bacterial typing techniques

Summary

Summary: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Guidelines for the validation and application of typing methods for use in bacterial epidemiology
    A van Belkum
    Erasmus MC, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 13:1-46. 2007
  2. pmc Multilocus sequence typing for characterization of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible clones of Staphylococcus aureus
    M C Enright
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3FY
    J Clin Microbiol 38:1008-15. 2000
  3. pmc Proposal for standardization of optimized mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Philip Supply
    INSERM U629, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1, Rue du Prof Calmette, F 59019 Lille cedex, France
    J Clin Microbiol 44:4498-510. 2006
  4. pmc Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe: a molecular-epidemiological analysis
    Hajo Grundmann
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    PLoS Med 7:e1000215. 2010
  5. pmc eBURST: inferring patterns of evolutionary descent among clusters of related bacterial genotypes from multilocus sequence typing data
    Edward J Feil
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 186:1518-30. 2004
  6. pmc Genotyping of genetically monomorphic bacteria: DNA sequencing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlights the limitations of current methodologies
    Iñaki Comas
    Division of Mycobacterial Research, Medical Research Council, National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK
    PLoS ONE 4:e7815. 2009
  7. pmc Combination of multiplex PCRs for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type assignment: rapid identification system for mec, ccr, and major differences in junkyard regions
    Yoko Kondo
    Department of Infection Control Science, Juntendo University, 2 1 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8421, Japan
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:264-74. 2007
  8. ncbi Risk and outcome of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in nasal carriers versus non-carriers
    Heiman F L Wertheim
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Dr Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet 364:703-5. 2004
  9. pmc Harmonization of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols for epidemiological typing of strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a single approach developed by consensus in 10 European laboratories and its application for tracing the spre
    Stephen Murchan
    Laboratory of Hospital Infection, Central Public Health Laboratory, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1574-85. 2003
  10. doi Possible underlying mechanisms for successful emergence of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains
    Ida Parwati
    Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical Faculty, Padjadjaran University, Dr Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:103-11. 2010

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications268 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Guidelines for the validation and application of typing methods for use in bacterial epidemiology
    A van Belkum
    Erasmus MC, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 13:1-46. 2007
    ..A strategic effort on the part of all workers in the field is thus mandatory to combat emerging infectious diseases, as is financial support from national and international granting bodies and health authorities...
  2. pmc Multilocus sequence typing for characterization of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible clones of Staphylococcus aureus
    M C Enright
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3FY
    J Clin Microbiol 38:1008-15. 2000
    ..MLST provides an unambiguous method for assigning MRSA and MSSA isolates to known clones or assigning them as novel clones via the Internet...
  3. pmc Proposal for standardization of optimized mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Philip Supply
    INSERM U629, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1, Rue du Prof Calmette, F 59019 Lille cedex, France
    J Clin Microbiol 44:4498-510. 2006
    ..This 15-locus system is therefore proposed as the new standard for routine epidemiological discrimination of M. tuberculosis isolates and the 24-locus system as a high-resolution tool for phylogenetic studies...
  4. pmc Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe: a molecular-epidemiological analysis
    Hajo Grundmann
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    PLoS Med 7:e1000215. 2010
    ..We aimed to map the geographic distribution of the dominant clones that cause invasive infections in Europe...
  5. pmc eBURST: inferring patterns of evolutionary descent among clusters of related bacterial genotypes from multilocus sequence typing data
    Edward J Feil
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 186:1518-30. 2004
    ..pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus MLST databases, and the more complicated clonal complexes observed for Campylobacter jejuni and Neisseria meningitidis...
  6. pmc Genotyping of genetically monomorphic bacteria: DNA sequencing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlights the limitations of current methodologies
    Iñaki Comas
    Division of Mycobacterial Research, Medical Research Council, National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK
    PLoS ONE 4:e7815. 2009
    ..Our findings have implications for strain typing in other genetically monomorphic bacteria...
