cholecystitis

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.

Top Publications

  1. Chang C, Chang W, Lin C, Chu C, Wang T, Shih S. Acute transient hepatocellular injury in cholelithiasis and cholecystitis without evidence of choledocholithiasis. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:3788-92 pubmed
    To investigate acute transient hepatocellular injury in patients with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis but no evidence of choledocholithiasis.
  2. Yakoob J, Khan M, Abbas Z, Jafri W, Azmi R, Ahmad Z, et al. Helicobacter pylori: association with gall bladder disorders in Pakistan. Br J Biomed Sci. 2011;68:59-64 pubmed
    ..the biliary tract and therefore this study explores the relationship between of Helicobacter pylori and cholecystitis. Bile and gall bladder tissue samples were obtained from 144 patients who underwent cholecystectomy...
  3. Charalel R, Jeffrey R, Shin L. Complicated cholecystitis: the complementary roles of sonography and computed tomography. Ultrasound Q. 2011;27:161-70 pubmed publisher
    Acute cholecystitis is a common cause of abdominal pain in the Western world. Unless treated promptly, patients with acute cholecystitis may develop complications such as gangrenous, perforated, or emphysematous cholecystitis...
  4. Jang T, Ruggeri W, Dyne P, Kaji A. The learning curve of resident physicians using emergency ultrasonography for cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17:1247-52 pubmed publisher
    Emergency department bedside ultrasonography (EUS) can expedite treatment for patients. However, it is unknown how much experience is required for competency in the sonographic diagnosis of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis.
  5. Baig A, Gujral M, Hameed R, Borra S. Klebsiella ozaenae cholecystitis. Am J Med Sci. 2011;342:259-61 pubmed publisher
    The authors report a case of Klebsiella ozaenae septicemia, cholecystitis and urinary tract infection in a 65-year-old morbidly obese woman with diabetes...
  6. Leise M, Smyrk T, Takahashi N, Sweetser S, Vege S, Chari S. IgG4-associated cholecystitis: another clue in the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:1290-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this review is to examine the literature on common gallbladder pathology findings in AIP, and discuss their clinical utility...
  7. Agrawal V, Goel A, Krishnani N, Pandey R, Agrawal S, Kapoor V. p53, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19.9 expression in gall bladder cancer, precursor epithelial lesions and xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. J Postgrad Med. 2010;56:262-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the commonest gastrointestinal cancer in women of north India. Precursor epithelial lesions in GBC are known; however, the role of xanthogranulomatous (XG) inflammation in the pathogenesis of GBC is unknown...
  8. Moricz A, Melo M, Castro A, Campos T, Silva R, Pacheco A. Prevalence of Helicobacter spp in chronic cholecystitis and correlation with changes on the histological pattern of the gallbladder. Acta Cir Bras. 2010;25:218-24 pubmed
    Establish the prevalence of Helicobacter spp in chronic cholecystitis and its correlation with the gallbladder's histological findings.
  9. Wagnetz U, Jaskolka J, Yang P, Jhaveri K. Acute ischemic cholecystitis after transarterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma: incidence and clinical outcome. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2010;34:348-53 pubmed publisher
    To determine the incidence and clinical outcome of acute ischemic cholecystitis after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma.

More Information

Publications96

  1. Wu C, Chen C, Wang C, Wong Y, Wang L, Huang C, et al. Discrimination of gangrenous from uncomplicated acute cholecystitis: accuracy of CT findings. Abdom Imaging. 2011;36:174-8 pubmed publisher
    In acute cholecystitis, the presence of gangrene is associated with higher morbidity and mortality and necessitates open surgical intervention rather than laparoscopic cholecystectomy...
  2. Qiao T, Ma R, Luo X, Feng Y, Wang X, Zheng P, et al. Tiny cystine stones in the gallbladder of a patient with cholecystolithiasis complicating acute cholecystitis: a case report. Eur J Med Res. 2012;17:6 pubmed publisher
    ..In animals, there has been only one report of cystine gallstones in tree shrews, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of cystine gallstones in humans...
