sphincter of oddi dysfunction


Summary: Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.

Top Publications

  1. Barnes S, Clark D, Schwartz R. Biliary dyskinesia: a brief review. Curr Surg. 2004;61:428-34 pubmed
  2. Madura J. Diagnosis and management of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and pancreas divisum. Surg Clin North Am. 2007;87:1417-29, ix pubmed
    b>Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and pancreas divisum are very distinct anatomic abnormalities, yet are diagnosed in similar clinical situations...
  3. Freeman M, Gill M, Overby C, Cen Y. Predictors of outcomes after biliary and pancreatic sphincterotomy for sphincter of oddi dysfunction. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007;41:94-102 pubmed
    There are few data on combined pancreatic and biliary sphincterotomy for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), especially regarding clinical features that might predict outcomes...
  4. Druart Blazy A, Pariente A, Berthelemy P, Arotçarena R. The underestimated role of opiates in patients with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction after cholecystectomy. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2005;29:1220-3 pubmed
    Pain recurrence after cholecystectomy is often attributed to sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, whose diagnostic criteria and treatments remain uncertain...
  5. Pereira S, Gillams A, Sgouros S, Webster G, Hatfield A. Prospective comparison of secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography with manometry in the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction types II and III. Gut. 2007;56:809-13 pubmed
    In sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM) predicts the response to sphincterotomy, but is invasive and associated with complications.
  6. Baillie J, Kimberly J. Prospective comparison of secretin-stimulated MRCP with manometry in the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction types II and III. Gut. 2007;56:742-4 pubmed
  7. Mousavi S, Toussy J, Zahmatkesh M. Opium addiction as a new risk factor of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13:CR528-531 pubmed
    b>Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) refers to an abnormality of SO contractility. It is a benign, non-calculus obstruction to the flow of bile or pancreatic juice through the pancreaticobiliary junction...
  8. Saad A, Fogel E, McHenry L, Watkins J, Sherman S, Lazzell Pannell L, et al. Pancreatic duct stent placement prevents post-ERCP pancreatitis in patients with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction but normal manometry results. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:255-61 pubmed
    ..Patients with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) who are found to have normal manometry results (SOM) are also at high risk for this complication.
  9. Vitton V, Delpy R, Gasmi M, Lesavre N, Abou Berdugo E, Desjeux A, et al. Is endoscopic sphincterotomy avoidable in patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction?. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;20:15-21 pubmed
    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is an efficient means of treating sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), but it is associated with a morbidity rate of 20%...

More Information

Publications112 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zhang X, Cui G, Ma K, Wang S, Wei Y, Du P, et al. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;20:202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of hypercholesterolemia on the motility function of SO and the underlying mechanisms of SO dysfunction (SOD)...
  2. Madacsy L, Kurucsai G, Fejes R, Szekely A, Székely I. Prophylactic pancreas stenting followed by needle-knife fistulotomy in patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and difficult cannulation: new method to prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis. Dig Endosc. 2009;21:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) complications with a combination of early needle-knife access fistulotomy and prophylactic pancreatic stenting in selected high-risk sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) patients with difficult cannulation.
  3. Khashab M, Watkins J, McHenry L, Lazzell Pannell L, Schmidt S, Sherman S, et al. Frequency of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction in patients with previously normal sphincter of Oddi manometry studies. Endoscopy. 2010;42:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), is the gold standard for diagnosing sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD)...
  4. Bennett E, Evans P, Dowsett J, Kellow J. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: psychosocial distress correlates with manometric dyskinesia but not stenosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:6080-5 pubmed
  5. Keshishian J, Brantley S, Brady P. Biliary fascioliasis mimicking sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. South Med J. 2010;103:366-8 pubmed publisher
    ..She was suspected to have type II sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. She underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and had a fluke, diagnosed as ..
  6. Elta G. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and bile duct microlithiasis in acute idiopathic pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:1023-6 pubmed
    ..Two potential etiologies, microlithiasis and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, are discussed in this review...
