Summary: Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.

Top Publications

  1. Bismar M, Sinicrope F. Radiation enteritis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2002;4:361-5 pubmed
    ..Data indicate that radioprotectant agents have the potential to reduce intestinal mucosal injury and may be beneficial in reducing both acute and chronic side effects of radiotherapy. ..
  2. Li W, Buzoni Gatel D, Debbabi H, Hu M, Mennechet F, Durell B, et al. CD40/CD154 ligation is required for the development of acute ileitis following oral infection with an intracellular pathogen in mice. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:762-73 pubmed
    Acute inflammatory ileitis occurs in C57BL/6 mice after oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We evaluated the role of CD40/CD154 interaction in the development of acute ileitis in this experimental model...
  3. Bamias G, Okazawa A, Rivera Nieves J, Arseneau K, De La Rue S, Pizarro T, et al. Commensal bacteria exacerbate intestinal inflammation but are not essential for the development of murine ileitis. J Immunol. 2007;178:1809-18 pubmed
    ..have investigated the effects of germfree (GF) conditions in the SAMP1/YitFc murine model of Crohn's disease-like ileitis. We show that the bacterial flora is not essential for ileitis induction, because GF SAMP1/YitFc mice develop ..
  4. Alcantara C, Jin X, Brito G, Carneiro Filho B, Barrett L, Carey R, et al. Angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor blockade inhibits Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced intestinal secretion in a rabbit model. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:2090-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that ANG II plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile toxin-induced diarrhea. ..
  5. Wermers J, McNamee E, Wurbel M, Jedlicka P, Rivera Nieves J. The chemokine receptor CCR9 is required for the T-cell-mediated regulation of chronic ileitis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:1526-35.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..By using a mouse model that develops Crohn's-like ileitis (tumor necrosis factor ?adenosine uracyl-rich element [TNF?ARE] mice) we examined the role of CCL25-CCR9 ..
  6. Olson T, Reuter B, Scott K, Morris M, Wang X, Hancock L, et al. The primary defect in experimental ileitis originates from a nonhematopoietic source. J Exp Med. 2006;203:541-52 pubmed
    The initiating etiologic factor in Crohn's disease (CD) remains unclear. SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice develop chronic ileitis similar to human CD...
  7. Rivera Nieves J, Bamias G, Vidrich A, Marini M, Pizarro T, McDuffie M, et al. Emergence of perianal fistulizing disease in the SAMP1/YitFc mouse, a spontaneous model of chronic ileitis. Gastroenterology. 2003;124:972-82 pubmed
    SAMP1/Yit mice spontaneously develop chronic terminal ileitis, reminiscent of the human disease described by Crohn et al. in 1932...
  8. Inoue T, Tsuzuki Y, Matsuzaki K, Matsunaga H, Miyazaki J, Hokari R, et al. Blockade of PSGL-1 attenuates CD14+ monocytic cell recruitment in intestinal mucosa and ameliorates ileitis in SAMP1/Yit mice. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;77:287-95 pubmed
    ..cell interactions in senescence-accelerated mouse P1 (SAMP1)/Yit mice, a murine model of spontaneous ileitis. Fluorescence-labeled CD14+ monocytic cells isolated from the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of AKR/J (control)..
  9. Pizarro T, Pastorelli L, Bamias G, Garg R, Reuter B, Mercado J, et al. SAMP1/YitFc mouse strain: a spontaneous model of Crohn's disease-like ileitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17:2566-84 pubmed publisher
    The SAMP1/YitFc mouse strain represents a model of Crohn's disease (CD)-like ileitis that is ideal for investigating the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation...

More Information


  1. Bereswill S, Munoz M, Fischer A, Plickert R, Haag L, Otto B, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol, curcumin and simvastatin in acute small intestinal inflammation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15099 pubmed publisher
    ..and immunomodulatory mechanisms of the above mentioned compounds in a murine model of hyper-acute Th1-type ileitis following peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii...
