ophthalmologic surgical procedures

Summary

Summary: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Factors influencing the outcome of strabismus surgery in patients with exotropia
    Acun Gezer
    Department of Ophthalmology, Istambul Faculty of Medicine, Istambul University, Istambul, Turkey
    J AAPOS 8:56-60. 2004
  2. ncbi Recurrent pterygium surgery using pterygium extended removal followed by extended conjunctival transplant: recurrence rate and cosmesis
    Lawrence W Hirst
    University of Queensland and Queensland Eye Institute, Brisbane, Australia
    Ophthalmology 116:1278-86. 2009
  3. pmc A simplified approach to the treatment of Duane's syndrome
    M E Barbe
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Br J Ophthalmol 88:131-8. 2004
  4. ncbi Autologous serum 50% eyedrops in the treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defects
    Bennie H Jeng
    Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, OH, USA
    Cornea 28:1104-8. 2009
  5. pmc Fibrin glue in ophthalmology
    Anita Panda
    Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India
    Indian J Ophthalmol 57:371-9. 2009
  6. pmc Single and multilayer amniotic membrane transplantation for persistent corneal epithelial defect with and without stromal thinning and perforation
    P Prabhasawat
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Br J Ophthalmol 85:1455-63. 2001
  7. ncbi Results of bilateral medial rectus muscle recession in unilateral esotropic Duane syndrome
    Majid Farvardin
    Poostchi Eye Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
    J AAPOS 13:339-42. 2009
  8. pmc The impact of optical coherence tomography on surgical decision making in epiretinal membrane and vitreomacular traction
    Diana V Do
    Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 104:161-6. 2006
  9. pmc Sub-Tenon's anaesthesia: complications and their prevention
    C M Kumar
    Department of Anaesthesia, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
    Eye (Lond) 25:694-703. 2011
  10. ncbi Poor results after recession of both medial rectus muscles in unilateral small-angle Duane's syndrome, type I
    Marc F Greenberg
    Eye Consultants of Atlanta, Scottish Rite Children s Medical Center, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J AAPOS 7:142-5. 2003

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications226 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Factors influencing the outcome of strabismus surgery in patients with exotropia
    Acun Gezer
    Department of Ophthalmology, Istambul Faculty of Medicine, Istambul University, Istambul, Turkey
    J AAPOS 8:56-60. 2004
    ..To determine the factors associated with favorable and less favorable outcomes in strabismus surgery for treatment of exotropia and to show the factors influencing the efficacy of the surgical procedure...
  2. ncbi Recurrent pterygium surgery using pterygium extended removal followed by extended conjunctival transplant: recurrence rate and cosmesis
    Lawrence W Hirst
    University of Queensland and Queensland Eye Institute, Brisbane, Australia
    Ophthalmology 116:1278-86. 2009
    ..To assess the rate of recurrence, complications, and cosmesis after recurrent pterygium removal with P.E.R.F.E.C.T. for PTERYGIUM (Pterygium Extended Removal Followed by Extended Conjunctival Transplant)...
  3. pmc A simplified approach to the treatment of Duane's syndrome
    M E Barbe
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Br J Ophthalmol 88:131-8. 2004
    ..To report the results of a large series of patients undergoing treatment for Duane's syndrome...
  4. ncbi Autologous serum 50% eyedrops in the treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defects
    Bennie H Jeng
    Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, OH, USA
    Cornea 28:1104-8. 2009
    ..To evaluate the success rate of treating persistent corneal epithelial defects using 50% autologous serum eyedrops...
  5. pmc Fibrin glue in ophthalmology
    Anita Panda
    Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India
    Indian J Ophthalmol 57:371-9. 2009
    ..The purpose of this review is to discuss the currently available information on fibrin glue...
  6. pmc Single and multilayer amniotic membrane transplantation for persistent corneal epithelial defect with and without stromal thinning and perforation
    P Prabhasawat
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Br J Ophthalmol 85:1455-63. 2001
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in persistent corneal epithelial defect with or without stromal thinning and corneal perforation...
  7. ncbi Results of bilateral medial rectus muscle recession in unilateral esotropic Duane syndrome
    Majid Farvardin
    Poostchi Eye Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
    J AAPOS 13:339-42. 2009
    ..To report the results of bilateral medial rectus muscle recession in improvement of the ocular alignment and motility of patients with unilateral esotropic Duane syndrome...
  8. pmc The impact of optical coherence tomography on surgical decision making in epiretinal membrane and vitreomacular traction
    Diana V Do
    Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 104:161-6. 2006
    ....
  9. pmc Sub-Tenon's anaesthesia: complications and their prevention
    C M Kumar
    Department of Anaesthesia, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
    Eye (Lond) 25:694-703. 2011
    ....
  10. ncbi Poor results after recession of both medial rectus muscles in unilateral small-angle Duane's syndrome, type I
    Marc F Greenberg
    Eye Consultants of Atlanta, Scottish Rite Children s Medical Center, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J AAPOS 7:142-5. 2003
    ..Additional recession of the normal contralateral medial rectus muscle has been advocated in selected cases, although little has been published regarding this technique. We present poor results in a small consecutive series...