  3. Shimizu S, Naitoh I, Nakazawa T, Hayashi K, Miyabe K, Kondo H, et al. Predictive factors for pancreatitis and cholecystitis in endoscopic covered metal stenting for distal malignant biliary obstruction. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;28:68-72 pubmed publisher
    Pancreatitis and cholecystitis are major complications after self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement in distal malignant biliary obstruction...
  4. Behar J, Mawe G, Mawe G, Carey M, Carey M. Roles of cholesterol and bile salts in the pathogenesis of gallbladder hypomotility and inflammation: cholecystitis is not caused by cystic duct obstruction. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25:283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..of human and animal studies have challenged the hypothesis that cystic duct obstruction by gallstones causes cholecystitis. These studies suggest that lithogenic bile that can deliver high cholesterol concentrations to the ..
  5. Uchiyama K, Ozawa S, Ueno M, Hayami S, Hirono S, Ina S, et al. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: the use of preoperative CT findings to differentiate it from gallbladder carcinoma. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2009;16:333-8 pubmed publisher
    A retrospective analysis was performed on 32 patients with histologically confirmed xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) and 21 patients with gallbladder carcinoma who underwent surgical treatment between 1998 and 2007.
  6. Andreotti G, Liu E, Gao Y, Safaeian M, Rashid A, Shen M, et al. Medical history and the risk of biliary tract cancers in Shanghai, China: implications for a role of inflammation. Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22:1289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Gallbladder cancer was significantly associated with cholecystitis occurring at least 5 years prior to interview (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.9)...
  7. Lo H, Wang Y, Su L, Hsieh C. Can early laparoscopic cholecystectomy be the optimal management of cholecystitis with gallbladder perforation? A single institute experience of 74 cases. Surg Endosc. 2012;26:3301-6 pubmed publisher
    Gallbladder perforation is a rare but serious complication of cholecystitis. It was usually managed by percutaneous gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) followed by elective cholecystectomy...
  8. Yao C, Arnell T. Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am J Surg. 2010;199:e10-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Definitive treatment was angiography with embolization...
  9. Gilo N, Amini D, Landy H. Appendicitis and cholecystitis in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2009;52:586-96 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluation of an acute abdomen during pregnancy must include in the differential diagnosis appendicitis and cholecystitis, which are 2 of the most common reasons for nonobstetric surgical intervention in pregnancy...
  10. Yucebilgili K, Mehmetoĝlu T, Gucin Z, Salih B. Helicobacter pylori DNA in gallbladder tissue of patients with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:856-9 pubmed
    Earlier reports on the detection of H. pylori DNA in gallbladder tissue of patients with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis gave discordant results. Our aim was to detect the presence of H...
  11. Yanagisawa N, Yamashita K, Kuba T, Okayasu I. Sporadic TP53 transition mutations in chronic cholecystitis are possibly linked to gallbladder carcinogenesis. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:4443-9 pubmed
  12. Nakajima J, Sasaki A, Obuchi T, Baba S, Nitta H, Wakabayashi G. Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy for severe cholecystitis. Surg Today. 2009;39:870-5 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy and outcome of laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (LSC) for patients with severe cholecystitis.
  13. Yang H, Hong K, Lee J, Eom J. A case of acute cholecystitis without cholestasis caused by Epstein-Barr virus in a healthy young woman. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e448-9 pubmed publisher
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be one of the causes of viral hepatitis, but its association with cholecystitis is known to be rare...
  14. Falor A, Zobel M, Kaji A, Neville A, De Virgilio C. Admission variables predictive of gangrenous cholecystitis. Am Surg. 2012;78:1075-8 pubmed
    The objective of the present study was to identify admission clinical factors associated with gangrenous cholecystitis (GC) and factors associated with conversion to open cholecystectomy...