  7. pmc Combination of multiplex PCRs for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type assignment: rapid identification system for mec, ccr, and major differences in junkyard regions
    Yoko Kondo
    Department of Infection Control Science, Juntendo University, 2 1 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8421, Japan
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:264-74. 2007
    ..The SCCmec type assignments were identical to those made with a PCR system that uses numerous primer pairs to identify genes or gene alleles. Our system of six M-PCRs is thus a convenient and reliable method for typing SCCmec elements...
  8. ncbi Risk and outcome of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in nasal carriers versus non-carriers
    Heiman F L Wertheim
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Dr Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet 364:703-5. 2004
    ..006). S aureus nasal carriers and non-carriers differ significantly in risk and outcome of nosocomial S aureus bacteraemia. Genotyping revealed that 80% of strains causing bacteraemia in carriers were endogenous...
  9. pmc Harmonization of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols for epidemiological typing of strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a single approach developed by consensus in 10 European laboratories and its application for tracing the spre
    Stephen Murchan
    Laboratory of Hospital Infection, Central Public Health Laboratory, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1574-85. 2003
    ..This highlights the need for closer international collaboration to monitor the spread of current epidemic strains as well as the emergence of new ones...
  10. doi Possible underlying mechanisms for successful emergence of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains
    Ida Parwati
    Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical Faculty, Padjadjaran University, Dr Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:103-11. 2010
    ..More research is needed to further unravel the mechanisms underlying the emergence of M tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains, and examine the implications for future control strategies...
  11. pmc Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain ST398 is present in midwestern U.S. swine and swine workers
    Tara C Smith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e4258. 2009
    ..However, no studies to date have investigated carriage of MRSA among swine and swine farmers in the United States (U.S.)...
  12. pmc Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms
    M C Maiden
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:3140-5. 1998
    ....
  13. ncbi Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among veterinarians: an international study
    M W H Wulf
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 14:29-34. 2008
    ....
  14. pmc Sequential multiplex PCR approach for determining capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates
    Rekha Pai
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:124-31. 2006
    ....
  15. pmc spa typing method for discriminating among Staphylococcus aureus isolates: implications for use of a single marker to detect genetic micro- and macrovariation
    Larry Koreen
    Public Health Research Institute, International Center for Public Health, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:792-9. 2004
    ..This study showed that genetic analysis of the repeat region of protein A comprehensively characterizes both micro- and macrovariation in the primarily clonal population structure of S. aureus...
  16. doi A novel multilocus sequence typing scheme for the opportunistic pathogen Propionibacterium acnes and characterization of type I cell surface-associated antigens
    Andrew McDowell
    Centre for Infection and Immunity, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen s University, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK
    Microbiology 157:1990-2003. 2011
    ..The MLST scheme and database described in this study should provide a valuable platform for future epidemiological and evolutionary studies of P. acnes...
  17. doi The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus
    Ruud H Deurenberg
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Maastricht, P Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Infect Genet Evol 8:747-63. 2008
    ..This review describes the latest observations about the structure of SCCmec, the techniques used to study the molecular epidemiology and evolution of S. aureus as well as some challenges that researchers face in the future...
  18. doi Hyper-recombination, diversity, and antibiotic resistance in pneumococcus
    William Paul Hanage
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Science 324:1454-7. 2009
    ..This could have consequences for the reemergence of drug resistance after pneumococcal vaccination and also for our understanding of diversification and speciation in recombinogenic bacteria...
  19. ncbi Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology
    Erko Stackebrandt
    DSMZ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:1043-7. 2002
    ..The committee made various recommendations regarding the species definition in the light of developments in methodologies available to systematists...
  20. ncbi Multiplex PCR strategy for subtyping the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: 'SCCmec IV multiplex'
    Catarina Milheiriço
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:42-8. 2007
    ..To develop and validate a new multiplex PCR strategy for subtyping SCCmec type IV methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains-SCCmec IV multiplex PCR...
  21. doi Assignment of Staphylococcus aureus isolates to clonal complexes based on microarray analysis and pattern recognition
    Stefan Monecke
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 53:237-51. 2008
    ..Additionally, there are some isolated lineages, such as ST75, ST93, or ST152. These strains produce aberrant hybridization profiles, indicating that only a part of the gene pool of S. aureus has been investigated yet...
