Summary: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.

Top Publications

  1. Damnjanović Z, Jovanovic M, Nagorni A, Radojkovic M, Sokolovic D, Damnjanović G, et al. Correlation of inflammation parameters and biochemical markers of cholestasis with the intensity of lipid peroxidation in patients with choledocholithiasis. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2013;70:170-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the aim of this prospective study was to establish correlation of the parameters of inflammation and biochemical markers of cholestasis with the intensity of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of liver function disorders...
  2. Jang H, Lee K, Jung M, Jung J, Park J, Park S, et al. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilatation alone is safe and effective for the treatment of difficult choledocholithiasis in cases of Billroth II gastrectomy: a single center experience. Dig Dis Sci. 2013;58:1737-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) can be particularly troublesome due to anatomical changes effected by the gastrectomy...
  3. Doğan Ü, Gumurdulu Y, Gölge N, Kara B. Relationship of CA 19-9 with choledocholithiasis and cholangitis. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2011;22:171-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of CA 19-9 with the number and size of the stones, cholangitis and biliary obstruction in patients with choledocholithiasis.
  4. Srinivasa S, Sammour T, McEntee B, Davis N, Hill A. Selective use of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in clinical practice may miss choledocholithiasis in gallstone pancreatitis. Can J Surg. 2010;53:403-7 pubmed
    ..Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has been advocated for routine use to diagnose choledocholithiasis. However, the selective use of MRCP in clinically equivocal situations has not been explored until now...
  5. Sánchez A, Rodriguez O, Bellorin O, Sánchez R, Benítez G. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in patients with gallstones and choledocholithiasis. JSLS. 2010;14:246-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)...
  6. Salman B, Yilmaz U, Kerem M, Bedirli A, Sare M, Sakrak O, et al. The timing of laparoscopic cholecystectomy after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography in cholelithiasis coexisting with choledocholithiasis. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2009;16:832-6 pubmed publisher
    An accepted treatment strategy for cholelithiasis with secondary choledocholithiasis is the laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP)...
  7. Fujimoto T, Tsuyuguchi T, Sakai Y, Sugiyama H, Miyakawa K, Eto R, et al. Long-term outcome of endoscopic papillotomy for choledocholithiasis with cholecystolithiasis. Dig Endosc. 2010;22:95-100 pubmed publisher
    To assess long-term outcome of endoscopic papillotomy alone without subsequent cholecystectomy in patients with choledocholithiasis and cholecystolithiasis.
  8. Kim S, Park D, Shin H, Kim I, Park S, Jung E, et al. Duplication of the extrahepatic bile duct in association with choledocholithiasis as depicted by MDCT. Korean J Radiol. 2008;9:550-4 pubmed publisher
    We report here on an extremely rare case of duplicated extrahepatic bile ducts that was associated with choledocholithiasis, and this malady was visualized by employing the minimum intensity projection images with using multi-detector ..
  9. Tseng C, Chen C, Chen T, Chang F, Lin H, Lee S. Can computed tomography with coronal reconstruction improve the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis?. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:1586-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the diagnostic efficacy of CT with coronal reconstruction for choledocholithiasis remains uncertain...

More Information


  1. Kharbutli B, Velanovich V. Management of preoperatively suspected choledocholithiasis: a decision analysis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12:1973-80 pubmed publisher
    ..for symptomatic cholelithiasis, 5-15% will also harbor CBD stones, and those with symptoms suggestive of choledocholithiasis will have an even higher incidence...
  2. Hekimoglu K, Ustundag Y, Saritas U. Ectopic openings of the bilio-pancreatic ducts in the stomach in an elderly case presenting with choledocholithiasis and acute cholangitis. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2008;17:238-9 pubmed
  3. Strömberg C, Nilsson M, Leijonmarck C. Stone clearance and risk factors for failure in laparoscopic transcystic exploration of the common bile duct. Surg Endosc. 2008;22:1194-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There are several alternatives in treating these patients. We have chosen to try to extract the CBD stones at the primary operation by laparoscopic transcystic CBD exploration...
