mucositis

Summary

Summary: An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).

Top Publications

  1. Khanal B, Baliga M, Uppal N. Effect of topical honey on limitation of radiation-induced oral mucositis: an intervention study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;39:1181-5 pubmed publisher
    Radiation therapy for oral carcinoma is therapeutically useful in dose of at least 6000 cGy but causes mucositis that severely interferes with oral function...
  2. Xiang D, Guo Y, Zhang J, Gao J, Lu H, Zhu S, et al. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced mucositis in a murine model. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;67:1445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..the protective effects of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1Ra) on chemotherapy-induced mucositis (CIM) in a murine model of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy...
  3. Sukhotnik I, Mogilner J, Karry R, Shamian B, Lurie M, Kokhanovsky N, et al. Effect of oral glutamine on enterocyte turnover during methotrexate-induced mucositis in rats. Digestion. 2009;79:5-13 pubmed publisher
    ..MTX) was accompanied by decreased Bax and increased Bcl-2 mRNA expression. Treatment with oral glutamine prevents mucosal injury and improves intestinal recovery following MTX injury in the rat. ..
  4. Wu Z, Han X, Wang Y, Yuan K, Jin Z, DI J, et al. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist reduced apoptosis and attenuated intestinal mucositis in a 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy model in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;68:87-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Intestinal mucositis was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 5-FU (200 mg/kg)...
  5. Ben Lulu S, Pollak Y, Mogilner J, Bejar J, G Coran A, Sukhotnik I. Dietary transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-?2) supplementation reduces methotrexate-induced intestinal mucosal injury in a rat. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45221 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with TGF-?2 prevents mucosal-injury, enhances p-ERK and ?-catenin induced enterocyte proliferation, inhibits enterocyte apoptosis and improves intestinal recovery following MTX-induced intestinal-mucositis in rats.
  6. Feller L, Essop R, Wood N, Khammissa R, Chikte U, Meyerov R, et al. Chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis: pathobiology, epidemiology and management. SADJ. 2010;65:372-4 pubmed
    Oral mucositis is a debilitating complication of anticancer treatment, characterised by erythematous, atrophic, erosive or ulcerative lesions...
  7. Blijlevens N, Logan R, Netea M. The changing face of febrile neutropenia-from monotherapy to moulds to mucositis. Mucositis: from febrile neutropenia to febrile mucositis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;63 Suppl 1:i36-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The article describes the journey from febrile neutropenia to febrile mucositis in patients treated with immunocompromising therapy.
  8. Elad S, Bowen J, Zadik Y, Lalla R. Development of the MASCC/ISOO Clinical Practice Guidelines for Mucositis: considerations underlying the process. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21:309-12 pubmed publisher
    The Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) recently conducted a systematic review to update the MASCC/ISOO clinical practice guidelines for ..
  9. Tomlinson D, Gibson F, Treister N, Baggott C, Judd P, Hendershot E, et al. Refinement of the Children's International Mucositis Evaluation Scale (ChIMES): child and parent perspectives on understandability, content validity and acceptability. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2010;14:29-41 pubmed publisher
    A new paediatric mucositis assessment instrument, the Children's International Mucositis Evaluation Scale (ChIMES), has required several phases of development. A draft of ChIMES was developed that required further refinement...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Gibson R, Keefe D, Lalla R, Bateman E, Blijlevens N, Fijlstra M, et al. Systematic review of agents for the management of gastrointestinal mucositis in cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21:313-26 pubmed publisher
    ..define clinical practice guidelines for the use of agents for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal mucositis. A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive ..
  2. Maria Aggeliki K, Nikolaos K, Kyrias G, Vassilis K. The potential clinical impact of probiotic treatment for the prevention and/or anti-inflammatory therapeutic effect against radiation induced intestinal mucositis. A review. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2009;3:195-200 pubmed
    ..The most frequently reported symptom related to radiation-induced intestinal mucositis is diarrhea...
  3. Prisciandaro L, Geier M, Butler R, Cummins A, Howarth G. Probiotic factors partially improve parameters of 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in rats. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011;11:671-7 pubmed
    ..have demonstrated preliminary indications of efficacy for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis. However, probiotic derived supernatants (SN) have yet to be investigated in the mucositis setting...