  11. ncbi The role of botulinum toxin A in augmentation of the effect of recession and/or resection surgery
    Seyhan B Ozkan
    Department of Ophthalmology, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey
    J AAPOS 10:124-7. 2006
    ..The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of intraoperative botulinum toxin A (BTA) injection as an adjunct to the surgical treatment of large-angle esotropia or exotropia...
  12. ncbi Unilateral and bilateral lateral rectus recession in exotropia
    Abraham Spierer
    Goldschleger Eye Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 36:114-7. 2005
    ..To evaluate the surgical results obtained by unilateral and bilateral lateral rectus recession for the correction of exotropia...
  13. ncbi [Surgical treatment of Duane's syndrome type I by recession of the medial rectus of the affected eye and faden operation of the contralateral medial rectus]
    B Puerto-Hernández
    Departamento de Estrabismo, Servicio de Oftalmologia, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Espana
    Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 83:113-6. 2008
    ..The purpose of our study is to report the results of patients undergoing recession of the medial rectus (MR) muscle of the affected eye and placement of contralateral MR faden posterior fixation sutures...
  14. ncbi The effect of pterygium surgery on corneal topography
    A Cinal
    Yuzuncu Yil University Medical Faculty, Department of Ophthalmology, Van, Turkey
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 32:35-40. 2001
    ..The aim of this prospective randomized clinical study was to evaluate the effect of pterygium surgery on the corneal topography using a computerized corneal topography system...
  15. ncbi Sub-Tenon's anaesthesia: a well tolerated and effective procedure for ophthalmic surgery
    V Swetha E Jeganathan
    Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 20:205-9. 2009
    ..Further clinical implications are reviewed with regard to its technique, indications, benefits, and reported complications...
  16. pmc Retinal adherence and fibrillary surface changes correlate with surgical difficulty of epiretinal membrane removal
    Jae Suk Kim
    Department of Ophthalmology, Jacobs Retina Center at Shiley Eye Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0946, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 153:692-7, 697.e1-2. 2012
    ..To correlate surgical difficulty of epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal with characteristics of ERM adherence seen by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)...
  17. ncbi Retinal surface en face optical coherence tomography: a new imaging approach in epiretinal membrane surgery
    Marco Rispoli
    Mediterraneo Eye Center, Rome, Italy
    Retina 32:2070-6. 2012
    ..To describe the clinical effectiveness of a new imaging approach: en face spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the retinal surface before and after epiretinal membrane (ERM) and internal limiting membrane peeling...
  18. ncbi Assessment of central and peripheral fusion and near and distance stereoacuity in intermittent exotropic patients before and after strabismus surgery
    C Yildirim
    University of Pamukkale, Denizli, Turkey
    Am J Ophthalmol 128:222-30. 1999
    ..To determine whether central fusion and distance stereoacuity are useful as objective measures in assessing the need for and success of surgery for intermittent exotropia (X[T])...
  19. ncbi Transscleral resection versus iodine brachytherapy for choroidal malignant melanomas 6 millimeters or more in thickness: a matched case-control study
    Tero Kivela
    Oncology and Vitreoretinal Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Ophthalmology 110:2235-44. 2003
    ..To assess differences in treatment outcome after transscleral resection (TSR) and iodine brachytherapy (IBT) of choroidal melanomas too thick for ruthenium brachytherapy...
  20. ncbi Use of adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy to support limbal conjunctival graft in the management of recurrent pterygium
    Nagi N Assaad
    Department of Ophthalmology, The University of New South Wales and Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia
    Cornea 30:7-10. 2011
    ..To assess the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in the management of recurrent pterygium...
  21. ncbi Effect of pterygium surgery on corneal topography
    K Errais
    Department of Ophthalmology, Charles Nicolle University Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia
    Eur J Ophthalmol 18:177-81. 2008
    ..To evaluate the effect of successful pterygium surgery on corneal topography...
  22. ncbi Effects of unilateral lateral rectus recession according to the tendon width in intermittent exotropia
    S H Kim
    Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan, Korea
    Eye (Lond) 20:785-8. 2006
    ..To verify the effect of unilateral lateral rectus recession for each millimeter according to the tendon width in intermittent exotropia...
  23. ncbi New grading system to improve the surgical outcome of multirecurrent pterygia
    Jingbo Liu
    Ocular Surface Center and Ocular Surface Research and Education Foundation, Miami, FL 33173, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 130:39-49. 2012
    ..To report a new grading system and surgical outcome by sealing the gap between the conjunctiva and Tenon capsule...
  24. ncbi Successful removal of a large conjunctival cyst using colored 2.3% sodium hyaluronate
    Akira Kobayashi
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 38:81-3. 2007
    ..Such a technique may also have a role in facilitating visualization and excision of other cystic lesions from the ocular surface...
  25. ncbi Bilateral lateral rectus recession considering the tendon width in intermittent exotropia
    H Lee
    Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Eye (Lond) 23:1808-11. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether the tendon width of lateral rectus would be useful for predicting the effect of bilateral lateral rectus (BLR) recession...
