peptic esophagitis


Summary: INFLAMMATION of the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by the reflux of GASTRIC JUICE with contents of the STOMACH and DUODENUM.

Top Publications

  1. El Serag H, Graham D, Satia J, Rabeneck L. Obesity is an independent risk factor for GERD symptoms and erosive esophagitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:1243-50 pubmed
    ..Overweight and obesity are strong independent risk factor of GERD symptoms and esophageal erosions. The amount or composition of dietary intake does not appear to be a likely explanation for these findings. ..
  2. Hiyama T, Yoshihara M, Tanaka S, Haruma K, Chayama K. Strategy for treatment of nonerosive reflux disease in Asia. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:3123-8 pubmed
    ..However, at present, because there is limited evidence regarding effective treatments for NERD, it is best to try several different treatment strategies to find the best treatment for each patient. ..
  3. Labenz J, Armstrong D, Lauritsen K, Katelaris P, Schmidt S, Schutze K, et al. Esomeprazole 20 mg vs. pantoprazole 20 mg for maintenance therapy of healed erosive oesophagitis: results from the EXPO study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;22:803-11 pubmed
    ..2% vs. 88.5%, P < 0.001). Esomeprazole 20 mg is more effective than pantoprazole 20 mg for maintenance therapy following initial healing of erosive oesophagitis and relief of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms. ..
  4. Pilotto A, Franceschi M, Leandro G, Scarcelli C, D Ambrosio L, Seripa D, et al. Clinical features of reflux esophagitis in older people: a study of 840 consecutive patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:1537-42 pubmed
    ..Clinicians caring for older patients should be aware of the nonspecific presentation and potential severity of reflux esophagitis in this population. ..
  5. Hongo M. Minimal changes in reflux esophagitis: red ones and white ones. J Gastroenterol. 2006;41:95-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, erythematous changes (red ones) and acanthotic changes (white ones) are not distinguished in the definition of minimal change used in Japan. It is time to clarify such issues. ..
  6. Akatsu T, Yoshida M, Kawachi S, Tanabe M, Shimazu M, Kumai K, et al. Consequences of living-donor liver transplantation for upper gastrointestinal lesions: high incidence of reflux esophagitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2006;51:2018-22 pubmed
    ..Because this study was a retrospective analysis of a small population of LDLT recipients, prospective randomized controlled studies of a sufficient number of cases are required to substantiate these conclusions. ..
  7. Fass R. Erosive esophagitis and nonerosive reflux disease (NERD): comparison of epidemiologic, physiologic, and therapeutic characteristics. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007;41:131-7 pubmed
    ..Additionally, NERD patients demonstrate a longer lag-time for symptom resolution and lack of difference in symptom response rate between half to full dose proton pump inhibitor as compared with patients with erosive esophagitis. ..
  8. Wu J, Cheung C, Wong V, Sung J. Distinct clinical characteristics between patients with nonerosive reflux disease and those with reflux esophagitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5:690-5 pubmed
    ..Patients with NERD and ERD have distinct differences in clinical characteristics. NERD is characterized by higher prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders and esophageal acid hypersensitivity. ..
  9. Awad R, Camacho S. Helicobacter pylori infection and hiatal hernia do not affect acid reflux and esophageal motility in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux. J Gastroenterol. 2002;37:247-54 pubmed
    ..pylori, compared with findings in the healthy volunteers. These results suggest that H. pylori and hiatal hernia in patients with esophageal reflux do not constitute risk factors that affect the severity of esophagitis. ..

More Information


  1. Inamori M, Togawa J, Nagase H, Abe Y, Umezawa T, Nakajima A, et al. Clinical characteristics of Japanese reflux esophagitis patients as determined by Los Angeles classification. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;18:172-6 pubmed
    ..We observed that age, hiatal hernia and a lower rate of gastric mucosal atrophy were associated with the proportion of mucosal breaks accompanying esophagitis. ..
  2. Lauritsen K, Deviere J, Bigard M, BayerdOrffer E, Mozsik G, Murray F, et al. Esomeprazole 20 mg and lansoprazole 15 mg in maintaining healed reflux oesophagitis: Metropole study results. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003;17 Suppl 1:24; discussion 25-7 pubmed
    ..05 and P < 0.001, respectively). Both treatment regimens were well tolerated. Esomeprazole 20 mg o.d. is a more effective maintenance treatment than lansoprazole 15 mg o.d. for symptom-free patients with healed RO. ..