  22. doi Resolving lineage assignation on Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates classified by spoligotyping with a new high-throughput 3R SNPs based method
    Edgar Abadia
    Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, UMR8621, IGEPE Team, UniverSud, CNRS Université Paris Sud 11, France
    Infect Genet Evol 10:1066-74. 2010
    ..It also allows evaluation of spoligotype-signature significance towards a more comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus in MTC...
  23. doi Clonal spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Europe and North America: an international multicentre study
    Vincent Perreten
    Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1145-54. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic resistance profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and to examine the clonal distribution in Europe and North America...
  24. pmc Prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs on German farms and import of livestock-related MRSA into hospitals
    R Kock
    Institute of Hygiene, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149, Munster, Germany
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28:1375-82. 2009
    ..Our results indicate that livestock represents a relevant reservoir for the import of MRSA into regional German hospitals...
  25. pmc Multilocus sequence typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae nosocomial isolates
    Laure Diancourt
    Unité Biodiversité des Bactéries Pathogènes Emergentes U389 INSERM, Institut Pasteur, 25 28 Rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris, Cedex 15, France
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4178-82. 2005
    ..Forty distinct allelic profiles were identified. MLST data were validated against ribotyping and showed high (96%) discriminatory power. The MLST approach provides unambiguous data useful for the epidemiology of K. pneumoniae isolates...
  26. doi Are host genetics the predominant determinant of persistent nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage in humans?
    Raymond Ruimy
    EA3964 Université Paris Diderot and Centre National de Référence, Résistance bactérienne dans les flores commensales, Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, Paris, France
    J Infect Dis 202:924-34. 2010
    ..Therefore, we concomitantly assessed the epidemiological, microbiological, and human-genetic carriage-related factors in a nearly closed population...
  27. pmc Estimating recombinational parameters in Streptococcus pneumoniae from multilocus sequence typing data
    E J Feil
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Genetics 154:1439-50. 2000
    ..We also demonstrate how to estimate the average length of recombinational replacements from MLST data...
  28. pmc spa Typing of Staphylococcus aureus as a frontline tool in epidemiological typing
    B Strommenger
    Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode Branch, Burgstr 37, D 38855 Wernigerode, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 46:574-81. 2008
    ..They should be selected by dependence on the clonal lineage indicated by spa typing and subsequent BURP analysis as well as on the basis of the particular question to be addressed...
  29. doi Infection and colonization with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 versus other MRSA in an area with a high density of pig farms
    M W H Wulf
    PAMM Laboratory for Medical Microbiology, de Run 6250, Veldhoven, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:61-5. 2012
    ..ST398 isolates were more often multi-resistant than isolates of other spa-types. The emergence of MRSA ST398 led to an increase in both MRSA carriers and MRSA infections...
  30. doi Trends in production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae of clinical interest: results of a nationwide survey in Belgian hospitals
    H Rodriguez-Villalobos
    Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Hopital Universitaire Erasme, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B 1070 Brussels, Belgium
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:37-47. 2011
    ..to assess the frequency and diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Belgium...
  31. doi Global emm type distribution of group A streptococci: systematic review and implications for vaccine development
    Andrew C Steer
    Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne, Australia
    Lancet Infect Dis 9:611-6. 2009
    ....
  32. ncbi An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile
    L Clifford McDonald
    Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2433-41. 2005
    ..difficile with increased virulence, resistance, or both...
  33. doi DNA microarray-based genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from Eastern Saxony
    S Monecke
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany
    Clin Microbiol Infect 14:534-45. 2008
    ..Detection of such variants can sometimes allow epidemic strains to be resolved beyond spa types to a hospital-specific level, which is of significant value for epidemiological purposes...
  34. pmc Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Barry Curran
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5644-9. 2004
    ..aeruginosa, the lack of a linkage between toxA type and serotype is not surprising and reveals the strength of the MLST approach for obtaining a better understanding of the epidemiology of P. aeruginosa...