  26. ncbi Temporary Gortex (polytetrafluoroethylene) spacer for the treatment of fornix shortening following severe alkali chemical injury
    Anupma Kumar
    Countess of Chester, Ophthalmology, Countess of Chester Hospital Health Park, Chester, United Kingdom
    Orbit 30:252-4. 2011
    ..Gortex is an inert, smooth, flexible material, which is well tolerated in situ. We describe a case of fornix shortening secondary to alkali injury, which was treated successfully with a temporary Gortex patch...
  27. ncbi Transscleral local resection versus iodine brachytherapy for uveal melanomas that are large because of tumour height
    Ilkka Puusaari
    Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, PL 220, Haartmaninkatu 4 C, FI 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 245:522-33. 2007
    ..To compare visual outcome and ocular complications of transscleral local resection (TSR) with those of iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy (IBT) for uveal melanomas categorised as large because of tumour height...
  28. ncbi Refractive effect of the horizontal rectus muscle recession
    Zhale Rajavi
    Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No 31, Rafat Ave Shariati St, Tehran 1934653961, Iran
    Int Ophthalmol 28:83-8. 2008
    ..To determine refractive and corneal topographic changes after horizontal rectus muscles recession...
  29. ncbi Effect of pterygium surgery on refractive spherocylinder power and corneal topography
    Pei Lun Wu
    Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 40:32-7. 2009
    ..To evaluate the effect of pterygium surgery on refractive spherocylinder power and corneal topography...
  30. ncbi Significant immediate and long-term reduction of astigmatism after lateral rectus recession in divergent Duane's syndrome
    H E Killer
    Augenklinik, Kantonsspital Aarau, Switzerland
    Ophthalmologica 213:209-10. 1999
    ..75 mm. Postoperatively, the amount of astigmatism was reduced by 1.5 dpt with no change of the axis. This change of refraction remained stable over a follow-up time of 18 months...
  31. ncbi Amniotic membrane transplantation for conjunctival tumor
    Zhicong Chen
    Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China
    Yan Ke Xue Bao 19:165-7, 145. 2003
    ..To evaluate the possibility of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for the treatment of conjunctival tumor...
  32. ncbi Advances in the use of adhesives in ophthalmology
    Stanley M Chan
    Cornea Service, Hopital Maisonneuve Rosemont, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 15:305-10. 2004
    ..To summarize the known uses of available medical tissue adhesives in the management of diseases of the anterior segment, highlighting recent developments in the field...
  33. ncbi Success rate and cause of failure for late probing for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction
    Rajat Maheshwari
    Orbit, Lacrimal and Ophthalmic plastic service, Shri Ganapati Netralaya, Jalna, Maharashtra, India
    J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 45:168-71. 2008
    ..To evaluate the outcome of late probing for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in children 2 to 6 years old and to identify the cause of failure in these children...
  34. ncbi Clinical recommendations for repair of isolated orbital floor fractures: an evidence-based analysis
    Michael A Burnstine
    Doheny Eye Institute and the Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, 1450 San Pablo Street, DEI 4705, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Ophthalmology 109:1207-10; discussion 1210-1; quiz 1212-3. 2002
    ..To assess the quality of information in the literature and suggest guidelines for repair of isolated orbital floor fractures...
  35. ncbi Internal limiting membrane removal during macular hole surgery: results of a multicenter retrospective study
    Daniele Tognetto
    Eye Clinic, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
    Ophthalmology 113:1401-10. 2006
    ..To evaluate the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and other variables in hole closure and functional success rate after idiopathic macular hole surgery...
  36. ncbi Effect of pterygium surgery on corneal topography: a prospective study
    Irit Bahar
    Department of Ophthalmology and External Eye Disease Clinic, Rabin Medical Center, Golda Campus, Petah Tiqva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Cornea 23:113-7. 2004
    ..To evaluate the effect of pterygium surgery on the corneal topography and visual acuity and to correlate the results with patients' features...
  37. ncbi The treatment of pterygium
    Lawrence W Hirst
    University of Queensland, Divison of Ophthalmology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba 7, Queensland 4102, Australia
    Surv Ophthalmol 48:145-80. 2003
    ..In the future it will be important to develop a grading system, and surgeons will need to be conservative in the treatment of pterygium until such time as a single treatment provides a lower recurrence rate and complication rate...
  38. ncbi Initial nasolacrimal duct probing in children under age 5: cure rate and factors affecting success
    Mohsen Bahmani Kashkouli
    Lacrimal and Adnexal Unit, Eye Department, Rassoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    J AAPOS 6:360-3. 2002
    ..To evaluate the success rate of initial probing and the factors affecting the success rate for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO)in children under the age of 5 years...
  39. ncbi Astigmatism induced by simultaneous recession of both horizontal rectus muscles
    Abbas Bagheri
    Department of Ophthalmology, Labbafinejad Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
    J AAPOS 7:42-6. 2003
    ..This study investigates the effect of large simultaneous recession of both horizontal rectus muscles on the refractive state of the eye...
  40. pmc Primary treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction with probing in children younger than 4 years
    Michael X Repka
    Ophthalmology 115:577-584.e3. 2008
    ..To report the outcome of nasolacrimal duct probing as the primary treatment of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) in children younger than 4 years...
