physiognomy

Summary

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Philosophers and physicians on the scientific validity of Latin physiognomy, 1200-1500
    Joseph Ziegler
    University of Haifa
    Early Sci Med 12:285-312. 2007
  2. ncbi Facing faces: studies on the cognitive aspects of physiognomy
    R Hassin
    Department of Psychology, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 78:837-52. 2000
  3. ncbi Prevalence of Veraguth's eyelid folds during depression in different ethnic groups
    Willliam W McDaniel
    Eastern Virginia Medical School, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Norfolk 23507, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 192:705-7. 2004
  4. ncbi Anterior dental aesthetics: facial perspective
    I Ahmad
    BDS, The Ridgeway Dental Surgery, 173 The Ridgeway, North Harrow, Middlesex, HA2 7DF, United Kingdom
    Br Dent J 199:15-21. 2005
  5. ncbi [The face a mirror of the soul?]
    Kristina Räf
    Lakartidningen 101:3797. 2004
  6. ncbi Attractiveness of own-race, other-race, and mixed-race faces
    Gillian Rhodes
    Department of Psychology, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
    Perception 34:319-40. 2005
  7. ncbi Individual identification of disguised faces by morphometrical matching
    Mineo Yoshino
    First Medico Legal Section, National Research Institute of Police Science, 6 3 1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277 0882, Japan
    Forensic Sci Int 127:97-103. 2002
  8. ncbi Once more: is beauty in the eye of the beholder? Relative contributions of private and shared taste to judgments of facial attractiveness
    Johannes Hönekopp
    Institut fur Psychologie, Technische Universitat Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 32:199-209. 2006
  9. ncbi Building beauty: physiognomy on the gas-lit stage
    Sharrona Pearl
    Harvard University, Department of History and Science, Science Center 371, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Endeavour 30:84-9. 2006
  10. ncbi Martin Porter, Windows of the soul: the art of physiognomy in European culture 1470-1780, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005. Pp. 392. Pounds 60.00. ISBN 0199276579
    Joseph Ziegler
    University of Haifa
    Soc Hist Med 20:398-400. 2007

Research Grants

  1. SOCIAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATIONS OF MATURATION
    RUSSELL FERNALD; Fiscal Year: 1999
  2. SOCIAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATIONS OF MATURATION
    RUSSELL FERNALD; Fiscal Year: 2000
  3. SOCIAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATIONS OF MATURATION
    RUSSELL FERNALD; Fiscal Year: 2001
  4. SOCIAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATIONS OF MATURATION
    RUSSELL FERNALD; Fiscal Year: 2002
  5. Role of Protein Ubiquitination in Angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2009
  6. Role of Protein Ubiquitination in Angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2008
  7. VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2006
  8. VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2005
  9. VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2004
  10. Anti-angiogenic signaling molecules in retinal cells
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2004

Detail Information

Publications127 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Philosophers and physicians on the scientific validity of Latin physiognomy, 1200-1500
    Joseph Ziegler
    University of Haifa
    Early Sci Med 12:285-312. 2007
    ..and contextualizes the main arguments among philosophers and academic physicians surrounding the status of physiognomy as a valid science from the thirteenth to the early sixteenth centuries...
  2. ncbi Facing faces: studies on the cognitive aspects of physiognomy
    R Hassin
    Department of Psychology, New York University, New York 10003, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 78:837-52. 2000
    b>Physiognomy, the art of reading personality traits from faces, dates back to ancient Greece, and is still very popular. The present studies examine several aspects and consequences of the process of reading traits from faces...
  3. ncbi Prevalence of Veraguth's eyelid folds during depression in different ethnic groups
    Willliam W McDaniel
    Eastern Virginia Medical School, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Norfolk 23507, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 192:705-7. 2004
    ..The implications of this finding are discussed in regard to the importance of careful gathering of history for diagnostic purposes...
  4. ncbi Anterior dental aesthetics: facial perspective
    I Ahmad
    BDS, The Ridgeway Dental Surgery, 173 The Ridgeway, North Harrow, Middlesex, HA2 7DF, United Kingdom
    Br Dent J 199:15-21. 2005
    ..The concept of aesthetics encompasses both the time-arts such as music, theatre, literature and film, as well as space-arts such as paintings, sculpture and architecture...
  5. ncbi [The face a mirror of the soul?]
    Kristina Räf
    Lakartidningen 101:3797. 2004
  6. ncbi Attractiveness of own-race, other-race, and mixed-race faces
    Gillian Rhodes
    Department of Psychology, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
    Perception 34:319-40. 2005
    ..These results suggest that signs of health may be more important than prototypicality in making average faces attractive...
  7. ncbi Individual identification of disguised faces by morphometrical matching
    Mineo Yoshino
    First Medico Legal Section, National Research Institute of Police Science, 6 3 1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277 0882, Japan
    Forensic Sci Int 127:97-103. 2002
    ..It was concluded that the morphometrical matching method can reliably identify disguised faces and the results produced by this method could be easily understandable by a court of law...