  3. Fennerty M. The continuum of GERD complications. Cleve Clin J Med. 2003;70 Suppl 5:S33-50 pubmed
    ..This review examines the range of complications that can arise from chronic GERD, underscoring the need to view heartburn as a symptom of a potentially serious condition. ..
  4. Wu J, Chan F, Wong S, Lee Y, Leung W, Sung J. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on oesophageal acid exposure in patients with reflux oesophagitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16:545-52 pubmed
    ..pylori eradication had worsening of reflux oesophagitis. H. pylori eradication increases oesophageal acid exposure and may adversely affect the clinical course of reflux disease in a subset of patients. ..
  5. Fennerty M, Johanson J, Hwang C, Sostek M. Efficacy of esomeprazole 40 mg vs. lansoprazole 30 mg for healing moderate to severe erosive oesophagitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;21:455-63 pubmed
    ..With 8 weeks' treatment, esomeprazole 40 mg once daily heals moderate to severe EE faster and in more patients, and resolves heartburn in more patients after 4 weeks of treatment, than lansoprazole 30 mg once daily. ..
  6. Lee S, Song C, Jeen Y, Chun H, Lee H, Um S, et al. Prevalence of endoscopic reflux esophagitis among Koreans. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001;16:373-6 pubmed
    ..4%, and most of the patients had a mild grade esophagitis. Smoking, alcohol consumption, the presence of a hiatal hernia and a higher BMI are associated with the development of reflux esophagitis. ..
  7. Calleja J, Suarez M, De Tejada A, Navarro A. Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with erosive esophagitis is associated with rapid heartburn relief and lack of relapse after treatment with pantoprazole. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:432-9 pubmed
    ..After 24 weeks, the relapse rate was significantly higher in the HP-negative group. ..
  8. Madrazo de la Garza A, Dibildox M, Vargas A, Delgado J, Gonzalez J, Yañez P. Efficacy and safety of oral pantoprazole 20 mg given once daily for reflux esophagitis in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2003;36:261-5 pubmed
    ..Oral pantoprazole 20 mg daily provided gastric acid control in 15 pediatric patients with reflux esophagitis with partial clinical improvement of symptoms after 28 days of treatment. Pantoprazole was safe and well tolerated. ..
  9. Castell D, Kahrilas P, Richter J, Vakil N, Johnson D, Zuckerman S, et al. Esomeprazole (40 mg) compared with lansoprazole (30 mg) in the treatment of erosive esophagitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:575-83 pubmed
    ..This study compared esomeprazole with lansoprazole for the healing of erosive esophagitis and resolution of heartburn...
  10. Dahms B. Reflux esophagitis: sequelae and differential diagnosis in infants and children including eosinophilic esophagitis. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2004;7:5-16 pubmed
    ..Refinements (though not simplification!) in the definition of Barrett esophagus are still in evolution. This review will summarize these newer concepts and briefly review the standards of diagnosis of reflux esophagitis. ..
  11. Nilsson M, Lundegårdh G, Carling L, Ye W, Lagergren J. Body mass and reflux oesophagitis: an oestrogen-dependent association?. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2002;37:626-30 pubmed
    ..This association might be caused by increased oestrogen activity in overweight and obese females. ..
  12. Baldi F, Morselli Labate A, Cappiello R, Ghersi S. Daily low-dose versus alternate day full-dose lansoprazole in the maintenance treatment of reflux esophagitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:1357-64 pubmed
    ..The daily administration seems to have a better effect on the prevention of symptom recurrence. ..
  13. Kahrilas P, Falk G, Johnson D, Schmitt C, Collins D, Whipple J, et al. Esomeprazole improves healing and symptom resolution as compared with omeprazole in reflux oesophagitis patients: a randomized controlled trial. The Esomeprazole Study Investigators. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000;14:1249-58 pubmed
    ..The pharmacologic profile of the new proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole has demonstrated advantages over omeprazole that suggest clinical benefits for patients with acid-related disease...
  14. Holtmann G, Cain C, Malfertheiner P. Gastric Helicobacter pylori infection accelerates healing of reflux esophagitis during treatment with the proton pump inhibitor pantoprazole. Gastroenterology. 1999;117:11-6 pubmed
    ..05) better in H. pylori-infected patients than in uninfected patients. Patients with reflux esophagitis and H. pylori infection respond significantly better than H. pylori-negative patients to the PPI pantoprazole. ..