  4. Tooley K, Howarth G, Butler R. Mucositis and non-invasive markers of small intestinal function. Cancer Biol Ther. 2009;8:753-8 pubmed
    b>Mucositis is a common and debilitating side effect of chemotherapy that manifests due to the inability of chemotherapy agents to discriminate between normal and neoplastic cells...
  5. Zhao J, Kim K, De Vera J, Palencia S, Wagle M, Abo A. R-Spondin1 protects mice from chemotherapy or radiation-induced oral mucositis through the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2331-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We herein evaluated the therapeutic potential of RSpo1 in treating chemotherapy or radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in several mouse models...
  6. Stringer A, Gibson R, Logan R, Bowen J, Yeoh A, Hamilton J, et al. Gastrointestinal microflora and mucins may play a critical role in the development of 5-Fluorouracil-induced gastrointestinal mucositis. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009;234:430-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of its major side effects are mucositis and diarrhoea...
  7. Bensadoun R, Nair R. Low-level laser therapy in the prevention and treatment of cancer therapy-induced mucositis: 2012 state of the art based on literature review and meta-analysis. Curr Opin Oncol. 2012;24:363-70 pubmed publisher
    ..the promising state of the art low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for preventive and therapeutic usage in oral mucositis due to cancer therapy...
  8. Boukhettala N, Ibrahim A, Aziz M, Vuichoud J, Saudan K, Blum S, et al. A diet containing whey protein, free glutamine, and transforming growth factor-beta ameliorates nutritional outcome and intestinal mucositis during repeated chemotherapeutic challenges in rats. J Nutr. 2010;140:799-805 pubmed publisher
    Anticancer chemotherapy often induces side effects such as mucositis. Recent data suggest that a diet, Clinutren Protect (CP), containing whey proteins, glutamine, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta)-rich casein limits ..
  9. Swierkot K, Lottholz P, Flores de Jacoby L, Mengel R. Mucositis, peri-implantitis, implant success, and survival of implants in patients with treated generalized aggressive periodontitis: 3- to 16-year results of a prospective long-term cohort study. J Periodontol. 2012;83:1213-25 pubmed
    The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the prevalence of mucositis, peri-implantitis, implant success, and survival in partially edentulous patients treated for generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) and in periodontally ..
  10. Otmani N, Alami R, Soulaymani A, El Mokhtari A, Khattab M. Sex, age and ABO blood groups in chemotherapy-induced oropharyngeal mucositis. Minerva Stomatol. 2008;57:505-9 pubmed
    The contribution of host genetic factors in oropharyngeal mucositis is not fully understood...
  11. Smith C, Geier M, Yazbeck R, Torres D, Butler R, Howarth G. Lactobacillus fermentum BR11 and fructo-oligosaccharide partially reduce jejunal inflammation in a model of intestinal mucositis in rats. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60:757-67 pubmed publisher
    ..FOS), both individually and in synbiotic combination, for their potential to alleviate intestinal mucositis. From Days 0-9, rats consumed skim milk (SM; saline + SM), low dose (LD-BR11; 1 x 10(6)cfu/ml), high dose (HD-..
  12. Ki Y, Kim W, Nam J, Kim D, Park D, Kim D. C-reactive protein levels and radiation-induced mucositis in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75:393-8 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (CRP) levels or the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the grade of acute radiation-induced mucositis in patients with head-and-neck cancer...
  13. Soares P, Mota J, Souza E, Justino P, Franco A, Cunha F, et al. Inflammatory intestinal damage induced by 5-fluorouracil requires IL-4. Cytokine. 2013;61:46-9 pubmed publisher
    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) induces intestinal mucositis, which is characterized by epithelial ulcerations in the mucosa and clinical manifestations, such as pain and dyspeptic symptoms...
  14. Lima Júnior R, Figueiredo A, Freitas H, Melo M, Wong D, Leite C, et al. Involvement of nitric oxide on the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis: role of cytokines on inducible nitric oxide synthase activation. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012;69:931-42 pubmed publisher
    Intestinal mucositis and the closely associated diarrhea are common costly side effects of irinotecan. Cytokine modulators, such as thalidomide and pentoxifylline, are found capable of attenuating intestinal mucositis progression...
  15. Hamada K, Kakigawa N, Sekine S, Shitara Y, Horie T. Disruption of ZO-1/claudin-4 interaction in relation to inflammatory responses in methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013;72:757-65 pubmed publisher
    Methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal mucositis limits the use of the drug...