  8. ncbi Once more: is beauty in the eye of the beholder? Relative contributions of private and shared taste to judgments of facial attractiveness
    Johannes Hönekopp
    Institut fur Psychologie, Technische Universitat Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 32:199-209. 2006
    ..Important implications for scientific research strategy and laypeople's self-esteem are discussed...
  9. ncbi Building beauty: physiognomy on the gas-lit stage
    Sharrona Pearl
    Harvard University, Department of History and Science, Science Center 371, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Endeavour 30:84-9. 2006
    ..Until this illuminating moment, there had been little need for makeup and actors to adhere to the principles of physiognomy--a system that correlated character traits to facial features...
  10. ncbi Martin Porter, Windows of the soul: the art of physiognomy in European culture 1470-1780, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005. Pp. 392. Pounds 60.00. ISBN 0199276579
    Joseph Ziegler
    University of Haifa
    Soc Hist Med 20:398-400. 2007
  11. ncbi Attractiveness of blonde women in evolutionary perspective: studies with two Polish samples
    Piotr Sorokowski
    Institute of Psychology, University of Wrocław, ul J Dawida 1, 50 527 Wrocław, Poland
    Percept Mot Skills 106:737-44. 2008
    ..In a second study (the analysis of 500 Internet advertisements) mature women dyed their hair blonde more frequently. These results are analyzed with regard to the evolutionarily formed male preference for younger females...
  12. doi Are individuals with an eating disorder less sensitive to aesthetic flaws than healthy controls?
    Tanja Legenbauer
    Institute of Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
    J Psychosom Res 65:87-95. 2008
    ..This study aimed to investigate whether the positive evaluation of other people's bodies is due to difficulties in the recognition of flaws in attractive features of others...
  13. ncbi Genetic determination of head-size-related anthropometric traits in an ethnically homogeneous sample of 373 Indian pedigrees of West Bengal
    B Karmakar
    Biological Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Kolkata 700 108, India
    Hum Biol 79:501-14. 2007
    ..8% of the two traits' total residual variance was attributable to the effect of these common genetic factors...
  14. ncbi Medicine and the Renaissance world of learning
    Nancy G Siraisi
    Graduate Center, City University of New York, Brooklyn 11215, USA
    Bull Hist Med 78:1-36. 2004
    ..the sixteenth century and presents some examples of the contribution of medical authors of that period to such diverse fields as natural philosophy, physiognomy, alchemy, travel writing, the art of memory, and the study of antiquities.
  15. ncbi [Phylogenetic aspects of lip function]
    M Brix
    Service de Chirurgie Maxillo Faciale et Stomatologie, Hopital Jean Minjoz, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besancon
    Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir 8:28-34. 2004
    ..Each discontinuity causes functional and anatomic disorders. Any damage to the lips creates facial unbalance. Precise knowledge of lip function is indispensable for optimal reconstruction...
  16. ncbi [Determination of placement of anterior teeth in removable dental prostheses]
    Ljiljana Strajnić
    Klinika za stomatologiju, 21000 Novi Sad, Hajduk Veljkova 12
    Med Pregl 55:490-4. 2002
    ..The following review takes account of the majority of papers published during the last 100 years. The review has been divided into sections regarding the method used to determine the position of artificial anterior teeth...
  17. ncbi Stable isotopes in ecosystem science: structure, function and dynamics of a subtropical Savanna
    T W Boutton
    Department of Rangeland Ecology and Management, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2126, USA
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 13:1263-77. 1999
    ..Stable isotopes provided direct, spatially explicit evidence for dramatic changes in ecosystem physiognomy and demonstrated some functional consequences for the hydrologic cycle...
  18. ncbi Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: dental, clinical, genetic and dermatoglyphic findings of three cases
    B Kargul
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental School, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey
    J Clin Pediatr Dent 26:5-12. 2001
    ..by the clinical manifestations of hypodontia, hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis and a highly characteristic facial physiognomy. This disorder is inherited as an X-linked trait...
  19. ncbi [Diversity of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha in citrus, coffee and a fragment of native forest of the state of São Paulo]
    Teresinha A Giustolin
    Depto de Ciências Agrárias, UNIMONTES, Campus de Janaúba, Rua Reinaldo Viana 2630, C postal 91, Bico da Pedra, 39440 000, Janaúba, MG
    Neotrop Entomol 38:834-41. 2009
    ..groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the ..
  20. ncbi [Sabina przewalskii community structure in the upper reaches of Minjiang River]
    Wennian Chen
    Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 16:197-202. 2005
    In this paper, the physiognomy and the structure of Sabina przewalskii community were studied by sample plot method...
  21. ncbi Congenital stapes ankylosis, broad thumbs, and hyperopia: report of a family and refinement of a syndrome
    J Milunsky
    Center for Human Genetics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 2526, USA
    Am J Med Genet 82:404-8. 1999
    ..A characteristic physiognomy in our patients is present; this autosomal dominant syndrome was first described by Teunissen and Cremers [1990:..
  22. ncbi Efficacy of the branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in men
    Mary Ann Richardson
    Division of Movement Disorders and Molecular Psychiatry, Nathan S Kine Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 160:1117-24. 2003
    ..The efficacy of the branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in men with psychiatric disorders was tested...