  7. Chowdhury A, Humes D, Pritchard S, Marciani L, Gowland P, Simpson J, et al. The effects of morphine-neostigmine and secretin provocation on pancreaticobiliary morphology in healthy subjects: a randomized, double-blind crossover study using serial MRCP. World J Surg. 2011;35:2102-9 pubmed publisher
    Secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is used for the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), but it does not correlate well with sphincter of Oddi manometry...
  8. Durkalski V, Stewart W, MacDougall P, Mauldin P, Romagnuolo J, Brawman Minzter O, et al. Measuring episodic abdominal pain and disability in suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:4416-21 pubmed
    ..an instrument that measures disability arising from episodic abdominal pain in patients with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD)...
  9. Lim C, Jahansouz C, Freeman M, Leslie D, Ikramuddin S, Amateau S. Outcomes of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and Sphincterotomy for Suspected Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction (SOD) Post Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass. Obes Surg. 2017;27:2656-2662 pubmed publisher
    b>Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is thought to be a cause of chronic abdominal pain post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and current practice of performing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with or without sphincterotomy ..
  10. Bistritz L, Bain V. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: managing the patient with chronic biliary pain. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:3793-802 pubmed
    b>Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a syndrome of chronic biliary pain or recurrent pancreatitis due to functional obstruction of pancreaticobiliary flow at the level of the sphincter of Oddi...
  11. Talar Wojnarowska R, Szulc G, Woźniak B, Pazurek M, Małecka Panas E. Assessment of frequency and safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients over 80 years of age. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2009;119:136-40 pubmed
    ..A mean length of hospital stay was similar in both groups, 4.8 days in the younger, and 5.7 days in older patients (p > 0.05). ERCP is a safe and effective method for diagnosis and treatment of both elderly and younger patients. ..
  12. Mejia G, Olarte Parra C, Pedraza A, Rivera J, Benavides C. Biliary Complications After Liver Transplantation: Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact on Patient and Graft Survival. Transplant Proc. 2016;48:665-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They include biliary stenosis, leaks, choledocolitiasis and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. These complications can cause graft dysfunction, retrasplantation, or even death...
  13. Fogel E, Sherman S. Abdominal pain with fluctuating elevation of amylase and AST. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3:538-42 pubmed
  14. Oh H, Cheon Y, Cho Y, Do J. Use of udenafil is not associated with a reduction in post-ERCP pancreatitis: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;74:556-62 pubmed publisher
    ..On both univariate and multivariate analyses, age 40 years or younger, suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, complete pancreatic duct opacification, and failed cannulation were associated with post-ERCP ..
  15. Leung W, Sherman S. Endoscopic approach to the patient with motility disorders of the bile duct and sphincter of Oddi. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2013;23:405-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the clinical syndrome of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) and its therapy are controversial areas...
  16. DiMagno M, DiMagno E. Chronic pancreatitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2013;29:531-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of fat malabsorption requires 90,000 USP U of lipase with meals. Relief of pain from organ directed treatment of chronic pancreatitis may depend upon timing of interventions and whether pain is visceral or nonvisceral. ..
  17. Brawman Mintzer O, Durkalski V, Wu Q, Romagnuolo J, Fogel E, Tarnasky P, et al. Psychosocial characteristics and pain burden of patients with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction in the EPISOD multicenter trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109:436-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These aspects have not been studied extensively in patients with suspected Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD)...
  18. Baillie J. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2010;12:130-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a poorly-understood disorder, typically presenting as postcholecystectomy, "biliary-type," right-sided abdominal and/or chest wall pain...
  19. Elmi F, Silverman W. Biliary sphincter of Oddi dysfunction type I versus occult biliary microlithiasis in post-cholecystectomy patients: are they both part of the same clinical entity?. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:842-6 pubmed publisher
    We speculate that biliary sphincter of Oddi dysfunction type I and symptomatic migrating biliary microlithiasis may be part of the same disease process...
  20. Walter W, Curtis H. Self-administered electroacupuncture provides symptomatic relief in a patient with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: a patient's report. Acupunct Med. 2013;31:430-4 pubmed publisher
    A 46-year-old woman with differentially diagnosed sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) type III is described...
