enterocolitis

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.

Top Publications

  1. Vieten D, Spicer R. Enterocolitis complicating Hirschsprung's disease. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2004;13:263-72 pubmed
    b>Enterocolitis remains a relatively common complication of Hirschsprung's disease with significant morbidity and mortality. The etiology of Hirschsprung's enterocolitis (HEC) is multifactorial and remains poorly understood...
  2. Fogg M, Brown Whitehorn T, Pawlowski N, Spergel J. Atopy patch test for the diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2006;17:351-5 pubmed
    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is thought to be a non-IgE mediated food allergy syndrome. Affected infants typically demonstrate gastrointestinal symptoms after hours after ingestion of the offending food...
  3. Kanamori Y, Sugiyama M, Hashizume K, Yuki N, Morotomi M, Tanaka R. Experience of long-term synbiotic therapy in seven short bowel patients with refractory enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:1686-92 pubmed
    ..was applied for more than 1 year to 7 malnourished patients with short bowels who suffered from refractory enterocolitis. The therapeutic protocol improved the intestinal bacterial flora (inducing the domination by anaerobic ..
  4. Hwang J, Song J, Kang Y, Kim S, Suh S, Kam S, et al. The significance of gastric juice analysis for a positive challenge by a standard oral challenge test in typical cow's milk protein-induced enterocolitis. J Korean Med Sci. 2008;23:251-5 pubmed publisher
    ..positive challenge in a standard oral cow's milk challenge (OCC) to confirm typical cow's milk protein-induced enterocolitis (CMPIE). Data from 16 CMPIE patients (aged 14 to 44 days) were analyzed...
  5. Guilmeau S, Flandez M, Bancroft L, Sellers R, Tear B, Stanley P, et al. Intestinal deletion of Pofut1 in the mouse inactivates notch signaling and causes enterocolitis. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:849-60, 860.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..is accompanied by alteration of the mucus-associated flora, which likely contributes to the development of enterocolitis. Therefore, these data identify important potential complications in strategies to target Notch signaling in ..
  6. Wu C, Tsai P, Chen P, Wu I, Lin Y, Chen Y, et al. Aeromonas aquariorum septicemia and enterocolitis in a cirrhotic patient. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;74:406-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The A. aquariorum isolates carried genes encoding hemolysin, aerolysin, and the cytotonic enterotoxin Alt. Significant A. aquariorum-induced cytotoxicity in intestinal epithelial cells was also demonstrated. ..
  7. Sydora B, Tavernini M, Doyle J, Fedorak R. Association with selected bacteria does not cause enterocolitis in IL-10 gene-deficient mice despite a systemic immune response. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:905-13 pubmed
    ..sterile IL-10 gene-deficient mice remain disease-free, their conventionally raised littermates develop enterocolitis associated with increased numbers of luminal and mucosal adherent bacteria...
  8. Noto Llana M, Sarnacki S, Vázquez M, Gartner A, Giacomodonato M, Cerquetti M. Salmonella enterica induces joint inflammation and expression of interleukin-17 in draining lymph nodes early after onset of enterocolitis in mice. Infect Immun. 2012;80:2231-9 pubmed publisher
    In developing countries, one-third of reactive arthritis (ReA) cases are associated with Salmonella enterocolitis; nevertheless, there is no animal model for studying this pathology...
  9. Leonard S, Nowak Wegrzyn A. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: an update on natural history and review of management. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;107:95-101; quiz 101, 162 pubmed publisher
    To review the clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) and to discuss new observations in epidemiology and natural history.

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kim S, Tonkonogy S, Albright C, Tsang J, Balish E, Braun J, et al. Variable phenotypes of enterocolitis in interleukin 10-deficient mice monoassociated with two different commensal bacteria. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:891-906 pubmed
    ..Different commensal bacterial species selectively initiate immune-mediated intestinal inflammation with distinctly different kinetics and anatomic distribution in the same host. ..
  2. Brugman S, Liu K, Lindenbergh Kortleve D, Samsom J, Furuta G, Renshaw S, et al. Oxazolone-induced enterocolitis in zebrafish depends on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:1757-67.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a zebrafish model of enterocolitis to study these interactions...
  3. Sicherer S. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: case presentations and management lessons. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115:149-56 pubmed
    b>Enterocolitis induced in infants by cow's milk and/or soy protein has been recognized for decades. Symptoms typically begin in the first month of life in association with failure to thrive and may progress to acidemia and shock...