  15. Fujiwara Y, Higuchi K, Shiba M, Yamamori K, Watanabe Y, Sasaki E, et al. Differences in clinical characteristics between patients with endoscopy-negative reflux disease and erosive esophagitis in Japan. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:754-8 pubmed
    ..018). Female gender, low BMI, not smoking, absence of hiatal hernia, and severity of gastric atrophy were positively associated with endoscopy-negative reflux disease compared with erosive esophagitis among Japanese patients. ..
  16. Moons L, Kuipers E, Rygiel A, Groothuismink A, Geldof H, Bode W, et al. COX-2 CA-haplotype is a risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:2373-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a direct link between COX-2 activity and neoplastic progression in patients with BE and reflux esophagitis. ..
  17. Ishiyama F, Iijima K, Asanuma K, Ara N, Yoshitake J, Abe Y, et al. Exogenous luminal nitric oxide exacerbates esophagus tissue damage in a reflux esophagitis model of rats. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:527-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Diffusion of the luminal nitric oxide into the adjacent superoxide-enriched inflamed tissue of the esophagus could lead to the production of the highly toxic agent peroxynitrite, thus causing exacerbation of the esophageal damage. ..
  18. Lien H, Chang C, Yeh H, Ko C, Chang H, Cheng K, et al. Increasing prevalence of erosive esophagitis among Taiwanese aged 40 years and above: a comparison between two time periods. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2009;43:926-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Factors other than obesity seem to contribute to the increasing trend of erosive esophagitis in Taiwanese women. ..
  19. Yoshimura M, Nagahara A, Ohtaka K, Shimada Y, Asaoka D, Kurosawa A, et al. Presence of vertebral fractures is highly associated with hiatal hernia and reflux esophagitis in Japanese elderly people. Intern Med. 2008;47:1451-5 pubmed
    ..05). The presence of VFs was significantly associated with the presence of either RE or HH. This association became more significant when HH and RE were present together in elderly Japanese people. ..
  20. Ye P, Li Z, Xu G, Zou D, Xu X, Lu R. Esophageal motility in patients with sliding hiatal hernia with reflux esophagitis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2008;121:898-903 pubmed
    ..Esophageal motility results on a barium examination may coincide with esophageal manometry, 24-hour pH, and bilirubin monitoring in the RE and HH, but the radiologic method was the simplest to apply. ..
  21. Take S, Mizuno M, Ishiki K, Nagahara Y, Yoshida T, Yokota K, et al. Helicobacter pylori eradication may induce de novo, but transient and mild, reflux esophagitis: Prospective endoscopic evaluation. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, H. pylori eradication therapy need not be withheld for fear of provoking reflux esophagitis. ..
  22. Kamolz T, Granderath F, Schweiger U, Pointner R. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in patients with nonerosive reflux disease. Long-term quality-of-life assessment and surgical outcome. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:494-500 pubmed
    ..6 +/- 8.5). We suggest that LARS is an excellent treatment option for well-selected patients with persistent GERD-related symptoms who have no endoscopic evidence of esophagitis. ..
  23. Cheng P, Gong J, Wang T, Jie C, Liu G, Zhang R. Gene expression in Barrett's esophagus and reflux esophagitis induced by gastroduodenoesophageal reflux in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:3277-80 pubmed
  24. Pilotto A, Perri F, Leandro G, Franceschi M. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the outcome of reflux esophagitis and chronic gastritis in the elderly. A randomized, multicenter, eight-month study. Gerontology. 2006;52:99-106 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that H. pylori infection should be eradicated in elderly patients with esophagitis who need maintenance treatment with PPI. ..
  25. Nakajima K, Inaki A, Hiramatsu T, Hasegawa M, Fujimoto M, Takehara K, et al. Esophageal transit scintigraphy and structured questionnaire in patients with systemic sclerosis with endoscopically proven reflux esophagitis. Ann Nucl Med. 2009;23:771-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with high QS and dysmotility may be indicated for further evaluation including endoscopic examination and medical treatment. ..
  26. Orenstein S. Pediatric erosive esophagitis maintenance: finally, some level 1 evidence!. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:1298-300 pubmed
  27. Kim J, Choi S, Kim D, Oh T, Ahn B, Kwon J, et al. Combined use of omeprazole and a novel antioxidative cytoprotectant for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Facilitation of ulcer healing in experimental animals. Arzneimittelforschung. 2005;55:387-93 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the combined therapy with omeprazole and DA-9601, a cytoprotectant, can be beneficial for the treatment of peptic ulcer and reflux esophagitis. ..