  21. Morgan K, Romagnuolo J, Adams D. Transduodenal sphincteroplasty in the management of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and pancreas divisum in the modern era. J Am Coll Surg. 2008;206:908-14; discussion 914-7 pubmed publisher
    Surgical management of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and pancreas divisum is controversial...
  22. Abeysuriya V, Deen K, Navarathne N. Biliary microlithiasis, sludge, crystals, microcrystallization, and usefulness of assessment of nucleation time. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2010;9:248-53 pubmed
    ..This systematic review aimed to highlight the importance of biliary microlithiasis, sludge, and crystals, and their association with gallstones, unexplained biliary pain, idiopathic pancreatitis, and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.
  23. Toouli J. Sphincter of Oddi: Function, dysfunction, and its management. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24 Suppl 3:S57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Disorder in its motility is called Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Clinically this presents either with recurrent abdominal biliary type pain or episodes of recurrent ..
  24. Navaneethan U, Gutiérrez N, Jegadeesan R, Venkatesh P, Poptic E, Liu X, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels in bile distinguishes pancreatic cancer from other etiologies of biliary stricture: a pilot study. Dig Dis Sci. 2013;58:2986-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be particularly relevant in approaching patients with indeterminate biliary stricture. ..
  25. Frenz M, Wehrmann T. Solid state biliary manometry catheter: impact on diagnosis and post-study pancreatitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2007;9:171-4 pubmed
    ..of the sphincter of Oddi has been the standard for the investigation of patients with presumed sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD)...
  26. Scanga A, Kowdley K. Management of biliary complications following orthotopic liver transplantation. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2007;9:31-8 pubmed
    ..This article focuses on the incidence, timing, mechanism, and endoscopic management of biliary leak, strictures, stones, sludge, casts, and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction following liver transplantation.
  27. Kettenhofen Enriquez W. [Myth and realities of biliar dyscinesia]. Rev Gastroenterol Mex. 2005;70 Suppl 3:71-2 pubmed
  28. Barshop K, Staller K. Eluxadoline in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea: rationale, evidence and place in therapy. Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2017;8:153-160 pubmed publisher
    ..4% incidence. Recent US FDA reports reporting severe pancreatitis and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction after short-term use of eluxadoline in patients without a gallbladder has added a history of ..
  29. Bertalan V, Szepes A, Lonovics J, Madacsy L. Assessment of the reproducibility of quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy (QHBS) in patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD)--inappropriate method or intermittent disease?. Hepatogastroenterology. 2006;53:160-5 pubmed
    ..hepatobiliary scintigraphy (QHBS) was originally suggested as a promising method in the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), it was recently claimed that QHBS displays poor reproducibility and specificity in ..
  30. Sun S, Wu S, Cui D, Liu B, Dai X, Xu W, et al. Sphincter of Oddi manometry by choledochoscope in patients with duodenobiliary reflux. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;26:1252-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The decreases in the SO basal pressure and SO contraction pressure, and the decrease in choledochus pressure, might play a role in duodenobiliary reflux. ..
  31. Giannopoulos G, Digalakis M. Surgical pancreatic sphincteroplasty. Historic or history ? A review. Acta Chir Belg. 2010;110:569-74 pubmed
    ..Bariatric patients with gastric by-pass and sphincter Oddi dysfunction in particular, have reported to show excellent outcome after surgery. Regardless the method, patient selection is still a very important determinant of success. ..
  32. Testoni P. Therapy: can rectal NSAIDs prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis?. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;9:429-30 pubmed publisher
  33. Balderramo D, Sendino O, Miquel R, de Miguel C, Bordas J, Martinez Palli G, et al. Prospective evaluation of single-operator peroral cholangioscopy in liver transplant recipients requiring an evaluation of the biliary tract. Liver Transpl. 2013;19:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..biliary anastomotic strictures (ASs), 2 with common bile duct stones, 1 with a bile leak, and 1 with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Patients with ASs displayed 1 of 2 patterns: (A) mild erythema (n = 9) or (B) edema, ulceration, and ..