  35. pmc Molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Taipei
    Horng Yunn Dou
    Division of Clinical Research, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan, Republic of China
    BMC Infect Dis 8:170. 2008
    ..Classical antibiogram studies and genetic characterization, using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing and spoligotyping, were applied after culture...
  36. pmc Phylogenetic and genomic diversity of human bacteremic Escherichia coli strains
    Françoise Jaureguy
    INSERM UMR570, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    BMC Genomics 9:560. 2008
    ..A subset representative of the clonal diversity was subjected to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) using 2,324 amplicons from the flexible gene pool of E. coli...
  37. ncbi Development of a new PCR-ribotyping method for Clostridium difficile based on ribosomal RNA gene sequencing
    P Bidet
    Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Saint Antoine, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, France
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 175:261-6. 1999
    ..This typing method has evidenced major qualities such as easiness, rapidity and reproducibility. However, its discriminatory power has to be evaluated to validate its importance as a typing tool for C. difficile...
  38. pmc Based Upon Repeat Pattern (BURP): an algorithm to characterize the long-term evolution of Staphylococcus aureus populations based on spa polymorphisms
    Alexander Mellmann
    Institute for Hygiene, University Hospital Munster, Munster, Germany
    BMC Microbiol 7:98. 2007
    ..BURP was subsequently evaluated with a strain collection reflecting the breadth of diversity of S. aureus (JCM 2002; 40:4544)...
  39. doi Species identification of clinical isolates of Bacteroides by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry
    E Nagy
    Institute of Clinical Microbiology, University of Szeged, H 6701 Szeged, Hungary
    Clin Microbiol Infect 15:796-802. 2009
    ..The discriminating power and identification accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS proved to be superior to that of biochemical testing for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides ovatus and Bacteroides uniformis...
  40. pmc Bacterial flora-typing with targeted, chip-based Pyrosequencing
    Andreas Sundquist
    Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    BMC Microbiol 7:108. 2007
    ..In particular, classifying the microbial content of samples by sequencing the < 1,600 bp 16S rRNA gene will be affected by such limitations...
  41. pmc Comparison of two multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat methods and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for differentiating highly clonal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates
    A Holmes
    Microbiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 48:3600-7. 2010
    ..However, due to its greater discriminatory power, MLVF would be the most suitable alternative to PFGE for hospital outbreak investigations...
  42. doi Changes in pneumococcal serotypes and antibiotypes carried by vaccinated and unvaccinated day-care centre attendees in Portugal, a country with widespread use of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    R Sá-Leão
    Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal
    Clin Microbiol Infect 15:1002-7. 2009
    ..Rates of antibiotic resistance remained unchanged due to a balance between reduction in VT and an increase in antimicrobial-resistant NVT...
  43. pmc Ribosomal multilocus sequence typing: universal characterization of bacteria from domain to strain
    Keith A Jolley
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Microbiology 158:1005-15. 2012
    ..This approach is applicable to the other domains of life, potentially providing a rational and universal approach to the classification of life that is based on one of its fundamental features, the translation mechanism...
  44. doi Evaluation of 24 locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Canada
    Sara Christianson
    National Microbiology Laboratory, 1015 Arlington Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 90:31-8. 2010
    ..For long-term surveillance of MTBC within Canada, the use of 24 MIRU-VNTR loci will provide rapid, highly discriminatory molecular epidemiology information...
  45. pmc Molecular evidence of cholera outbreak caused by a toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El tor variant strain in Kelantan, Malaysia
    Geik Yong Ang
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu 16150, Malaysia
    J Clin Microbiol 48:3963-9. 2010
    ..cholerae O1 El Tor variant has invaded Malaysia, highlighting the need for continuous monitoring to facilitate early interventions against any potential epidemic by this biotype...
  46. doi Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, virulence traits, antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and genetic lineages in healthy humans in Spain, with detection of CC398 and CC97 strains
    Carmen Lozano
    Area Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de La Rioja, Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono, Spain
    Int J Med Microbiol 301:500-5. 2011
    ..Interestingly, MSSA CC398 and CC97 isolates were detected. These clonal complexes are associated with food-producing animals...