  41. pmc The effect of unilateral medial rectus muscle resection in patients with recurrent exotropia
    Sun Hwa Chae
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kyungpook National University, School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea
    Korean J Ophthalmol 22:174-7. 2008
    ..To investigate the effect of unilateral medial rectus muscle resection for recurrent exotropia after bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession for intermittent exotropia..
  42. pmc Cut and paste: a no suture, small incision approach to pterygium surgery
    G Koranyi
    St Erik s Eye Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, 112 82 Stockholm, Sweden
    Br J Ophthalmol 88:911-4. 2004
    ..Evaluation of the benefits of a new technique for pterygium surgery with respect to postoperative pain and surgery time...
  43. ncbi Surgical drainage of choroidal effusions following glaucoma surgery
    Darrell WuDunn
    Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Glaucoma 14:103-8. 2005
    ..To determine the efficacy and safety of surgical drainage of choroidal effusions that occurs following glaucoma surgical procedures...
  44. ncbi Polytetrafluoroethylene (Goretex) for muscle elongation in the surgical treatment of strabismus with restricted motility
    Andrea Langmann
    Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria
    Acta Ophthalmol Scand 84:250-3. 2006
    ..We used polytetrafluoroethylene (Goretex) and looked at its user comfort, compatibility and dose-rate relationship...
  45. ncbi Amniotic membrane transplantation for ocular surface reconstruction
    Merle Fernandes
    Cornea and Anterior Segment Service, LV Prasad Eye Institute, LV Prasad Marg, Hyderabad, India
    Cornea 24:643-53. 2005
    ..However, further work is needed to elucidate whether it functions merely as a biologic contact lens or whether it has additional benefits...
  46. pmc An evaluation of medical college departments of ophthalmology in India and change following provision of modern instrumentation and training
    Ravi Thomas
    QEI, Brisbane, Australia
    Indian J Ophthalmol 56:9-16. 2008
    ..To evaluate teaching and practice in medical college ophthalmology departments in a representative Indian state and changes following provision of modern instrumentation and training...
  47. ncbi Role of the equator in the early overcorrection of intermittent exotropia
    Yoonae A Cho
    Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan, South Korea
    J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 46:30-4. 2009
    ..To determine the cause of consecutive esotropia on the basis of the relationship between the location of the equator and a new insertional site of the recessed lateral rectus muscle in cases of intermittent exotropia...
  48. pmc Medical procedures and risk for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Japan, 1999-2008
    Tsuyoshi Hamaguchi
    Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:265-71. 2009
    ..Fortunately, we have not identified patients with prion disease attributed to these operations. Our findings indicate that surgical procedures or blood transfusion had little effect on the incidence of sCJD...
  49. doi Repair of descemet membrane detachments with the assistance of anterior segment optical coherence tomography
    Bryan J Winn
    Arch Ophthalmol 126:730-2. 2008
  50. ncbi The use of amniotic membrane in reducing adhesions after strabismus surgery
    Hosam Sheha
    Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt
    J AAPOS 13:99-101. 2009
    ..Different techniques have been used with varying success to reduce these adhesions. We describe a novel surgical technique in which amniotic membrane is used to wrap the extraocular muscles...
  51. ncbi Treatment of epithelial ingrowth after LASIK enhancement with a combined technique of mechanical debridement, flap suturing, and fibrin glue application
    Julio Narvaez
    Department of Ophthalmology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
    Cornea 25:1115-7. 2006
    ..To report a case of clinically significant post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) epithelial ingrowth successfully treated with a combined technique of mechanical debridement, flap suturing, and fibrin glue application...
  52. ncbi Fibrin glue versus vicryl sutures for primary conjunctival closure in pterygium surgery: long-term results
    Irit Bahar
    Department of Ophthalmology and External Eye Disease Clinic, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tiqwa 49 100, Israel
    Curr Eye Res 32:399-405. 2007
    ..To compare the long-term results of conjunctival closure with fibrin adhesive or Vicryl sutures in pterygium surgery...
  53. ncbi Epiblepharon of the lower eyelid: technique of surgical repair and quantification of excision according to the skin fold height
    Sang In Khwarg
    Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Artificial Eye Center, Seoul National University Hospital Clinical Research Institute, Korea
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 33:280-7. 2002
    ..To describe our excisional technique for lower eyelid epiblepharon to reduce a medial undercorrection and to provide a guide for the excision amount using a classification system of epiblepharon according to the skin fold height...
  54. pmc Adal-1 bioadhesive for sutureless recession muscle surgery: a clinical trial
    M E Mulet
    VISSUM Instituto Oftalmologico de Alicante, Avenida de Denia s n, Edficio Vissum 03016 Alicante, Spain
    Br J Ophthalmol 90:208-12. 2006
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and biotolerance of the Adal-1 adhesive for muscle sealing in strabismus surgery...
  55. pmc Comparison of a new, minimally invasive strabismus surgery technique with the usual limbal approach for rectus muscle recession and plication
    D S Mojon
    Department of Strabismology and Neuro Ophthalmology, Kantonsspital, 9007 St Gallen, Switzerland
    Br J Ophthalmol 91:76-82. 2007
    ..To present a novel, minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) technique for rectus muscle operations...