  34. Unal E, Akata D, Karcaaltincaba M. Liver Function Assessment by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2016;37:549-560 pubmed publisher
    ..phase can allow diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis, biliary leakage, bile reflux to the stomach, sphincter of oddi dysfunction, and lesions with communication to biliary tree...
  35. Talley N. Functional gastrointestinal disorders in 2007 and Rome III: something new, something borrowed, something objective. Rev Gastroenterol Disord. 2007;7:97-105 pubmed
    ..The Rome criteria have been criticized for potentially over-splitting what are truly interdependent conditions. Nevertheless, the Rome criteria remain the best standard we have for guiding diagnosis and helping choose therapy. ..
  36. Rajkumar A, Piya A. Gall Bladder Agenesis: A Rare Embryonic Cause of Recurrent Biliary Colic. Am J Case Rep. 2017;18:334-338 pubmed
    ..A diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction was made and she was discharged on antispasmodics. CONCLUSIONS Diagnosing GA is challenging...
  37. Chathadi K, Chandrasekhara V, Acosta R, Decker G, Early D, Eloubeidi M, et al. The role of ERCP in benign diseases of the biliary tract. Gastrointest Endosc. 2015;81:795-803 pubmed publisher
  38. Dacha S, Chawla S, Lee J, Keilin S, Cai Q, Willingham F. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with ampullary biopsy vs ERCP alone: a matched-pairs controlled evaluation of outcomes and complications. Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf). 2017;5:277-281 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Ampullary biopsies suggested a diagnosis in 75...
  39. Miyatani H, Matsumoto S, Mashima H. Risk factors of post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in biliary type sphincter of Oddi dysfunction in Japanese patients. J Dig Dis. 2017;18:591-597 pubmed publisher
    Suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a well-known risk factor for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP)...
  40. Funch Jensen P, Drewes A, Madacsy L. Evaluation of the biliary tract in patients with functional biliary symptoms. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:2839-45 pubmed
    ..Two main syndromes exist: Gallbladder dysfunction and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. The most important investigative tools are cholescintigraphy and endoscopic sphincter of Oddi ..
  41. Lobo D, Takhar A, Thaper A, Dube M, Rowlands B. The morphine-prostigmine provocation (Nardi) test for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: results in healthy volunteers and in patients before and after transduodenal sphincteroplasty and transampullary septectomy. Gut. 2007;56:1472-3 pubmed
  42. Bosch A, Peña L. The sphincter of oddi. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52:1211-8 pubmed
  43. Santhosh S, Mittal B, Arun S, Sood A, Bhattacharya A, Kochhar R. Quantitative cholescintigraphy with fatty meal in the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and acalculous cholecystopathy. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2012;31:186-90 pubmed
    ..n?=?35) performed for evaluation of biliary dyskinesia either due to biliary pain, opioid induced sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), recurrent pancreatitis (RP) or post cholecystectomy syndrome (PCS)...
  44. Canlas K, Branch M. Role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in acute pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:6314-20 pubmed
    ..causes of acute pancreatitis, including microlithiasis and gallstone disease, pancreas divisum, Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, tumors of the pancreaticobiliary tract, pancreatic pseudocysts, and pancreatic duct injury...
  45. Kakuyama S, Nobutani K, Masuda A, Shiomi H, Sanuki T, Sugimoto M, et al. Sphincter of Oddi manometry using guide-wire-type manometer is feasible for examination of sphincter of Oddi motility. J Gastroenterol. 2013;48:1144-50 pubmed publisher
    Sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM) is recognized as the standard diagnostic modality for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD)...
  46. de Quadros Onófrio F, Lima J, Watte G, Lehmen R, Oba D, Camargo G, et al. Prophylaxis of pancreatitis with intravenous ketoprofen in a consecutive population of ERCP patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Surg Endosc. 2017;31:2317-2324 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of patients (72.1 %) had bile duct stones, and only 1.5 % had a clinical suspicion of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. PEP developed in 5 of 253 (2 %) patients in the placebo group and in 5 of 224 (2...
  47. Baillie J. Endoscopic therapy in acute recurrent pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:1034-7 pubmed
    ..g. pancreas divisum, choledochoceles), sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), pancreatic stones and strictures, and parasitic disorders involving the biliary tree and/or ..
