esophageal stenosis


Summary: A stricture of the ESOPHAGUS. Most are acquired but can be congenital.

Top Publications

  1. Thomas T, Abrams K, Subramanian V, Mannath J, Ragunath K. Esophageal stents for benign refractory strictures: a meta-analysis. Endoscopy. 2011;43:386-93 pubmed publisher
    ..2?%, it is associated with migration rate of 26.4?%. Nevertheless, the use of these temporary stents, which can be successfully removed in 87?% of patients, is an alluring prospect for treating patients with this difficult condition. ..
  2. De Angelis P, Caldaro T, Torroni F, Romeo E, Foschia F, di Abriola G, et al. Esophageal stenosis in epidermolysis bullosum: a challenge for the endoscopist. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:842-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Esophageal stenosis is a severe complication in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Endoscopic dilations may cause mucosal injury with stricture recurrence...
  3. Honda M, Hori Y, Nakada A, Uji M, Nishizawa Y, Yamamoto K, et al. Use of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells for prevention of esophageal stricture after circumferential EMR in a canine model. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;73:777-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Animal study, small sample size. Injection therapy with autologous ADSCs suppresses constriction of the esophageal mucosa and improves clinical symptoms after circumferential EMR in this canine model. ..
  4. Oh Y, Kochman M, Ahmad N, Ginsberg G. Clinical outcomes after self-expanding plastic stent placement for refractory benign esophageal strictures. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:1344-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyflex stents provided satisfactory palliation of dysphagia for RBES while in place. However, unplanned SEPS migration and dysphagia recurrence after stent removal were common. ..
  5. Hashimoto S, Kobayashi M, Takeuchi M, Sato Y, Narisawa R, Aoyagi Y. The efficacy of endoscopic triamcinolone injection for the prevention of esophageal stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;74:1389-93 pubmed publisher
  6. de Wijkerslooth L, Vleggaar F, Siersema P. Endoscopic management of difficult or recurrent esophageal strictures. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106:2080-91; quiz 2092 pubmed publisher
  7. Liu J, Hu Y, Cui C, Li Y, Lin X, Fu J. Removable, fully covered, self-expandable metal stents for the treatment of refractory benign esophagogastric anastomotic strictures. Dysphagia. 2012;27:260-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that effective methods for treating refractory stricture have not been found, RFCSEMSs could be considered for treating refractory benign esophagogastric anastomotic stricture...
  8. Yoo H, Kim W, Cheon J, Yoo S, Park K, Jung S, et al. Congenital esophageal stenosis associated with esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula: clinical and radiologic features. Pediatr Radiol. 2010;40:1353-9 pubmed publisher
    Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) can be associated with esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF)...
  9. Romeo E, Foschia F, De Angelis P, Caldaro T, Federici Di Abriola G, Gambitta R, et al. Endoscopic management of congenital esophageal stenosis. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:838-41 pubmed publisher
    Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a rare malformation. Endoscopic dilations represent a therapeutic option. This study retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of a conservative treatment of CES...

More Information


  1. van Boeckel P, Vleggaar F, Siersema P. A comparison of temporary self-expanding plastic and biodegradable stents for refractory benign esophageal strictures. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:653-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Biodegradable stents require fewer procedures than SEPSs, offering an advantage. Although stent placement is a viable strategy in patients with RBES, the ideal strategy still needs to be defined. ..
  2. Isomoto H, Yamaguchi N, Nakayama T, Hayashi T, Nishiyama H, Ohnita K, et al. Management of esophageal stricture after complete circular endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. BMC Gastroenterol. 2011;11:46 pubmed publisher
    ..dissection (ESD) permits removal of esophageal epithelial neoplasms en bloc, but is associated with esophageal stenosis, particularly when ESD involves the entire circumference of the esophageal lumen...
  3. Repici A, Vleggaar F, Hassan C, van Boeckel P, Romeo F, Pagano N, et al. Efficacy and safety of biodegradable stents for refractory benign esophageal strictures: the BEST (Biodegradable Esophageal Stent) study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;72:927-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of this stent may be a valuable alternative to repeat endoscopic dilation. Larger studies with longer follow-up are needed. ..