  2. O Hara J, Lomax A, Mawe G, Sharkey K. Ileitis alters neuronal and enteroendocrine signalling in guinea pig distal colon. Gut. 2007;56:186-94 pubmed
    ..aims were to determine whether neuronal and enteroendocrine signalling are altered in the uninflamed colon during ileitis. We used neurophysiological, immunohistochemical, biochemical and Ussing chamber techniques to examine the effect ..
  3. Reuter B, Pizarro T. Mechanisms of tight junction dysregulation in the SAMP1/YitFc model of Crohn's disease-like ileitis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1165:301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Dysregulated epithelial barrier function that precedes histologic evidence of ileitis has been reported to be the primary defect in SAMP mice...
  4. Heimesaat M, Fischer A, Jahn H, Niebergall J, Freudenberg M, Blaut M, et al. Exacerbation of murine ileitis by Toll-like receptor 4 mediated sensing of lipopolysaccharide from commensal Escherichia coli. Gut. 2007;56:941-8 pubmed
    In the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and acute murine ileitis following peroral Toxoplasma gondii infection, commensal Escherichia coli accumulate at inflamed mucosal sites and aggravate small intestinal immunopathology...
  5. Yamaguchi N, Isomoto H, Shikuwa S, Ohnita K, Mizuta Y, Ito M, et al. Proximal extension of backwash ileitis in ulcerative-colitis - associated colon cancer. Med Sci Monit. 2010;16:CS87-91 pubmed
    Extension of the inflammatory process into the terminal ileum in ulcerative colitis is termed backwash ileitis. Ulcerative colitis patients with pancolitis and backwash ileitis may be at increased risk of colorectal carcinoma...
  6. Rivera Nieves J, Burcin T, Olson T, Morris M, McDuffie M, Cominelli F, et al. Critical role of endothelial P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 in chronic murine ileitis. J Exp Med. 2006;203:907-17 pubmed
    ..might be relevant for inflammatory cell trafficking into the small intestine in a spontaneous model of chronic ileitis (i.e., SAMP1/YitFc mice)...
  7. Viejo Borbolla A, Martin A, Muniz L, Shang L, Marchesi F, Thirunarayanan N, et al. Attenuation of TNF-driven murine ileitis by intestinal expression of the viral immunomodulator CrmD. Mucosal Immunol. 2010;3:633-44 pubmed publisher
    ..TNF(?ARE) mice express high levels of TNF? and present Crohn's-like ileitis and arthritis. Alterations in the chemokine network could underline the TNF-driven ileitis...
  8. Warren C, Calabrese G, Li Y, Pawlowski S, Figler R, Rieger J, et al. Effects of adenosine A?A receptor activation and alanyl-glutamine in Clostridium difficile toxin-induced ileitis in rabbits and cecitis in mice. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:13 pubmed publisher
    ..difficile toxin A-induced epithelial injury, inflammation, secretion and apoptosis in animals and has therapeutic potential for the management of C. difficile infection. ..
  9. Martinez Medina M, Aldeguer X, Lopez Siles M, González Huix F, López Oliu C, Dahbi G, et al. Molecular diversity of Escherichia coli in the human gut: new ecological evidence supporting the role of adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) in Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:872-82 pubmed publisher
    ..coli counts were characteristic of CD patients (P = 0.010), particularly those with Crohn's ileitis (P = 0.001)...
  10. Lowney J, Dietz D, Birnbaum E, Kodner I, Mutch M, Fleshman J. Is there any difference in recurrence rates in laparoscopic ileocolic resection for Crohn's disease compared with conventional surgery? A long-term, follow-up study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006;49:58-63 pubmed
    ..The relatively low recurrence rates in both groups may be explained by our aggressive use of chemoprophylaxis. ..
  11. Odashima M, Bamias G, Rivera Nieves J, Linden J, Nast C, Moskaluk C, et al. Activation of A2A adenosine receptor attenuates intestinal inflammation in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2005;129:26-33 pubmed
    ..acute and chronic rabbit formalin-immune complex models of colitis and the SAMP1/YitFc mouse model of spontaneous ileitis. ATL-146e significantly reduced the acute inflammatory index and tissue necrosis compared with vehicle ( P < ...