  56. ncbi Loop myopexy for treatment of myopic strabismus fixus
    Inez Wong
    The Eye Institute, National Healthcare Group, National University Hospital, Singapore
    J AAPOS 9:589-91. 2005
    ..Surgical treatment is difficult. We report two cases of myopic strabismus fixus that were treated with a loop myopexy of the LR and superior rectus (SR) muscles...
  57. ncbi Tissue adhesives for a sutureless fadenoperation: an experimental study in a rabbit model
    Edward Tonelli
    Departamento de Oftalmologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:4340-5. 2004
    ..To use tissue adhesives for a sutureless Fadenoperation to eliminate perioperative risks related to the sutures...
  58. ncbi Pterygium surgery: conjunctival autograft using a fibrin adhesive
    Joaquin Marticorena
    Ophthalmology Unit, University Hospital Complex, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Cornea 25:34-6. 2006
    ..To evaluate the efficiency and safety of using a fibrin adhesive (Tissucol Duo, Baxter AG, Vienna, Austria) to avoid the need for sutures during conjunctival autograft surgery for primary pterygium...
  59. ncbi Video-endoscope assisted teaching during sub-periosteal orbital surgery
    Raman Malhotra
    Oculoplastic and Orbital Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
    Orbit 24:113-6. 2005
    ..This is of most use during situations where visualisation is of critical importance and direct supervision is not possible...
  60. ncbi Dose-response relationship in inferior oblique muscle recession
    Miriam Metten
    Universitats Augenklinik, Killianstr 5, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 246:593-8. 2008
    ..In particular, the effect of an additional anteroposition of the operated muscle was analysed, as well as differences between short and long term results...
  61. ncbi Motility restriction after resection of an extraocular muscle
    S J Kang
    Department of Ophthalmology, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea
    Korean J Ophthalmol 15:133-6. 2001
    ..Even after an uneventful surgery, resection of an extraocular muscle may cause restriction of ocular rotation caused by muscle scarring to the sclera or by an increased tightness of the muscle...
  62. ncbi Radial optic neurotomy for central retinal vein occlusion: 117 consecutive cases
    E Mitchel Opremcak
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
    Retina 26:297-305. 2006
    ..We developed a surgical procedure (radial optic neurotomy [RON]) to open this space and relieve pressure on the central retinal vein...
  63. ncbi Sutureless closure of the conjunctiva with a commercial fibrin sealant in extraocular muscle surgery for strabismus
    Ibrahim Erbagci
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey
    Strabismus 15:89-94. 2007
    ..This prospective study was done to determine the efficacy of an available commercial fibrin sealant for conjunctival wound closure following extraocular muscle surgery for strabismus...
  64. ncbi Surgical management of unilateral elevator deficiency associated with horizontal deviation using a modified Knapp's procedure
    - Kamlesh
    Guru Nanak Eye Center, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 34:230-5. 2003
    ..A modified Knapp's procedure is recommended for unilateral elevator deficiency associated with horizontal deviation...
  65. pmc Comparison of a new, minimally invasive strabismus surgery technique with the usual limbal approach for rectus muscle recession and plication
    B J Kushner
    Br J Ophthalmol 91:5. 2007
  66. ncbi Kestenbaum and artificial divergence surgery for abnormal head turn secondary to nystagmus. Specific and nonspecific effects of artificial divergence
    M Graf
    Department of Ophthalmology, Strabismology and Neuroophthalmology, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany
    Strabismus 10:69-74. 2002
    ..If a test with base-out prisms suggests that artificial divergence is promising, this concept is preferable. It can be integrated into Kestenbaum surgery...
  67. pmc The utility of strabismus in adults
    George R Beauchamp
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
    Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 103:164-71; discussion 171-2. 2005
    ..To determine the utility (quality-of-life weight) associated with adult strabismus...
  68. ncbi Binocular status after surgery for constant and intermittent exotropia
    Haixiang Wu
    Department of Ophthalmology, The First People s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    Am J Ophthalmol 142:822-6. 2006
    ....
  69. pmc Bilateral inverse globe retraction (Duane's) syndrome
    Arif O Khan
    Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia
    Indian J Ophthalmol 55:388-9. 2007
    ..A case of true inverse Duane's retraction syndrome, bilateral inverse globe retraction syndrome apparently due to abnormal innervation, is the subject of this clinical report...
  70. ncbi Periosteal fixation in third-nerve palsy
    Pradeep Sharma
    Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India
    J AAPOS 10:324-7. 2006
    ..We present a new technique of anchoring the eyeball to the nasal periosteum using a nonabsorbable suture in acquired isolated third-nerve paresis...
  71. ncbi Ocular surface sealants and adhesives
    Subir Singh Bhatia
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Ocul Surf 4:146-54. 2006
    ..Numerous other glues are being developed and show promise as ocular surface sealants and protective membranes. Advances in knowledge about tissue adhesives are leading to more effective and efficient ophthalmic care...
  72. ncbi Arteriovenous crossing dissection without separation of the retina vessels for treatment of branch retinal vein occlusion
    Dennis P Han
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Retina 23:145-51. 2003
    ..To evaluate visual outcome after arteriovenous (AV) crossing dissection for the treatment of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and secondary macular dysfunction in which difficulty separating the retinal vessels was experienced...