  47. pmc Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain cocolonization in the nasopharynx
    Silvio D Brugger
    Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Friedbuhlstrasse 51, CH 3010 Bern, Switzerland
    J Clin Microbiol 47:1750-6. 2009
    ..025). This new technique allows for the rapid and economical study of pneumococcal cocolonization in nasopharyngeal swabs. It will be valuable for the surveillance of S. pneumoniae epidemiology under vaccine selection pressure...
  48. ncbi A multilocus sequence typing scheme for Streptococcus pneumoniae: identification of clones associated with serious invasive disease
    M C Enright
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Microbiology 144:3049-60. 1998
    ..A Web site for the molecular characterization of pneumococci by MLST is available (http ://mlst.zoo.ox.ac.uk)...
  49. ncbi Molecular methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain typing: a users guide
    E Kanduma
    Clinical Laboratory, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, PO Box 3010, Moshi, Tanzania
    J Appl Microbiol 94:781-91. 2003
    ..If matches are found, then further confirmation of identity can be achieved using IS6110 RFLP or PGRS if the strains prove to have a low IS6110 copy number...
  50. ncbi Ecotypes of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
    Noel H Smith
    TB Research Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, VLA, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    J Theor Biol 239:220-5. 2006
    ..Finally, we discuss the application of the ecotype concept to this series of clades and suggest that the M. tuberculosis complex may best be described as a series of host-adapted ecotypes...
  51. ncbi Linkage disequilibrium between minisatellite loci supports clonal evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a high tuberculosis incidence area
    Philip Supply
    Laboratoire des Mécanismes Moléculaires de la Pathogenèse Bactérienne, INSERM U447, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Cedex, France
    Mol Microbiol 47:529-38. 2003
    ..This linkage disequilibrium was also evident when the MIRU-VNTR types were compared with the IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism types. These results support a predominant clonal evolution of M. tuberculosis...
  52. pmc MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis
    Marianne Maquart
    INRA, UR1282, Infectiologie Animale et Sante Publique, IASP, Nouzilly, F 37380, France
    BMC Microbiol 9:145. 2009
    ..A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16) that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used...
  53. doi Assigning Escherichia coli strains to phylogenetic groups: multi-locus sequence typing versus the PCR triplex method
    David M Gordon
    School of Botany and Zoology, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
    Environ Microbiol 10:2484-96. 2008
    ..Strains failing to yield any PCR products using the Clermont method are seldom members of phylo-group A and strains with such a genotype should not be assigned to a phylo-group...
  54. pmc Novel multiplex PCR assay for characterization and concomitant subtyping of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types I to V in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Kunyan Zhang
    Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance, Calgary Health Region Calgary Laboratory Services University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2L 2K8
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5026-33. 2005
    ..This novel assay offers a rapid, simple, and feasible method for SCCmec typing of MRSA, and may serve as a useful tool for clinicians and epidemiologists in their efforts to prevent and control infections caused by this organism...
  55. pmc PCR-based quantitation and clonal diversity of the current prevalent invasive serogroup 6 pneumococcal serotype, 6C, in the United States in 1999 and 2006 to 2007
    Maria Da Gloria Carvalho
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:554-9. 2009
    ..Fifteen 6C isolates shared one of four different MLST types with 6C-negative CS6As. MLST results suggest 6C strains arose from independent recombination events involving only serotype 6A and 6C parental strains...
  56. pmc Three-year population-based evaluation of standardized mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Caroline Allix-Béguec
    Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis, INSERM U629, Institut de Biologie de Lille Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 rue du Professeur Calmette, F 59021 Lille cedex, France
    J Clin Microbiol 46:1398-406. 2008
    ..g., large sequence polymorphisms. Our results reinforce the proposal of standardized MIRU-VNTR typing as a new reference genotyping method for the epidemiological and phylogenetic screening of M. tuberculosis strains...
