tooth calcification


Summary: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)

Top Publications

  1. Mahoney E, Rohanizadeh R, Ismail F, Kilpatrick N, Swain M. Mechanical properties and microstructure of hypomineralised enamel of permanent teeth. Biomaterials. 2004;25:5091-100 pubmed
    ..The reason for the dramatic reduction in mechanical properties of hypomineralised first permanent molar teeth is at present unknown. ..
  2. He G, Ramachandran A, Dahl T, George S, Schultz D, Cookson D, et al. Phosphorylation of phosphophoryn is crucial for its function as a mediator of biomineralization. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:33109-14 pubmed
    ..Overall these results suggested that the phosphate moieties in phosphophoryn are important for its function as a mediator of dentin biomineralization. ..
  3. Schneider K, Korkmaz Y, Addicks K, Lang H, Raab W. Prion protein (PrP) in human teeth: an unprecedented pointer to PrP's function. J Endod. 2007;33:110-3 pubmed
    ..Periodontal and pulpal tissue exposed by disease or trauma might represent a clinically relevant entry point for prions incorporated orally and thus a possible mode of infection. ..
  4. Bègue Kirn C, Krebsbach P, Bartlett J, Butler W. Dentin sialoprotein, dentin phosphoprotein, enamelysin and ameloblastin: tooth-specific molecules that are distinctively expressed during murine dental differentiation. Eur J Oral Sci. 1998;106:963-70 pubmed
  5. Sun Z, Fan D, Fan Y, Du C, Moradian Oldak J. Enamel proteases reduce amelogenin-apatite binding. J Dent Res. 2008;87:1133-7 pubmed
    ..Analysis of our data suggests that, before its complete degradation during enamel maturation, stepwise processing of amelogenin by MMP-20 and then KLK4 reduces amelogenin-apatite interaction. ..
  6. Smith C, Wazen R, Hu Y, Zalzal S, Nanci A, Simmer J, et al. Consequences for enamel development and mineralization resulting from loss of function of ameloblastin or enamelin. Eur J Oral Sci. 2009;117:485-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings confirm that both ameloblastin and enamelin are required by ameloblasts to create an enamel layer by appositional growth as well as to assist in achieving its unique high level of mineralization. ..
  7. Beniash E, Skobe Z, Bartlett J. Formation of the dentino-enamel interface in enamelysin (MMP-20)-deficient mouse incisors. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114 Suppl 1:24-9; discussion 39-41, 379 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that the structural and functional properties of the DEJ are determined during the initial mineralization stages. ..
  8. Chang S, Chen H, Liu J, Wood D, Bentley P, Clarkson B. Synthesis of a potentially bioactive, hydroxyapatite-nucleating molecule. Calcif Tissue Int. 2006;78:55-61 pubmed
    ..This molecule could be used in the repair and regeneration of dental tissue. ..
  9. Goldberg M, Septier D, Oldberg A, Young M, Ameye L. Fibromodulin-deficient mice display impaired collagen fibrillogenesis in predentin as well as altered dentin mineralization and enamel formation. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006;54:525-37 pubmed
    ..Together these studies indicate that Fmod restricts collagen fibrillogenesis in predentin while promoting dentin mineralization and the early stages of enamel formation. ..

More Information


  1. Simmer J, Papagerakis P, Smith C, Fisher D, Rountrey A, Zheng L, et al. Regulation of dental enamel shape and hardness. J Dent Res. 2010;89:1024-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the growth parameters that determine the shape of the enamel crown as well as the mechanisms of enamel appositional growth and maturation...
  2. Fang P, Lam R, Beniash E. Relationships between dentin and enamel mineral at the dentino-enamel boundary: electron tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study. Eur J Oral Sci. 2011;119 Suppl 1:120-4 pubmed publisher
  3. Ye L, Macdougall M, Zhang S, Xie Y, Zhang J, Li Z, et al. Deletion of dentin matrix protein-1 leads to a partial failure of maturation of predentin into dentin, hypomineralization, and expanded cavities of pulp and root canal during postnatal tooth development. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:19141-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies suggest that DMP-1 is essential for later dentinogenesis during postnatal development. ..