  73. ncbi Re-recession of the lateral rectus muscles in patients with recurrent exotropia
    Ziaeddin Yazdian
    Department of Strabismus, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
    J AAPOS 10:164-7. 2006
    ..We undertook a retrospective evaluation of changes in deviation and ocular motility after surgical rerecession of the lateral rectus (LR) muscles as a treatment for recurrent exotropia (XT)...
  74. ncbi The management of strabismus in adults--I. Clinical characteristics and treatment
    George R Beauchamp
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, USA
    J AAPOS 7:233-40. 2003
    ..Here we present clinical characteristics, complexity of surgery, treatment success, and resolved complaints in a group of adult patients who underwent strabismus surgery...
  75. ncbi [Seborrheic keratosis of conjunctiva: a case report]
    R Gulias-Cañizo
    Asociacion para Evitar la Ceguera en Mexico, I A P, Hospital Dr Luis Sanchez Bulnes, Mexico
    Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 81:217-9. 2006
    ..Clinically, a diagnosis of malignant melanoma was made and a wide excision of the tumor was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was seborrheic keratosis...
  76. ncbi Sheathotomy to decompress branch retinal vein occlusion: a matched control study
    John Mason
    UAB Department of Ophthalmology, Retina Consultants of Alabama, 700 South 18th Street, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
    Ophthalmology 111:540-5. 2004
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of arteriovenous sheathotomy surgery to decompress branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO)...
  77. ncbi Factors influencing stereoacuity outcomes in adults with acquired strabismus
    Sherry L Fawcett
    Retina Foundation of the Southwest, Dallas Texas 75231, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 138:931-5. 2004
    ..In a prospective study, factors associated with stereoacuity outcome in patients with strabismus acquired following binocular vision maturation were investigated...
  78. ncbi Treatment and long-term outcome of patients with orbital cavernomas
    Alexander Friedrich Scheuerle
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ruprecht Karls University, Heidelberg, Germany
    Am J Ophthalmol 138:237-44. 2004
    ..To evaluate the long-term prognosis of visual function in patients with orbital cavernomas after conservative and surgical treatment...
  79. ncbi Surgery for nystagmus related head turn: Kestenbaum procedure and artificial divergence
    M Graf
    Department of Strabology and Neuroophthalmology, University of Giessen, Germany
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 239:334-41. 2001
    ..We evaluated the effects of Kestenbaum surgery and artificial divergence surgery in a retrospective study...
  80. ncbi Partial Jensen's procedure for the treatment of myopic strabismus fixus
    Peter C Larsen
    Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    J AAPOS 8:393-5. 2004
  81. pmc Ophthalmic surgery and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    P S-Juan
    The National CJD Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland, UK
    Br J Ophthalmol 88:446-9. 2004
  82. ncbi Unilateral recession and resection in Duane syndrome
    Y Morad
    Department of Ophthalmology, The Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J AAPOS 5:158-63. 2001
    ..Abduction improved to the same degree as seen after bilateral medial rectus recessions, with less tendency to limit adduction...
  83. pmc Surgery for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: ophthalmic findings: SST report no. 11
    Barbara S Hawkins
    SST Coordinating Center, Wilmer Clinical Trials and Biometry, 550 North Broadway, 9th Floor, Baltimore, MD 21205 2010, USA
    Ophthalmology 111:1967-80. 2004
    ....
  84. ncbi Cavernous hemangioma of the orbit: analysis of 214 cases
    Jianhua Yan
    Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Section of Ocular Oncology and Orbital Disease, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Orbit 23:33-40. 2004
    ..Anterior orbitotomy has become an important surgical procedure in the treatment of orbital cavernous hemangioma with excellent effect...
  85. ncbi Predictive factors underlying the restoration of macular binocular vision in adults with acquired strabismus
    Sherry L Fawcett
    Retina Foundation of the Southwest, Dallas, TX 75231, USA
    J AAPOS 8:439-44. 2004
    ..To investigate whether macular binocular vision can be permanently lost following acquired strabismus and to identify predictive factors underlying its restoration...
  86. ncbi Binocularity following surgical correction of strabismus in adults
    Marilyn B Mets
    Division of Ophthalmology, Children s Memorial Hospita, Chicago, IL 60614, USA
    J AAPOS 8:435-8. 2004
    ..This is a retrospective study to determine the pre- and postoperative binocular status of adults who have undergone surgical correction of strabismus...
  87. ncbi Amniotic membrane transplantation and fibrin glue in the management of corneal ulcers and perforations: a review of 33 cases
    Sandrine Hick
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Liege, Belgium
    Cornea 24:369-77. 2005
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of amniotic membrane in corneal ulcers refractive to conventional treatment and amniotic membrane with fibrin glue in corneal perforations...
  88. ncbi Combined rectus muscle transposition with posterior fixation sutures for the treatment of double-elevator palsy
    Moshe Snir
    Pediatric Ophthalmology Unit, Schneider Children s Medical Center of Israel, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Ophthalmology 112:933-8. 2005
    ..To evaluate the surgical and functional results of full horizontal tendon rectus muscle transposition to the superior rectus (SR) insertion, augmented by posterior fixation sutures, in patients with double-elevator palsy (DEP)...