  4. Jain S, Gupta A, Kaza R. Pleurobiliary fistula secondary to choledocholithiasis --- a rare entity. Asian J Surg. 2008;31:29-31 pubmed
    ..Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography showed choledocholithiasis with pleurobiliary fistula...
  5. Williams E, Green J, Beckingham I, Parks R, Martin D, Lombard M. Guidelines on the management of common bile duct stones (CBDS). Gut. 2008;57:1004-21 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence clinicians are now faced with a number of potentially valid options for managing patients with suspected CBDS. It is with this in mind that the following guidelines have been written...
  6. Tse F, Liu L, Barkun A, Armstrong D, Moayyedi P. EUS: a meta-analysis of test performance in suspected choledocholithiasis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:235-44 pubmed publisher
    EUS has been proposed as a less invasive means of diagnosing choledocholithiasis and may eliminate the need for ERCP and its associated risks...
  7. Li V, Yum J, Yeung Y. Optimal timing of elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy after acute cholangitis and subsequent clearance of choledocholithiasis. Am J Surg. 2010;200:483-8 pubmed publisher
    Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy is recommended after endoscopic clearance of choledocholithiasis for patients with acute cholangitis, according to Tokyo guidelines. However, the optimal timing remains uncertain.
  8. Lankisch T, Metzger J, Negm A, Vosskuhl K, Schiffer E, Siwy J, et al. Bile proteomic profiles differentiate cholangiocarcinoma from primary sclerosing cholangitis and choledocholithiasis. Hepatology. 2011;53:875-84 pubmed publisher
    ..electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) to identify disease-specific peptide patterns in patients with choledocholithiasis (n = 16), PSC (n = 18), and CC (n = 16) in a training set...
  9. Issa H, Al Salem A. Role of ERCP in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the evaluation of choledocholithiasis in sickle cell anemia. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:1844-7 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for choledocholithiasis in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).
  10. Feng Y, Zhu H, Chen X, Xu S, Cheng W, Ni J, et al. Comparison of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation and endoscopic sphincterotomy for retrieval of choledocholithiasis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Gastroenterol. 2012;47:655-63 pubmed publisher
    ..However, comparison of EPLBD and EST for effectiveness in bile duct stone removal has given inconsistent results. The present meta-analysis was carried out to compare the effect of EPLBD and EST in retrieval of choledocholithiasis.
  11. Tsujino T, Kawabe T, Isayama H, Sasaki T, Kogure H, Togawa O, et al. Efficacy and safety of low-pressured and short-time dilation in endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for bile duct stone removal. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:867-71 pubmed
    ..Pancreatitis after EPBD is believed to be related to papillary damage after balloon dilation. We changed the dilation method to a theoretically less hazardous one. This modified dilation method was compared with the initial method...
  12. Koc B, Karahan S, Adas G, Tutal F, Guven H, Ozsoy A. Comparison of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plus laparoscopic cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis: a prospective randomized study. Am J Surg. 2013;206:457-63 pubmed publisher
  13. Karaliotas C, Sgourakis G, Goumas C, Papaioannou N, Lilis C, Leandros E. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration after failed endoscopic stone extraction. Surg Endosc. 2008;22:1826-31 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to present the technical aspects and results of laparoscopic common bile duct (CBD) exploration following failed endoscopic stone extraction...
  14. Lee Y, Chan F, Leung W, Chan H, Wu J, Yung M, et al. Comparison of EUS and ERCP in the investigation with suspected biliary obstruction caused by choledocholithiasis: a randomized study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:660-8 pubmed
    ..EUS may be used to reduce the need of diagnostic ERCP...
  15. Tekin A, Ogetman Z, Altunel E. Laparoendoscopic "rendezvous" versus laparoscopic antegrade sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis. Surgery. 2008;144:442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the success rate, duration of operating time, clinical results, and duration of hospital stay of a laparoendoscopic "rendezvous" technique versus antegrade sphincterotomy in patients with cholecystitis-choledocholithiasis.
  16. Vicari P, Gil M, Cavalheiro R, Figueiredo M. Multiple primary choledocholithiasis in sickle cell disease. Intern Med. 2008;47:2169-70 pubmed
    b>Choledocholithiasis can be caused by either primary or secondary bile duct stones...