  12. Matsuzaki K, Tsuzuki Y, Matsunaga H, Inoue T, Miyazaki J, Hokari R, et al. In vivo demonstration of T lymphocyte migration and amelioration of ileitis in intestinal mucosa of SAMP1/Yit mice by the inhibition of MAdCAM-1. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005;140:22-31 pubmed
    ..Periodical administration of anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody twice a week for 7 weeks significantly ameliorated ileitis of SAMP1/Yit mice, but submucosal hypertrophy was not significantly suppressed...
  13. Erridge C, Duncan S, Bereswill S, Heimesaat M. The induction of colitis and ileitis in mice is associated with marked increases in intestinal concentrations of stimulants of TLRs 2, 4, and 5. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9125 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction of ileitis by oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii dramatically increased ileal concentrations of lipopeptide (370-fold), ..
  14. Gruber L, Kisling S, Lichti P, Martin F, May S, Klingenspor M, et al. High fat diet accelerates pathogenesis of murine Crohn's disease-like ileitis independently of obesity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71661 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of HFD on the development of chronic ileal inflammation in a murine model of Crohn's disease-like ileitis. TNF(?ARE/WT) mice and wildtype C57BL/6 littermates were fed a HFD compared to control diet for different ..
  15. O Hara J, Sharkey K. Proliferative capacity of enterochromaffin cells in guinea-pigs with experimental ileitis. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;329:433-41 pubmed
    ..b>Ileitis was induced in guinea-pigs by intraluminal injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)...
  16. Han X, Uchida K, Jurickova I, Koch D, Willson T, Samson C, et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies in murine ileitis and progressive ileal Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1261-71, e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..NOD2-null mice in which GM-CSF was neutralized had defects in mucosal barrier function and developed a transmural ileitis following NSAID exposure. GM-CSF regulates ileal homeostasis in CD and in mouse models...
  17. Young Fadok T, HallLong K, McConnell E, Gomez Rey G, Cabanela R. Advantages of laparoscopic resection for ileocolic Crohn's disease. Improved outcomes and reduced costs. Surg Endosc. 2001;15:450-4 pubmed
    ..There are significant postoperative benefits in terms of resolution of ileus, narcotic use, and hospital stay. This approach translates into cost savings of >$3300 for laparoscopic patients. ..
  18. Moreels T, de Man J, Dick J, Nieuwendijk R, de Winter B, Lefebvre R, et al. Effect of TNBS-induced morphological changes on pharmacological contractility of the rat ileum. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;423:211-22 pubmed
    ..After 36 h, TNBS induced acute ileitis. Spontaneous activity of longitudinal muscle strips was decreased, as were receptor- and nonreceptor-mediated ..
  19. Collins C, Aherne C, McNamee E, Lebsack M, Eltzschig H, Jedlicka P, et al. Flt3 ligand expands CD103? dendritic cells and FoxP3? T regulatory cells, and attenuates Crohn's-like murine ileitis. Gut. 2012;61:1154-62 pubmed publisher
    ..of mononuclear phagocytes (MP) and the effect of altering their frequency by administration of Flt3-L in chronic ileitis. Using a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) driven model of ileitis (ie, TNF?ARE) that recapitulates many features of ..
  20. Kozaiwa K, Sugawara K, Smith M, Carl V, Yamschikov V, Belyea B, et al. Identification of a quantitative trait locus for ileitis in a spontaneous mouse model of Crohn's disease: SAMP1/YitFc. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:477-90 pubmed
    The SAMP1/Yit mouse strain develops spontaneous ileitis with histologic features of Crohn's disease...
  21. Kajino Sakamoto R, Inagaki M, Lippert E, Akira S, Robine S, Matsumoto K, et al. Enterocyte-derived TAK1 signaling prevents epithelium apoptosis and the development of ileitis and colitis. J Immunol. 2008;181:1143-52 pubmed
    ..However, these mice later (>14 days) developed ileitis and colitis...