  48. Gong J, Ren J, Tian F, Jiang R, Tang L, Pang Y. Management of patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction based on a new classification. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:385-90 pubmed publisher
    To propose a new classification system for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) based on clinical data of patients...
  49. Cotton P, Pauls Q, Keith J, Thornhill A, Drossman D, Williams A, et al. The EPISOD study: long-term outcomes. Gastrointest Endosc. 2018;87:205-210 pubmed publisher
    The EPISOD (Evaluating Predictors and Interventions in Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction) study randomized patients with post-cholecystectomy pain, and little or no objective evidence for biliary obstruction, to sphincterotomy or sham ..
  50. Jamry A. Risk factors of pancreatitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Review of literature and practical remarks based on approximately 10,000 ERCPs. Pol Przegl Chir. 2017;89:29-33 pubmed publisher
    ..ESGE) guidelines, only three to patient-associated risk factors have been identified: suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) (OR 4.09), female gender (OR 2.23), and previous pancreatitis (OR 2.46)...
  51. Vakhrushev I, Penkina I. [Functional condition of the hepatobiliary system in patients with biliary dyskinesia]. Ter Arkh. 2007;79:41-4 pubmed
    ..To study function of the liver, sphincter system and the gall bladder (GB) in patients with biliary dyskinesia (BD)...
  52. Winstead N, Wilcox C. Health-related quality of life, somatization, and abuse in Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007;41:773-6 pubmed
    Most of the focus on patients with Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) has centered on endoscopic management, and thus little is known about quality of life in these patients.
  53. Madacsy L, Fejes R, Kurucsai G, Joó I, Szekely A, Bertalan V, et al. Characterization of functional biliary pain and dyspeptic symptoms in patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: effect of papillotomy. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:6850-6 pubmed
    ..other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in postcholecystectomy syndrome (PCS) patients with and without sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) proved by endoscopic sphincter of Oddi manometry (ESOM), and to assess the post-endoscopic ..
  54. Beltran M. Current knowledge on pancreaticobiliary reflux in normal pancreaticobiliary junction. Int J Surg. 2012;10:190-3 pubmed publisher
    ..the common occurrence of pancreaticobiliary reflux in normal pancreaticobiliary junction, and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction as the most plausible cause of this condition...
  55. Silverman W. ERCP and prophylactic pancreatic stents: raising the bar, reducing the pain. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;65:969-70 pubmed
  56. Kunwald P, Drewes A, Kjaer D, Gravesen F, McMahon B, Madacsy L, et al. A new distensibility technique to measure sphincter of Oddi function. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:978-83, e253 pubmed publisher
  57. Kalaitzakis E, Ambrose T, Phillips Hughes J, Collier J, Chapman R. Management of patients with biliary sphincter of Oddi disorder without sphincter of Oddi manometry. BMC Gastroenterol. 2010;10:124 pubmed publisher
    ..In this observational study we aimed to assess the outcome of patients with biliary SOD managed without sphincter of Oddi manometry...
  58. Hall T, Dennison A, Garcea G. The diagnosis and management of Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: a systematic review. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2012;397:889-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a benign pathological syndrome. The clinical manifestations may be a consequence of an anatomical stenosis or sphincter dysmotility. Manometry is invasive and has an associated morbidity...
  59. Riff B, Chandrasekhara V. The Role of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Management of Pancreatic Diseases. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2016;45:45-65 pubmed publisher
  60. Rastogi A, Slivka A, Moser A, Wald A. Controversies concerning pathophysiology and management of acalculous biliary-type abdominal pain. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:1391-401 pubmed
    ..Another controversial area has been the role of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) in patients with biliary-type pain and gallbladder in situ...
  61. Barthet M, Vitton V. [Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2005;29:832-8 pubmed
  62. Cherian J, Selvaraj J, Natrayan R, Venkataraman J. ERCP in acute pancreatitis. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2007;6:233-40 pubmed
    ..This article highlights the current status of ERCP in acute pancreatitis...