  57. doi Genetic determinants of virulence, antibiogram and altered biotype among the Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from different cholera outbreaks in India
    A K Goel
    Biotechnology Division, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474002, India
    Infect Genet Evol 10:815-9. 2010
    ..In addition, in 2007, a new variant of O1 El Tor strain with further modifications in ctxB of classical biotype is discovered among the Indian isolates...
  58. doi Comparison of genotypes and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from humans and slaughtered chickens in Switzerland
    S Kittl
    Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    J Appl Microbiol 110:513-520. 2011
    ..To get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in Swiss Campylobacter jejuni implicated in human gastroenteritis and to examine the association with isolates from chickens...
  59. doi Rapid and high resolution genotyping of all Escherichia coli serotypes using 10 genomic repeat-containing loci
    Inger Løbersli
    Division of Infectious Diseases Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Lovisenberggata 8, P O Box 4404 Nydalen, N 0403 Oslo, Norway
    J Microbiol Methods 88:134-9. 2012
    ..The GECM7 method was improved by adding three new repeat-loci to a total of ten (GECM10), and a considerable increase in resolution was observed (from 296 to 507 genotypes on the same set of strains)...
  60. doi Mutation rates of spoligotypes and variable numbers of tandem repeat loci in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Josephine F Reyes
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Infect Genet Evol 10:1046-51. 2010
    ..These findings confirm the high level of discrimination observed using multilocus VNTR typing, and suggest that caution should be taken not to underestimate the extent of recent transmission when using this marker...
  61. pmc Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Finland in 2004 to 2006
    Mari Kanerva
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, Helsinki, Finland
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2655-7. 2009
    ..9/100,000 population) and strain variation increased in comparison to years 1997 to 1999. There were 7 community-associated epidemic and 25 sporadic MRSA strain types. Half of these had Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes...
  62. doi Comparative evaluation of new typing schemes for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis isolates
    Larisa N Ikryannikova
    Research Institute for Physical Chemical Medicine of Ministry of Public Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 59:188-96. 2010
    ..trachomatis population in Central Russia using MLST. We conclude that the MLST(7) scheme is the best possible choice for global epidemiological purposes, whereas MLST(5) is more appropriate for tracing local outbreaks...
  63. pmc First multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Arcobacter spp
    William G Miller
    Produce Safety and Microbiology Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Albany, CA 94710, USA
    BMC Microbiol 9:196. 2009
    ..Here, we describe the first Arcobacter multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method for A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, A. skirrowii, A. cibarius and A. thereius...
  64. pmc Sharing of Escherichia coli sequence type ST131 and other multidrug-resistant and Urovirulent E. coli strains among dogs and cats within a household
    James R Johnson
    Infectious Diseases 111F, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3721-5. 2009
    ..Of the four other colonizing strains identified, two were MDR and two colonized multiple hosts. The ST131 strain uniquely exhibited high resistance and virulence scores...
  65. pmc SNP/RD typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains reveals local and worldwide disseminated clonal complexes
    Anita C Schürch
    Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Centre for Infectious Disease Control, CIb LIS, pb 22, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 6:e28365. 2011
    ..The SNPs and RDs presented in this study will facilitate future molecular epidemiological and phylogenetic studies on Beijing strains...
  66. pmc Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism typing method for identification of Bacillus anthracis species and strains among B. cereus group species
    Makoto Kuroda
    Laboratory of Bacterial Genomics, Pathogen Genomics Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1 23 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 48:2821-9. 2010
    ..Subsequent whole-genome sequencing will reveal apparent strain-specific genetic markers for traceability of strains following an anthrax outbreak...
  67. doi Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in asymptomatic carriers
    S Monecke
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Technical University of Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, Dresden 01307, Germany
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28:1159-65. 2009
    ..These data provide an insight into its pathogenesis, especially when compared to isolates from patients with defined clinical conditions. They might also be helpful for the design of a future vaccine...
  68. doi Global serotype distribution among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing otitis media in children: potential implications for pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
    Gail L Rodgers
    Scientific Affairs and Global Medical Affairs, Vaccines, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA
    Vaccine 27:3802-10. 2009
    ....