  22. Capasso R, Borrelli F, Cascio M, Aviello G, Huben K, Zjawiony J, et al. Inhibitory effect of salvinorin A, from Salvia divinorum, on ileitis-induced hypermotility: cross-talk between kappa-opioid and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;155:681-9 pubmed publisher
  23. Werner T, Wagner S, Martínez I, Walter J, Chang J, Clavel T, et al. Depletion of luminal iron alters the gut microbiota and prevents Crohn's disease-like ileitis. Gut. 2011;60:325-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to characterise the interrelationship between luminal iron sulfate, systemic iron, the gut microbiota and the development of chronic ileitis in a murine model of Crohn's disease.
  24. Rivera Nieves J, Olson T, Bamias G, Bruce A, Solga M, Knight R, et al. L-selectin, alpha 4 beta 1, and alpha 4 beta 7 integrins participate in CD4+ T cell recruitment to chronically inflamed small intestine. J Immunol. 2005;174:2343-52 pubmed
    ..Using novel models of Crohn's disease-like ileitis (i.e...
  25. Kosiewicz M, Nast C, Krishnan A, Rivera Nieves J, Moskaluk C, Matsumoto S, et al. Th1-type responses mediate spontaneous ileitis in a novel murine model of Crohn's disease. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:695-702 pubmed
    ..The resulting ileitis bears a remarkable resemblance to human Crohn's disease...
  26. Kroesen A, Dullat S, Schulzke J, Fromm M, Buhr H. Permanently increased mucosal permeability in patients with backwash ileitis after ileoanal pouch for ulcerative colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008;43:704-11 pubmed publisher
    Backwash ileitis (BI) has not been identified as a risk factor for pouchitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the barrier function of the ileoanal pouch depending on the presence of BI...
  27. Moore B, Stewart T, Hill C, Vanner S. TNBS ileitis evokes hyperexcitability and changes in ionic membrane properties of nociceptive DRG neurons. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;282:G1045-51 pubmed
    ..b>Ileitis was induced by injection of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and DRG neurons innervating the ileum were ..
  28. Neurath M. Animal models of inflammatory bowel diseases: illuminating the pathogenesis of colitis, ileitis and cancer. Dig Dis. 2012;30 Suppl 1:91-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to models of acute and chronic colitis, recent studies have described new models of chronic ileitis and IBD-associated cancer...
  29. Ho J, Kurtz C, Naganuma M, Ernst P, Cominelli F, Rivera Nieves J. A CD8+/CD103high T cell subset regulates TNF-mediated chronic murine ileitis. J Immunol. 2008;180:2573-80 pubmed
    ..Using a TNF-driven model of chronic ileitis (i.e., B6...
  30. Rachinel N, Buzoni Gatel D, Dutta C, Mennechet F, Luangsay S, Minns L, et al. The induction of acute ileitis by a single microbial antigen of Toxoplasma gondii. J Immunol. 2004;173:2725-35 pubmed
    ..Oral infection of susceptible C57BL/6 mice with Toxoplasma gondii results in a lethal ileitis within 7-9 days postinfection. An immunodominant Ag of T...
  31. Takedatsu H, Mitsuyama K, Matsumoto S, Handa K, Suzuki A, Takedatsu H, et al. Interleukin-5 participates in the pathogenesis of ileitis in SAMP1/Yit mice. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:1561-9 pubmed
    SAMP1/Yit mice spontaneously develop ileitis resembling Crohn's disease (CD) without chemical or genetic manipulations...
  32. Collins C, Ho J, Wilson T, Wermers J, Tlaxca J, Lawrence M, et al. CD44 deficiency attenuates chronic murine ileitis. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:1993-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..By using a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-driven model of chronic ileitis (ie, B6...
  33. Masterson J, McNamee E, Jedlicka P, Fillon S, Ruybal J, Hosford L, et al. CCR3 Blockade Attenuates Eosinophilic Ileitis and Associated Remodeling. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:2302-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Histological and molecular features of ileitis and remodeling were assessed using immunohistochemical, histomorphometric, flow cytometric, and molecular ..