  23. ncbi Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate within Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii
    Dana L Royer
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459, USA
    New Phytol 179:808-17. 2008
    Variation in the size and shape (physiognomy) of leaves has long been correlated to climate, and paleobotanists have used these correlations to reconstruct paleo-climate...
  24. ncbi Sanjad-Sakati and autosomal recessive Kenny-Caffey syndromes are allelic: evidence for an ancestral founder mutation and locus refinement
    G A Diaz
    Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Am J Med Genet 85:48-52. 1999
    ..characterized by congenital hypoparathyroidism, growth and mental retardation, seizures, and a characteristic physiognomy, was recently linked to chromosome area 1q42-q43...
  25. ncbi Rembrandt--aging and sickness: a combined look by plastic surgeons, an art researcher and an internal medicine specialist
    Tal Friedman
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel
    Isr Med Assoc J 9:67-71. 2007
    ..Based on Rembrandts' aging physiognomy, from age 22 to 63, we believe that Rembrandt did not suffer from temporal arteritis, hypothyroidism, rosacea, ..
  26. ncbi Rheumatological management of patients with hemophilia. Part 1: joint manifestations
    Michel Alcalay
    Rheumatology Department, Jean Bernard Hospital, BP 577, 86021 Poitiers Cedex, France
    Joint Bone Spine 69:442-9. 2002
    The advent of factor VIII and IX replacement therapy has radically changed the physiognomy of hemophilia...
  27. ncbi Oculodentodigital dysplasia: study of ophthalmological and clinical manifestations in three boys with probably autosomal recessive inheritance
    Maria Frasson
    Hospital São Geraldo, Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Mashhad, Brasil
    Ophthalmic Genet 25:227-36. 2004
    ..There are few reports of probable autosomal recessive transmission. Affected patients exhibit a distinctive physiognomy with a narrow nose, hypoplastic alae nasi, and anteverted nostrils, bilateral microphthalmos, and microcornea...
  28. ncbi Physiognomy and teeth: an ethnographic study among young and middle-aged Hong Kong adults
    C McGrath
    Periodontology and Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hong Kong, SAR China
    Br Dent J 192:522-5. 2002
    To determine knowledge and beliefs about traditional physiognomy (judging an individual's character from their facial appearance) concerning teeth among young (17-26) and middle-aged (35-44) Hong Kong adults.
  29. ncbi [Community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest on Qinling Mountains]
    Dexiang Wang
    College of Forestry, Northwest Sci Tech University of Agricultural and Forest, Yangling 712100, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 15:357-62. 2004
    ..There was a closely relationship between Pinus armandi forest and the temperate biome. As regards to the physiognomy of the community, phanerophyte made up 75.9% of the total, dominating the community...
  30. ncbi Nose muscular dynamics: the tip trigonum
    E E Figallo
    Clinica el Avila, Caracas, Venezuela
    Plast Reconstr Surg 108:1118-26. 2001
    ..This study has been based on research in physiognomy, the science of expression...
  31. ncbi Early craniofacial signs of cleidocranial dysplasia
    I Golan
    Department of Orthodontics, Division Craniofacial Genetics, University of Regensburg, Germany
    Int J Paediatr Dent 14:49-53. 2004
    ..The aim of this study is to describe the initial craniofacial findings in patients with CCD in order to categorise their reliability for early detection...
  32. pmc Molecular profiling of breast cancer: portraits but not physiognomy
    J D Brenton
    Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Ontario Cancer Institute Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Breast Cancer Res 3:77-80. 2001
    ..Future approaches will need to include methods for high-throughput clinical validation and the ability to analyze microscopic samples...
  33. ncbi Leaf development in Xylopia aromatica (Lam) Mart. (Annonaceae): implications for palatability to Stenoma scitiorella Walker 1864 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae)
    E M Varanda
    Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil, 14040 901
    Braz J Biol 68:831-6. 2008
    ..This work was carried out in the physiognomy of the typical cerrado of the Parque Estadual de Vassununga, Gleba Pé-de Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, ..
  34. ncbi Appearing truthful generalizes across different deception situations
    Mark G Frank
    School of Communication, Information, and Library Studies, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 86:486-95. 2004
    ..This was not correlated with physiognomy judgments...
  35. ncbi Physiognomy, familism and consumerism: preferences among Jewish-Israeli recipients of donor insemination
    Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli
    Department of Nursing, University of Haifa, Israel
    Soc Sci Med 54:363-76. 2002
    ..1) By comparing recipients' own physiognomy with that of a hypothetical donor, we explore some of the social potentials of DI in its emerging democratized ..
  36. ncbi Dialysis for everybody? At any cost?
    Giuseppe Rombola
    Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplant Unit, Niguarda Ca Granda Hospital, Milano, Italy
    J Nephrol 15:S33-42. 2002
    ..is referred to the tremendous increase of the expenditure and the second is related to the changes in death's physiognomy. Today death is no longer a moment, but a process whose practical outcome is the dilution (from hours to months)..
  37. pmc VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2: two non-identical twins with a unique physiognomy
    Nader Rahimi
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Front Biosci 11:818-29. 2006
    ..This review highlights recent insights into the mechanism of activation of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, and focuses on the signaling pathways employed by VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 that regulate angiogenesis...