  4. Feng J, Huang H, Lu Y, Ye L, Xie Y, Tsutsui T, et al. The Dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) is specifically expressed in mineralized, but not soft, tissues during development. J Dent Res. 2003;82:776-80 pubmed
    ..This suggests that DMP1 is not essential for early mouse skeletal or dental development. ..
  5. Hu Y, Hu J, Smith C, Bartlett J, Simmer J. Kallikrein-related peptidase 4, matrix metalloproteinase 20, and the maturation of murine and porcine enamel. Eur J Oral Sci. 2011;119 Suppl 1:217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that enamel breaks in the deep enamel of Klk4 null mice because of decreasing enamel maturation with depth, and at the DEJ in Mmp20 null mice because of hypomineralization at the DEJ...
  6. Embery G, Hall R, Waddington R, Septier D, Goldberg M. Proteoglycans in dentinogenesis. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2001;12:331-49 pubmed
    ..The rigid, spatially oriented glycosaminoglycan chains on decorin and biglycan are known to bind calcium and may feature directly in mineral initiation. ..
  7. Papp T, Holló K, Meszar Katona E, Nagy Z, Polyak A, Miko E, et al. TLR signalling can modify the mineralization of tooth germ. Acta Odontol Scand. 2016;74:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, unlike these pathological functions of TLR4, little is known about the developmental function(s) of TLR4 during tooth development...
  8. Cury J, Tenuta L. Enamel remineralization: controlling the caries disease or treating early caries lesions?. Braz Oral Res. 2009;23 Suppl 1:23-30 pubmed
  9. Zeng D, Wu Z, Cui M. Chronological age estimation of third molar mineralization of Han in southern China. Int J Legal Med. 2010;124:119-23 pubmed publisher
  10. Sugars R, Karlstrom E, Christersson C, Olsson M, Wendel M, Fried K. Expression of HMGB1 during tooth development. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;327:511-9 pubmed
    ..The expression of both ligand and receptor suggests an autocrine/paracrine HMGB1 signalling axis in odontoblasts. ..
  11. Yamakoshi Y, Hu J, Fukae M, Yamakoshi F, Simmer J. How do enamelysin and kallikrein 4 process the 32-kDa enamelin?. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114 Suppl 1:45-51; discussion 93-5, 379-80 pubmed
    ..After 12 h of digestion with KLK4, all of the 32-kDa enamelin had been cleaved, but some cleavage products persisted after 48 h of digestion. ..
  12. Wang L, Yan M, Wang Y, Lei G, Yu Y, Zhao C, et al. Proliferation and osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of stem cells from dental apical papilla in mineralization-inducing medium containing additional KH(2)PO(4). Cell Prolif. 2013;46:214-22 pubmed publisher
    ..8 mm additional KH2 PO4 significantly enhanced cell proliferation and improved differentiation capacity of SCAPs along osteo/odontogenic cell lineages, compared to counterparts lacking additional KH2 PO4 . ..
  13. Chen J, Hu H, Guo J, Liu Z, Liu R, Li F, et al. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110:777-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In boys, the canine had the highest and the first premolar the lowest correlation. Tooth calcification stage was significantly correlated with cervical vertebral maturation stage...
  14. Al Jawad M, Addison O, Khan M, James A, Hendriksz C. Disruption of enamel crystal formation quantified by synchrotron microdiffraction. J Dent. 2012;40:1074-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings can be used to inform the appropriate dental management of these tissues and/or to investigate the influence of therapeutic interventions or external stressors which may impact on amelogenesis. ..
  15. Xia L, Zhang M, Chang Q, Wang L, Zeng D, Zhang X, et al. Enhanced dentin-like mineralized tissue formation by AdShh-transfected human dental pulp cells and porous calcium phosphate cement. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62645 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that the constructs with AdShh-transfected hDPCs and porous CPC might be a better alternative for dental tissue regeneration. ..
  16. Bartlett J, Skobe Z, Nanci A, Smith C. Matrix metalloproteinase 20 promotes a smooth enamel surface, a strong dentino-enamel junction, and a decussating enamel rod pattern. Eur J Oral Sci. 2011;119 Suppl 1:199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, MMP20 is required for ameloblast cell movement necessary to form the decussating enamel rod patterns, for the prevention of ectopic mineral formation, and to maintain a functional DEJ...
