pancreatic fistula

Summary

Summary: Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.

Top Publications

  1. Bassi C, Dervenis C, Butturini G, Fingerhut A, Yeo C, Izbicki J, et al. Postoperative pancreatic fistula: an international study group (ISGPF) definition. Surgery. 2005;138:8-13 pubmed
    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is still regarded as a major complication. The incidence of POPF varies greatly in different reports, depending on the definition applied at each surgical center...
  2. Ramsey A, Martin R. Body mass index and outcomes from pancreatic resection: a review and meta-analysis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011;15:1633-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Most outcomes showed no definitive differences across BMIs. Pancreatic fistula (PF) rates ranged from 4.7% to 31...
  3. Frymerman A, Schuld J, Ziehen P, Kollmar O, Justinger C, Merai M, et al. Impact of postoperative pancreatic fistula on surgical outcome--the need for a classification-driven risk management. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010;14:711-8 pubmed publisher
    The International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification allows comparison of incidence and severity of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF)...
  4. Fendrich V, Merz M, Waldmann J, Langer P, Heverhagen A, Dietzel K, et al. Neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors are risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreatic surgery. Dig Surg. 2011;28:263-9 pubmed publisher
    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (PF) is still regarded as a major complication in pancreatic surgery...
  5. Mimatsu K, Oida T, Kano H, Kawasaki A, Fukino N, Kida K, et al. Protection of major vessels and pancreaticogastrostomy using the falciform ligament and greater omentum for preventing pancreatic fistula in soft pancreatic texture after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Hepatogastroenterology. 2011;58:1782-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Pancreatic fistula is one of the major causes of morbidity in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy...
  6. Moskovic D, Hodges S, Wu M, Brunicardi F, Hilsenbeck S, Fisher W. Drain data to predict clinically relevant pancreatic fistula. HPB (Oxford). 2010;12:472-81 pubmed publisher
    Post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a common and potentially devastating complication of pancreas resection. Management of this complication is important to the pancreas surgeon...
  7. Walters D, Stokes J, Adams R, Bauer T. Use of a falciform ligament pedicle flap to decrease pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy. Pancreas. 2011;40:595-9 pubmed publisher
    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains a significant source of morbidity after distal pancreatectomy (DP)...
  8. Pessaux P, Sauvanet A, Mariette C, Paye F, Muscari F, Cunha A, et al. External pancreatic duct stent decreases pancreatic fistula rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy: prospective multicenter randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2011;253:879-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Pancreatic fistula (PF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD)...
  9. Wellner U, Kayser G, Lapshyn H, Sick O, Makowiec F, Höppner J, et al. A simple scoring system based on clinical factors related to pancreatic texture predicts postoperative pancreatic fistula preoperatively. HPB (Oxford). 2010;12:696-702 pubmed publisher
    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is regarded as the most serious complication of pancreatic surgery. The preoperative risk stratification of patients by simple means is of interest in perioperative clinical management...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Niedergethmann M, Dusch N, Widyaningsih R, Weiss C, Kienle P, Post S. Risk-adapted anastomosis for partial pancreaticoduodenectomy reduces the risk of pancreatic fistula: a pilot study. World J Surg. 2010;34:1579-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Pancreatic fistula (PF) is the main cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality after pancreatectomy. Two reasons for PF are a "soft" pancreatic texture and a narrow pancreatic duct (high-risk gland)...
  2. Lai E, Lau S, Lau W. Measures to prevent pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy: a comprehensive review. Arch Surg. 2009;144:1074-80 pubmed publisher
    To review the current evidence on the efficacy of various interventions directed toward prevention of pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy...
  3. Berger A, Howard T, Kennedy E, Sauter P, Bower Cherry M, Dutkevitch S, et al. Does type of pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy decrease rate of pancreatic fistula? A randomized, prospective, dual-institution trial. J Am Coll Surg. 2009;208:738-47; discussion 747-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Pancreatic fistula (PF) is one of the most common complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy. There have been no large prospective randomized trials evaluating PF rates comparing invagination versus duct to mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy...
  4. Bruno O, Brancatelli G, Sauvanet A, Vullierme M, Barrau V, Vilgrain V. Utility of CT in the diagnosis of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with soft pancreas. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193:W175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..sensitivity and specificity of routine performance of CT on postoperative day 7 in patients at high risk of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy...
  5. Akamatsu N, Sugawara Y, Komagome M, Shin N, Cho N, Ishida T, et al. Risk factors for postoperative pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy: the significance of the ratio of the main pancreatic duct to the pancreas body as a predictor of leakage. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2010;17:322-8 pubmed publisher
    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a severe and frequent complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD)...