  28. Jaklewicz D, Rozanski W, Wojtuń S, Gil J. [Endoscopic methods of treatment of variceal haemorrhages]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2007;22:419-22 pubmed
    ..When comparing different endoscopic methods, crucial differences can be observed between their effectiveness, safety and technical possibilities of performing the procedures. ..
  29. Nasr D, Bidot M, Roche M, Paveliu S, Morel P, Naouri A, et al. [Von Meyenburg disease found during laparoscopic surgery: report of two cases]. Ann Chir. 2006;131:468-70 pubmed
    ..The second patient (45 years old) had gastroesophageal reflux with recurrent peptic esophagitis. In both cases, multiple millimetric and superficial hepatic lesions were found during the exploration of ..
  30. Songur N, Songur Y, Cerci S, Ozturk O, Sahin U, Senol A, et al. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy in the evaluation of adult patients with chronic cough due to gastroesophageal reflux disease. Nucl Med Commun. 2008;29:1066-72 pubmed publisher
    ..As the chronic cough patients with proximal reflux have more severe reflux characteristics, this examination may be effective in screening and following up these patients. ..
  31. Wen N, Hao J, Jin Z. [Clinical observation on acupuncture for treatment of reflux esophagitis of heat stagnation of liver and stomach type]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2010;30:285-8 pubmed
    ..9% in the medication grou p (P < 0.05). Acupuncture has preferable short and long-term therapeutic effects for treatment of reflux esophagitis of heat stagnation of liver and stomach type. ..
  32. Lai Y, Wang P, Lin J. Laryngopharyngeal reflux in patients with reflux esophagitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:4523-8 pubmed
    ..However, the development of LPR might be different from that of reflux esophagitis. The importance of hiatus hernia deserves further study. ..
  33. Chen C, Yi C, Cook I. Differences in oesophageal bolus transit between patients with and without erosive reflux disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2008;40:348-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The noted differences in oesophageal bolus transit may reflect a continuum of dysfunction secondary to increasing oesophageal mucosal damage. ..
  34. Faccani E, Mattioli S, Lugaresi M, Di Simone M, Bartalena T, Pilotti V. Improving the surgery for sigmoid achalasia: long-term results of a technical detail. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;32:827-33 pubmed
    ..The clinical objective and subjective evaluations show a trend toward the improvement of results with the pull-down technique. Stronger statistical significance would probably be obtained from a larger case series. ..
  35. Song H, Shim K, Yoon S, Kim S, Oh H, Ryu K, et al. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of reflux esophagitis in koreans and its possible relation to metabolic syndrome. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:197-202 pubmed publisher
  36. Ténaiová J, Tuma L, Hrubant K, Bruha R, Svestka T, Novotny A, et al. [Incidence of hiatal hernias in the current endoscopic praxis]. Cas Lek Cesk. 2007;146:74-6 pubmed
    ..6%, more frequently in men (53.6%). The most common type is an axial hiatal hernia with incidence of 94.58%. In 50% of patients with hiatal hernia the reflux oesophagitis of various degrees was diagnosed. ..
  37. Li Z, Xu X, Zou D, Xie W, Yu X, Chen X, et al. [A study of extraesophageal presentations in gastroesophageal reflux disease]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2006;45:13-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that a significant part of GERD patients suffered from EED, and value of laryngoscopy and 24 h pH monitoring is limited for the diagnosis of EED. Higher dosage of PPI was effective for the treatment of EED. ..
  38. Nocon M, Labenz J, Jaspersen D, Leodolter A, Meyer Sabellek W, Stolte M, et al. Nighttime heartburn in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease under routine care. Digestion. 2008;77:69-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of nighttime heartburn in GERD patients under routine care was high, even in patients on continuous PPI therapy. Nighttime heartburn was not associated with Barrett's esophagus or most extra-esophageal symptoms. ..
  39. Kwon J, Chung I, Son H, Park J, Cho Y, Lee I, et al. [The relationship of gastrin, pepsinogen, and Helicobacter pylori in erosive reflux esophagitis]. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2008;51:159-66 pubmed
    ..5 vs. 23.1 kg/m2, p=0.013). The H. pylori infection rate in ERD group was lower and PG I/II ratio was higher than that in the control group. Reflux esophagitis is thought to be reversely associated with the atrophy of gastric mucosa. ..