  16. Meirovitz A, Kuten M, Billan S, Abdah Bortnyak R, Sharon A, Peretz T, et al. Cytokines levels, severity of acute mucositis and the need of PEG tube installation during chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer--a prospective pilot study. Radiat Oncol. 2010;5:16 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this pilot study was to detect a correlation between serum cytokine levels and severity of mucositis, necessitating installation of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG) in head and neck (H&N) cancer ..
  17. Lundberg M, Saarilahti K, Makitie A, Mattila P. TGFbeta1 genetic polymorphism is associated with survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma independent of the severity of chemoradiotherapy induced mucositis. Oral Oncol. 2010;46:369-72 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanisms mediating this, we investigated if the TGFB1 polymorphism was associated with the severity of mucositis induced by CRT...
  18. van Vliet M, Harmsen H, de Bont E, Tissing W. The role of intestinal microbiota in the development and severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000879 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucositis, also referred to as mucosal barrier injury, is one of the most debilitating side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment. Clinically, mucositis is associated with pain, bacteremia, and malnutrition...
  19. Prisciandaro L, Geier M, Butler R, Cummins A, Howarth G. Evidence supporting the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011;51:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mucositis can affect both the oral cavity and intestine, and represents one of the most common side-effects of ..
  20. Watters A, Epstein J, Agulnik M. Oral complications of targeted cancer therapies: a narrative literature review. Oral Oncol. 2011;47:441-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Common oral toxicities include the terms mucositis, stomatitis, dysphagia, xerostomia, pharyngitis, and taste alterations...
  21. Boukhettala N, Leblond J, Claeyssens S, Faure M, Le Pessot F, Bole Feysot C, et al. Methotrexate induces intestinal mucositis and alters gut protein metabolism independently of reduced food intake. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E182-90 pubmed publisher
    One of the main secondary toxic side effects of antimitotic agents used to treat cancer patients is intestinal mucositis. This one is characterized by compromised digestive and absorptive functions, barrier integrity, and immune ..
  22. Kaczmarek A, Brinkman B, Heyndrickx L, Vandenabeele P, Krysko D. Severity of doxorubicin-induced small intestinal mucositis is regulated by the TLR-2 and TLR-9 pathways. J Pathol. 2012;226:598-608 pubmed publisher
    Intestinal mucositis is a serious complication of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy; it frequently compromises treatment and dramatically reduces the quality of life of patients...
  23. Otmani N, Alami R, Hessissen L, Mokhtari A, Soulaymani A, Khattab M. Determinants of severe oral mucositis in paediatric cancer patients: a prospective study. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2011;21:210-6 pubmed publisher
    To analyse the incidence and the determinants of severe oral mucositis (OM) in young cancer patients treated by standard chemotherapy. The study was carried out at the Pediatric Hemato-Oncology unit of Children's Hospital of Rabat...
  24. Nonzee N, Dandade N, Patel U, Markossian T, Agulnik M, Argiris A, et al. Evaluating the supportive care costs of severe radiochemotherapy-induced mucositis and pharyngitis : results from a Northwestern University Costs of Cancer Program pilot study with head and neck and nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who received car. Cancer. 2008;113:1446-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Charts were reviewed for the presence/absence of severe mucositis/pharyngitis and the medical resources that were used...
  25. Chang C, Ho T, Lin H, Liang J, Huang H, Li C, et al. 5-Fluorouracil induced intestinal mucositis via nuclear factor-?B activation by transcriptomic analysis and in vivo bioluminescence imaging. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31808 pubmed publisher
    ..However, approximately 80% of patients undergoing 5-FU treatment suffer from gastrointestinal mucositis. The aim of this report was to identify the drug target for the 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis...
  26. Chikama T, Takahashi N, Wakuta M, Nishida T. Noninvasive direct detection of ocular mucositis by in vivo confocal microscopy in patients treated with S-1. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2896-904 pubmed
    ..S-1 can induce ocular mucositis with dysplasia, likely affecting cellular functions, including differentiation, of the corneal epithelium...
  27. Stringer A, Gibson R, Bowen J, Logan R, Ashton K, Yeoh A, et al. Irinotecan-induced mucositis manifesting as diarrhoea corresponds with an amended intestinal flora and mucin profile. Int J Exp Pathol. 2009;90:489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Irinotecan is linked with severe mucositis and diarrhoea, the mechanisms of which remain poorly understood...