  69. doi Identification and characterization of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from bovine mastitis
    Andrea T Fessler
    Institute of Farm Animal Genetics, Friedrich Loeffler Institut FLI, Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1576-82. 2010
    ....
  70. doi Bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) for microbiome studies: bacterial diversity in the ileum of newly weaned Salmonella-infected pigs
    Scot E Dowd
    USDA ARS Livestock Issues Research Unit, Lubbock, Texas 79403, USA
    Foodborne Pathog Dis 5:459-72. 2008
    ..Using bTEFAP, we can expect to gain a better understanding of how the microbiome of an animal contributes to its health and well-being...
  71. pmc Evaluation of new variable-number tandem-repeat systems for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Beijing genotype isolates from Beijing, China
    Wei Wei Jiao
    Public Central Laboratory, Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing 100045, China
    J Clin Microbiol 46:1045-9. 2008
    ..tuberculosis isolates in Beijing, while secondary typing of clustered strains by IS6110-RFLP is still required...
  72. doi Molecular characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Egypt
    Shymaa Enany
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
    Microbiol Res 165:152-62. 2010
    ..We revealed that PVL is a good marker for CA-MRSA infections and that PVL+ isolates belonged to different genotypes...
  73. ncbi Biotyping of Vibrio cholerae O1: time to redefine the scheme
    Amit Raychoudhuri
    Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India
    Indian J Med Res 128:695-8. 2008
    ..A revised biotyping scheme will play a significant role to understand the ecology, epidemiology and nature of infection of V. cholerae O1 strains in future...
  74. pmc New variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor with attributes of the classical biotype from hospitalized patients with acute diarrhea in Bangladesh
    G Balakrish Nair
    Laboratory Sciences Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3296-9. 2002
    ..Furthermore, the existence of such novel strains may have implications for the development of a cholera vaccine...
  75. doi Reclassification of Clostridium coccoides, Ruminococcus hansenii, Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus, Ruminococcus luti, Ruminococcus productus and Ruminococcus schinkii as Blautia coccoides gen. nov., comb. nov., Blautia hansenii comb. nov., Blautia hydroge
    Chengxu Liu
    Research Service, VA Medical Center West Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:1896-902. 2008
    ..nov. One of the new isolates, the hitherto unknown coccus-shaped bacterial strain WAL 14507T (=ATCC BAA-1564T=DSM 19850T) is proposed as representing the type strain of a novel species, Blautia wexlerae sp. nov...
  76. pmc Comparison of seven techniques for typing international epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile: restriction endonuclease analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat an
    George Killgore
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:431-7. 2008
    ..All techniques appear to be capable of detecting outbreak strains, but only REA and MLVA showed sufficient discrimination to distinguish strains from different outbreaks...
  77. pmc Transfer of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping method, Spoligotyping, from a reverse line-blot hybridization, membrane-based assay to the Luminex multianalyte profiling system
    Lauren S Cowan
    Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research, National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:474-7. 2004
    ..The Luminex platform provides greater flexibility and cost effectiveness than the membrane-based assay...
  78. doi Development and validation of a mismatch amplification mutation PCR assay to monitor the dissemination of an emerging variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor
    Masatomo Morita
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama 1 23 1, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, 162 8640, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 52:314-7. 2008
    ..cholerae O1. This assay will enable easy monitoring of the spread of a new emerging variant of the El Tor biotype of V. cholerae O1...
  79. pmc Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a paradigm of adaptive power
    Herminia De Lencastre
    Laboratory of Microbiology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Curr Opin Microbiol 10:428-35. 2007
    ..Then, in the late 1990s, just as effective hygienic and antibiotic use policies managed to bring down the frequency of MRSA in hospitals of several countries, MRSA strains began to show up in the community...
  80. pmc Evaluation of a two-step approach for large-scale, prospective genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the United States
    Lauren S Cowan
    Division of TB Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:688-95. 2005
    ..IS6110 fingerprinting can then be used as a secondary typing method to type the clustered isolates when additional discrimination is needed...
  81. ncbi Campylobacter concisus: an emerging pathogen?