  63. Wu S, Su Y, Fan Y, Zhang Z, Wang H, Kong J, et al. Relationship between intraduodenal peri-ampullary diverticulum and biliary disease in 178 patients undergoing ERCP. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2007;6:299-302 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to further test this notion and ascertain the relationship between intraduodenal peri-ampullary diverticulum and biliary disease, especially the formation of bile duct pigment stones...
  64. Wu S, Tian Y, Kong J, Ding R, Jin J, Guo R. Possible relationship between cholecystectomy and subsequent occurrence of primary common bile duct stones: a retrospective review of data. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2007;6:627-30 pubmed
    ..We retrospectively reviewed the data to find the possible association between cholecystectomy and the subsequent occurrence of primary common bile duct stones...
  65. Pop C, Purcăreanu A, Purcarea M, Andronescu D. The functional sphincter of Oddi disorder. J Med Life. 2008;1:118-29 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this article is to construct a short presentation of the main aspects regarding tfunctional SOD (E2 and E3 after Rome III Classificatio)...
  66. Murray W. Botulinum toxin-induced relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi may select patients with acalculous biliary pain who will benefit from cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc. 2011;25:813-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The biliary pain response to relaxation of the SO using botulinum toxin may indicate appropriate treatment for patients with acalculous biliary pain...
  67. Cotton P, Durkalski V, Orrell K, Brawman Mintzer O, Drossman D, Wilcox C, et al. Challenges in planning and initiating a randomized clinical study of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;72:986-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a controversial topic, especially in patients with no objective findings on laboratory or imaging studies (SOD type III)...
  68. Kawaguchi Y, Ogawa M, Omata F, Ito H, Shimosegawa T, Mine T. Randomized controlled trial of pancreatic stenting to prevent pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:1635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the effectiveness of pancreatic duct (PD) stent placement for the prevention of pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in high risk patients...
  69. Cote G, Imperiale T, Schmidt S, Fogel E, Lehman G, McHenry L, et al. Similar efficacies of biliary, with or without pancreatic, sphincterotomy in treatment of idiopathic recurrent acute pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:1502-1509.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the therapeutic effects of endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis and the prognostic significance of pancreatic sphincter dysfunction (SOD)...
  70. Vijayakumar V, Briscoe E. Diagnostic challenge of sphincter of oddi dysfunction in postcholecystectomy pain syndromes. South Med J. 2005;98:1056 pubmed
  71. Varadarajulu S, Wilcox C. Endoscopic management of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;42:526-30 pubmed
    Data on sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) in children are scant. Most children diagnosed with SOD are treated by biliary sphincterotomy with suboptimal results...
  72. Das A, Singh P, Sivak M, Chak A. Pancreatic-stent placement for prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;65:960-8 pubmed
    ..Controlled trials support pancreatic-stent placement as an effective intervention for the prevention of post-ERCP acute pancreatitis in high-risk patients...
  73. Hogan W. Functional biliary disorders: the Rome III experience. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2007;9:91 pubmed
  74. Testoni P, Mangiavillano B, Mariani A, Carrara S, Notaristefano C, Arcidiacono P. Investigation of Oddi sphincter structure by optical coherence tomography in patients with biliary-type 1 dysfunction: a pilot in vivo study. Dig Liver Dis. 2009;41:907-12 pubmed publisher
    Type 1 sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is a clinical entity characterised by biliary-type pain, elevated liver biochemical tests, and common bile duct dilation...
  75. Quinlan J, Carter K. Acute pain management in patients with persistent pain. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2012;6:188-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This review addresses the difficulties in managing acute pain in this growing group of patients and discusses evidence relating to opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia and new avenues of research in specific painful conditions...
  76. Williams N, Gundara J, Hugh T, Samra J. Many faces of pancreaticobiliary reflux. ANZ J Surg. 2012;82:403-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We present four cases of pancreaticobiliary reflux to demonstrate the varied associations of this under-recognized disorder and review the related management issues...
  77. Siddiqui A, Tholey D, Kedika R, Loren D, Kowalski T, Eloubeidi M. Low but significant yield of endosonography in patients with suspected Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction Type III with normal imaging studies. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2012;21:271-5 pubmed
    To determine the yield of endosonography (EUS) in patients with suspected Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction (SOD) Type III in detecting abdominal abnormalities in those with normal upper endoscopy and imaging studies.