  28. Yasuda M, Kato S, Yamanaka N, Iimori M, Matsumoto K, Utsumi D, et al. 5-HT? receptor antagonists ameliorate 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis by suppression of apoptosis in murine intestinal crypt cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;168:1388-400 pubmed publisher
    Chemotherapeutic agents, including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), frequently cause intestinal mucositis resulting in severe diarrhoea and morphological mucosal damage...
  29. Al Dasooqi N, Sonis S, Bowen J, Bateman E, Blijlevens N, Gibson R, et al. Emerging evidence on the pathobiology of mucositis. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21:2075-83 pubmed publisher
    ..has been made in our understanding of the biological basis for cancer therapy-induced mucosal barrier injury (mucositis). The last formal review of the subject by MASCC/ISOO was published in 2007; consequently, an update is timely...
  30. Stringer A, Gibson R, Logan R, Bowen J, Yeoh A, Laurence J, et al. Irinotecan-induced mucositis is associated with changes in intestinal mucins. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009;64:123-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucositis is a major oncological problem, caused by the cytotoxic effects of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
  31. Hallström H, Persson G, Lindgren S, Olofsson M, Renvert S. Systemic antibiotics and debridement of peri-implant mucositis. A randomized clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2012;39:574-81 pubmed publisher
    This RCT compared non-surgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis with or without systemic antibiotics.
  32. Ferreira T, Leonel A, Melo M, Santos R, Cara D, Cardoso V, et al. Oral supplementation of butyrate reduces mucositis and intestinal permeability associated with 5-Fluorouracil administration. Lipids. 2012;47:669-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucositis affects about 40 % of patients undergoing chemotherapy...
  33. Radvansky L, Pace M, Siddiqui A. Prevention and management of radiation-induced dermatitis, mucositis, and xerostomia. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2013;70:1025-32 pubmed publisher
    Current strategies for preventing and managing radiation-induced dermatitis, mucositis, and xerostomia are reviewed, with an emphasis on pharmacologic interventions...
  34. Saegusa Y, Ichikawa T, Iwai T, Goso Y, Okayasu I, Ikezawa T, et al. Changes in the mucus barrier of the rat during 5-fluorouracil-induced gastrointestinal mucositis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008;43:59-65 pubmed
    A frequent complication of antineoplastic chemotherapy (CT) is gastrointestinal (GI) mucositis. Although clinically this mucositis can be treated, data on the effect of CTon the mucosal defense mechanisms are scant, so the effects of 5-..
  35. Boukhettala N, Ibrahim A, Claeyssens S, Faure M, Le Pessot F, Vuichoud J, et al. A diet containing whey protein, glutamine, and TGFbeta modulates gut protein metabolism during chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:2172-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucositis, a common side effect of chemotherapy, is characterized by compromised digestive function, barrier integrity and immune competence...
  36. Lindsay R, Geier M, Yazbeck R, Butler R, Howarth G. Orally administered emu oil decreases acute inflammation and alters selected small intestinal parameters in a rat model of mucositis. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:513-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucositis resulting from cancer chemotherapy is a serious disorder of the alimentary tract...
  37. Stringer A, Gibson R, Bowen J, Keefe D. Chemotherapy-induced modifications to gastrointestinal microflora: evidence and implications of change. Curr Drug Metab. 2009;10:79-83 pubmed
    b>Mucositis is a common side effect of chemotherapy which remains poorly understood...
  38. van Vliet M, Tissing W, Rings E, Koetse H, Stellaard F, Kamps W, et al. Citrulline as a marker for chemotherapy induced mucosal barrier injury in pediatric patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009;53:1188-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that plasma citrulline might be a good parameter for MBI. Further studies are needed to show whether plasma citrulline can be used as a marker for MBI in future research. ..
  39. Noé J. L-glutamine use in the treatment and prevention of mucositis and cachexia: a naturopathic perspective. Integr Cancer Ther. 2009;8:409-15 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mucositis is an intestinal mucosal damage of the gastrointestinal tract--mouth, throat, stomach, intestines, rectum, and ..
  40. Yasuda M, Kato S, Yamanaka N, Iimori M, Utsumi D, Kitahara Y, et al. Potential role of the NADPH oxidase NOX1 in the pathogenesis of 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;302:G1133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the role of NOX1 in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucositis induced by the cancer chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in mice...