  17. Nebiker C, Baierlein S, Beck S, Von Flue M, Ackermann C, Peterli R. Is routine MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) justified prior to cholecystectomy?. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2009;394:1005-10 pubmed publisher
  18. Padda M, Singh S, Tang S, Rockey D. Liver test patterns in patients with acute calculous cholecystitis and/or choledocholithiasis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;29:1011-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Liver tests are utilized to determine the presence of biliary obstruction...
  19. Ueki T, Otani K, Fujimura N, Shimizu A, Otsuka Y, Kawamoto K, et al. Comparison between emergency and elective endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with acute cholangitis due to choledocholithiasis: is emergency endoscopic sphincterotomy safe?. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:1080-8 pubmed publisher
    ..complications and examined whether combination therapy comprising endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) plus endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) as the initial treatment is safe in patients with acute cholangitis due to choledocholithiasis.
  20. Fabbri C, Polifemo A, Luigiano C, Cennamo V, Fuccio L, Billi P, et al. Single session versus separate session endoscopic ultrasonography plus endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in patients with low to moderate risk for choledocholithiasis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:1107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this trial is to compare, in patients with non-high-risk for CDBS, the clinical and economic impact of EUS plus ERC performed in a single endoscopic session versus EUS plus ERC in two separate sessions...
  21. Petrov M, Savides T. Systematic review of endoscopic ultrasonography versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for suspected choledocholithiasis. Br J Surg. 2009;96:967-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials of EUS-guided ERCP versus ERCP alone in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis.
  22. Chang C, Chang W, Lin C, Chu C, Wang T, Shih S. Acute transient hepatocellular injury in cholelithiasis and cholecystitis without evidence of choledocholithiasis. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:3788-92 pubmed
    To investigate acute transient hepatocellular injury in patients with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis but no evidence of choledocholithiasis.
  23. Donkervoort S, van Ruler O, Dijksman L, van Geloven A, Pierik E. Identification of risk factors for an unfavorable laparoscopic cholecystectomy course after endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in the treatment of choledocholithiasis. Surg Endosc. 2010;24:798-804 pubmed publisher
    ..The risk factors for an adverse outcome of LC after an ERC were analyzed...
  24. Jacques A, Giguere P, Zhang G, Touchie C, la Porte C. Atazanavir-associated choledocholithiasis leading to acute hepatitis in an HIV-infected adult. Ann Pharmacother. 2010;44:202-6 pubmed publisher
    To report a case of atazanavir-associated choledocholithiasis in an HIV-infected individual.
  25. Kim H, Kang D, Choi C, Park J, Lee J, Kim M, et al. Limited endoscopic sphincterotomy plus large balloon dilation for choledocholithiasis with periampullary diverticula. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:4335-40 pubmed
    To investigate the effectiveness and safety of limited endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) plus large balloon dilation (LBD) for removing choledocholithiasis in patients with periampullary diverticula (PAD).
  26. Benjaminov F, Stein A, Lichtman G, Pomeranz I, Konikoff F. Consecutive versus separate sessions of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for symptomatic choledocholithiasis. Surg Endosc. 2013;27:2117-21 pubmed publisher
  27. Rickes S, Treiber G, Monkemuller K, Peitz U, Csepregi A, Kahl S, et al. Impact of the operator's experience on value of high-resolution transabdominal ultrasound in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis: a prospective comparison using endoscopic retrograde cholangiography as the gold standard. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006;41:838-43 pubmed
    Transabdominal ultrasound (US) is the most frequently used imaging method for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution US in the diagnosis of ..
  28. Schmidt S, Chevallier P, Novellas S, Gelsi E, Vanbiervliet G, Tran A, et al. Choledocholithiasis: repetitive thick-slab single-shot projection magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography versus endoscopic ultrasonography. Eur Radiol. 2007;17:241-50 pubmed
    ..resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) with endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for the detection of choledocholithiasis. Fifty-seven consecutive patients (36 women, mean age 61) referred for suspected choledocholithiasis ..