  38. doi Diversification of existing reference phantoms in nuclear medicine: Calculation of specific absorbed fractions for 21 mathematical phantoms and validation through dose estimates resulting from the administration of (18)F-FDG
    Matthias Blaickner
    Medical Physics Department, Austrian Research Centers GmbH ARC, Seibersdorf, Austria
    Cancer Biother Radiopharm 23:767-82. 2008
    ..In order to take the individual physiognomy of patients more into account, this study aimed to broaden the supply of phantoms and their respective SAFs...
  39. ncbi Vegetation structure in cerrado physiognomies in south-eastern Brazil
    M A Batalha
    Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C P 11 461, CEP 05422 970, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Braz J Biol 61:475-83. 2001
    ..Ten 40 m2 quadrats were placed randomly in each physiognomy, in which we sampled the woody plants with stem diameter equal or larger than 1 cm (woody component), and ten 2...
  40. ncbi Migration of a Late Cretaceous fish
    Scott J Carpenter
    Paul H Nelson Stable Isotope Laboratory, Department of Geoscience and Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 1379, USA
    Nature 423:70-4. 2003
    ..vulpes yields a seawater temperature of 18 degrees C, which is consistent with leaf physiognomy and general-circulation-model temperature estimates for the Western Interior during the latest Maastrichtian.
  41. ncbi Environmental signals from leaves--a physiognomic analysis of European vegetation
    Christopher Traiser
    Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    New Phytol 166:465-84. 2005
    ..The relationships between leaf physiognomy and climate have been investigated on different continents, but so far an investigation based on European ..
  42. ncbi Effects of understory structure on the abundance, richness and diversity of Collembola (Arthropoda) in southern Brazil
    Vera R Ribeiro-Troian
    Laboratory de Ecologia de Populações e Comunidades, Department de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociencias, University Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, 91501 970
    Neotrop Entomol 38:340-5. 2009
    ..Three areas containing two sampling units (25 mx2 m each) were selected in each forest physiognomy. Understory Collembola collection was done with a 1x1 m canvas sheet held horizontally below the vegetation, ..
  43. ncbi Airway management by first responders when using a bag-valve device and two oxygen-driven resuscitators in 104 patients
    G J Noordergraaf
    St Elisabeth Hospital, Department of Anaesthesiology, Tilburg, The Netherlands
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 21:361-6. 2004
    ..To evaluate the capability of first responders to ensure an airway and ventilate the lungs of a patient employing a bag-valve device and two oxygen-driven resuscitators...
  44. ncbi Keutel syndrome: further characterization and review
    A S Teebi
    Division of Medical Genetics, The Montreal Children s Hospital and McGill University, Quebec, Canada
    Am J Med Genet 78:182-7. 1998
    ..is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diffuse cartilage calcification, characteristic physiognomy, brachytelephalangism, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, hearing loss, and borderline to mild mental retardation...
  45. ncbi An assessment of the validity of reporting by proxy to women's health questionnaire: a pilot study
    Liat Lerner-Geva
    Women and Children s Health Research Unit, Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 138:80-2. 2008
    ..The quality of proxy reports provided by husbands regarding women's health, when the index case (the wife) cannot be interviewed, is controversial...
  46. ncbi [Application of 3S techniques in ecological landscape planning of Harbin suburb]
    Wenyi Fan
    Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 16:2291-5. 2005
    ..and the landscape type thematic map was generated, with land use status and landscape distribution, physiognomy, and land use types combined...
  47. ncbi Scenarios of future climate and land-management effects on carbon stocks in northern Patagonian shrublands
    Analia Carrera
    Centro Nacional Patagónico, Terrestrial Ecology Research Area, B Brown 2825, 9120, Puerto Madryn, Argentina
    Environ Manage 40:944-57. 2007
    ..3) model of terrestrial C balance. The CENTURY model was initialized with long-term field data on local biome physiognomy, seasonal phenologic trends, and prevailing land-management systems and was validated with recent sequences of ..
  48. ncbi The effects of endurance and recreational exercise on subclinical evidence of atherosclerosis in young adults
    Martin Popovic
    Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Am J Med Sci 339:332-6. 2010
    ..This study set out to identify the effects of recreational and endurance exercise on subclinical evidence of atherosclerosis in young adults...
  49. ncbi [Landscape structure and ecological coupling analysis of ecotone on the west Sonnen Plain]
    Changchun Song
    Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130012, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 14:1464-8. 2003
    ..With the ecotone in the west Songnen Plain as an example, and based on the studies of the topography, physiognomy, soil, vegetation, and their geographic distribution in the ecotone...
  50. ncbi Development of photosynthetic biofilms affected by dissolved and sorbed copper in a eutrophic river
    Christiane Barranguet
    Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Environ Toxicol Chem 21:1955-65. 2002
    ..The physiognomy of the biofilms was affected through the growth of the chain-forming diatom Melosira varians, changing from ..
  51. ncbi [Fuzzy decision system for ecological distribution of citrus in north-cultivated-marginal area]
    Liwu Zhu
    Department of Horticulture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 14:502-6. 2003
    ..temperature integrated with annual precipitation, days with mean extreme low temperature below -9 degrees C, physiognomy, elevation, inland water body, cold air barrier, and soil nutrition and pH value...
