dysentery

Summary

Summary: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.

Top Publications

  1. Yoon S, Katz J, Brendel K, West K. Efficiency of EPI cluster sampling for assessing diarrhoea and dysentery prevalence. Bull World Health Organ. 1997;75:417-26 pubmed
    This study examines the efficiency of EPI cluster sampling in assessing the prevalence of diarrhoea and dysentery. A computer was used to simulate fieldwork carried out by a survey taker...
  2. Alvarez Ordóñez A, Martínez Lobo F, Arguello H, Carvajal A, Rubio P. Swine dysentery: aetiology, pathogenicity, determinants of transmission and the fight against the disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:1927-47 pubmed publisher
    Swine Dysentery (SD) is a severe mucohaemorhagic enteric disease of pigs caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, which has a large impact on pig production and causes important losses due to mortality and sub-optimal performance...
  3. Karlsson M, Gunnarsson A, Franklin A. Susceptibility to pleuromutilins in Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae. Anim Health Res Rev. 2001;2:59-65 pubmed
    ..the only antimicrobial agents with sufficient minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values left to treat swine dysentery in Sweden...
  4. Azira N M, Zeehaida M. Severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia secondary to Trichuris dysentery syndrome - a case report. Trop Biomed. 2012;29:626-31 pubmed
    Trichuris dysentery syndrome is caused by Trichuris trichiura which contributes to one of the most common helminthic infections in the world...
  5. Durmic Z, Pethick D, Mullan B, Accioly J, Schulze H, Hampson D. Evaluation of large-intestinal parameters associated with dietary treatments designed to reduce the occurrence of swine dysentery. Br J Nutr. 2002;88:159-69 pubmed
    ..and resistant starch (RS) increase hindgut fermentation in pigs, which in turn increases the incidence of swine dysentery (SD) after infection with the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae...
  6. Råsbäck T, Jansson D, Johansson K, Fellström C. A novel enteropathogenic, strongly haemolytic spirochaete isolated from pig and mallard, provisionally designated 'Brachyspira suanatina' sp. nov. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:983-91 pubmed
    ..Clinical signs and macroscopic changes consistent with swine dysentery were seen both in pigs given the atypical porcine isolate and in control pigs given the reference strain of B...
  7. Jonasson R, Andersson M, Råsbäck T, Johannisson A, Jensen Waern M. Immunological alterations during the clinical and recovery phases of experimental swine dysentery. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:845-55 pubmed
    ..changes in the systemic immune response during the incubation period and following the onset of clinical swine dysentery, including the recovery period. Ten healthy conventional pigs were inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae...
  8. Rohde J, Kessler M, Baums C, Amtsberg G. Comparison of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and MIC values for pleuromutilin drugs for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated in Germany. Vet Microbiol. 2004;102:25-32 pubmed
    In Germany treatment of swine dysentery is hampered by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strains showing elevated MIC values to the few antibiotics licensed...
  9. La T, Phillips N, Reichel M, Hampson D. Protection of pigs from swine dysentery by vaccination with recombinant BmpB, a 29.7 kDa outer-membrane lipoprotein of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Vet Microbiol. 2004;102:97-109 pubmed
    Swine dysentery (SD) is an important endemic infection in many piggeries, and control can be problematic. In this study the efficacy of BmpB, a 29...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Du Preez M, Conroy R, Ligondo S, Hennessy J, Elmore Meegan M, Soita A, et al. Randomized intervention study of solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in Kenyan children aged under 5 years. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:9315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..2007 to March 2009) investigating the effect of solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery, nondysentery diarrhea, and anthropometric measurements of height and weight among children of age 6 months to 5 ..
  2. Hansen C, Hernández A, Mansfield J, Hidalgo A, La T, Phillips N, et al. A high dietary concentration of inulin is necessary to reduce the incidence of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally challenged with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Br J Nutr. 2011;106:1506-13 pubmed publisher
    ..experiment to examine the effect of added dietary inulin (0, 20, 40 and 80 g/kg) on the occurrence of swine dysentery (SD) and on fermentation characteristics in the large intestine after experimental challenge with the causative ..
  3. Jacobson M, Fellström C, Lindberg R, Wallgren P, Jensen Waern M. Experimental swine dysentery: comparison between infection models. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:273-80 pubmed
    ..Inoculation combined with feeding of large quantities of soybean meal and group-housing induced swine dysentery in all experimental animals...