  4. Austin K. The pathogenesis of Hirschsprung's disease-associated enterocolitis. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2012;21:319-27 pubmed publisher
    Hirschsprung's disease-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) remains the most life-threatening complication in Hirschsprung disease (HD) patients...
  5. Cheng Z, Dhall D, Zhao L, Wang H, Doherty T, Bresee C, et al. Murine model of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis. I: phenotypic characterization with development of a histopathologic grading system. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:475-82 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to characterize enterocolitis in the Ednrb-null (Ednrb-/-) mouse with aganglionosis of the colon and to develop and validate a semiquantitative histopathologic grading system to assess enterocolitis...
  6. Sestak K, Merritt C, Borda J, Saylor E, Schwamberger S, Cogswell F, et al. Infectious agent and immune response characteristics of chronic enterocolitis in captive rhesus macaques. Infect Immun. 2003;71:4079-86 pubmed
    Chronic enterocolitis is the leading cause of morbidity in colonies of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)...
  7. Stecher B, Chaffron S, Käppeli R, Hapfelmeier S, Freedrich S, Weber T, et al. Like will to like: abundances of closely related species can predict susceptibility to intestinal colonization by pathogenic and commensal bacteria. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000711 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze the mechanisms of microbiota-mediated protection from Salmonella enterica induced enterocolitis, we used a mouse infection model and large scale high-throughput pyrosequencing...
  8. Oehlers S, Flores M, Okuda K, Hall C, Crosier K, Crosier P. A chemical enterocolitis model in zebrafish larvae that is dependent on microbiota and responsive to pharmacological agents. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:288-98 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a marked induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the degradative enzyme mmp9 and leukocytosis. Enterocolitis was dependent on microbiota and Toll-like receptor signaling, that can be ameliorated by antibiotic and anti-..
  9. Scaparrotta A, Di Pillo S, Consilvio N, Attanasi M, Cingolani A, Rapino D, et al. Usefulness of Atopy Patch Test on a child with milk protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: a case report. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2013;26:795-800 pubmed
    We describe the case of a child affected by milk-protein induced enterocolitis, in which oral challenge with corn was performed without symptoms after a negative specific Atopy Patch Test...
  10. Zeng H, Carlson A, Guo Y, Yu Y, Collier Hyams L, Madara J, et al. Flagellin is the major proinflammatory determinant of enteropathogenic Salmonella. J Immunol. 2003;171:3668-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, S. typhimurium flagellin is the major molecular trigger by which this pathogen activates gut epithelial proinflammatory gene expression. ..
  11. Borody T, Warren E, Leis S, Surace R, Ashman O, Siarakas S. Bacteriotherapy using fecal flora: toying with human motions. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;38:475-83 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, given the promising clinical responses, formal research into fecal bacteriotherapy is now warranted. ..
  12. Hojsak I, Kljaić Turkalj M, Misak Z, Kolacek S. Rice protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Clin Nutr. 2006;25:533-6 pubmed
    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated allergic reaction, usually to cow's milk or soy protein. The aim is to present a series of infants with enterocolitis syndrome developed after rice ingestion...
  13. Kobayashi M, Kweon M, Kuwata H, Schreiber R, Kiyono H, Takeda K, et al. Toll-like receptor-dependent production of IL-12p40 causes chronic enterocolitis in myeloid cell-specific Stat3-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:1297-308 pubmed
    ..cell-specific deletion of Stat3 resulted in inflammatory cytokine production and development of chronic enterocolitis with enhanced Th1 responses in mice...
  14. Mattar A, Coran A, Teitelbaum D. MUC-2 mucin production in Hirschsprung's disease: possible association with enterocolitis development. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38:417-21; discussion 417-21 pubmed
    The etiology of Hirschsprung's-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is unknown. Previous investigations have suggested that abnormal production of mucins may have an etiologic role. Recently, a series of mucin genes have been identified...
  15. Oehlers S, Flores M, Hall C, Crosier K, Crosier P. Retinoic acid suppresses intestinal mucus production and exacerbates experimental enterocolitis. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5:457-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reports the characterization of a novel zebrafish larval model of IBD-like enterocolitis induced by exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
  16. Menezes M, Puri P. Long-term outcome of patients with enterocolitis complicating Hirschsprung's disease. Pediatr Surg Int. 2006;22:316-8 pubmed
    b>Enterocolitis remains the most serious complication of Hirschsprung's disease (HD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors in the development of enterocolitis and the long-term outcome in these patients...