  15. Wang W, Farris A, Lauwers G, Deshpande V. Autoimmune pancreatitis-related cholecystitis: a morphologically and immunologically distinctive form of lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing cholecystitis. Histopathology. 2009;54:829-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to identify unique morphological and immunological features that could help distinguish gallbladders of AIP from those associated with PSC and PDACs...
  16. Ghosh M, Sakhuja P, Agarwal A. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: a premalignant condition?. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2011;10:179-84 pubmed
    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is an uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis, characterized by marked thickening of the gallbladder wall and dense local adhesions...
  17. Karagin P, Stenram U, Wadstrom T, Ljungh A. Helicobacter species and common gut bacterial DNA in gallbladder with cholecystitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:4817-22 pubmed
    To analyze the association between Helicobacter spp. and some common gut bacteria in patients with cholecystitis.
  18. Morse B, Smith J, Lawdahl R, Roettger R. Management of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients: contemporary role for cholecystostomy and subsequent cholecystectomy. Am Surg. 2010;76:708-12 pubmed
    The diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients carries a high mortality rate...
  19. Gosain S, Bonatti H, Smith L, Rehan M, Brock A, Mahajan A, et al. Gallbladder stent placement for prevention of cholecystitis in patients receiving covered metal stent for malignant obstructive jaundice: a feasibility study. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:2406-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Occlusion of the cystic duct by CSEMS may be complicated by cholecystitis. This potentially could be prevented by placement of a transpapillary gallbladder stent (GBS).
  20. Davis B, Castaneda G, Lopez J. Subtotal cholecystectomy versus total cholecystectomy in complicated cholecystitis. Am Surg. 2012;78:814-7 pubmed
    Complicated cholecystitis can make dissections around the triangle of Calot difficult with a higher risk of duct and arterial injury...
  21. Parekh J, Corvera C. Hemorrhagic cholecystitis. Arch Surg. 2010;145:202-4 pubmed publisher
    Hemorrhagic cholecystitis is a rare cause of abdominal pain that can present in the setting of trauma, malignancy, and bleeding diathesis, such as renal failure, cirrhosis, and anticoagulation...
  22. Kuwabara K, Matsuda S, Fushimi K, Ishikawa K, Horiguchi H, Fujimori K. Relationships of age, cholecystectomy approach and timing with the surgical and functional outcomes of elderly patients with cholecystitis. Int J Surg. 2011;9:392-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an administrative database, we reassessed the quality of cholecystectomy approach and timing of cholecystectomy for elderly patients with cholecystitis.
  23. Kansakar P, Rodrigues G, Khan S. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: a clinicopathological study from a tertiary care health institution. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2008;6:472-5 pubmed
    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is an unusual and destructive form of chronic cholecystitis and is indistinguishable from other forms of cholecystitis which makes preoperative diagnosis and surgery difficult.
  24. Yun S, Hwang D, Kim S, Park S, Park S, Lee D, et al. Better treatment strategies for patients with acute cholecystitis and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification 3 or greater. Yonsei Med J. 2010;51:540-5 pubmed publisher
    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the best treatment choice for acute cholecystitis. However, it still carries high conversion and mortality rates...
  25. Bruminhent J, Lynch T, Gefen J, Santoro J. Listeria monocytogenes cholecystitis: a possible new syndrome. Am J Med Sci. 2013;345:414-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the first reported case of L monocytogenes cholecystitis associated with etanercept use is described...
  26. Klimis T, Roukounakis N, Kafetzis I, Mouziouras V, Karantonis I, Andromanakos N. Heterotopic pancreas of the gallbladder associated with chronic cholecystitis and high levels of amylasuria. JOP. 2011;12:458-60 pubmed
    ..Heterotopic pancreas of the gallbladder is an extremely rare entity, especially when pancreatic tissue appears histologically with an exclusively exocrine structure...