  29. Spahn T, Grosse Thie W, Spies P, Mueller M. Treatment of choledocholithiasis following Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy using double-balloon endoscopy. Digestion. 2007;75:20-1 pubmed
  30. Bang S, Kim M, Park J, Park S, Song S, Chung J. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with large balloon after limited sphincterotomy for retrieval of choledocholithiasis. Yonsei Med J. 2006;47:805-10 pubmed
    Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EBD) for choledocholithiasis is known to be comparable to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) especially in cases of small stones...
  31. Tsujino T, Kawabe T, Komatsu Y, Yoshida H, Isayama H, Sasaki T, et al. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for bile duct stone: immediate and long-term outcomes in 1000 patients. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5:130-7 pubmed
    ..Patients with calculous gallbladder had the highest risk for late complications, and cholecystectomy is recommended after removal of their bile duct stones. ..
  32. Kejriwal R, Liang J, Anderson G, Hill A. Magnetic resonance imaging of the common bile duct to exclude choledocholithiasis. ANZ J Surg. 2004;74:619-21 pubmed
    Prior to cholecystectomy it is important to assess the common duct for choledocholithiasis. Given that a proportion of common duct stones will pass without incident and that methods of removal of these stones are potentially morbid, it ..
  33. Freitas M, Bell R, Duffy A. Choledocholithiasis: evolving standards for diagnosis and management. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:3162-7 pubmed
    ..b>Choledocholithiasis develops in about 10%-20% of patients with gallbladder stones and the literature suggests that at least 3%-..
  34. Bertolín Bernades R, Sabater Ortí L, Calvete Chornet J, Camps Vilata B, Cassinello Fernández N, Oviedo Bravo M, et al. Mild acute biliary pancreatitis vs cholelithiasis: are there differences in the rate of choledocholithiasis?. J Gastrointest Surg. 2007;11:875-9 pubmed
    The rate of choledocholithiasis at the time of elective surgery after mild acute biliary pancreatitis is still unclear because it decreases rapidly after the onset...
  35. Guarise A, Baltieri S, Mainardi P, Faccioli N. Diagnostic accuracy of MRCP in choledocholithiasis. Radiol Med. 2005;109:239-51 pubmed
    To evaluate the accuracy of MRCP in diagnosing choledocholithiasis considering Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) as the gold standard...
  36. Aube C, Delorme B, Yzet T, Burtin P, Lebigot J, Pessaux P, et al. MR cholangiopancreatography versus endoscopic sonography in suspected common bile duct lithiasis: a prospective, comparative study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184:55-62 pubmed
    ..4% and 91.3% for etiologic diagnosis and 93.8% and 96.6% for visualization of choledocholithiasis. Accuracy did not significantly differ between the techniques...
  37. Paul Z, Jonnalagadda R, Antonio C. A case of T-tube dislocation. Chir Ital. 2006;58:513-8 pubmed
    ..We report here a case as well as methods designed to prevent tube dislocation and alternatives to T-tube insertion after choledochotomy, whether performed open or laparoscopically. ..
  38. Poulose B, Arbogast P, Holzman M. National analysis of in-hospital resource utilization in choledocholithiasis management using propensity scores. Surg Endosc. 2006;20:186-90 pubmed
    Two treatment options exist for choledocholithiasis (CDL): endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and common bile duct exploration (CBDE)...
  39. Karvounis E, Griniatsos J, Arnold J, Atkin G, Isla A. Why does laparoscopic common bile duct exploration fail?. Int Surg. 2006;91:90-3 pubmed
    Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) for choledocholithiasis carries an overall ductal clearance rate of between 85% and 95%. We present our single institute experience with LCBDE...
  40. Whitwam P, Rosser J, Hashmi S, Wenner D. A stone extraction facilitation device to achieve an improved technique for performing LCBDE. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:120-5 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, a simplified technique algorithm can be followed that may encourage more surgeons to adopt the routine performance of LCBDE. ..
  41. Petelin J. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:1705-15 pubmed
    ..Herein I describe my >12-year experience with laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE)...
  42. Hungness E, Soper N. Management of common bile duct stones. J Gastrointest Surg. 2006;10:612-9 pubmed
  43. Pimentel J, Chan R. Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis bacteremia associated with choledocholithiasis and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2747-50 pubmed
    ..We report the second case of Desulfovibrio bacteremia associated with choledocholithiasis and review the other reported cases of D. fairfieldensis bacteremia.