  4. Molnar L. Sensitivity of strains of Serpulina hyodysenteriae isolated in Hungary to chemotherapeutic drugs. Vet Rec. 1996;138:158-60 pubmed
    ..between 1978 and 1992 was tested against seven chemotherapeutic drugs frequently used for the treatment of swine dysentery, and the changes in the patterns of resistance were also monitored...
  5. Beltramino J, Sosa H, Gamba N, Busquets N, Navarro L, Virgolini S, et al. [Overdiagnosis of amebiasis in children with dysentery]. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2009;107:510-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify E. hystolitica in patients with dysentery, supposed to be caused by amebae...
  6. Khuroo M, Khuroo M, Khuroo N. Trichuris dysentery syndrome: a common cause of chronic iron deficiency anemia in adults in an endemic area (with videos). Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;71:200-4 pubmed publisher
    There are few published reports of Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS) in children. The disease has not been reported in adults. To report the clinical, colonoscopic, and histologic findings of TDS in adults in an endemic area...
  7. Pack R, Wang Y, Singh A, von Seidlein L, Pach A, Kaljee L, et al. Willingness to be vaccinated against shigella and other forms of dysentery: a comparison of three regions in Asia. Vaccine. 2006;24:485-94 pubmed
    ..countries to examine willingness for children and adults to be vaccinated against shigellosis and other forms of dysentery. The six sites were clustered into three regions for ease of comparison...
  8. Kruse R, Essen Gustavsson B, Fossum C, Jensen Waern M. Blood concentrations of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma during experimentally induced swine dysentery. Acta Vet Scand. 2008;50:32 pubmed publisher
    ..at infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae can help understanding disease mechanism involved during swine dysentery. Since this knowledge is still limited the aim of the present study was to induce dysentery experimentally in ..
  9. Starr J, Campbell A, Renshaw E, Poxton I, Gibson G. Spatio-temporal stochastic modelling of Clostridium difficile. J Hosp Infect. 2009;71:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Simulation of different interventions indicates that for the same effect size, reducing patient susceptibility to infection is more effective in reducing the number of CDAD cases than lowering transmission rates. ..
  10. Pfeiffer M, DuPont H, Ochoa T. The patient presenting with acute dysentery--a systematic review. J Infect. 2012;64:374-86 pubmed publisher
    The etiologies, clinical presentations and diagnosis of acute pathogen-specific dysentery in children and adults in industrialized and developing regions is described to help develop recommendations for therapy...
  11. Linton D. "War dysentery" and the limitations of German military hygiene during World War I. Bull Hist Med. 2010;84:607-39 pubmed publisher
    This article examines major epidemics of bacillary dysentery in the German army as well as among civilians in eastern Europe and in Germany during World War I...
  12. Jacobson M, Lindberg R, Jonasson R, Fellström C, Waern M. Consecutive pathological and immunological alterations during experimentally induced swine dysentery - a study performed by repeated endoscopy and biopsy samplings through an intestinal cannula. Res Vet Sci. 2007;82:287-98 pubmed
    ..the development of intestinal alterations in vivo and describe the sequential events during the course of swine dysentery. The number of animals used in a study could thus be minimised and the precision of the experiment increased.
  13. Zhang P, Carlson M, Schneider N, Duhamel G. Minimal prophylactic concentration of dietary zinc compounds in a mouse model of swine dysentery. Anim Health Res Rev. 2001;2:67-74 pubmed
    ..the clinicopathologic expression of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection in a laboratory mouse model of swine dysentery. However, this concentration impaired the body weight gain of the mice...
  14. Heyman S, Ginosar Y, Shapiro M, Kluger Y, Marx N, Maayan S. Diarrheal epidemics among Rwandan refugees in 1994. Management and outcome in a field hospital. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1997;25:595-601 pubmed
    We describe the clinical course and outcome of Rwandan refugees with cholera-like illness (n = 567) and clinical dysentery (n = 1,062) treated at the Israeli Army field hospital in the disaster region of Goma, Zaire, during the summer of ..
  15. Lobová D, Smola J, Cizek A. Decreased susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin among Czech isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:287-91 pubmed
    ..0 and 8.0 microg ml. The increase in MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin demonstrated in this study reflect the intensity of pleuromutilin use in the treatment of swine dysentery in the Czech Republic.
  16. Hidalgo A, Carvajal A, La T, Naharro G, Rubio P, Phillips N, et al. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of the swine dysentery pathogen, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2859-65 pubmed publisher
    The spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a severe colonic infection of pigs that has a considerable economic impact in many swine-producing countries...