  52. ncbi Short stature, brachydactyly, nail dysplasia, and mental retardation: further observation of the Tonoki syndrome
    G Sorge
    Department of Pediatric Neurology, Clinica Pediatrica dell Università di Catania, Italy or
    Am J Med Genet 80:403-5. 1998
    ..The mother of the propositus has brachydactyly of thumbs and a similar physiognomy without mental retardation...
  53. ncbi [A spatial heterogeneity of surface soil moisture content in dry season in Mulun National Natural Reserve in Karst area]
    Tong qing Song
    Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 20:98-104. 2009
    ..Therefore, topography, micro-physiognomy, precipitation, human disturbance, and especially vegetation were the most important factors affecting the ..
  54. ncbi Diagnostic recognition of facial changes associated with chronic conditions: use of an e-learning tool to enhance medical student education
    Danielle McKenna
    University of Dundee, UK
    J Vis Commun Med 33:55-62. 2010
    ..At present, however, there is little data to support the incorporation of physiognomy in medical education...
  55. ncbi Quantitative analysis of cardiac lesions in chronic canine chagasic cardiomyopathy
    Marcelo Vidigal Caliari
    Departamento de Patologia Geral, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270 901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 44:273-8. 2002
    ..it produces rearrangements of collagen fibers in relation to myocardiocytes which causes changes in anatomical physiognomy and mechanical behavior of the myocardium...
  56. ncbi Convergence across biomes to a common rain-use efficiency
    Travis E Huxman
    Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Nature 429:651-4. 2004
    ..and forests all exhibit the same rate of biomass production per unit rainfall, despite differences in physiognomy and site-level RUE...
  57. ncbi Forced to choose: some determinants of racial identification in multiracial adolescents
    Melissa Herman
    Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts Boston, USA
    Child Dev 75:730-48. 2004
    ..Multinomial logistic regression shows further that physiognomy, ethnic identity, and race of coresident parent(s) are significantly associated with reported race...
  58. ncbi [Laurel and Hardy--characters with a half and whole metabolism?]
    Arvo Hänni
    SHS Akademiska, Uppsala
    Lakartidningen 104:263-4. 2007
  59. ncbi Psychiatry in pictures. Dementia (artist unknown, c. 1840)
    Allan Beveridge
    Br J Psychiatry 185:A2. 2004
  60. ncbi [Spatial variability of surface soil moisture content in depression area of karst region under moist and arid conditions]
    Jiguang Zhang
    Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 17:2277-82. 2006
    ..The significant difference in the spatial variability and distribution pattern of surface soil moisture in test area was mainly due to the effects of physiognomy, soil mean moisture (precipitation), and topography.
  61. ncbi Computer-aided diagnosis of genodermatoses
    Varol Lutfu Aksungur
    Department of Dermatology, Cukurova University, School of Medicine, Adana, Turkey
    J Dermatol 31:86-93. 2004
    ..Findings related to the skin, its appendages, mucous membranes and physiognomy were recorded in detail; but the involvements of other organs, only as headings...
  62. pmc Increased atmospheric SO₂ detected from changes in leaf physiognomy across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval of East Greenland
    Karen L Bacon
    School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland
    PLoS ONE 8:e60614. 2013
    ..This finding highlights that the role of SO2 in plant biodiversity declines across other major geological boundaries coinciding with global scale volcanism should be further explored using leaf physiognomy.
  63. pmc Karyotyping, dermatoglyphic, and sweat pore analysis of five families affected with ectodermal dysplasia
    Manpreet Sidhu
    Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, KLE VK institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
    J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 16:380-7. 2012
    ..The affected individual show characteristic physiognomy like protruded forehead, depressed nasal bridge, periorbital wrinkling, protruded lips, etc...
  64. doi Relationship between habitat type, fire frequency, and Amblyomma americanum populations in east-central Alabama
    Damien Willis
    Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL 36265, USA
    J Vector Ecol 37:373-81. 2012
    ..Cherokee, and Cleburne Counties in east-central Alabama areas to determine the relationship between plant physiognomy, environmental variables, and tick populations...
  65. doi Gastrointestinal nematodes of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) from a semi-arid region of north-eastern Brazil
    L A Anjos
    Departamento de Biologia e Zootecnia, Laboratório de Parasitologia e Zoologia, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, FEIS, Passeio Monção, 226, CEP 15 385 000, Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil
    J Helminthol 87:443-9. 2013
    ..hispidus from an area within the Brazilian Caatinga biome (semi-arid physiognomy)...
  66. doi Assessing natural and anthropogenic variability in wetland structure for two hydrogeomorphic riverine wetland subclasses
    Daniel Dvorett
    Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, 008C Agricultural Hall, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA
    Environ Manage 52:1009-22. 2013
    ..We collected data for nine potential assessment variables including vegetation physiognomy (e.g., tree basal area, herbaceous cover, canopy cover, etc...
  67. ncbi The "Brown sisters": photogrammetric analysis of brow and cheek descent
    Tal Friedman
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel
    Isr Med Assoc J 11:470-3. 2009
    ..Due to the absence of accurate tools and appropriate photographic material there is a paucity of objective studies on facial aging in the modern literature...