  34. Chang J, Ocvirk S, Berger E, Kisling S, Binder U, Skerra A, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress response promotes cytotoxic phenotype of CD8??+ intraepithelial lymphocytes in a mouse model for Crohn's disease-like ileitis. J Immunol. 2012;189:1510-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytotoxic CD8??(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) contribute to the development of Crohn's disease-like ileitis in TNF(?ARE/+) mice...
  35. Gorfu G, Rivera Nieves J, Hoang S, Abbott D, Arbenz Smith K, Azar D, et al. Beta7 integrin deficiency suppresses B cell homing and attenuates chronic ileitis in SAMP1/YitFc mice. J Immunol. 2010;185:5561-8 pubmed publisher
    ..disease severity and lymphocyte recruitment into the small intestine in SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop chronic ileitis with similarity to human Crohn's disease...
  36. Watanabe C, Hokari R, Komoto S, Kurihara C, Okada Y, Matsunaga H, et al. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) ameliorates murine spontaneous ileitis by decreasing lymphocyte recruitment to the inflamed intestine. Microcirculation. 2010;17:321-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore hypothesized that lemon grass intake could ameliorate excess migration of leukocytes to the inflamed intestine in chronic ileitis.
  37. Egan C, Craven M, Leng J, Mack M, Simpson K, Denkers E. CCR2-dependent intraepithelial lymphocytes mediate inflammatory gut pathology during Toxoplasma gondii infection. Mucosal Immunol. 2009;2:527-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results for the first time show a role for intraepithelial T lymphocytes in pathogenesis of ileitis triggered by a microbial pathogen.
  38. Seksik P, Rigottier Gois L, Gramet G, Sutren M, Pochart P, Marteau P, et al. Alterations of the dominant faecal bacterial groups in patients with Crohn's disease of the colon. Gut. 2003;52:237-42 pubmed
    ..The biodiversity of the microflora remains high in patients with CD. Enterobacteria were observed significantly more frequently in CD than in health, and more than 30% of the dominant flora belonged to yet undefined phylogenetic groups. ..
  39. Bamias G, Marini M, Moskaluk C, Odashima M, Ross W, Rivera Nieves J, et al. Down-regulation of intestinal lymphocyte activation and Th1 cytokine production by antibiotic therapy in a murine model of Crohn's disease. J Immunol. 2002;169:5308-14 pubmed
    ..SAMP1/YitFc mice spontaneously develop chronic, discontinuous, transmural ileitis with many features similar to Crohn's disease...
  40. Wiercinska Drapalo A, Jaroszewicz J, Siwak E, Pogorzelska J, Prokopowicz D. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) as a possible biomarker of ileitis in patients with ulcerative colitis. Regul Pept. 2008;147:25-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5+/-60.6 vs. 61.5+/-7.9 pg/mL). The elevated serum I-FABP concentration in patients with UC may indicate ileitis. I-FABP may be a useful marker of the extended inflammatory process.
  41. Nurgali K, Nguyen T, Matsuyama H, Thacker M, Robbins H, Furness J. Phenotypic changes of morphologically identified guinea-pig myenteric neurons following intestinal inflammation. J Physiol. 2007;583:593-609 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that inflammation selectively affects different classes of myenteric neurons and causes specific changes in their electrophysiological properties. ..
  42. Shanahan M, Vidrich A, Shirafuji Y, Dubois C, Henschen Edman A, Hagen S, et al. Elevated expression of Paneth cell CRS4C in ileitis-prone SAMP1/YitFc mice: regional distribution, subcellular localization, and mechanism of action. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7493-504 pubmed publisher
    ..In ileitis-prone SAMP1/YitFc mice, Paneth cell levels of CRS4C mRNAs and peptides are induced more than a 1000-fold relative ..