  17. Jonasson R, Essen Gustavsson B, Jensen Waern M. Blood concentrations of amino acids, glucose and lactate during experimental swine dysentery. Res Vet Sci. 2007;82:323-31 pubmed
    ..was to examine blood concentrations of amino acids, glucose and lactate in association with experimental swine dysentery. Ten pigs (approximately 23kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae...
  18. Alenius S, Niskanen R, Juntti N, Larsson B. Bovine coronavirus as the causative agent of winter dysentery: serological evidence. Acta Vet Scand. 1991;32:163-70 pubmed
    Sera from 9 dairy herds with epizootic enteritis (winter dysentery) were examined for antibodies to bovine coronavirus (BCV) and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV)...
  19. Cho K, Hasoksuz M, Nielsen P, Chang K, Lathrop S, Saif L. Cross-protection studies between respiratory and calf diarrhea and winter dysentery coronavirus strains in calves and RT-PCR and nested PCR for their detection. Arch Virol. 2001;146:2401-19 pubmed
    ..cell culture passaged isolates of 10 bovine respiratory coronavirus (BRCV), 5 calf diarrhea (CD) and 8 winter dysentery (WD) strains of BCV, but not transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus or bovine rotavirus...
  20. Ford A, Thabane M, Collins S, Moayyedi P, Garg A, Clark W, et al. Prevalence of uninvestigated dyspepsia 8 years after a large waterborne outbreak of bacterial dysentery: a cohort study. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1727-36; quiz e12 pubmed publisher
    ..prevalence of uninvestigated dyspepsia in a cohort of individuals, some of whom were exposed to bacterial dysentery in May 2000, as well as risk factors for dyspepsia in exposed individuals...
  21. Stanton T, Rosey E, Kennedy M, Jensen N, Bosworth B. Isolation, oxygen sensitivity, and virulence of NADH oxidase mutants of the anaerobic spirochete Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae, etiologic agent of swine dysentery. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65:5028-34 pubmed
    Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae, the etiologic agent of swine dysentery, uses the enzyme NADH oxidase to consume oxygen...
  22. Gundry S, Wright J, Conroy R, Preez M, Genthe B, Moyo S, et al. Child dysentery in the Limpopo Valley: a cohort study of water, sanitation and hygiene risk factors. J Water Health. 2009;7:259-66 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this cohort study was to assess risk factors for child dysentery and watery diarrhoea...
  23. Jonasson R, Johannisson A, Jacobson M, Fellström C, Jensen Waern M. Differences in lymphocyte subpopulations and cell counts before and after experimentally induced swine dysentery. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:267-72 pubmed
    ..circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations before and immediately after experimentally induced swine dysentery. Twenty-one healthy crossbred pigs (approximately 22 kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae...
  24. Burrough E, Strait E, Kinyon J, Bower L, Madson D, Schwartz K, et al. Comparison of atypical Brachyspira spp. clinical isolates and classic strains in a mouse model of swine dysentery. Vet Microbiol. 2012;160:387-94 pubmed publisher
    ..presence of the strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is typically associated with clinical swine dysentery. Recently, several Brachyspira spp...
  25. Hwang H, Shim J. Brazilin and Caesalpinia sappan L. extract protect epidermal keratinocytes from oxidative stress by inducing the expression of GPX7. Chin J Nat Med. 2018;16:203-209 pubmed publisher
    ..plant is used as a traditional ingredient of food, red dyes, and folk medicines in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, tuberculosis, skin infections, and inflammation...
  26. Gnanaraj C, Shah M, Song T, Iqbal M. Hepatoprotective mechanism of Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R.Br. through ultrastructural signaling prevention against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated oxidative stress. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;92:1010-1022 pubmed publisher
    ..also known as Old World Climbing Fern, is a medicinal plant used by local communities in Sabah for skin and dysentery ailments. This study aims to test aqueous extract of L...
  27. Aronson N, Sanders J, Moran K. In harm's way: infections in deployed American military forces. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1045-51 pubmed
    ..These infections include gastroenteritis; respiratory infection; war wound infection with antibiotic-resistant, gram-negative bacteria; Q fever; brucellosis; and parasitic infections, such as malaria and leishmaniasis. ..
  28. Kutty P, Woods C, Sena A, Benoit S, Naggie S, Frederick J, et al. Risk factors for and estimated incidence of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection, North Carolina, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..1, 95% CI 2.9-28.9), to have gastroesophageal reflux disease (aOR 11.2, 95% CI 1.9-64.2), and to have cardiac failure (aOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.7). Risk factors for CA-CDI overlap with those for healthcare-associated infection...