  27. García Pérez R, Ruiz de Angulo D, López Poveda M, Febrero Sánchez B, Navas Carrillo D, Parrilla Paricio P. Hemorrhagic cholecystitis and hemobilia: two infrequent complications of systemic lupus erythematosus. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2011;103:431-3 pubmed
    ..The differential diagnosis should contemplate pathology of the gall bladder. We present the case of a patient with hemorrhagic lithiasic cholecystitis and hemobilia.
  28. Zerman G, Bonfiglio M, Borzellino G, Guglielmi A, Tasselli S, Valloncini E, et al. Liver abscess due to acute cholecystitis. Report of five cases. Chir Ital. 2003;55:195-8 pubmed
    Acute cholecystitis is one of the most frequent causes of admissions to surgical departments. The development of liver abscesses is an uncommon and underrated complication of acute cholecystitis...
  29. Fagan S, Awad S, Rahwan K, Hira K, Aoki N, Itani K, et al. Prognostic factors for the development of gangrenous cholecystitis. Am J Surg. 2003;186:481-5 pubmed
    The operative morbidity and mortality for patients with gangrenous cholecystitis (GC) remains high...
  30. Eldar S, Siegelmann H, Buzaglo D, Matter I, Cohen A, Sabo E, et al. Conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis: artificial neural networks improve the prediction of conversion. World J Surg. 2002;26:79-85 pubmed
    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now also performed for acute cholecystitis. In the presence of inflammatory conditions, technical difficulties leading to conversion to open cholecystectomy may occur and overshadow the advantages of the ..
  31. Feldman L, Medeiros L, Hanley J, Sigman H, Garzon J, Fried G. Does a special interest in laparoscopy affect the treatment of acute cholecystitis?. Surg Endosc. 2002;16:1697-703 pubmed
    We tested the hypothesis that the treatment of patients with acute cholecystitis (AC) would be improved under the care of laparoscopic specialists...
  32. Torgerson J, Lindroos A, Naslund I, Peltonen M. Gallstones, gallbladder disease, and pancreatitis: cross-sectional and 2-year data from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) and SOS reference studies. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98:1032-41 pubmed
    ..Obese subjects had significantly higher prevalence of cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cholecystectomies, and pancreatitis as compared with the reference population...
  33. Debru E, Dawson A, Leibman S, Richardson M, Glen L, Hollinshead J, et al. Does routine intraoperative cholangiography prevent bile duct transection?. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:589-93 pubmed
    ..6% male, 34.4% female) was 54 years, and 16.9% of the patients had clinical acute cholecystitis. The conversion rate to open cholecystectomy was 4.3%. Intraoperative cholangiography was attempted for 90...
  34. Kanoh K, Shimura T, Tsutsumi S, Suzuki H, Kashiwabara K, Nakajima T, et al. Significance of contracted cholecystitis lesions as high risk for gallbladder carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. 2001;169:7-14 pubmed
    ..We focused on chronic cholecystitis, showing a thick and sclerotic wall caused by recurrent inflammation, e.g...
  35. Yamashita Y, Takada T, Hirata K. A survey of the timing and approach to the surgical management of patients with acute cholecystitis in Japanese hospitals. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2006;13:409-15 pubmed
    Despite the fact that there is evidence advocating early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (AC), the practice of this treatment has not been investigated sufficiently...
  36. Al Mulhim A, Al Mulhim F, Al Suwaiygh A. The role of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the management of acute cholecystitis in patients with sickle cell disease. Am J Surg. 2002;183:668-72 pubmed
    ..Over a 5-year period, April 1994 till December 1998, 35 sickle cell patients with acute cholecystitis had laparoscopic cholecystectomy within the first 5 days of presentation...
  37. Al Salamah S. Outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2005;15:400-3 pubmed
    To evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis and to determine various pre-operative risk factors predicting conversion to open cholecystectomy. Observational study...
  38. Guzmán Valdivia G. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: 15 years' experience. World J Surg. 2004;28:254-7 pubmed
    The demographic and clinical aspects of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) over a period of 15 years are reviewed...