  4. Triester S, Fleischer D, Sharma V. Failure of self-expanding plastic stents in treatment of refractory benign esophageal strictures. Endoscopy. 2006;38:533-7 pubmed
  5. Ohki T, Yamato M, Murakami D, Takagi R, Yang J, Namiki H, et al. Treatment of oesophageal ulcerations using endoscopic transplantation of tissue-engineered autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets in a canine model. Gut. 2006;55:1704-10 pubmed
  6. Jeon S, Eun S, Shim C, Ryu C, Kim J, Cho J, et al. Effect of drug-eluting metal stents in benign esophageal stricture: an in vivo animal study. Endoscopy. 2009;41:449-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Although further studies are required to confirm our results, we suggest that these newly designed DES may provide an alternative tool to manage refractory benign esophageal stricture. ..
  7. Doo E, Shin J, Kim J, Song H. Oesophageal strictures caused by the ingestion of corrosive agents: effectiveness of balloon dilatation in children. Clin Radiol. 2009;64:265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of balloon dilatation in children for oesophageal strictures caused by the ingestion of corrosive agents...
  8. Saito Y, Tanaka T, Andoh A, Minematsu H, Hata K, Tsujikawa T, et al. Novel biodegradable stents for benign esophageal strictures following endoscopic submucosal dissection. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53:330-3 pubmed
    ..of a novel biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) esophageal stent in two patients with benign esophageal stenosis after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)...
  9. Lew R, Kochman M. A review of endoscopic methods of esophageal dilation. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2002;35:117-26 pubmed
    ..The approach to management of esophageal strictures is reviewed with a focus on dilation technique and special considerations for various stricture types. ..
  10. Bassiouny I, Al Ramadan S, al Nady A. Long-term functional results of transhiatal oesophagectomy and colonic interposition for caustic oesophageal stricture. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2002;12:243-7 pubmed
  11. Altintas E, Kacar S, Tunc B, Sezgin O, Parlak E, Altiparmak E, et al. Intralesional steroid injection in benign esophageal strictures resistant to bougie dilation. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;19:1388-91 pubmed
    ..597 +/- 0.583 in the control group (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that intralesional steroid injections increase efficacy of bougie dilation and decrease the requirement for repetition of bougie dilatation. ..
  12. Choi G, Shin J, Song H, Lee Y, Cho Y, Bae J, et al. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for patients with esophageal stricture after radiation treatment. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005;16:1705-10 pubmed
    ..Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for esophageal stricture after RT can be safe and effective. However, the high rate of recurrent dysphagia requires repeated dilations. ..
  13. Kawahara H, Oue T, Okuyama H, Kubota A, Okada A. Esophageal motor function in congenital esophageal stenosis. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38:1716-9 pubmed
    Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a rare condition that is associated with various foregut symptoms. The aim of the current study was to investigate esophageal motor function in pediatric patients with isolated CES...
  14. Wilkinson A, MacKinlay G. Use of a cutting balloon in the dilatation of caustic oesophageal stricture. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34:414-6 pubmed
    ..This is believed to be the first report of the use of a cutting balloon to treat an oesophageal stricture...
  15. Briel J, Tamhankar A, Hagen J, Demeester S, Johansson J, Choustoulakis E, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for ischemia, leak, and stricture of esophageal anastomosis: gastric pull-up versus colon interposition. J Am Coll Surg. 2004;198:536-41; discussion 541-2 pubmed
    ..Anastomotic leak and strictures are more common and the strictures are more severe after gastric pull-up compared with colon interposition. Dilatation is a safe and effective treatment. ..
  16. Radecke K, Gerken G, Treichel U. Impact of a self-expanding, plastic esophageal stent on various esophageal stenoses, fistulas, and leakages: a single-center experience in 39 patients. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;61:812-8 pubmed
    ..The therapeutical success and the complication rate after SEPS placement are similar to that reported for self-expanding metal stents. In addition, the SEPS can be readily removed, and the costs are significantly lower. ..
