay A, Auzeil N, Huerre M, Butel M. Evidence for clostridial implication in necrotizing enterocolitis through bacterial fermentation in a gnotobiotic quail model. Pediatr Res. 2005;58:629-35 pubmed
    Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains elusive. The aim of our work was to investigate the role of bacterial strains involved in NEC in gnotobiotic quails as experimental model...
  52. Hsueh W, Caplan M, Qu X, Tan X, De Plaen I, Gonzalez Crussi F. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis: clinical considerations and pathogenetic concepts. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2003;6:6-23 pubmed
    b>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a disease affecting predominantly premature infants, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units...
  53. Cobb B, Carlo W, Ambalavanan N. Gastric residuals and their relationship to necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2004;113:50-3 pubmed
    ..gastric residuals in very low birth weight (VLBW; <or=1500 g birth weight) infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)...