  40. Song H, Choi K, Jung H, Lee G, Jo J, Byeon J, et al. Endoscopic reflux esophagitis in patients with upper abdominal pain-predominant dyspepsia. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:2217-21 pubmed
    ..In view of GERD, pain-predominant dyspepsia should be investigated and managed differently from dysmotility-predominant dyspepsia. ..
  41. Kinoshita Y, Ashida K, Miwa H, Hongo M. The impact of lifestyle modification on the health-related quality of life of patients with reflux esophagitis receiving treatment with a proton pump inhibitor. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:1106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Lifestyle modification may be clinically beneficial in terms of improving HRQOL in Japanese patients with RE who are receiving treatment with a PPI. ..
  42. Biccas B, Lemme E, Abrahão L, Aguero G, Alvariz A, Schechter R. [Higher prevalence of obesity in erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease]. Arq Gastroenterol. 2009;46:15-9 pubmed
    ..Although there was a major prevalence of hiatal hernia in the group of erosive reflux disease patients, this superiority was not extended to the categories of excessive weight in both groups. ..
  43. Kawanishi M. Development of reflux esophagitis following Helicobacter pylori eradication. J Gastroenterol. 2005;40:1024-8 pubmed
    ..pylori-positive patients, but the frequency in H. pylori-cured patients and H. pylori-negative patients was the same. We elucidated that hiatal hernia and smoking history are important risk factors for reflux esophagitis. ..
  44. Areia M, Gradiz R, Souto P, Camacho E, Silva M, Almeida N, et al. Iron-induced esophageal ulceration. Endoscopy. 2007;39 Suppl 1:E326 pubmed publisher
  45. Savarino E, Tutuian R, Zentilin P, Dulbecco P, Pohl D, Marabotto E, et al. Characteristics of reflux episodes and symptom association in patients with erosive esophagitis and nonerosive reflux disease: study using combined impedance-pH off therapy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:1053-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonacid reflux contributes less to esophageal mucosa damage, but is involved in the development of reflux symptoms in both NERD and EE patients. ..
  46. Hayakawa T, Fujiwara Y, Hamaguchi M, Sugawa T, Okuyama M, Sasaki E, et al. Roles of cyclooxygenase 2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 in rat acid reflux oesophagitis. Gut. 2006;55:450-6 pubmed
    ..PGE2 derived from COX-2 and mPGES-1 plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic acid reflux oesophagitis, and possibly in basal hyperplasia and persistent inflammatory cell infiltration. ..
  47. Lee J, Kim N, Chung I, Jo Y, Seo G, Kim S, et al. Clinical significance of minimal change lesions of the esophagus in a healthy Korean population: a nationwide multi-center prospective study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:1153-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The minimal changes were closely related with upper gastrointestinal symptoms and had similar risk factors for GERD, suggesting that minimal changes could be considered as early endoscopic findings of GERD. ..
  48. Hongo M, Adachi M. [Diagnostic tests for gastrointestinal tract in diabetics]. Nihon Rinsho. 2005;63 Suppl 6:599-603 pubmed
  49. Ariizumi K, Koike T, Ohara S, Inomata Y, Abe Y, Iijima K, et al. Incidence of reflux esophagitis and H pylori infection in diabetic patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:3212-7 pubmed
    ..No significant differences could be seen between diabetic patients and controls in the incidence of RE and H pylori infection. ..
  50. Cai Q, Barrie M, Olejeme H, Rosenberg M. A pilot study of efficacy and safety of continuous intravenous infusion of pantoprazole in the treatment of severe erosive esophagitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53:1500-5 pubmed
    ..It is safe to give pantoprazole intravenously and continuously for treatment of severe erosive esophagitis. ..
  51. Bacak B, Patel M, Tweed E, Danis P. What is the best way to manage GERD symptoms in the elderly?. J Fam Pract. 2006;55:251-4, 258 pubmed
    ..Based on safety profiles and success in the general patient population, PPIs as a class are considered first-line treatment for GERD and esophagitis for the elderly (SOR: C, expert consensus). ..
  52. Sheu J, Kang J, Lou H, Lin H. Reflux esophagitis and the risk of stroke in young adults: a 1-year population-based follow-up study. Stroke. 2010;41:2033-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that RE is associated with an increased risk of subsequent stroke in young adults. ..
  53. De Hertogh G, Ectors N, Van Eyken P, Geboes K. Review article: the nature of oesophageal injury in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24 Suppl 2:17-26 pubmed
    ..Activated pepsin, trypsin and conjugated bile acids at an acidic pH have been identified as probable causes of reflux-induced damage. ..