  17. Ahsan S, Haupert M. Absence of esophageal injury in pediatric patients after hair relaxer ingestion. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;125:953-5 pubmed
    ..To review the initial signs, symptoms, and endoscopic findings in children admitted to the hospital for ingestion of caustic hair relaxer...
  18. Kawahara H, Imura K, Yagi M, Kubota A. Clinical characteristics of congenital esophageal stenosis distal to associated esophageal atresia. Surgery. 2001;129:29-38 pubmed
    Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) has been reported to be a rare association in patients with esophageal atresia or tracheoesophageal fistula, or both (EA-TEF)...
  19. Saito T, Ise K, Kawahara Y, Yamashita M, Shimizu H, Suzuki H, et al. Congenital esophageal stenosis because of tracheobronchial remnant and treated by circular myectomy: a case report. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:583-5 pubmed publisher
    Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a rare anomaly, and appropriate management is not well established...
  20. García Cano J. Dilation of benign strictures in the esophagus and colon with the polyflex stent: a case series study. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53:341-6 pubmed
    ..Polyflex seems to be a useful tool in the dilation of severe benign strictures in esophagus and rectosigmoid and, as in large centers, good results are achieved in a community hospital. ..
  21. Chao H, Chen S, Kong M. Successful treatment of congenital esophageal web by endoscopic electrocauterization and balloon dilatation. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:e13-5 pubmed publisher
    ..dysphagia and vomiting; a follow-up barium esophagogram and esophagoscopy showed limited improvement of the esophageal stenosis. Two courses of endoscopic electrocauterization and balloon dilatation improved the clinical symptoms and ..
  22. Ono S, Fujishiro M, Niimi K, Goto O, Kodashima S, Yamamichi N, et al. Predictors of postoperative stricture after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial squamous cell neoplasms. Endoscopy. 2009;41:661-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is becoming accepted as an established treatment for superficial esophageal squamous cell neoplasms, the risks for developing postoperative stricture have not been elucidated...
  23. Repici A, Conio M, De Angelis C, Battaglia E, Musso A, Pellicano R, et al. Temporary placement of an expandable polyester silicone-covered stent for treatment of refractory benign esophageal strictures. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;60:513-9 pubmed
    ..In patients with benign esophageal strictures refractory to conventional dilation, temporary placement of a removable expandable polyester silicone-covered stent may lead to long-term relief of dysphagia with minimal morbidity. ..
  24. Zhao L, Hsieh W, Hsu W. Congenital esophageal stenosis owing to ectopic tracheobronchial remnants. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:1183-7 pubmed
    Congenital esophageal stenosis owing to tracheobronchial remnants (TBR) is a rare condition. Inappropriate treatment often is carried out before the correct diagnosis is established...
  25. Kim Y, Sung S, Kim J. Is it necessary to resect the diseased esophagus in performing reconstruction for corrosive esophageal stricture?. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2001;20:1-6 pubmed
    ..The question of whether or not a resection of the diseased esophagus should be included in the surgical reconstruction procedure of the undilatable esophageal stricture continues to be a controversial...
  26. Holm A, de la Mora Levy J, Gostout C, Topazian M, Baron T. Self-expanding plastic stents in treatment of benign esophageal conditions. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:20-5 pubmed
    ..Further investigation is warranted to identify optimal patient populations and to guide future recommendations for the use of SEPSs. ..
  27. Siersema P. Stenting for benign esophageal strictures. Endoscopy. 2009;41:363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial results show that biodegradable stents have the promise to be useful for refractory benign esophageal strictures; however, this promise needs to be further elucidated in future studies. ..
  28. Han Y, Cheng Q, Li X, Wang X. Surgical management of esophageal strictures after caustic burns: a 30 years of experience. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:2846-9 pubmed
    ..The most important factors to guarantee a successful outcome for surgery are good vascular supply and absence of tension in the anastomosis. ..
  29. Kukkady A, Pease P. Long-term dilatation of caustic strictures of the oesophagus. Pediatr Surg Int. 2002;18:486-90 pubmed
    ..47% (2 perforations from a total of 424 dilatations). Long-term dilatations are successful in managing a majority of CSO in children and are associated with minimal complications. ..