  17. Yeh K, Popowics T, Rafferty K, Herring S, Egbert M. The effects of tooth extraction on alveolar bone biomechanics in the miniature pig, Sus scrofa. Arch Oral Biol. 2010;55:663-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The big overall change in specimen stiffness that was observed was likely attributable to differences in the periodontal ligament rather than alveolar bone. ..
  18. Simmer J, Richardson A, Hu Y, Smith C, Ching Chun Hu J. A post-classical theory of enamel biomineralization… and why we need one. Int J Oral Sci. 2012;4:129-34 pubmed publisher
  19. Peng L, Ren L, Dong G, Wang C, Xu P, Ye L, et al. Wnt5a promotes differentiation of human dental papilla cells. Int Endod J. 2010;43:404-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the role of Wnt5a in the process of differentiation of human dental papilla cells (HDPCs)...
  20. Legović M, Sasso A, Legović I, Brumini G, Cabov T, Slaj M, et al. The reliability of chronological age determination by means of mandibular third molar development in subjects in Croatia. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:14-8 pubmed publisher
    ..779, right third molar r = 0.793; girls, mandibular left third molar r = 0.746, right third molar r = 0.725). It can be concluded that the accuracy of age estimation based on Nolla's method is applicable for Croatian children...
  21. Chlastakova I, Lungová V, Wells K, Tucker A, Radlanski R, Misek I, et al. Morphogenesis and bone integration of the mouse mandibular third molar. Eur J Oral Sci. 2011;119:265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The M3 had erupted by postnatal day 26. The M3, although smaller than the M1, passed through the same developmental stages over a similar time span but showed differences in initiation and in the timing of bone encapsulation. ..
  22. Naser D, Abu Alhaija E, Al Khateeb S. Dental age assessment in patients with maxillary canine displacement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;140:848-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Palatal and buccal canine displacements are 2 distinct entities; delayed dental development plays a role in the etiology of palatal canine displacement, but not in buccal canine displacement. ..
  23. Conley H, Steflik D, Singh B, Hoffman W. Clinical and histologic findings of the dentition in a hypopituitary patient: report of case. ASDC J Dent Child. 1990;57:376-9 pubmed
    ..The clinical dental findings and histologic findings related to enamel maturation in the permanent dentition of a teenaged male with a hypopituitary condition are described. ..
  24. Yoshizaki K, Hu L, Nguyen T, Sakai K, Ishikawa M, Takahashi I, et al. Mediator 1 contributes to enamel mineralization as a coactivator for Notch1 signaling and stimulates transcription of the alkaline phosphatase gene. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13531-13540 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that MED1 may be essential for enamel matrix mineralization by serving as a coactivator for Notch1 signaling regulating transcription of the Alpl gene. ..
  25. Wang L, Moradian Oldak J. Assessment of enamelysin (MMP-20) selectivity to three peptide bonds on amelogenin sequence. J Dent Res. 2002;81:664-7 pubmed
  26. DenBesten P, Machule D, Gallagher R, Marshall G, Mathews C, Filvaroff E. The effect of TGF-beta 2 on dentin apposition and hardness in transgenic mice. Adv Dent Res. 2001;15:39-41 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to understand the effect of TGF-beta 2 on distinct mineralized tissues (bone, dentin, and cementum) and to determine whether exogenous TGF-beta 2 may be useful for tooth repair...
  27. Goldberg M, Rapoport O, Septier D, Palmier K, Hall R, Embery G, et al. Proteoglycans in predentin: the last 15 micrometers before mineralization. Connect Tissue Res. 2003;44 Suppl 1:184-8 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our data suggest an important role for BGN in dentin formation and mineralization. ..
  28. Van den Bos T, Handoko G, Niehof A, Ryan L, Coburn S, Whyte M, et al. Cementum and dentin in hypophosphatasia. J Dent Res. 2005;84:1021-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that mineralization of dentin is less likely to be under the influence of the inhibitory action of pyrophosphate than mineralization of cementum...
  29. Arora M, Chan S, Ryan C, Kennedy B, Walker D. Spatial distribution of lead in enamel and coronal dentine of wistar rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005;105:159-70 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the results confirmed that the NMP is capable of mapping the distribution of lead in teeth at micron resolutions with a detection limit of approx 1 microg/g. ..