  39. Bennett G, Rusinek H, Lisi V, Israel G, Krinsky G, Slywotzky C, et al. CT findings in acute gangrenous cholecystitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;178:275-81 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine the CT findings in acute gangrenous cholecystitis. Four observers retrospectively reviewed CT scans in 75 patients (23 with acute gangrenous cholecystitis, 25 with acute non-gangrenous ..
  40. Shikata S, Nakayama T, Yamagishi H. Quality of surgical randomized controlled trials for acute cholecystitis: assessment based on CONSORT and additional check items. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2008;15:297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Further development of an assessment tool is needed for items specific to surgical randomized controlled trials. ..
  41. Gutiérrez G, Ramia J, Villar J, Garrote D, Ferron A, Ruiz E. Cystic artery pseudoaneurism from an evolved acute calculous cholecystitis. Am J Surg. 2004;187:519-20 pubmed
  42. Batey A, Khan M. Acalculous cholecystitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5:e8 pubmed
  43. Fox D, Grimm C, Curzen N. Raised troponin T in acute cholecystitis. J R Soc Med. 2004;97:179 pubmed
  44. Kamisawa T, Tu Y, Nakajima H, Egawa N, Tsuruta K, Okamoto A, et al. Sclerosing cholecystitis associated with autoimmune pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:3736-9 pubmed
    ..We propose the use of a new term, sclerosing cholecystitis, for these cases that are induced by the same mechanism as sclerosing pancreatitis or sclerosing cholangitis ..
  45. Imamoglu M, Sarihan H, Sari A, Ahmetoglu A. Acute acalculous cholecystitis in children: Diagnosis and treatment. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:36-9 pubmed
    In this study, 12 patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) who underwent diagnosis and treatment at the authors' clinic were discussed. Nine of these patients were boys, and 3 were girls. The mean age was 7.8 years...
  46. Plummer J, Duncan N, Mitchell D, McDonald A, Reid M, Arthurs M. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic cholecystitis in Jamaican patients with sickle cell disease: preliminary experience. West Indian Med J. 2006;55:22-4 pubmed
    ..5 years (range 13-43 years). Fifteen underwent elective cholecystectomy for recurrent episodes of cholecystitis while one patient required an emergency procedure...
  47. Srinivas G, Sinha S, Ryley N, Houghton P. Perfidious gallbladders - a diagnostic dilemma with xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2007;89:168-72 pubmed
    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is an uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterised by marked thickening of the gallbladder wall and dense local adhesions...
  48. Shimada K, Sakamoto Y, Esaki M, Kosuge T. Pseudoaneurysm of the cystic artery associated with xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. Dig Surg. 2008;25:8-9 pubmed publisher
  49. Spira R, Nissan A, Zamir O, Cohen T, Fields S, Freund H. Percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy and delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy in critically ill patients with acute calculus cholecystitis. Am J Surg. 2002;183:62-6 pubmed
    The ultimate therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy. However, in critically ill elderly patients the mortality of emergency cholecystectomy may reach up to 30%...
  50. Uecker J, Adams M, Skipper K, Dunn E. Cholecystitis in the octogenarian: is laparoscopic cholecystectomy the best approach?. Am Surg. 2001;67:637-40 pubmed
    ..present with complications of acute disease such as biliary pancreatitis, choledocholithiasis, and acute cholecystitis. As a result, laparoscopic management in this patient population can frequently be more challenging than in ..
  51. Amaral P, Azaro Filho E, Galvão Neto M, Fortes M, Souza E, Alcântra R, et al. Acute cholecystitis: video-laparoscopic versus traditional treatment. JSLS. 2001;5:159-65 pubmed
    It has been shown that a video-laparoscopic approach is the preferred method for treatment of cholecystitis. However, when we consider acute cholecystitis, many questions must be answered...
  52. Lam C, Yuen A, Wai A, Leung R, Lee A, Ng K, et al. Gallbladder cancer presenting with acute cholecystitis: a population-based study. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:697-701 pubmed
    The role of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in acute cholecystitis remains controversial...