  29. Kiani H, Haghighi A, Rostami A, Azargashb E, Tabaei S, Solgi A, et al. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN NAHAVAND, WESTERN IRAN. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2016;58:42 pubmed publisher
    ..57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001) and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04)...
  30. Buvens G, Pierard D. Virulence profiling and disease association of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 isolates in Belgium. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012;9:530-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that the detection of a specific gene combination could assist in identifying non-O157 VTEC isolates that pose a serious public health concern. ..
  31. Mahu M, De Pauw N, Vande Maele L, Verlinden M, Boyen F, Ducatelle R, et al. Variation in hemolytic activity of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strains from pigs. Vet Res. 2016;47:66 pubmed publisher
    Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the primary cause of swine dysentery, which is responsible for major economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. The hemolytic activity of 10 B...
  32. He X, Fang J, Huang L, Wang J, Huang X. Sophora flavescens Ait.: Traditional usage, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional Chinese medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;172:10-29 pubmed publisher
    ..has been used extensively, mainly in combination with other medicinal plants in prescriptions to treat fever, dysentery, hematochezia, jaundice, oliguria, vulvar swelling, asthma, eczema, inflammatory disorders, ulcers and diseases ..
  33. Koh S, Lee D, Lee S, Park Y, Hwang J, Kim J, et al. Incidence and risk factors of irritable bowel syndrome in community subjects with culture-proven bacterial gastroenteritis. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2012;60:13-8 pubmed
    ..IBS was diagnosed with the use of the Rome II criteria at 3 and 6 months after bacterial dysentery. Sixty five cases were included and completed the 6 month follow-up. Thirty four cases (52.3%) were female...
  34. van den Hof S, van der Kooi T, van den Berg R, Kuijper E, Notermans D. Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 outbreaks in the Netherlands: recent surveillance data indicate that outbreaks are not easily controlled but interhospital transmission is limited. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:E060126.2 pubmed
  35. Boal F, Puhar A, Xuereb J, Kunduzova O, Sansonetti P, Payrastre B, et al. PI5P Triggers ICAM-1 Degradation in Shigella Infected Cells, Thus Dampening Immune Cell Recruitment. Cell Rep. 2016;14:750-759 pubmed publisher
    Shigella flexneri, the pathogen responsible for bacillary dysentery, has evolved multiple strategies to control the inflammatory response...
  36. Baumann D, Bilkei G. Effect of highly fermentable dietary fiber on the development of swine dysentery and on pig performance in a "Pure--Culture Challenge Model". Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2002;115:37-42 pubmed
    This study tried to evaluate the effect of highly fermentable fiber on the incidence and severity of swine dysentery (SD) after experimental oral infection with pure cultures of Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae...
  37. Ismaeel A, Jamsheer A, Yousif A, Al Otaibi M, Botta G. Causative pathogens of severe diarrhea in children. Saudi Med J. 2002;23:1064-9 pubmed
    ..Adenovirus and parasites appeared to play a very minor role in diarrhea. Thus, we suggest the introduction of rotavirus diagnostic tests in microbiological examination of diarrheic stools of children below 3 years of age. ..
  38. Bruins M, Cermak R, Kiers J, Van der Meulen J, van Amelsvoort J, van Klinken B. In vivo and in vitro effects of tea extracts on enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced intestinal fluid loss in animal models. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;43:459-69 pubmed
    ..Pretreating but not posttreating the jejunal tissue with BTE inhibited the forskolin-induced increase in I(SC). Tea may inhibit net fluid and electrolyte losses involved in secretory diarrhoea from ETEC. ..
  39. Herbst W, Willems H, Heuser J, Ewers C. Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachy -spira species from feces of layer chickens in Germany. Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere. 2018;46:29-34 pubmed publisher
    Anaerobic spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira are important pathogens causing swine dysentery (Brachyspira [B.] hyodysenteriae) and porcine intestinal spirochetosis (B. pilosicoli, PIS)...
  40. Baqui A, Black R, El Arifeen S, Yunus M, Chakraborty J, Ahmed S, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation started during diarrhoea on morbidity and mortality in Bangladeshi children: community randomised trial. BMJ. 2002;325:1059 pubmed
    ..49, 0.25 to 0.94). The lower rates of child morbidity and mortality with zinc treatment represent substantial benefits from a simple and inexpensive intervention that can be incorporated in existing efforts to control diarrhoeal disease. ..