  78. Rehman A, Affronti J, Rao S. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: an evidence-based review. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;7:713-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is a painful syndrome that presents as recurrent episodes of right upper quadrant biliary pain, or recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis...
  79. Cotton P, Durkalski V, Romagnuolo J, Pauls Q, Fogel E, Tarnasky P, et al. Effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy for suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction on pain-related disability following cholecystectomy: the EPISOD randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;311:2101-9 pubmed publisher
    Abdominal pain after cholecystectomy is common and may be attributed to sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Management often involves endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with manometry and sphincterotomy.
  80. Kruszyna T, Zajac A, Karcz D. Sphincter of Oddi manometry in patients with acute biliary pancreatitis: evidence for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction in acute biliary pancreatitis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2004;39:696-7 pubmed
  81. Basile A, Macri A, Bottari A, Lupattelli T, Scuderi G, Famulari C, et al. Novel use of a T-tube access to perform an internal/external biliary drainage. Eur Radiol. 2005;15:2200-2 pubmed
    ..The patient was treated by creation of an internal/external biliary drainage using the T-tube access with an unreported technique...
  82. Muralidharan V, Jamidar P. Pharmacologic prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis: is nitroglycerin a sangreal?. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006;64:358-60 pubmed
  83. Delhaye M, Matos C, Arvanitakis M, Deviere J. Pancreatic ductal system obstruction and acute recurrent pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:1027-33 pubmed
    ..most frequent but also controversial, chronic pancreatitis, tumors of the pancreaticobiliary junction and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. This review summarizes current knowledge about diagnostic work-up and therapy of these conditions.
  84. Kurucsai G, Joó I, Fejes R, Szekely A, Székely I, Tihanyi Z, et al. Somatosensory hypersensitivity in the referred pain area in patients with chronic biliary pain and a sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: new aspects of an almost forgotten pathogenetic mechanism. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:2717-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the cutaneous neural sensory perception in the RPA in patients with chronic postcholecystectomy biliary pain and a sphincter of Oddi (SO) dysfunction (SOD)...
  85. Kamisawa T, Kurata M, Honda G, Tsuruta K, Okamoto A. Biliopancreatic reflux-pathophysiology and clinical implications. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2009;16:19-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Obstruction of a long common channel easily causes bile flow into the pancreas. Even if no obstruction is present, biliopancreatic reflux can still result in acute pancreatitis in some cases...
  86. Morgan K, Glenn J, Byrne T, Adams D. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2009;5:571-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic pancreatitis and pain associated with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is an uncommon disorder whose clinical diagnosis is problematic without sphincter of Oddi ..
  87. Blaut U, Alazmi W, Sherman S, Fogel E, Watkins J, Bucksot L, et al. The influence of variable-stiffness guide wires on basal biliary sphincter of Oddi pressure measured at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Endoscopy. 2010;42:375-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of guide wires on the basal pressure of the biliary sphincter of Oddi...
  88. Stevens T. Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of acute and chronic pancreatitis. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2013;23:735-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the role of EUS in the diagnosis of acute and chronic pancreatitis. ..
  89. Hafner M, Schöfl R. Diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Endoscopy. 2005;37:133-8 pubmed
    ..of post-ERCP pancreatitis, new ways of improving the yield of tissue sampling, and the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. In addition, there are new data comparing the diagnostic accuracy of ERCP with that of MRCP and ..
  90. Pal tsev A, Osipenko M, Voloshina N. [Biliary tract in patients with chronic viral hepatitides]. Ter Arkh. 2005;77:72-6 pubmed
    ..To ascertain whether there is a pathogenetic correlation between affection of the biliary system and viral infection...
  91. Li Z, Chen M, Liu J, Ding J, Dong J. Endoscopic sphincterotomy in the treatment of cholangiopancreatic diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:2678-80 pubmed
    ..To investigate the therapeutic effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in the treatment of choledocholithiasis and stenosing papillitis...
  92. Baillie J. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: overdue for an overhaul. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:1217-20 pubmed