  53. Silva C, Pereira Lima J, Oliveira A, Guerra J, Marques D, Sarmanho L, et al. Association of the presence of Helicobacter in gallbladder tissue with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:5615-8 pubmed
    ..association between the presence of Helicobacter DNA in the gallbladder epithelium and histological cholecystitis, even after adjusting for gender and age (P = 0.002), was also observed...
  54. Pelinka L, Schmidhammer R, Hamid L, Mauritz W, Redl H. Acute acalculous cholecystitis after trauma: a prospective study. J Trauma. 2003;55:323-9 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for the development of acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) and useful criteria to facilitate the decision to perform cholecystectomy...
  55. Glavic Z, Begic L, Simlesa D, Rukavina A. Treatment of acute cholecystitis. A comparison of open vs laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc. 2001;15:398-401 pubmed
    ..the clinical results and cost-effectiveness of open vs laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of acute cholecystitis were compared. Over a 5-year period (1994-98), 894 cholecystectomies were performed, 545 (60...
  56. Padda M, Singh S, Tang S, Rockey D. Liver test patterns in patients with acute calculous cholecystitis and/or choledocholithiasis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;29:1011-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Liver tests are utilized to determine the presence of biliary obstruction...
  57. Vettoretto N, Giovanetti M, Regina P, Baronchelli C, Giulini S. Hemorrhagic cholecystitis as a likely cause of nontraumatic hemobilia in metachromatic leukodystrophy: report of a case. Ann Ital Chir. 2001;72:725-8 pubmed
    ..Histologic examination with specific colorations diagnosed hemorrhagic cholecystitis from metachromatic leukodystrophy of the gallbladder...
  58. Noritomi T, Watanabe K, Yamashita Y, Kitagawa S, Oshibuchi M, Shirakusa T. Left-sided gallbladder associated with congenital hypoplasia of the left lobe of the liver: a case report and review of literature. Int Surg. 2004;89:1-5 pubmed
    ..A 71-year-old woman underwent cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Intraoperative findings revealed the absence of the left lobe of the liver...
  59. Planells Roig M, Bueno Lledó J, Sanahuja Santafe A, Garcia Espinosa R. Quality of life (GIQLI) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy usefulness in patients with gallbladder dysfunction or chronic non-lithiasic biliary pain (chronic acalculous cholecystitis). Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2004;96:442-6, 446-51 pubmed
    ..incidence, clinical features and role of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in patients with chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC) in comparison with a control group of patients who underwent cholecystectomy for chronic calculous ..
  60. Sawada S, Harada K, Isse K, Sato Y, Sasaki M, Kaizaki Y, et al. Involvement of Escherichia coli in pathogenesis of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis with scavenger receptor class A and CXCL16-CXCR6 interaction. Pathol Int. 2007;57:652-63 pubmed
    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is characterized by the infiltration of numerous foamy macrophages. Bacterial infection is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of XGC...
  61. Giger U, Michel J, Opitz I, Th Inderbitzin D, Kocher T, Krahenbuhl L. Risk factors for perioperative complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: analysis of 22,953 consecutive cases from the Swiss Association of Laparoscopic and Thoracoscopic Surgery database. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;203:723-8 pubmed
    ..for perioperative complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute and chronic cholecystitis were analyzed by a stepwise logistic regression model using data from the Swiss Association of Laparoscopic ..
  62. Bender E, Springhetti S, Shemisa K, Wittenauer J. Left-sided gallbladder (sinistroposition) with duplication of the common bile duct. JSLS. 2007;11:148-50 pubmed
    ..A 55-year-old woman presented to our hospital with symptoms of chronic cholecystitis. During the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, it was discovered that not only was her gallbladder to the left of ..