  6. Burkhart R, Relles D, Pineda D, Gabale S, Sauter P, Rosato E, et al. Defining treatment and outcomes of hepaticojejunostomy failure following pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2013;17:451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with a bile leak frequently developed other complications, including a pancreatic fistula, wound infection, delayed gastric emptying, and sepsis...
  7. Blansfield J, Rapp M, Chokshi R, Woll N, Hunsinger M, Sheldon D, et al. Novel method of stump closure for distal pancreatectomy with a 75% reduction in pancreatic fistula rate. J Gastrointest Surg. 2012;16:524-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Pancreatic fistula is a significant problem for patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy with fistula rates up to 61%. Fistulas lead to substantial morbidity...
  8. Bassi C, Molinari E, Malleo G, Crippa S, Butturini G, Salvia R, et al. Early versus late drain removal after standard pancreatic resections: results of a prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2010;252:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of surgically placed intra-abdominal drainages after pancreatic resections has not been clearly established. In particular, their effect on morbidity rates and the optimal timing for their removal remains controversial...
  9. Koti R, Gurusamy K, Fusai G, Davidson B. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of somatostatin analogues for pancreatic surgery: a Cochrane review. HPB (Oxford). 2010;12:155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..15, 95% CI 0.56-2.36) or hospital stay (MD -1.04 days, 95% CI -2.54 to 0.46). The incidence of pancreatic fistula was lower in the SA group (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.53-0.78)...
  10. Ochiai T, Sonoyama T, Soga K, Inoue K, Ikoma H, Shiozaki A, et al. Application of polyethylene glycolic acid felt with fibrin sealant to prevent postoperative pancreatic fistula in pancreatic surgery. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010;14:884-90 pubmed publisher
    ..report our new procedures using polyethylene glycolic acid (PGA) felt with fibrin sealant to prevent severe pancreatic fistula in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery...
  11. Cecka F, Jon B, Subrt Z, Ferko A. Clinical and economic consequences of pancreatic fistula after elective pancreatic resection. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2013;12:533-9 pubmed
    Postoperative pancreatic fistula is the main cause of morbidity after pancreatic resection. This study aimed to quantify the clinical and economic consequences of pancreatic fistula in a medium-volume pancreatic surgery center.
  12. Malleo G, Crippa S, Butturini G, Salvia R, Partelli S, Rossini R, et al. Delayed gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: validation of International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery classification and analysis of risk factors. HPB (Oxford). 2010;12:610-8 pubmed publisher
    ..001). In the univariate analysis, abdominal collections (P? 0.001), pancreatic fistula (PF) grades B and C (P < 0.001), biliary fistula (P= 0.002), pulmonary complications (P < 0...
  13. Weber S, Cho C, Merchant N, Pinchot S, Rettammel R, Nakeeb A, et al. Laparoscopic left pancreatectomy: complication risk score correlates with morbidity and risk for pancreatic fistula. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:2825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Complications and pancreatic fistula rates were assessed, and a model was developed to identify those at risk of postoperative adverse events...
  14. Diener M, Seiler C, Rossion I, Kleeff J, Glanemann M, Butturini G, et al. Efficacy of stapler versus hand-sewn closure after distal pancreatectomy (DISPACT): a randomised, controlled multicentre trial. Lancet. 2011;377:1514-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulated that standardised closure with a stapler device would prevent pancreatic fistula more effectively than would a hand-sewn closure of the remnant...
  15. Peng S, Mou Y, Liu Y, Su Y, Peng C, Cai X, et al. Binding pancreaticojejunostomy: 150 consecutive cases without leakage. J Gastrointest Surg. 2003;7:898-900 pubmed
    ..The mean postoperative hospital stay was 19.8 +/- 5 days. Binding pancreaticojejunostomy is a safe, simple, and effective technique. ..
  16. Stojadinovic A, Brooks A, Hoos A, Jaques D, Conlon K, Brennan M. An evidence-based approach to the surgical management of resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. J Am Coll Surg. 2003;196:954-64 pubmed
    ..Pancreatic-enteric anastomosis is associated with lower rates of pancreatic fistula and endocrine insufficiency than duct occlusion without anastomosis...
  17. Yeo C, Cameron J, Lillemoe K, Sauter P, Coleman J, Sohn T, et al. Does prophylactic octreotide decrease the rates of pancreatic fistula and other complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy? Results of a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2000;232:419-29 pubmed
    To evaluate the endpoints of complications (specifically pancreatic fistula and total complications) and death in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy...