  30. Morikawa N, Honna T, Kuroda T, Watanabe K, Tanaka H, Takayasu H, et al. High dose intravenous methylprednisolone resolves esophageal stricture resistant to balloon dilatation with intralesional injection of dexamethasone. Pediatr Surg Int. 2008;24:1161-4 pubmed publisher
    ..and ampicillin for 1 week was intravenously administrated immediately after balloon dilatation of the esophageal stenosis. This was followed by oral prednisolone (daily 2, 1, 0...
  31. Dua K, Vleggaar F, Santharam R, Siersema P. Removable self-expanding plastic esophageal stent as a continuous, non-permanent dilator in treating refractory benign esophageal strictures: a prospective two-center study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:2988-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The procedure carries significant risks and hence should only be considered in carefully selected patients. ..
  32. Hordijk M, Siersema P, Tilanus H, Kuipers E. Electrocautery therapy for refractory anastomotic strictures of the esophagus. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006;63:157-63 pubmed
    ..Electrocautery seems to be a good single-treatment modality for refractory short-segment anastomotic strictures, whereas longer-segment stenoses appear to require repeated treatment sessions before similar results are obtained. ..
  33. Kochhar R, Makharia G. Usefulness of intralesional triamcinolone in treatment of benign esophageal strictures. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;56:829-34 pubmed
    ..24 (0.49) to 0.51 (0.4) (p < 0.001); and radiation-induced, 1.32 (0.6) to 0.6 (0.3) (p < 0.02). Intralesional injections of triamcinolone augment the effects of dilation in patients with benign esophageal strictures. ..
  34. Wills J, Hilden K, Disario J, Fang J. A randomized, prospective trial of electrosurgical incision followed by rabeprazole versus bougie dilation followed by rabeprazole of symptomatic esophageal (Schatzki's) rings. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:808-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Electrosurgical incision of Schatzki's rings is safe and offers longer symptom-free survival compared with bougie dilation. The addition of rabeprazole offered significant improvement in GERD scores in both groups. ..
  35. Beilstein M, Kochman M. Endoscopic incision of a refractory esophageal stricture: novel management with an endoscopic scissors. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;61:623-5 pubmed
  36. Nwomeh B, Luketich J, Kane T. Minimally invasive esophagectomy for caustic esophageal stricture in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:e1-6 pubmed
  37. Hordijk M, van Hooft J, Hansen B, Fockens P, Kuipers E. A randomized comparison of electrocautery incision with Savary bougienage for relief of anastomotic gastroesophageal strictures. Gastrointest Endosc. 2009;70:849-55 pubmed publisher
    ..EI can be used as an alternative or additional therapy to SB. (Registered with Current Controlled Trials, Ltd, registration number ISRCTN81239664.). ..
  38. Weintraub J, Eubig J. Balloon catheter dilatation of benign esophageal strictures in children. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2006;17:831-5 pubmed
    ..This retrospective study evaluated the safety and efficacy of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation of benign pediatric esophageal strictures...
  39. Amae S, Nio M, Kamiyama T, Ishii T, Yoshida S, Hayashi Y, et al. Clinical characteristics and management of congenital esophageal stenosis: a report on 14 cases. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38:565-70 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to review 14 patients with congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) from diagnostic and therapeutic points of view. From 1976 to 1999, 14 patients with CES were treated at the authors' hospital...
  40. Lan L, Wong K, Lin S, Sprigg A, Clarke S, Johnson P, et al. Endoscopic balloon dilatation of esophageal strictures in infants and children: 17 years' experience and a literature review. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38:1712-5 pubmed
    ..6 years), and all are asymptomatic. This large series has shown that EBD can provide a safe and effective mean of relieving esophageal strictures with good long-term results. ..
  41. Ferguson D. Evaluation and management of benign esophageal strictures. Dis Esophagus. 2005;18:359-64 pubmed
    ..There are a variety of interventions for refractory strictures which include injection of intralesional corticosteroids, temporary placement of self-expanding plastic stents and surgery. ..
  42. Saito Y, Tanaka T, Andoh A, Minematsu H, Hata K, Tsujikawa T, et al. Usefulness of biodegradable stents constructed of poly-l-lactic acid monofilaments in patients with benign esophageal stenosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:3977-80 pubmed
    To report 13 patients with benign esophageal stenosis treated with the biodegradable stent. We developed a Ultraflex-type stent by knitting poly-l-lactic acid monofilaments...