  41. Al Dasooqi N, Gibson R, Bowen J, Logan R, Stringer A, Keefe D. Matrix metalloproteinases are possible mediators for the development of alimentary tract mucositis in the dark agouti rat. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010;235:1244-56 pubmed publisher
    Alimentary tract (AT) mucositis is a serious and debilitating side-effect of cancer therapy primarily characterized by damage of the mucous membranes throughout the AT...
  42. Bowen J, Elad S, Hutchins R, Lalla R. Methodology for the MASCC/ISOO Mucositis Clinical Practice Guidelines Update. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21:303-8 pubmed publisher
    Members of the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) recently completed the process of updating the MASCC/ISOO Clinical Practice Guidelines ..
  43. Karbach J, Callaway A, Kwon Y, d Hoedt B, Al Nawas B. Comparison of five parameters as risk factors for peri-mucositis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2009;24:491-6 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the development of clinical signs of peri-implant mucositis and for the presence of periodontal pathogens and to determine a possible correlation between these clinical signs and the ..
  44. Cheah K, Howarth G, Yazbeck R, Wright T, Whitford E, Payne C, et al. Grape seed extract protects IEC-6 cells from chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity and improves parameters of small intestinal mucositis in rats with experimentally-induced mucositis. Cancer Biol Ther. 2009;8:382-90 pubmed
    b>Mucositis is a common side-effect of high-dose chemotherapy regimens...
  45. Maddocks Jennings W, Wilkinson J, Cavanagh H, Shillington D. Evaluating the effects of the essential oils Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) and Kunzea ericoides (kanuka) on radiotherapy induced mucositis: a randomized, placebo controlled feasibility study. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2009;13:87-93 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the effects of an essential oil mouthwash on radiation induced mucositis of the oropharyngeal area during treatment for head and neck cancers...
  46. Koshino M, Sakai C, Ogura T, Kawasaki A, Fukuzato F, Miyazaki Y. [Efficacy of oral cavity care in preventing stomatitis (mucositis) in cancer chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2009;36:447-51 pubmed
    ..Both PCR and OAG indexes were useful in evaluating the objective condition of the oral cavity and in sharing patients' information among a medical team. These indexes encouraged the patients to clean their oral cavities. ..
  47. Soares P, Lopes L, Mota J, Belarmino Filho J, Ribeiro R, Souza M. Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis delays gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquids in awake rats. Arq Gastroenterol. 2011;48:80-5 pubmed
    Methotrexate and other anticancer agents can induce intestinal mucositis, which is one of the most common limiting factor that prevent further dose escalation of the methotrexate...
  48. Lin Y, Lin L, Lin S, Chang C. Discrepancy of the effects of zinc supplementation on the prevention of radiotherapy-induced mucositis between patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and those with oral cancers: subgroup analysis of a double-blind, randomized study. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62:682-91 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on radiation-induced mucositis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and those with oral cancers (OC)...
  49. Azevedo O, Oliveira R, Oliveira B, Zaja Milatovic S, Araújo C, Wong D, et al. Apolipoprotein E COG 133 mimetic peptide improves 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:35 pubmed publisher
    Intestinal mucositis is one of the major troublesome side effects of anticancer chemotherapy leading to poor patient compliance...
  50. Wu Z, Han X, Qin S, Zheng Q, Wang Z, Xiang D, et al. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist reduces lethality and intestinal toxicity of 5-fluorouracil in a mouse mucositis model. Biomed Pharmacother. 2010;64:589-93 pubmed publisher
    Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis is still an unmet medical problem. 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu), a chemotherapy drug, was used to create the animal model of mucositis...
  51. Nurbakhsh B, Friedman S, Kulkarni G, Basrani B, Lam E. Resolution of maxillary sinus mucositis after endodontic treatment of maxillary teeth with apical periodontitis: a cone-beam computed tomography pilot study. J Endod. 2011;37:1504-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study characterized maxillary sinus mucositis adjacent to teeth with AP and assessed its resolution after endodontic treatment...
  52. You W, Hsieh C, Huang J. Effect of extracts from indigowood root (Isatis indigotica Fort.) on immune responses in radiation-induced mucositis. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15:771-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effect of indigowood root (Isatis indigotica Fort.) on acute mucositis induced by radiation.
  53. Donetti E, Bedoni M, Capone P, Gualerzi A, Tartaglia G, Sforza C. An in vitro model of human oral explants to study early effects of radiation mucositis. Eur J Oral Sci. 2009;117:169-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucositis is a frequent problem after irradiation of the oral mucosa...