  44. Turcu F. [The laparoscopic approach to cholecysto-choledocholithiasis.The "rendez-vous " technique]. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2000;95:463-7 pubmed
    ..cholecystectomy under general anesthesia for a single-session treatment of patients with colecysto-choledocholithiasis is described...
  45. Verma D, Kapadia A, Eisen G, Adler D. EUS vs MRCP for detection of choledocholithiasis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006;64:248-54 pubmed
    Numerous published studies have shown the high diagnostic performance of both EUS and MRCP compared with ERCP for the detection of choledocholithiasis.
  46. Farrell J, Bounds B, Al Shalabi S, Jacobson B, Brugge W, Schapiro R, et al. Single-operator duodenoscope-assisted cholangioscopy is an effective alternative in the management of choledocholithiasis not removed by conventional methods, including mechanical lithotripsy. Endoscopy. 2005;37:542-7 pubmed
    The widespread use of cholangioscopy in the management of difficult choledocholithiasis has been limited by the need for two expert operators...
  47. Nishimura M, Naka S, Hanazawa K, Tani T, Fukami M, Okada S, et al. Cholangiocarcinoma in the distal bile duct: a probable etiologic association with choledocholithiasis. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:2153-8 pubmed
  48. Allen N, Leeth R, Finan K, Tishler D, Vickers S, Wilcox C, et al. Outcomes of cholecystectomy after endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2006;10:292-6 pubmed
    ..Pre-ES serum bilirubin is useful in identifying patients who may not have a successful laparoscopic approach at cholecystectomy...
  49. Nathwani R, Kumar S, Reynolds T, Kaplowitz N. Marked elevation in serum transaminases: an atypical presentation of choledocholithiasis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:295-8 pubmed
    b>Choledocholithiasis causes elevations in levels of alkaline phosphatase out of proportion to aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...
  50. Akiho H, Sumida Y, Akahoshi K, Murata A, Ouchi J, Motomura Y, et al. Safety advantage of endocut mode over endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:2086-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate whether an automatically controlled cut system (endocut mode) could reduce the complication rate of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and serum hyperamylasemia after EST compared to the conventional blended cut mode...
  51. Angel R, Abisambra N, Marin J. Clip choledocholithiasis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Endoscopy. 2004;36:251 pubmed
  52. Tai C, Tang C, Ha J, Chau C, Siu W, Li M. Laparoscopic exploration of common bile duct in difficult choledocholithiasis. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:910-4 pubmed
    This review investigated the role played by laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct (LECBD) in the management of difficult choledocholithiasis.
  53. Lahmann B, Adrales G, Schwartz R. Choledocholithiasis--principles of diagnosis and management. Curr Surg. 2004;61:290-3 pubmed
  54. Schroeppel T, Lambert P, Mathiason M, Kothari S. An economic analysis of hospital charges for choledocholithiasis by different treatment strategies. Am Surg. 2007;73:472-7 pubmed
    The ideal management of presumed choledocholithiasis is controversial...
  55. Lella F, Bagnolo F, Rebuffat C, Scalambra M, Bonassi U, Colombo E. Use of the laparoscopic-endoscopic approach, the so-called "rendezvous" technique, in cholecystocholedocholithiasis: a valid method in cases with patient-related risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis. Surg Endosc. 2006;20:419-23 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate whether this method is effective in eliminating ductal stones and to verify whether the risk of postprocedure pancreatitis is diminished...
  56. Lien H, Huang C, Huang C, Shi M, Chen D, Wang N, et al. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration with T-tube choledochotomy for the management of choledocholithiasis. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2005;15:298-302 pubmed of gallstone disease, the application of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) for choledocholithiasis has been slower. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of LCBDE...