  17. Hwang J, Sohn S, Kim A. Prospective follow-up oral food challenge in food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 2009;94:425-8 pubmed publisher
    ..soy and to suggest guidelines for follow-up oral food challenges (FU-OFCs) in infantile food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES)...
  18. Mehr S, Kakakios A, Frith K, Kemp A. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: 16-year experience. Pediatrics. 2009;123:e459-64 pubmed publisher
    ..foods, clinical features, treatments, and outcomes for children presenting with acute food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome...
  19. Leonard S, Nowak Wegrzyn A. Clinical diagnosis and management of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012;24:739-45 pubmed publisher
    To provide an overview of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and pathophysiology of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), an under-recognized and often misdiagnosed nonimmunoglobulin E-mediated food hypersensitivity...
  20. Haag L, Fischer A, Otto B, Plickert R, Kuhl A, Göbel U, et al. Campylobacter jejuni induces acute enterocolitis in gnotobiotic IL-10-/- mice via Toll-like-receptor-2 and -4 signaling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40761 pubmed publisher
    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial enterocolitis worldwide. Investigation of immunopathology is hampered by a lack of suitable vertebrate models...
  21. Levy Y, Danon Y. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome--not only due to cow's milk and soy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2003;14:325-9 pubmed
    ..period, six patients (four males, two females aged 3-12 months) were diagnosed with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) triggered by foods other than cow's milk and soy: chicken in four, turkey in two, peas in one,..
  22. Sopo S, Giorgio V, Dello Iacono I, Novembre E, Mori F, Onesimo R. A multicentre retrospective study of 66 Italian children with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: different management for different phenotypes. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42:1257-65 pubmed publisher
    Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated paediatric disorder triggered by the ingestion of specific food proteins. Many features of this syndrome are not yet well defined...
  23. Cheng L, Kanwar B, Tcheurekdjian H, Grenert J, Muskat M, Heyman M, et al. Persistent systemic inflammation and atypical enterocolitis in patients with NEMO syndrome. Clin Immunol. 2009;132:124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..of erythrocyte sedimentation rates in five patients, and two were symptomatic, with a chronic but atypical enterocolitis. Though pathologic lesions in these two patients were consistent with acute inflammation, sustained clinical ..
  24. Kim M, Park H, Park C, Lee E, Rho M, Park N, et al. Eosinophilic cystitis associated with eosinophilic enterocolitis: case reports and review of the literature. Br J Radiol. 2010;83:e122-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Eosinophilic cystitis might have been associated with eosinophilic infiltration in other organs, such as the gastrointestinal tracts and liver...
  25. Liu Y, Fatheree N, Dingle B, Tran D, Rhoads J. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 changes the frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the intestine and mesenteric lymph node in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56547 pubmed publisher
    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory disease of the intestine in premature infants. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 improves survival and reduces the incidence and severity of NEC in a rodent model...
  26. Cheng Z, Wang X, Dhall D, Zhao L, Bresee C, Doherty T, et al. Splenic lymphopenia in the endothelin receptor B-null mouse: implications for Hirschsprung associated enterocolitis. Pediatr Surg Int. 2011;27:145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..phenotype with splenic lymphopenia in the Ednrb-null (Ednrb-/-) mouse with aganglionosis known to also develop enterocolitis. We compared spleen weight as a percent of body weight from Ednrb+/+, Ednrb+/-, and Ednrb-/- mice to quantify ..
  27. Coburn B, Li Y, Owen D, Vallance B, Finlay B. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pathogenicity island 2 is necessary for complete virulence in a mouse model of infectious enterocolitis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3219-27 pubmed
    ..type III secretion systems, we demonstrate that SPI2 is essential for complete virulence in murine infectious enterocolitis. Using a recently characterized murine model (M. Barthel,S. Hapfelmeier, L. Quintanilla-Martinez, M. Kremer, M...
  28. Miceli Sopo S, Greco M, Monaco S, Tripodi S, Calvani M. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, from practice to theory. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2013;9:707-15 pubmed publisher
    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an allergic disease, probably non-IgE-mediated, with expression predominantly in the GI tract. The most characteristic symptom is repeated, debilitating vomiting...