  30. Nait Lechguer A, Kuchler Bopp S, Hu B, Haikel Y, Lesot H. Vascularization of engineered teeth. J Dent Res. 2008;87:1138-43 pubmed
    ..In implanted re-associations, newly formed blood vessels originated from the host, allowing for their survival, and affording conditions organ growth, mineralization, and enamel secretion. ..
  31. Beertsen W, Vandenbos T, Everts V. Root development in mice lacking functional tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene: inhibition of acellular cementum formation. J Dent Res. 1999;78:1221-9 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that TNAP represents an essential factor in mantle dentin mineralization and in the formation of acellular cementum...
  32. Costa J, Montero J, Serrano S, Albaladejo A, López Valverde A, Bica I. Accuracy in the legal age estimation according to the third molars mineralization among Mexicans and Columbians. Aten Primaria. 2014;46 Suppl 5:165-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The specificity was higher for lower third molars than for upper third molars, but no asymmetrical discrepancy was noted. The stage H is the best cut-off point for detecting the adulthood when a high-specificity test is required. ..
  33. Zhao Q, Cai F. [The remineralization of enamel lesions by casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate in vitro]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2001;36:421-3 pubmed
    ..The 2% CPP-ACFP solution could significantly remineralize the artificial enamel subsurface lesion in vitro. The remineralizing rates were increased with the experiment time (within 10 days). ..
  34. Ohno S, Doi T, Fujimoto K, Ijuin C, Tanaka N, Tanimoto K, et al. RGD-CAP (betaig-h3) exerts a negative regulatory function on mineralization in the human periodontal ligament. J Dent Res. 2002;81:822-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, exogenous RGD-CAP suppressed the ALP activity and bone nodule formation of cultured PDL cells. These findings suggest that RGD-CAP in the PDL modulates the mineralization which affects adjacent alveolar bone metabolism. ..
  35. de Oliveira F, Capelozza A, Lauris J, de Bullen I. Mineralization of mandibular third molars can estimate chronological age--Brazilian indices. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;219:147-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The probability that an individual with third molar mineralization stage H had reached an age of 18 years or older was 96.8-98.6% for males and females, respectively. ..
  36. Fearne J, Anderson P, Davis G. 3D X-ray microscopic study of the extent of variations in enamel density in first permanent molars with idiopathic enamel hypomineralisation. Br Dent J. 2004;196:634-8; discussion 625 pubmed
    ..Topical fluoride applications may help promote post eruption maturation of the surface layer in these teeth. The use of fissure sealants and adhesive materials appears to prevent further breakdown. ..
  37. Haruyama N, Thyagarajan T, Skobe Z, Wright J, Septier D, Sreenath T, et al. Overexpression of transforming growth factor-beta1 in teeth results in detachment of ameloblasts and enamel defects. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114 Suppl 1:30-4; discussion 39-41, 379 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the altered expression of TGF-beta1 in teeth impacts the adhesion process of ameloblasts to dentin. ..
  38. Kawasaki K, Weiss K. SCPP gene evolution and the dental mineralization continuum. J Dent Res. 2008;87:520-31 pubmed
    ..These tissues thus form a mineralized-tissue continuum. Contemporary dental tissues have evolved from an ancestral continuum through lineage-specific modifications. ..
  39. Laisi S, Ess A, Sahlberg C, Arvio P, Lukinmaa P, Alaluusua S. Amoxicillin may cause molar incisor hypomineralization. J Dent Res. 2009;88:132-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Amoxicillin increased enamel but not dentin thickness. An altered pattern of amelogenesis may have interfered with mineralization. We conclude that the early use of amoxicillin is among the causative factors of MIH. ..
  40. Fong H, Foster B, Sarikaya M, Somerman M. Structure and mechanical properties of Ank/Ank mutant mouse dental tissues--an animal model for studying periodontal regeneration. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54:570-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these data suggest that this animal model can be utilized for studies focused on defining mechanisms to promote cementum formation without loss of mechanical integrity. ..