  68. ncbi ["If a woman has a big head": physiognomy and feminine nature in an Assyro-Babylonian text]
    Erica Couto Ferreira
    Institut Universitari d Història J Vicens i Vives, Barcelona
    Asclepio 60:19-36. 2008
    ..On the other hand, I deal with the elements that characterize this female perception, basically, the image of the ideal woman centred on motherhood, and, in close relation to this, the dangers that threaten women's life during pregnancy...
  69. ncbi Asymmetrical facial expressions in portraits and hemispheric laterality: a literature review
    W R Powell
    Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27109, USA
    Laterality 14:545-72. 2009
    ..This is significant, in that artists also portray more females than males with their left cheek exposed. Reasons for these psychological findings lead to explanations for the aesthetic leftward bias in portraiture...
  70. ncbi Making of a face: role of facial physiognomy, skin tone, and color presentation mode in evaluations of racial typicality
    Elena V Stepanova
    Department of Psychology, Campus Box 1125, One Brookings Drive, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    J Soc Psychol 149:66-81. 2009
    ..The authors manipulated facial physiognomy, skin tone, and color presentation mode (gray scale vs. color) independently...
  71. ncbi [Study on the determinants regarding malaria epidemics in Anhui province during 2004-26]
    Li Ping Wang
    National Center for Public Health Surveillance and Information Service, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 30:38-41. 2009
    ..To analyze the determinants of malaria in Anhui province during the year of 2004-2006...
  72. ncbi Astrology and other occult sciences in seventeenth-century New Spain
    Ana Avalos
    European University Institute
    Cronos 9:3-32. 2006
    ..During the early modern period, both astrology and physiognomy were regarded as tools for self-understanding and the understanding of others by means of interpretation of ..
  73. ncbi [Social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) diversity in a cerrado vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil]
    Gilberto M de M Santos
    Laboratory de Entomologia, DCBIO, University Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, BA, 44031 460
    Neotrop Entomol 38:317-20. 2009
    ..The physiognomy of 'cerrado campo sujo' showed the lowest abundance of social wasps colonies (N=61 nests) and intermediate ..
  74. doi Treatment of nasal hemangiomas
    R Simic
    Division of Pediatric Surgery, Institute for Mother and Child Health Care of Serbia, Radoja Dakica 6 8, 11070 New Belgrade, Serbia
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 73:1402-6. 2009
    ..Almost 60% of these tumors develop in the head and neck region. Nasal hemangiomas, distort human physiognomy and leave long lasting psychological sequelae...
  75. doi Appearance is a function of the face
    Gregory L Borah
    Division of Plastic Surgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 1 Robert Wood Johnson Place, MEB 506, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Plast Reconstr Surg 125:873-8. 2010
    ..severely deformed patients are willing to undergo potentially life-threatening surgery in search of a normal physiognomy. Scant quantitative research exists that objectively documents appearance as a primary "function" of the face...
  76. ncbi Fluctuations in richness and abundance of social wasps during the dry and wet seasons in three phyto-physiognomies at the tropical dry forest of Brazil
    G M de M Santos
    Laboratorio de Entomologia, DCBIO, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, 44031 460 Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil
    Environ Entomol 38:1613-7. 2009
    ..shrubby Caatinga, and agricultural systems) to analyze the effect of environmental seasonality and plant physiognomy on the richness, nest abundance, and species composition of social wasps in the region of tropical dry forest ..
  77. doi Phenotypic plasticity to light of two congeneric trees from contrasting habitats: Brazilian Atlantic Forest versus cerrado (savanna)
    F de V Barros
    Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
    Plant Biol (Stuttg) 14:208-15. 2012
    ..Forest is a typically multi-layer tropical forest, while cerrado (savanna) is a patchy habitat with different physiognomy. Despite these differences, both habitats have high light heterogeneity...
  78. ncbi Akhenaten, a unique pharaoh
    François Pieter Retief
    University of Free State
    S Afr Med J 101:628-30. 2011
    ..socio-religious revolution that had vast consequences for his country, and possessed a strikingly abnormal physiognomy that was of note in his time and has interested historians up to the present era...
  79. doi [Diagnostic pathways and pitfalls in acute thoracic aortic dissection: practical recommendations and an awareness campaign]
    H H Sievers
    Klinik für Herz und Thorakale Gefässchirurgie, Universitatsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Campus Lubeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538, Lubeck, Deutschland
    Herz 36:474-9. 2011
    ..The reported acute chest and back pain of a tearing, stabbing nature combined with the physiognomy of Marfan syndrome often arouse the clinical suspicion of AAD, prompting immediate imaging of the thoracic ..
  80. ncbi Protection from livestock fails to deter shrub proliferation in a desert landscape with a history of heavy grazing
    Dawn M Browning
    School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona, P O Box 210043, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Ecol Appl 21:1629-42. 2011
    ..suggest (1) that thresholds for grassland resistance to shrub encroachment had been crossed by the 1930s, and (2) fire management rather than grazing management may be key to maintaining grassland physiognomy in this bioclimatic region.