  89. ncbi Acquired simulated brown syndrome following surgical repair of medial orbital wall fracture
    Jong uk Hwang
    Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Korean J Ophthalmol 19:80-3. 2005
    ..Postoperatively, the patient was asymptomatic in all diagnostic gaze positions...
  90. ncbi [Dose-effect relation in revision surgery for consecutive strabismus divergens in adults]
    A Langmann
    Augenklinik der Medizinischen Universität Graz
    Ophthalmologe 102:869-72. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to establish a dose-effect relationship between the reduction of the angle of deviation and the millimeters of the reoperation performed in patients with consecutive exotropia...
  91. ncbi Transvitreal limited arteriovenous-crossing manipulation without vitrectomy for complicated branch retinal vein occlusion using 25-gauge instrumentation
    Rohit R Lakhanpal
    Microsurgery Advanced Design Laboratory, Doheny Retina Institute, Doheny Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90033, USA
    Retina 25:272-80. 2005
    ....
  92. ncbi The cut-and-paste method for primary pterygium surgery: long-term follow-up
    Gabor Koranyi
    St Erik s Eye Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Ophthalmol Scand 83:298-301. 2005
    ..To evaluate the recurrence rate, reoperation rate and side-effects of a novel technique for pterygium surgery...
  93. ncbi Adventitial sheathotomy for decompression of recent onset branch retinal vein occlusion
    J F Le Rouic
    Service d Ophthalmologie, Hotel Dieu de Paris, France
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 239:747-51. 2001
    ..In two eyes, an increase of the area of retinal non-perfusion was treated with peripheral laser photocoagulation. No cataract, retinal tears or retinal detachment were observed...
  94. ncbi 'Largest angle to target' in surgery for intermittent exotropia
    C Kim
    Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Eye (Lond) 19:637-42. 2005
    ..To evaluate the safety of the approach based on the notion that the surgical dose for intermittent exotropia should be based on the largest angle ever measured...
  95. ncbi Efficacy of inferior oblique anterior transposition placement grading for dissociated vertical deviation
    J H Engman
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Ophthalmology 108:2045-50. 2001
    ..We do not recommend placement of the inferior oblique muscle anterior to the inferior rectus muscle insertion. Inferior oblique muscle anterior transposition for DVD was clinically more effective for smaller amounts of DVD...
  96. ncbi [Therapeutic options in III. nerve paralysis]
    Irina Velcea
    Clinico Oftapro, Bucuresti
    Oftalmologia 51:24-8. 2007
    ..Recognition of this phenomenon is important because any planned surgical procedure must deal with the induced restriction...
  97. ncbi Medial rectus resection(s) with adjustable suture for intermittent exotropia of the convergence insufficiency type
    D G Choi
    Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-7001, USA
    J AAPOS 5:13-7. 2001
    ..The intentional overcorrection during the immediate postoperative period at distance and near is required to prevent long-term undercorrection...
  98. ncbi V-pattern esotropia: a review; and a study of the outcome after bilateral recession of the inferior oblique muscle: a retrospective study of 78 consecutive patients
    Jorge Alberto F Caldeira
    Division of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Binocul Vis Strabismus Q 18:35-48; discussion 49-50. 2003
    ..Lastly, it is not known whether patients with a V pattern below 15 prism diopters (pd) should have IO weakening when horizontal eye muscle surgery is to be performed...
  99. ncbi Myectomy versus anterior transposition for inferior oblique overaction
    Samer Ghazawy
    Department of Ophthalmology, St James University Hospital, Leeds, UK
    J AAPOS 11:601-5. 2007
    ....
  100. ncbi Treatment of incomitant hypertropia and diplopia with recession of the inferior rectus and superior rectus muscles of the same eye
    Bradley C Black
    Department of Ophthalmology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    J AAPOS 11:262-5. 2007
    ..To evaluate the effectiveness of recession of the inferior rectus (IR) and superior rectus (SR) muscles of the same eye in the treatment of incomitant hypertropia with diplopia...
  101. ncbi A comparison of two different techniques for oculomotor torque reduction
    Robert Hoerantner
    Department of Ophthalmology, Good Sisters Hospital, Ried, Austria
    Acta Ophthalmol Scand 85:734-8. 2007
    ....

Research Grants33

  1. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IN NORMAL VISUAL DEVELOPMENT
    Eileen Birch; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..By relating long-term outcomes to visual cortical function during infancy, we will directly evaluate the predictive of early visual tests for long-term cognitive outcomes. ..
  2. PATHOGENESIS OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY
    Jonathan Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  3. OUTCOME MEASURES FOR CLINICAL TRIALS IN STRABISMUS
    Jonathan Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Ultimately this research will result in better quality of life for patients with strabismus. ..
  4. Pulsed Electron Avalanche Knife: Intraocular Microsurg.
    Daniel Palanker; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The low cost and small size of this system combined with high precision, reliability and versatility should allow for a widespread acceptance into operating practice. ..