  18. Goh B, Tan Y, Chung Y, Cheow P, Ong H, Chan W, et al. Critical appraisal of 232 consecutive distal pancreatectomies with emphasis on risk factors, outcome, and management of the postoperative pancreatic fistula: a 21-year experience at a single institution. Arch Surg. 2008;143:956-65 pubmed publisher
    ..DP), with particular attention to the risk factors, outcome, and management of the postoperative pancreatic fistula (PF). Retrospective study. Tertiary referral center...
  19. Sheehan M, Beck K, Creech S, Pickleman J, Aranha G. Distal pancreatectomy: does the method of closure influence fistula formation?. Am Surg. 2002;68:264-7; discussion 267-8 pubmed
    ..b>Pancreatic fistula occurred in 14 per cent (N = 12), intra-abdominal abscess in 8 per cent (N = 7), and wound infection in 2 ..
  20. Pratt W, Maithel S, Vanounou T, Callery M, Vollmer C. Postoperative pancreatic fistulas are not equivalent after proximal, distal, and central pancreatectomy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2006;10:1264-78; discussion 1278-9 pubmed
    ..and 6 central pancreatectomies) were evaluated according to the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula classification scheme...
  21. Lillemoe K, Cameron J, Kim M, Campbell K, Sauter P, Coleman J, et al. Does fibrin glue sealant decrease the rate of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy? Results of a prospective randomized trial. J Gastrointest Surg. 2004;8:766-72; discussion 772-4 pubmed
    ..substantial improvements in perioperative mortality, complications, and specifically the development of a pancreatic fistula, remain a common occurrence after pancreaticoduodenectomy...
  22. Shrikhande S, D Souza M. Pancreatic fistula after pancreatectomy: evolving definitions, preventive strategies and modern management. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:5789-96 pubmed
    ..The present article, reviews the evolution of post resection pancreatic fistula as a concept, and discusses evolving definitions, the current preventive strategies and the management of ..
  23. Winter J, Cameron J, Campbell K, Chang D, Riall T, Schulick R, et al. Does pancreatic duct stenting decrease the rate of pancreatic fistula following pancreaticoduodenectomy? Results of a prospective randomized trial. J Gastrointest Surg. 2006;10:1280-90; discussion 1290 pubmed
    ..The pancreatic fistula rate for the entire study population was 9.4%...
  24. Kazanjian K, Hines O, Eibl G, Reber H. Management of pancreatic fistulas after pancreaticoduodenectomy: results in 437 consecutive patients. Arch Surg. 2005;140:849-54; discussion 854-6 pubmed
    b>Pancreatic fistula (PF), a common and potentially lethal complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy, can be managed nonoperatively in most cases. Retrospective case series. Major academic medical and pancreatic surgery center...
  25. Kleeff J, Diener M, Z graggen K, Hinz U, Wagner M, Bachmann J, et al. Distal pancreatectomy: risk factors for surgical failure in 302 consecutive cases. Ann Surg. 2007;245:573-82 pubmed
    ..risk factors for mortality and morbidity after distal pancreatectomy, with special focus on the formation of pancreatic fistula. Distal pancreatectomy can be performed with low mortality and acceptable morbidity rates...
  26. Fernandez Cruz L, Cosa R, Blanco L, López Boado M, Astudillo E. Pancreatogastrostomy with gastric partition after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy versus conventional pancreatojejunostomy: a prospective randomized study. Ann Surg. 2008;248:930-8 pubmed publisher
    ..01). The incidence of pancreatic fistula was 4% after PPPD-GP and 18% after PPPD-PJ (P < 0.01)...
  27. Lin J, Cameron J, Yeo C, Riall T, Lillemoe K. Risk factors and outcomes in postpancreaticoduodenectomy pancreaticocutaneous fistula. J Gastrointest Surg. 2004;8:951-9 pubmed
    ..Choice of anastomotic technique did not correlate with fistula rates. Pancreaticocutaneous fistula increases postoperative length of stay and morbidity but was not directly associated with increased postoperative mortality. ..
  28. Aranha G, Hodul P, Golts E, Oh D, Pickleman J, Creech S. A comparison of pancreaticogastrostomy and pancreaticojejunostomy following pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2003;7:672-82 pubmed
    ..0, P = 0.018). However, the pancreatic fistula rate was not different between the two groups (12% [PG] vs. 14% [PJ])...