  43. Pagnini C, Saeed R, Bamias G, Arseneau K, Pizarro T, Cominelli F. Probiotics promote gut health through stimulation of epithelial innate immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:454-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our findings provide the perspective that defects in innate immunity may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of intestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  44. Collins C, Aherne C, Ehrentraut S, Gerich M, McNamee E, McManus M, et al. Alpha-1-antitrypsin therapy ameliorates acute colitis and chronic murine ileitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013;19:1964-73 pubmed publisher
    ..models of IBD including new-onset and established chemically induced colitis and spontaneous chronic murine ileitis. Histological assessment of inflammation, cytokine secretion profiling, and flow cytometric evaluation of ..
  45. Baur P, Martin F, Gruber L, Bosco N, Brahmbhatt V, Collino S, et al. Metabolic phenotyping of the Crohn's disease-like IBD etiopathology in the TNF(?ARE/WT) mouse model. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:5523-35 pubmed publisher
    ..approach to monitor metabolic events associated with the gradual development of Crohn's disease (CD)-like ileitis in the TNF(?ARE/WT) mouse model...
  46. Bamias G, Mishina M, Nyce M, Ross W, Kollias G, Rivera Nieves J, et al. Role of TL1A and its receptor DR3 in two models of chronic murine ileitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8441-6 pubmed
    ..we investigated whether interactions between TL1A and DR3 are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic murine ileitis. We demonstrate that alternative splicing of DR3 mRNA takes place during the activation of lymphocytes, which ..
  47. Corridoni D, Pastorelli L, Mattioli B, Locovei S, Ishikawa D, Arseneau K, et al. Probiotic bacteria regulate intestinal epithelial permeability in experimental ileitis by a TNF-dependent mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42067 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that the probiotic mixture, VSL#3, prevents the onset of ileitis in SAMP/YitFc (SAMP) mice, and this effect was associated with stimulation of epithelial-derived TNF...
  48. Barnes S, Vidrich A, Wang M, Wu G, Cominelli F, Rivera Nieves J, et al. Resistin-like molecule beta (RELMbeta/FIZZ2) is highly expressed in the ileum of SAMP1/YitFc mice and is associated with initiation of ileitis. J Immunol. 2007;179:7012-20 pubmed
    SAMP1/Fc mice develop spontaneous ileitis that shares many features with human Crohn's disease. One of the earliest features of ileitis in SAMP1/Fc mice is an increase in the number of ileal goblet and intermediate cells...
  49. Marini M, Bamias G, Rivera Nieves J, Moskaluk C, Hoang S, Ross W, et al. TNF-alpha neutralization ameliorates the severity of murine Crohn's-like ileitis by abrogation of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8366-71 pubmed
    ..SAMP1/YitFc mice develop a spontaneous ileitis with similarities to human CD in regard to histological features as well as response to conventional treatments...
  50. Ruutu M, Thomas G, Steck R, Degli Esposti M, Zinkernagel M, Alexander K, et al. ?-glucan triggers spondylarthritis and Crohn's disease-like ileitis in SKG mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:2211-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to determine whether SKG mice injected with 1,3-?-glucan (curdlan) develop evidence of SpA, and the relationship of innate and adaptive autoimmunity to this process...
  51. Avula L, Buckinx R, Alpaerts K, Costagliola A, Adriaensen D, Van Nassauw L, et al. The effect of inflammation on the expression and distribution of the MAS-related gene receptors MrgE and MrgF in the murine ileum. Histochem Cell Biol. 2011;136:569-85 pubmed publisher
    ..e. intestinal schistosomiasis and chemically induced ileitis. MrgE and MrgF mRNAs were detected in control and inflamed conditions...
  52. Haskell H, Andrews C, Reddy S, Dendrinos K, Farraye F, Stucchi A, et al. Pathologic features and clinical significance of "backwash" ileitis in ulcerative colitis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29:1472-81 pubmed
    ..inflammation in the distal ileum thought to be due to "backwash" of cecal contents ("backwash ileitis")...
  53. Hoshino S, Inaba M, Iwai H, Ito T, Li M, Gershwin M, et al. The role of dendritic cell subsets in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis. J Autoimmun. 2010;34:380-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of dendritic cells (DCs) in the lamina propria using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced ileitis model (an animal model for Crohn's disease)...