  29. Hwang J, Lee S, Kang Y, Kim S, Suh S, Kam S. Indexes of suspicion of typical cow's milk protein-induced enterocolitis. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22:993-7 pubmed
    ..was performed to identify clinical factors that facilitate the diagnosis of typical cow's milk protein-induced enterocolitis (CMPIE)...
  30. Ohkawara S, Furuya H, Nagashima K, Asanuma N, Hino T. Effect of oral administration of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens MDT-1 on experimental enterocolitis in mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:1231-6 pubmed
    Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens MDT-1, a butyrate-producing strain, was evaluated for use as a probiotic to prevent enterocolitis. Oral administration of the MDT-1 strain (10(9) CFU/dose) alleviated the symptoms of colitis (including body ..
  31. Bone J, Claver A, Guallar I, Plaza A. Allergic proctocolitis, food-induced enterocolitis: immune mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2009;37:36-42 pubmed
    ..The gastrointestinal problems derived from these delayed or chronic reactions comprise allergic proctocolitis, enterocolitis and food protein enteropathies...
  32. Desrochers A, Dolente B, Roy M, Boston R, Carlisle S. Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii for treatment of horses with acute enterocolitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;227:954-9 pubmed
    ..after PO administration in clinically normal horses and its efficacy as a treatment for horses with acute enterocolitis. Prospective study. 5 clinically normal horses and 14 horses with acute enterocolitis...
  33. Moore S, Sidler D, Zaahl M. The ITGB2 immunomodulatory gene (CD18), enterocolitis, and Hirschsprung's disease. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:1439-44 pubmed publisher
    Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR)-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality associated with HSCR, being sometimes difficult to diagnose in its subclinical form...
  34. McKenna P, Hoffmann C, Minkah N, Aye P, Lackner A, Liu Z, et al. The macaque gut microbiome in health, lentiviral infection, and chronic enterocolitis. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e20 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides comprehensive data and improved methods for studying the role of commensal microbiota in macaque models of GI diseases and provides a model for the large-scale screening of the human gut microbiome...
  35. Mohan M, Aye P, Borda J, Alvarez X, Lackner A. Gastrointestinal disease in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques is characterized by proinflammatory dysregulation of the interleukin-6-Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription3 pathway. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:1952-65 pubmed
    ..Despite high SOCS-3 expression, STAT3 remained constitutively active, providing a possible explanation for persistent intestinal inflammation and immune activation that may favor viral replication and disease pro-gression...
  36. Nowak Wegrzyn A, Sampson H, Wood R, Sicherer S. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by solid food proteins. Pediatrics. 2003;111:829-35 pubmed
    Infantile food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a severe, cell-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity typically provoked by cow's milk or soy. Solid foods are rarely considered a cause...
  37. Ramesh G, Alvarez X, Borda J, Aye P, Lackner A, Sestak K. Visualizing cytokine-secreting cells in situ in the rhesus macaque model of chronic gut inflammation. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:192-7 pubmed
    Cytokine-producing cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues of rhesus macaques with chronic enterocolitis were studied...
  38. Caubet J, Nowak Wegrzyn A. Current understanding of the immune mechanisms of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2011;7:317-27 pubmed publisher
    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an under-recognized and frequently misdiagnosed non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorder, characterized by severe vomiting and/or diarrhea...
  39. Zapatero Remón L, Alonso Lebrero E, Martín Fernández E, Martínez Molero M. Food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by fish. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2005;33:312-6 pubmed
    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) occurs in infants. Typical symptoms include profuse vomiting and/or diarrhea several hours after ingestion of a given food. The disorder is a non-IgE mediated food hypersensitivity...
  40. Mehr S, Kakakios A, Kemp A. Rice: a common and severe cause of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 2009;94:220-3 pubmed publisher
    To examine and compare the characteristics of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) caused by rice and cow's milk/soy...
  41. Hapfelmeier S, Hardt W. A mouse model for S. typhimurium-induced enterocolitis. Trends Microbiol. 2005;13:497-503 pubmed
    ..This mouse model provides a new avenue for research into acute intestinal inflammation because it enables the manipulation and dissection of both the bacterial and host contributions to the disease in unsurpassed detail. ..
  42. Iraha S, Ogawa K, Moromizato H, Shiraishi M, Nagai Y, Samura H, et al. Radiation enterocolitis requiring surgery in patients with gynecological malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;68:1088-93 pubmed
    To identify the characteristics, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of radiation enterocolitis requiring surgery in patients with gynecologic malignancies...