  81. pmc Gradients in the number of species at reef-seagrass ecotones explained by gradients in abundance
    Fernando Tuya
    Centro en Biodiversidad y Gestión Ambiental, Marine Sciences Faculty, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain
    PLoS ONE 6:e20190. 2011
    ..of species per number of individuals) of prosobranch gastropods in meadows of two seagrasses with different physiognomy: Posidonia and Amphibolis...
  82. pmc Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently
    Andrea Wheeler
    Dr Eric Jackman Institute of Child Study, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    PLoS ONE 6:e18621. 2011
    ..tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces...
  83. ncbi [Physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: psychopathological investigation of 10 patients]
    Hideaki Nagashima
    Asahi Hospital
    Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi 112:1185-200. 2010
    ..We termed these experiences physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations...
  84. ncbi Self-perceived body weight status and weight-control behaviors of high school students in a southern city of Turkey
    Hatice Kurdak
    Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cukurova, Adana, Turkey
    Coll Antropol 34:1295-302. 2010
    Defining "healthy weight" is not easy and for an adolescent with all concerns about newly developing physiognomy it is even harder...
  85. doi State of the art low-dose CT angiography of the body
    Hatem Alkadhi
    Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistr 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Eur J Radiol 80:36-40. 2011
    ..of questions still need to be answered, including the optimal combination of tube voltage and tube current settings, as well as the appropriate protocol parameters in relation to the body physiognomy and the specific body region imaged.
  86. pmc Paleotemperature proxies from leaf fossils reinterpreted in light of evolutionary history
    Stefan A Little
    Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15161. 2010
    ..Although much research acknowledges and investigates possible pitfalls in paleoclimate estimation based on leaf physiognomy, the core assumption has never been explicitly tested in a phylogenetic comparative framework...
  87. ncbi [Meta-analysis on the efficacy of Epley's manoeuvre in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo]
    M P Prim-Espada
    Servicio de Otorrinolaringologia, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Espana
    Neurologia 25:295-9. 2010
    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common conditions that cause the physiognomy of peripheral vertigo.
  88. ncbi Spatial-temporal distribution of fire-protected savanna physiognomies in Southeastern Brazil
    Marcelo H O Pinheiro
    Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Ituiutaba, MG, Brasil
    An Acad Bras Cienc 82:379-95. 2010
    ..sensu stricto and cerradão, allowed the conduction of this study based on the hypothesis that cerradão, a physiognomy of forest aspect consisting of fire-sensitive tree and shrubs species, is favored by fire absence and higher ..
  89. ncbi Personality in perspective: judgmental consistency across orientations of the face
    Nicholas O Rule
    Department of Psychology, Tufts University, 490 Boston Avenue, Medford, MA 02155, USA
    Perception 38:1688-99. 2009
    ..Judgments of personality (aggressiveness, competence, dominance, likeability, and trustworthiness) and physiognomy (attractiveness and facial maturity) were significantly correlated across full-frontal, three-quarter, and ..
  90. ncbi The development of face processing skills
    H D Ellis
    School of Psychology, University of Wales College of Cardiff, U K
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 335:105-11. 1992
    ..Young children are more likely than older people to prefer positive caricatures of certain faces, which is not consistent with the view that caricature effects are simple reflections of a general expertise with faces...
  91. ncbi Predicting elections: child's play!
    John Antonakis
    Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Science 323:1183. 2009
    ..Naïve adults judged a pair on competence; after playing a game, children chose who they would prefer to be captain of their boat. Children's (as well as adults') preferences accurately predicted actual election outcomes...
  92. ncbi Lekking displays in contemporary organizations: ethologically oriented, evolutionary and cross-species accounts of male dominance
    Jeffrey Braithwaite
    Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Clinical Governance Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Health Organ Manag 22:529-59. 2008
    ..The purpose of this paper is to draw on scientific models in conceptualising the evolutionary bases of contemporary behaviours, and make cross-species comparisons, to account for male managerial activities in situ in health organizations...
  93. pmc A large family with patent ductus arteriosus and unusual face
    H R Davidson
    Duncan Guthrie Institute of Medical Genetics, Yorkhill, Glasgow, UK
    J Med Genet 30:503-5. 1993
    ..The segregation pattern suggests autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance with respect to the PDA. The facial features included a broad, high forehead, flat profile, and short nose with a broad, flattened tip...
  94. ncbi Physical mapping of microdeletions of the chromosome 17 short arm associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome
    A Moncla
    INSERM U 242 BP 24, Marseille, France
    Hum Genet 90:657-60. 1993
    ..The possibility that an unstable region, located between the Smith-Magenis syndrome locus and CMT1A a closely located locus, could be involved in the rearrangements associated with these two inherited diseases is discussed...
  95. ncbi Phrenology in the science and culture of the 19th century
    S H Greenblatt
    Brown University Program in Neurosurgery, Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, Pawtucket, USA
    Neurosurgery 37:790-804; discussion 804-5. 1995
    In the last decade of the 18th century, Franz Joseph Gall of Vienna invented a combination of physiognomy and brain localization that he originally called "craniology" (the science of the head) and later called "organology" (the science ..