  57. Waisberg J, Corona A, de Abreu I, Farah J, Lupinacci R, Goffi F. Benign obstruction of the common hepatic duct (Mirizzi syndrome): diagnosis and operative management. Arq Gastroenterol. 2005;42:13-8 pubmed
  58. Paganini A, Guerrieri M, Sarnari J, De Sanctis A, D Ambrosio G, Lezoche G, et al. Thirteen years' experience with laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration for stones. Effectiveness and long-term results. Surg Endosc. 2007;21:34-40 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and long-term results of laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration (TC-CBDE)...
  59. Carr Locke D. Cholelithiasis plus choledocholithiasis: ERCP first, what next?. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:270-2 pubmed
  60. Klar A, Branski D, Akerman Y, Nadjari M, Berkun Y, Moise J, et al. Sludge ball, pseudolithiasis, cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis from intrauterine life to 2 years: a 13-year follow-up. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;40:477-80 pubmed
    ..Evaluation and follow-up of infants with cholelithiasis and pseudolithiasis in a pediatric ward...
  61. Tazuma S. Gallstone disease: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and classification of biliary stones (common bile duct and intrahepatic). Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;20:1075-83 pubmed
    ..into extrahepatic and/or intrahepatic bile ducts to become bile-duct stones, causing conditions known as choledocholithiasis and hepatolithiasis. Some 10-15% of gallstone patients concomitantly suffer from bile-duct stones...
  62. Gibson R, Vincent J, Speer T, Collier N, Noack K. Accuracy of computed tomographic intravenous cholangiography (CT-IVC) with iotroxate in the detection of choledocholithiasis. Eur Radiol. 2005;15:1634-42 pubmed
    To determine the accuracy of computed tomographic intravenous cholangiography (CT-IVC) for detection of choledocholithiasis. Sixty-five patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) underwent CT-IVC prior to ERC, using ..
  63. Djuranovic S, Ugljesic M, Mijalkovic N, Korneti V, Kovacevic N, Alempijevic T, et al. Double common bile duct: a case report. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:3770-2 pubmed
    ..The adequate diagnosis of this rare anomaly is significant since the operative complications may occur in cases with DCBD which is not recognized prior to surgical treatment...
  64. Lyass S, Phillips E. Laparoscopic transcystic duct common bile duct exploration. Surg Endosc. 2006;20 Suppl 2:S441-5 pubmed
    ..Further technological advances will facilitate the application of laparoscopic approaches to the common duct, which should become the primary strategy for the great majority of patients...
  65. Wei Q, Hu H, Cai X, Li L, Wang G. Biliary drainage after laparoscopic choledochotomy. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:3175-8 pubmed
    ..We presented a modified TCBD (mTCBD) method after LCD using the ureteral catheter and the Lapro-Clip (David and Geck, Danbury, Connecticut, USA), and compared it with T-tube drainage...
  66. Nagashima I, Takada T, Shiratori M, Inaba T, Okinaga K. Percutaneous transhepatic papillary balloon dilation as a therapeutic option for choledocholithiasis. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2004;11:252-4 pubmed
    For choledocholithiasis, endoscopic therapy, including endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) or endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD), is now standard...
  67. Maghsoudi H, Garadaghi A, Jafary G. Biliary peritonitis requiring reoperation after removal of T-tubes from the common bile duct. Am J Surg. 2005;190:430-3 pubmed
    ..Plastic T-tubes are known to increase this risk and should not be used. Latex rubber T-tubes are preferred, but the peritonitis can still occur...
  68. Ney M, Maluf Filho F, Sakai P, Zilberstein B, Gama Rodrigues J, Rosa H. Echo-endoscopy versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis: the influence of the size of the stone and diameter of the common bile duct. Arq Gastroenterol. 2005;42:239-43 pubmed
    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is highly accurate in diagnosing choledocholithiasis, but it is the most invasive of the available methods...
  69. de Vries A, Donkervoort S, van Geloven A, Pierik E. Conversion rate of laparoscopic cholecystectomy after endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in the treatment of choledocholithiasis: does the time interval matter?. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:996-1001 pubmed
    ..We studied the influence of time interval between ERC and LC on the course of LC...
  70. Park D, Kim M, Lee S, Lee S, Choi J, Song M, et al. Endoscopic sphincterotomy vs. endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for choledocholithiasis in patients with liver cirrhosis and coagulopathy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;60:180-5 pubmed