  41. Si J, Yu Y, Fan Y, Chen S. Intestinal microecology and quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:1802-5 pubmed
    It has been noticed that gastroenteritis or dysentery plays a role in pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and antibiotics can increase functional abdominal symptoms, both of which may be partly due to intestinal flora ..
  42. Aggarwal P, Uppal B, Ghosh R, Krishna Prakash S, Chakravarti A, Rajeshwari K. True Prevalence of Shigellosis in Indian Children with Acute Gastroenteritis: Have We Been Missing the Diagnosis?. J Res Health Sci. 2016;16:11-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the actual prevalence of Shigella infection in childhood diarrhea and dysentery cases and assess the applicability of ipaH gene PCR in Indian settings...
  43. Bhandari N, Bahl R, Nayyar B, Khokhar P, Rohde J, Bhan M. Food supplementation with encouragement to feed it to infants from 4 to 12 months of age has a small impact on weight gain. J Nutr. 2001;131:1946-51 pubmed
    ..05 at all ages) but no significant benefit on weight and length increments. Methods to enhance the impact of these interventions need to be identified. ..
  44. Anderson M, Vonaesch P, Saffarian A, Marteyn B, Sansonetti P. Shigella sonnei Encodes a Functional T6SS Used for Interbacterial Competition and Niche Occupancy. Cell Host Microbe. 2017;21:769-776.e3 pubmed publisher
    Shigella is a leading cause of dysentery worldwide, with the majority of infections caused by two subgroups, S. flexneri and S. sonnei. Although S...
  45. Vandenplas Y, Salvatore S, Vieira M, Viera M, Devreker T, Hauser B. Probiotics in infectious diarrhoea in children: are they indicated?. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166:1211-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, selected strains of probiotics result in a statistically significant but clinically moderate benefit in shortening the duration of diarrhoea caused by acute infectious gastroenteritis. ..
  46. Wansi J, Wandji J, Sewald N, Nahar L, Martin C, Sarker S. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Drypetes: A review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;190:328-53 pubmed publisher
    ..are used in the Subsaharan African and Asian traditional medicines to treat a multitude of disorders, like dysentery, gonorrhoea, malaria, rheumatism, sinusitis, tumours, as well as for the treatment of wounds, headache, urethral ..
  47. Weis A, Gilpin B, Huang B, Kong N, Chen P, Weimer B. Shigella Draft Genome Sequences: Resources for Food Safety and Public Health. Genome Announc. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    i>Shigella is a major foodborne pathogen that infects humans and nonhuman primates and is the major cause of dysentery and reactive arthritis worldwide...
  48. Yu F, Wang R, Chen X, Zheng S, Wang Y, Chen Y. [Studies on the serum types and identification efficiency on Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from diarrhea patients, in Zhejiang province]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2017;38:800-804 pubmed publisher
    ..5%?29/92??14.3%?2/14?????30?18?15?o????1?ehec?o157?h7?eaec?epec???????????etec??????????dec????????/?????????????75?dec??42????????????????33????? ??? ???dec???/????????????????????????????????????????. ..
  49. Jiang Z, DuPont H. Rifaximin: in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity--a review. Chemotherapy. 2005;51 Suppl 1:67-72 pubmed
    ..The available data suggest that rifaximin is active in vitro and in vivo in the treatment of bacterial infection of adults and children...
  50. Liu X, Liu Z, Ding G, Jiang B. Projected burden of disease for bacillary dysentery due to flood events in Guangxi, China. Sci Total Environ. 2017;601-602:1298-1305 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to project the future disease burden of bacillary dysentery associated with floods in Guangxi, China...
  51. Verspohl J, Feltrup C, Thiede S, Amtsberg G. [Diagnosis of swine dysentery and spirochaetal diarrhea. III. Results of cultural and biochemical differentiation of intestinal Brachyspira species by routine culture from 1997 to 1999]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2001;108:67-9 pubmed
    ..It is recommended to use special transport media for the transport of the specimen. ..
  52. Brandt L. Bloody diarrhea in an elderly patient. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:157-63 pubmed
  53. Gordin F, Schultz M, Huber R, Gill J. Reduction in nosocomial transmission of drug-resistant bacteria after introduction of an alcohol-based handrub. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005;26:650-3 pubmed
    ..These reductions provide clinical validation of the recent CDC recommendation that ABHRs be the primary choice for hand decontamination. ..