  96. ncbi Face facts: a history of physiognomy from ancient Mesopotamia to the end of the 19th century
    J Jenkinson
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
    J Biocommun 24:2-7. 1997
    ..The practice of reading the face dates back as early as the paleobabylonian period in Mesopotamia. It wasn't until much later, however, that this ancient tradition was named...
  97. pmc South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests
    Robyn J Burnham
    Museum of Paleontology, 1109 Geddes Road, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1079, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:1595-610. 2004
    ..By contrast, North American sites provide evidence that rainforest leaf physiognomy was established early in the Palaeocene...
  98. ncbi Floristic, frequency, and vegetation life-form spectra of a cerrado site
    M A Batalha
    Departamento de Botanica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C P 676, CEP 13565 905, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil
    Braz J Biol 64:203-9. 2004
    ..The vegetation spectrum is preferable when working at smaller scales and wanting a quantitative description of the physiognomy. The frequency spectrum is not recommended at all.
  99. ncbi Computer-assisted facial image identification system using a 3-D physiognomic range finder
    M Yoshino
    First Medico Legal Section, National Research Institute of Police Science, 6 3 1, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan
    Forensic Sci Int 109:225-37. 2000
    ..For evaluating the fit between the anthropometrical points on the 3-D and 2-D facial images, the reciprocal point-to-point difference between both images is compared...
  100. ncbi The physiognomist's kidney in the fifteenth century
    Joseph Ziegler
    Department of General History, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
    J Nephrol 17:600-4. 2004
    b>Physiognomy, the art of deciphering a person's character and potential behavior by his or her external appearance, is an ancient body of knowledge which was gradually revived in the Latin West in the twelfth and particularly in the ..
  101. ncbi Facial reconstruction of a wrapped Egyptian mummy using MDCT
    Federico Cesarani
    Struttura Operativa Complessa di Radiodiagnostica, Presidi Ospedalieri Riuniiti, Azienda Sanitaria Locale 19, Asti, Regione Piemonte, Italy
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 183:755-8. 2004
    ..of MDCT examination for 3D facial reconstruction and report the results of multidisciplinary work performed by radiologists, anthropologists, and forensic police in reconstructing the possible physiognomy of an ancient Egyptian mummy.

Research Grants13

  1. SOCIAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATIONS OF MATURATION
    RUSSELL FERNALD; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..these cells are implicated in growth or maturation related diseases such as hypogonadism and juvenilized physiognomy. Understanding how production of GnRH is socially regulated will enhance our ability to treat malfunctions of ..
  2. SOCIAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATIONS OF MATURATION
    RUSSELL FERNALD; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..these cells are implicated in growth or maturation related diseases such as hypogonadism and juvenilized physiognomy. Understanding how production of GnRH is socially regulated will enhance our ability to treat malfunctions of ..
  3. SOCIAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATIONS OF MATURATION
    RUSSELL FERNALD; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..these cells are implicated in growth or maturation related diseases such as hypogonadism and juvenilized physiognomy. Understanding how production of GnRH is socially regulated will enhance our ability to treat malfunctions of ..
  4. SOCIAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATIONS OF MATURATION
    RUSSELL FERNALD; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..these cells are implicated in growth or maturation related diseases such as hypogonadism and juvenilized physiognomy. Understanding how production of GnRH is socially regulated will enhance our ability to treat malfunctions of ..
  5. Role of Protein Ubiquitination in Angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Identification of molecules that inhibit the angiogenic signaling of VEGFR-2 will provide new avenues for development of better and more effective agents to combat angiogenesis-associated diseases. ..
  6. Role of Protein Ubiquitination in Angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Identification of molecules that inhibit the angiogenic signaling of VEGFR-2 will provide new avenues for development of better and more effective agents to combat angiogenesis-associated diseases. ..
  7. VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Once we determine the mechanism by which VEGF receptors are engaged it will be possible to attenuate the angiogenic signal transduction relay by developing targeted therapeutic interventions aimed at angiogenesis suppression ..
  8. VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Once we determine the mechanism by which VEGF receptors are engaged it will be possible to attenuate the angiogenic signal transduction relay by developing targeted therapeutic interventions aimed at angiogenesis suppression ..
  9. VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Once we determine the mechanism by which VEGF receptors are engaged it will be possible to attenuate the angiogenic signal transduction relay by developing targeted therapeutic interventions aimed at angiogenesis suppression ..
  10. Anti-angiogenic signaling molecules in retinal cells
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..our long-term goal is to begin to apply the information obtained from this project to the design of strategies to regulate angiogenesis in clinical settings. ..
  11. VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Once we determine the mechanism by which VEGF receptors are engaged it will be possible to attenuate the angiogenic signal transduction relay by developing targeted therapeutic interventions aimed at angiogenesis suppression ..
  12. VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Once we determine the mechanism by which VEGF receptors are engaged it will be possible to attenuate the angiogenic signal transduction relay by developing targeted therapeutic interventions aimed at angiogenesis suppression ..
  13. Role of Protein Ubiquitination in Angiogenesis
    Nader Rahimi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Identification of molecules that inhibit the angiogenic signaling of VEGFR-2 will provide new avenues for development of better and more effective agents to combat angiogenesis-associated diseases. ..