  43. Poley J, Steyerberg E, Kuipers E, Dees J, Hartmans R, Tilanus H, et al. Ingestion of acid and alkaline agents: outcome and prognostic value of early upper endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;60:372-7 pubmed
    ..Ingestion of caustic substances often leads to severe morbidity and, frequently, death. This study compared complications and survival for patients who ingested an acidic substance, mainly glacial acetic acid, or an alkaline agent...
  44. Takamizawa S, Tsugawa C, Mouri N, Satoh S, Kanegawa K, Nishijima E, et al. Congenital esophageal stenosis: Therapeutic strategy based on etiology. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:197-201 pubmed
    The diagnosis and treatment of congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) can be a vexing clinical problem. This study aims at determining the ideal therapeutic strategy for the management of CES...
  45. Cho Y, Shin J, Kim B, Yook J, Song H, Kim J, et al. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of anastomotic strictures after total gastrectomy: long-term results. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188:647-51 pubmed
    ..Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation is effective and safe and has encouraging long-term results in the management of benign anastomotic strictures after total gastrectomy. ..
  46. Gündoğdu H, Tanyel F, Buyukpamukcu N, Hicsonmez A. Conservative treatment of caustic esophageal strictures in children. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27:767-70 pubmed
    ..Most caustic esophageal strictures could have been treated by conservative measures in children...
  47. Unosawa S, Hata M, Sezai A, Niino T, Yoda M, Shimura K, et al. Surgical treatment of an aortoesophageal fistula caused by stent implantation for esophageal stenosis: report of a case. Surg Today. 2008;38:62-4 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful surgical treatment of an aortoesophageal fistula caused by esophageal stent dilatation. ..
  48. Siersema P, Hop W, van Blankenstein M, van Tilburg A, Bac D, Homs M, et al. A comparison of 3 types of covered metal stents for the palliation of patients with dysphagia caused by esophagogastric carcinoma: a prospective, randomized study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2001;54:145-53 pubmed
    ..Although stent migration is reduced by increasing stent diameter, tumor overgrowth remains an intractable problem that requires a new approach. ..
  49. Naranjo Rodríguez A, Solórzano Peck G, Lopez Rubio F, Calañas Continente A, Gálvez Calderón C, González Galilea A, et al. Isolated oesophageal involvement of Crohn's disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;15:1123-6 pubmed
    ..All these pathological findings were characteristic of Crohn's disease of the oesophagus. After 36 months of follow-up there has been no recurrence of symptoms or of other sites of involvement. ..
  50. Hishiki T, Kouchi K, Saito T, Terui K, Sato Y, Mitsunaga T, et al. Successful treatment of severe refractory anastomotic stricture in an infant after esophageal atresia repair by endoscopic balloon dilation combined with systemic administration of dexamethasone. Pediatr Surg Int. 2009;25:531-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Balloon dilation in combination with systemic dexamethasone administration may be an effective treatment that could substitute invasive techniques including surgical manipulation for severe refractory strictures. ..
  51. Ramasamy K, Gumaste V. Corrosive ingestion in adults. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2003;37:119-24 pubmed
    ..Stricture formation is more common in patients with second and third degree burns. Corticosteroids may help prevent stricture formation. Esophageal carcinoma may develop beginning 30 to 40 years after the time of injury...
  52. Usui N, Kamata S, Kawahara H, Sawai T, Nakajima K, Soh H, et al. Usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of congenital esophageal stenosis. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:1744-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of EUS for the diagnosis of congenital esophageal stenosis. High-frequency catheter probe EUS was performed under general anesthesia in 2 patients who had congenital ..
  53. Gun F, Abbasoglu L, Celik A, Salman E. Early and late term management in caustic ingestion in children: a 16-year experience. Acta Chir Belg. 2007;107:49-52 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, after caustic ingestion, esophageal rest combined with supporting treatment seems to provide a good success rate with respect to prevention of stricture development and other troublesome complications. ..