  43. Kuhn R, Lohler J, Rennick D, Rajewsky K, Muller W. Interleukin-10-deficient mice develop chronic enterocolitis. Cell. 1993;75:263-74 pubmed
    ..and antibody responses are normal, but most animals are growth retarded and anemic and suffer from chronic enterocolitis. Alterations in intestine include extensive mucosal hyperplasia, inflammatory reactions, and aberrant ..
  44. Rintala R, Lindahl H. Sodium cromoglycate in the management of chronic or recurrent enterocolitis in patients with Hirschsprung's disease. J Pediatr Surg. 2001;36:1032-5 pubmed
    Chronic or recurring enterocolitis is a rare but perplexing complication of Hirschsprung's disease affecting especially patients with altered immune defense such as those with Down's syndrome...
  45. Takeda K, Clausen B, Kaisho T, Tsujimura T, Terada N, Forster I, et al. Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils. Immunity. 1999;10:39-49 pubmed
    ..The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age...
  46. Berg D, Davidson N, Kuhn R, Muller W, Menon S, Holland G, et al. Enterocolitis and colon cancer in interleukin-10-deficient mice are associated with aberrant cytokine production and CD4(+) TH1-like responses. J Clin Invest. 1996;98:1010-20 pubmed
    ..have associated uncontrolled cytokine production by activated macrophages and CD4+ Th1-like T cells with the enterocolitis exhibited by IL-10-/- mice...
  47. McCall R, Haskill S, Zimmermann E, Lund P, Thompson R, Sartor R. Tissue interleukin 1 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist expression in enterocolitis in resistant and susceptible rats. Gastroenterology. 1994;106:960-72 pubmed
    ..purified group A streptococcal peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-APS) induces chronic relapsing granulomatous enterocolitis and systemic inflammation in susceptible inbred Lewis rats but only transient intestinal injury in Buffalo and ..
  48. Wiesner W, Kocher T, Heim M, Bongartz G. CT findings in eosinophilic enterocolitis with predominantly serosal and muscular bowel wall infiltration. JBR-BTR. 2002;85:4-6 pubmed
    ..In context with the known blood eosinophilia the diagnosis of an eosinophilic enterocolitis was suspected already by CT but finally only surgical full thickness biopsies could confirm the rare diagnosis ..
  49. Chung H, Hwang J, Park J, Kim S. Expression of transforming growth factor beta1, transforming growth factor type I and II receptors, and TNF-alpha in the mucosa of the small intestine in infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;109:150-4 pubmed
    ..on the mucosa of small intestine to investigate their roles in the pathogenesis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES)...
  50. Urushihara N, Ariki N, Oyama T, Chouda Y, Yagi T, Inoue T, et al. Secondary sclerosing cholangitis and portal hypertension after O157 enterocolitis: Extremely rare complications of hemolytic uremic syndrome. J Pediatr Surg. 2001;36:1838-40 pubmed
    ..Sclerosing cholangitis and subsequent cirrhosis with portal hypertension are very uncommon as late complications of HUS. To our knowledge, such a case has not been previously reported in the literature. J Pediatr Surg 36:1838-1840. ..
  51. Lui V, Li L, Sham M, Tam P. CDX-1 and CDX-2 are expressed in human colonic mucosa and are down-regulated in patients with Hirschsprung's disease associated enterocolitis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1537:89-100 pubmed
    ..anomaly of intestine, which causes functional intestinal obstruction, is frequently associated with enterocolitis. Aetiology of HD-associated enterocolitis (HDEC) remains obscure...
  52. Almajed F, Forsythe S. Cronobacter sakazakii clinical isolates overcome host barriers and evade the immune response. Microb Pathog. 2016;90:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..barriers and evade the host immune response indicating their capacity to cause diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and meningitis. Our data showed for the first time the ability of C...
  53. Affumicato L, Sánchez Tamayo T, Espinosa Fernández M, Peña Caballero M, Ruiz Morcillo C, Acebes Tosti R, et al. [Satellite center of human milk: Analysis of cost reduction]. J Healthc Qual Res. 2018;33:3-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the baby is a premature or a sick child since this milk has the advantage of protecting against necrotizing enterocolitis. There are currently 13 milk banks in Spain, however this is not sufficient to supply all Spanish neonatal ..