  63. Uccheddu A, Pisanu A, Cois A, Cillara N. Can intraoperative cholangiography be avoided during laparoscopic cholecystectomy?. Chir Ital. 2005;57:571-7 pubmed
  64. Fernandes J, Franco M, Suzuki R, Tavares N, Bromberg S. Intestinal metaplasia in gallbladders: prevalence study. Sao Paulo Med J. 2008;126:220-2 pubmed
    ..Discovery of predisposing factors for this neoplasia could prevent this outcome. In this study, we assess the presence of one of these factors: intestinal metaplasia in gallbladders with stones and inflammatory processes...
  65. Trowbridge R, Rutkowski N, Shojania K. Does this patient have acute cholecystitis?. JAMA. 2003;289:80-6 pubmed
    Although few patients with acute abdominal pain will prove to have cholecystitis, ruling in or ruling out acute cholecystitis consumes substantial diagnostic resources.
  66. Puc M, Tran H, Wry P, Ross S. Ultrasound is not a useful screening tool for acute acalculous cholecystitis in critically ill trauma patients. Am Surg. 2002;68:65-9 pubmed
    Acute acalculous cholecystitis remains a diagnostic challenge in critically ill trauma patients. Laboratory studies are nonspecific and associated injuries or mental status changes may mask clinical signs and symptoms...
  67. Simopoulos C, Botaitis S, Polychronidis A, Tripsianis G, Karayiannakis A. Risk factors for conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:905-9 pubmed
    Conversion to open cholecystectomy is still required in some patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate preoperative factors associated with conversion to open cholecystectomy in elective cholecystectomy and acute cholecystitis.
  68. Welschbillig Meunier K, Pessaux P, Lebigot J, Lermite E, Aube C, Brehant O, et al. Percutaneous cholecystostomy for high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:1256-9 pubmed
    Cholecystectomy remains the best treatment for acute cholecystitis but may cause high morbidity and mortality in critically ill or elderly patients.
  69. Scheele J, Kujath P. Candida peritonitis in a patient with necrotising cholecystitis and pancreatitis. Mycoses. 2006;49:340-2 pubmed
    An 80-year-old patient in previously excellent state of health presented with septic syndrome for gangrenous cholecystitis and concomitant pancreatitis...
  70. Girgin S, Gedik E, Tacyildiz I, Akgun Y, Bac B, Uysal E. Factors affecting morbidity and mortality in gangrenous cholecystitis. Acta Chir Belg. 2006;106:545-9 pubmed
    Gangrenous cholecystitis is a serious complication of acute cholecystitis. Male gender, older age, leukocytosis, cardio-vascular diseases and diabetes were reported as factors that increase the risk of gangrenous cholecystitis...
  71. Salam I, Own A, Kareem N, Hameed O, Yak C, Zaki K. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the Academy Medical Centre, Khartoum, Sudan. East Afr Med J. 2005;82:10-3 pubmed
    ..To highlight the results of minimum access surgery in Sudanese patients...
  72. Schirmer B, Winters K, Edlich R. Cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2005;15:329-38 pubmed
    ..on the following topics: types of gallstones, asymptomatic gallstones, symptomatic gallstones, chronic cholecystitis, acute cholecystitis, and other complications of gallstones...
  73. Chau C, Tang C, Siu W, Ha J, Li M. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus open cholecystectomy in elderly patients with acute cholecystitis: retrospective study. Hong Kong Med J. 2002;8:394-9 pubmed
    To study the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in elderly patients by comparing the results with open cholecystectomy.
  74. Choi S, Lee J, Lee K, Kim S, Kim Y, An S, et al. Relationship between various patterns of transient increased hepatic attenuation on CT and portal vein thrombosis related to acute cholecystitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183:437-42 pubmed
    We sought to investigate the prevalence of portal vein thrombosis in patients with acute cholecystitis and the relationship between portal vein thrombosis and the various patterns of transient increased hepatic attenuation on CT.