  5. Development and Maintenance of Binocular Vision (EY005236)
    EILEEN ELIZABETH BIRCH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  6. EYE GROWTH DURING INFANCY
    Scott Lambert; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In addition, by understanding the mechanisms retarding ocular growth, it may be possible to modulate the excessive ocular growth which occurs in certain pathological conditions such as retinopathy of prematurity. ..
  7. ANTI-SCARRING AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE EXTRACTS
    Scheffer Tseng; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  8. Role of Retinal Microvasculature in Posterior Uveitis
    Justine Smith; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The studies should also have implications for unrelated diseases affecting the retinal circulation, as well as tissue-specific inflammations and infections at other body sites. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  9. Building Bridges to Enhance Quality of Life
    RONALD HAYS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..It will also foster international collaboration among QOL researchers and clinicians. ..
  10. Fourth NEI Symposium on the Epidemiology of Eye Diseases and Vision Disorders
    Barbara Hawkins; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Guest editors from the Planning Committee will be responsible for peer review and other scientific editorial tasks for manuscripts submitted for publication in the special issue of the journal. ..
  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SUTURELESS AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE GRAFT
    Scheffer Tseng; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Taken together, we may further promote our business development by expanding the market potential using Prokera(tm) for suture-less AMT. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  12. TRANSPLANTATION OF EXPANDED LIMBAL EPITHELIAL STEM CELLS
    Scheffer Tseng; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. RPE-Mphi Binding: Ca++_&O2-_Dependent AMD Responses
    Victor Elner; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This new knowledge is likely to lead to advances in therapy, which may stem or prevent AMD. ..
  14. Nanoparticulate Enabled Surgical Instruments
    MARY FRECKER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  15. The Optic Nerve Head in Glaucoma
    Elaine Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. Artificial Cornea Based on Photolithographically Patterned, Biomimetic Hydrogels
    Christopher N Ta; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..3. Determine the skirt design for optimal stromal tissue integration by evaluating in vitro and in vivo stromal wound healing within photolithographically patterned, microperforated hydrogel arrays. ..
  17. GENE EXPRESSION IN AXOTOMIZED RETINAL GANGLION CELLS
    Leonard Levin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..As many of these diseases (e.g., normal-tension glaucoma and ischemic optic neuropathy) are not easily treatable, determination of the regulation of cell destructive and protective mechanisms could lead to innovative new therapies. ..
  18. CAREGIVING: ADVANCED-STAGE ORGAN SYSTEM FAILURE PATIENTS
    Sandra Berry; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. CRYO-ROP HEADQUARTERS--PHASE IV
    EARL PALMER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..An incidence comparison will be made between treated and untreated eyes for many sequelae and complications, such as late retinal detachment, macular degeneration, and vision failure. ..
  20. GENETICS OF AGED RELATED CATARACTS IN SALISBURY MARYLAND
    Nathan Congdon; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  21. CONTACT LENSES AND MYOPIA (CLAMP) STUDY
    JEFFREY WALLINE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The CLAMP Study is the ideal scope and size of study to train Dr. Walline to become an independent investigator and has the potential to change the standard of care for young children who become nearsighted. ..
  22. Control of Eye Melanoma Metastasis
    Hans Grossniklaus; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Both the IFN and angiostatin will prevent the progression of micrometastases into metastases by anti-angiogenesis. Angiostatin will prevent metastases by an anti-melanoma invasion effect. ..
  23. SUBMACULAR SURGERY TRIALS PATHOLOGY CENTER
    Hans Grossniklaus; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Additionally, eyes obtained post-mortem from patients enrolled in the SST will be studied for pathologic correlation with clinical findings and outcomes. ..
  24. OCULAR MELANOMA
    Barbara Hawkins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Standardized clinical and data collection procedures will be employed, and standardized forms will be used in all centers. Central training and certification of all study staff will be required. ..
  25. OCULAR MELANOMA
    Paul Finger; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Standardized clinical and data collection procedures will be employed, and standardized forms will be used in all centers. Central training and certification of all study staff will be required. ..
  26. Vestibulocerebellar function in channelopathy mutants
    John Stahl; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Thus, the insights into normal cerebellar function generated by this study should also advance our understanding of mechanisms of heritable neurological disease. ..
  27. EX VIVO EXPANSION OF RPE CELLS FOR TRANSPLANTATION
    Scheffer Tseng; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Success in accomplishing these goals will allow us to engineer this new tissue-based "Biologies" to restore sights in patients suffering ARMD or other retinal diseases in which RPE is dysfunctional. ..
  28. A novel in vitro model of thyroid ophthalmopathy
    Steven Feldon; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. Control of Eye Melanoma Metastsis
    Hans E Grossniklaus; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The third aim determines the mechanism of combined angiostatin/IFN control of the micrometastases using methods in the first two aims. ..
  30. Epidemiology of Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome
    Sandra Berry; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  31. Development of a Skin Cancer Quality of Life Insturment
    John Rhee; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  32. Eye Disease in Cuban-American and Puerto Rican Adults
    Ingrid Scott; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..g. NEI-VFQ 25) and eye service use. Subjects who refuse will be questioned as to reason(s) for refusal. ..