  41. Liu H, Guo J, Wang L, Chen N, Karaplis A, Goltzman D, et al. Distinctive anabolic roles of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and parathyroid hormone in teeth and mandible versus long bones. J Endocrinol. 2009;203:203-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plays an anabolic role in both dentin and dental alveolar bone as it does in long bones, whereas PTH acts predominantly in long bones rather than mandibular bone. ..
  42. Laurent P, Camps J, De Meo M, Dejou J, About I. Induction of specific cell responses to a Ca(3)SiO(5)-based posterior restorative material. Dent Mater. 2008;24:1486-94 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be used safely in the clinic as a single bulk restorative material without any conditioning treatment. It can be used as a potential alternative to traditionally used posterior restorative materials. ..
  43. Zhang X, Rahemtulla F, Zhang P, Thomas H. VDR deficiency affects alveolar bone and cementum apposition in mice. Arch Oral Biol. 2011;56:672-7 pubmed publisher
    ..VDR affects alveolar bone mineralisation and formation systemically and locally. However, cementum apposition and mineralisation is mainly regulated by calcium concentrations in serum. ..
  44. Moraes M, Bastos M, Santos L, Castilho J, Moraes L, Medici Filho E. Dental age in patients with Down syndrome. Braz Oral Res. 2007;21:259-64 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the majority of the patients with Down Syndrome were considered to be within the normal standards of mineralization chronology. ..
  45. Tiong J, Locastro T, Wray S. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1) is involved in tooth maturation and biomineralization. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2980-92 pubmed
    ..In sum, in tooth development a signal transduction pathway exists for GnRH-1 via the GnRH-1 receptor and disruption of such signaling affects incisor growth and biomineralization. ..
  46. Muromachi K, Kamio N, Matsumoto T, Matsushima K. Role of CTGF/CCN2 in reparative dentinogenesis in human dental pulp. J Oral Sci. 2012;54:47-54 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data suggest that CTGF/CCN2 is likely involved in reparative dentinogenesis through formation of hard tissue in human carious teeth. ..
  47. DeLaurier A, Boyde A, Horton M, Price J. Analysis of the surface characteristics and mineralization status of feline teeth using scanning electron microscopy. J Anat. 2006;209:655-69 pubmed
    ..The relationship of these features to the development and progression of resorption now requires further examination. ..
  48. Oshima S, Watanabe M. Elevated expression of calcineurin subunits during active mineralization of developing mouse molar teeth. Eur J Oral Sci. 2012;120:386-94 pubmed publisher
  49. Olze A, Taniguchi M, Schmeling A, Zhu B, Yamada Y, Maeda H, et al. Studies on the chronology of third molar mineralization in a Japanese population. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2004;6:73-9 pubmed
    ..Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons. ..
  50. Pischon N, Zimmermann B, Bernimoulin J, Hägewald S. Effects of an enamel matrix derivative on human osteoblasts and PDL cells grown in organoid cultures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102:551-7 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that under organoid culture conditions EMD is able to promote the synthesis of proline-containing proteins such as collagen but not matrix mineralization of primary human osteoblastic cells. ..
  51. Shiba H, Uchida Y, Kamihagi K, Sakata M, Fujita T, Nakamura S, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta1 and basic fibroblast growth factor modulate osteocalcin and osteonectin/SPARC syntheses in vitamin-D-activated pulp cells. J Dent Res. 2001;80:1653-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 and growth factors interactively regulate the expression of osteocalcin and SPARC in pulp cells, and that SPARC can stimulate DNA synthesis by pulp cells. ..
  52. Peng W, Liu W, Zhai W, Jiang L, Li L, Chang J, et al. Effect of tricalcium silicate on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells. J Endod. 2011;37:1240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that Ca(3)SiO(5) can induce the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs in vitro and might be a potential candidate for preparation of a new type of Ca(3)SiO(5-)based cement as a pulp-capping agent. ..
  53. Nystrom M, Kleemola Kujala E, Evalahti M, Peck L, Kataja M. Emergence of permanent teeth and dental age in a series of Finns. Acta Odontol Scand. 2001;59:49-56 pubmed
    ..It appears that the two methods to assess dental maturity are not interchangeable in practice. Tooth counts can be used in maturity estimations up to about 13 years of age, whereas the radiographic method works best to about 11 years. ..