  29. Strasberg S, Linehan D, Clavien P, Barkun J. Proposal for definition and severity grading of pancreatic anastomosis failure and pancreatic occlusion failure. Surgery. 2007;141:420-6 pubmed
  30. Wellner U, Makowiec F, Fischer E, Hopt U, Keck T. Reduced postoperative pancreatic fistula rate after pancreatogastrostomy versus pancreaticojejunostomy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2009;13:745-51 pubmed publisher
    ..studies employing various definitions of pancreatic fistulas demonstrated a reduced postoperative pancreatic fistula rate after pancreatogastrostomy versus pancreaticojejunostomy...
  31. Knaebel H, Diener M, Wente M, Buchler M, Seiler C. Systematic review and meta-analysis of technique for closure of the pancreatic remnant after distal pancreatectomy. Br J Surg. 2005;92:539-46 pubmed
    ..A variety of procedures have been recommended to reduce the frequency of pancreatic fistula. This review quantitatively compares the available techniques...
  32. Kooby D, Gillespie T, Bentrem D, Nakeeb A, Schmidt M, Merchant N, et al. Left-sided pancreatectomy: a multicenter comparison of laparoscopic and open approaches. Ann Surg. 2008;248:438-46 pubmed publisher
    ..19-0.56). In selected patients, LLP is associated with less morbidity and shorter LOS than OLP. Pancreatic fistula rates are similar for OLP and LLP...
  33. Bassi C, Falconi M, Salvia R, Mascetta G, Molinari E, Pederzoli P. Management of complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy in a high volume centre: results on 150 consecutive patients. Dig Surg. 2001;18:453-7; discussion 458 pubmed
    ..The continued high morbidity of PDs is compensated by the ability to treat complications non-operatively, resulting in a surgical risk that should now be considered medium to low in high volume centres. ..
  34. Barreto G, D Souza M, Shukla P, Shrikhande S. The gray zone between postpancreaticoduodenectomy collections and pancreatic fistula. Pancreas. 2008;37:422-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This will likely reduce reported rates of uncertain postoperative collections while providing more precise (perhaps higher) rates of postoperative pancreatic fistulae. ..
  35. DeOliveira M, Winter J, Schafer M, Cunningham S, Cameron J, Yeo C, et al. Assessment of complications after pancreatic surgery: A novel grading system applied to 633 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Ann Surg. 2006;244:931-7; discussion 937-9 pubmed
    ..classification of complication to stratify morbidity by severity after PD, to test whether the incidence of pancreatic fistula has changed over time, and to identify risk factors in a single North American center...
  36. Vin Y, Sima C, Getrajdman G, Brown K, Covey A, Brennan M, et al. Management and outcomes of postpancreatectomy fistula, leak, and abscess: results of 908 patients resected at a single institution between 2000 and 2005. J Am Coll Surg. 2008;207:490-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients were included if they were identified as having a clinically significant (>/=grade 2) pancreatic fistula, leak, or abscess...
  37. Shrikhande S, Qureshi S, Rajneesh N, Shukla P. Pancreatic anastomoses after pancreaticoduodenectomy: do we need further studies?. World J Surg. 2005;29:1642-9 pubmed
    ..words pancreaticoduodenectomy, pancreatic anastomosis, pancreaticojejunostomy, pancreaticogastrostomy, and pancreatic fistula was performed...
  38. Kawai M, Tani M, Terasawa H, Ina S, Hirono S, Nishioka R, et al. Early removal of prophylactic drains reduces the risk of intra-abdominal infections in patients with pancreatic head resection: prospective study for 104 consecutive patients. Ann Surg. 2006;244:1-7 pubmed
    ..Postoperative complications in the 2 groups were compared. The rate of pancreatic fistula was significantly lower in group II (3.6%) than in group I (23%) (P = 0.0038)...
  39. Bassi C, Butturini G, Molinari E, Mascetta G, Salvia R, Falconi M, et al. Pancreatic fistula rate after pancreatic resection. The importance of definitions. Dig Surg. 2004;21:54-9 pubmed
    b>Pancreatic fistula (PF) is still regarded as a serious complication both in terms of frequency and sequelae. The incidence varies greatly in different reports because of the different definitions used...
  40. Mathur A, Pitt H, Marine M, Saxena R, Schmidt C, Howard T, et al. Fatty pancreas: a factor in postoperative pancreatic fistula. Ann Surg. 2007;246:1058-64 pubmed
    To determine whether patients who develop a pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy are more likely to have pancreatic fat than matched controls...