  75. Bender J, Duncan M, Freeswick P, Harmon J, Magnuson T. Increased laparoscopic experience does not lead to improved results with acute cholecystitis. Am J Surg. 2002;184:591-4; discussion 594-5 pubmed
    ..Enlarged surgeon experience, along with better technology, has been lauded as improving outcomes. The purpose of this study is to see if this applies to the management of acute cholecystitis.
  76. Krishnani N, Dhingra S, Kapoor S, Pandey R. Cytopathologic diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis and coexistent lesions. A prospective study of 31 cases. Acta Cytol. 2007;51:37-41 pubmed
    ..ultrasound (US)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) and coexistent lesions (carcinoma) and also to evaluate the possibility ofmissing either carcinoma or ..
  77. Bhattacharya D, Senapati P, Hurle R, Ammori B. Urgent versus interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: a comparative study. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2002;9:538-42 pubmed
    The surgical management of patients presenting with acute cholecystitis remains controversial...
  78. Barie P, Eachempati S. Acute acalculous cholecystitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2003;5:302-9 pubmed
    Acute cholecystitis can develop without gallstones in critically ill or injured patients. However, the development of acute acalculous cholecystitis is not limited to surgical or injured patients, or even to the intensive care unit...
  79. Pessaux P, Regenet N, Tuech J, Rouge C, Bergamaschi R, Arnaud J. Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: a prospective comparative study in the elderly with acute cholecystitis. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2001;11:252-5 pubmed
    ..comparative study was to determine the feasibility and the efficacy of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in patients older than 75 years of age and to compare the results with those of open cholecystectomy...
  80. Wu K, Changchien C, Kuo C, Chuah S, Lu S, Eng H, et al. Dengue fever with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:657-60 pubmed
    Dengue fever (DF) with acute acalculous cholecystitis is rarely reported...
  81. McChesney J, Northup P, Bickston S. Acute acalculous cholecystitis associated with systemic sepsis and visceral arterial hypoperfusion: a case series and review of pathophysiology. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:1960-7 pubmed
    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is marked by a very high mortality rate but its relative rarity makes its features obscure to many physicians. This often contributes to a delayed diagnosis...
  82. Cameron I, Chadwick C, Phillips J, Johnson A. Management of acute cholecystitis in UK hospitals: time for a change. Postgrad Med J. 2004;80:292-4 pubmed
    Early cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis is safe, cost effective, and leads to less time off work compared with delayed surgery...
  83. Ito K, Fujita N, Noda Y, Kobayashi G, Kimura K, Sugawara T, et al. Percutaneous cholecystostomy versus gallbladder aspiration for acute cholecystitis: a prospective randomized controlled trial. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183:193-6 pubmed
    ..incidence of complications of percutaneous cholecystostomy and gallbladder aspiration in cases of severe acute cholecystitis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS...
  84. Takahashi T, Shivapurkar N, Riquelme E, Shigematsu H, Reddy J, Suzuki M, et al. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of multiple genes in gallbladder carcinoma and chronic cholecystitis. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:6126-33 pubmed
    ..There is limited information about the molecular changes involved in the pathogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), including methylation status...
  85. Stefanidis D, Sirinek K, Bingener J. Gallbladder perforation: risk factors and outcome. J Surg Res. 2006;131:204-8 pubmed
    ..Gallbladder perforation is difficult to diagnose and is associated with significant morbidity. This study investigates factors affecting outcome in patients with gallbladder perforation over two decades...
  86. Suk K, Kim H, Kim J, Baik S, Kwon S, Kim H, et al. Risk factors for cholecystitis after metal stent placement in malignant biliary obstruction. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006;64:522-9 pubmed
    b>Cholecystitis related to metal stent placement is a morbid event.
  87. Stancu M, Caruntu I, Giusca S, Dobrescu G. Hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia and neoplasia lesions in chronic cholecystitis - a morphologic study. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2007;48:335-42 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to analyze the association between chronic cholecystitis, premalignant lesions and gallbladder cancer. The group consisted in 3901 cases of cholecystectomies, diagnosed as acute cholecystitis (250 cases - 6...