  41. Adam U, Makowiec F, Riediger H, Trzeczak S, Benz S, Hopt U. [Distal pancreatic resection--indications, techniques and complications]. Zentralbl Chir. 2001;126:908-12 pubmed
    ..The frequency of pancreatic leakage may be reduced significantly by increasing hospital experience. The management of the pancreatic stump by pancreatojejunostomy should be considered in patients with a high risk of pancreatic leakage. ..
  42. Yeo C, Cameron J, Maher M, Sauter P, Zahurak M, Talamini M, et al. A prospective randomized trial of pancreaticogastrostomy versus pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Ann Surg. 1995;222:580-8; discussion 588-92 pubmed
    ..pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy and less likely to be associated with a postoperative pancreatic fistula. Pancreatic fistula is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy, occurring ..
  43. Wagner M, Gloor B, Ambühl M, Worni M, Lutz J, Angst E, et al. Roux-en-Y drainage of the pancreatic stump decreases pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatic resection. J Gastrointest Surg. 2007;11:303-8 pubmed
    ..Patient demographics, hospital stay, pancreatic fistula incidence (> or =30 ml amylase-rich fluid/day on/after postoperative day 10), perioperative morbidity, ..
  44. Kunisaki C, Shimada H, Ono H, Otsuka Y, Matsuda G, Nomura M, et al. Predictive factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticosplenectomy for advanced gastric cancer in the upper third of the stomach. J Gastrointest Surg. 2006;10:132-7 pubmed
    This study aimed to retrospectively investigate the predictive factors for pancreatic fistula following pancreaticosplenectomy. Pancreatic fistula is a major lethal complication of pancreaticosplenectomy...
  45. Schnelldorfer T, Mauldin P, Lewin D, Adams D. Distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis: risk factors for postoperative pancreatic fistula. J Gastrointest Surg. 2007;11:991-7 pubmed
    ..Factors influencing the development of a pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy have not been clearly elucidated...
  46. Pratt W, Maithel S, Vanounou T, Huang Z, Callery M, Vollmer C. Clinical and economic validation of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification scheme. Ann Surg. 2007;245:443-51 pubmed
    ..Definitions of postoperative pancreatic fistula vary widely, precluding accurate comparisons of surgical techniques and experiences...
  47. Butturini G, Marcucci S, Molinari E, Mascetta G, Landoni L, Crippa S, et al. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy: the problem of current definitions. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2006;13:207-11 pubmed
    ..rates in different specialist units, particularly regarding the source of every complication, postoperative pancreatic fistula, and others such as delayed gastric emptying...
  48. Poon R, Lo S, Fong D, Fan S, Wong J. Prevention of pancreatic anastomotic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Am J Surg. 2002;183:42-52 pubmed
    ..A meta-analysis of the results of prophylactic octreotide in preventing pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy from data available in three randomized controlled studies yielded an odds ..
  49. Munoz Bongrand N, Sauvanet A, Denys A, Sibert A, Vilgrain V, Belghiti J. Conservative management of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy. J Am Coll Surg. 2004;199:198-203 pubmed
    b>Pancreatic fistula (PF), which is a major complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), can be treated conservatively or by reoperation...
  50. Ohigashi H, Ishikawa O, Eguchi H, Sasaki Y, Yamada T, Kishi K, et al. A simple and safe anastomosis in pancreaticogastrostomy using mattress sutures. Am J Surg. 2008;196:130-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Postoperative amylase levels in the drainage fluid decreased significantly and none of the 17 patients developed pancreatic fistula formation. The technique is simple and shortens the time required for anastomosis.
  51. Suc B, Msika S, Fingerhut A, Fourtanier G, Hay J, Holmières F, et al. Temporary fibrin glue occlusion of the main pancreatic duct in the prevention of intra-abdominal complications after pancreatic resection: prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2003;237:57-65 pubmed
    ..However, the rate of patients with one or more intra-abdominal complications, and notably with pancreatic fistula, did not differ significantly between the two groups...
  52. Yoon S, Lee Y, Yoon K, Choi C, Kim H, Chae K. Spontaneous pancreatic pseudocyst-portal vein fistula presenting with pancreatic ascites: strength of MR cholangiopancreatography. Br J Radiol. 2008;81:e13-6 pubmed
  53. Pratt W, Callery M, Vollmer C. Risk prediction for development of pancreatic fistula using the ISGPF classification scheme. World J Surg. 2008;32:419-28 pubmed publisher
    The International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification scheme has become a useful system for characterizing the clinical impact of pancreatic fistula...