    Diane G Newell
    MED VET NET, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:1013-4. 2005
    ..However, considerable further work is needed with more discriminatory genotyping methods, before accurate assessment of the risk of C. concisus infection to human health can be determined...
  82. ncbi A molecular-capsular-type prediction system for 90 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes using partial cpsA-cpsB sequencing and wzy- or wzx-specific PCR
    Fanrong Kong
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology CIDM, Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research ICPMR, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
    J Med Microbiol 54:351-6. 2005
    ..Although further study of the relationship between MCT and CS is needed, this system now allows serotype or serogroup identification of 95 % of S. pneumoniae isolates...
  83. pmc Delineation of Campylobacter concisus genomospecies by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and correlation of results with clinical data
    Rune Aabenhus
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5091-6. 2005
    ..Campylobacter concisus is genetically and taxonomically diverse and contains at least four distinct genomospecies that may exhibit differences in their spectra of virulence potential...
  84. pmc Pan-genome analysis provides much higher strain typing resolution than multi-locus sequence typing
    Barry G Hall
    Bellingham Research Institute, 218 Chuckanut Point Rd, Bellingham, WA 98229, USA
    Microbiology 156:1060-8. 2010
    ....
  85. pmc Rapid identification of bacteria in positive blood culture broths by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry
    Lindsay G Stevenson
    Microbiology Service, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 1508, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:444-7. 2010
    ..This method provides a rapid, accurate, definitive identification of bacteria within 1 h of detection in positive blood cultures with the caveat that the identification of S. pneumoniae would have to be confirmed by an alternative test...
  86. pmc Comparative genomics of Enterococcus faecalis from healthy Norwegian infants
    Margrete Solheim
    Laboratory of Microbial Gene Technology and Food Microbiology, Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, The Norwegian University of Life Sciences, As, Norway
    BMC Genomics 10:194. 2009
    ..In an attempt to gain insight into the genetic make-up of commensal E. faecalis, we have studied genomic variation in a collection of community-derived E. faecalis isolated from the feces of Norwegian infants...
  87. pmc Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for investigation of Clostridium difficile transmission in Hospitals
    Jane W Marsh
    Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Research Unit, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Medical Center, Division of Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, 865 Scaife Hall, 3550 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2558-66. 2006
    ..Thus, MLVA is an objective, portable genotyping method that permits reliable detection of C. difficile outbreaks and can aid epidemiologic investigations of nosocomial transmission...
  88. pmc Laribacter hongkongensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel gram-negative bacterium isolated from a cirrhotic patient with bacteremia and empyema
    K Y Yuen
    Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong
    J Clin Microbiol 39:4227-32. 2001
    ..nov., sp. nov., is proposed, for which HKU1 is the type strain. Further studies should be performed to ascertain the potential of this bacterium to become an emerging pathogen...
  89. ncbi Sequential multiplex PCR for identifying pneumococcal capsular serotypes from South-Saharan African clinical isolates
    Luis Morais
    Centro de Investigação em Saúde da Manhiça CISM, Ministerio de Saude, CP1929 Maputo, Mozambique
    J Med Microbiol 56:1181-4. 2007
    ..8%) of 153 isolates; 126 (82.4%) were identified within two reactions. This approach in developing countries would require minimal training and could provide useful serotype information without requiring transport of specimens...
  90. ncbi Sequential multiplex PCR for determining capsular serotypes of pneumococci recovered from Brazilian children
    Cícero A Dias
    Fundacao Faculdade Federal de Ciencias Medicas de Porto Alegre, and Hospital Mãe de Deus, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    J Med Microbiol 56:1185-8. 2007
    ..The revised protocol successfully serotyped 139/147 pneumococci (94.6%) from Brazilian children, demonstrating a labour-efficient, accurate method requiring only conventional PCR capability...
  91. pmc Illustration of a common framework for relating multiple typing methods by application to macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes
    J A Carriço
    Grupo de Biomatemática, Istituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Quinta Grande 6 2780 156 Oeiras, Portugal
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2524-32. 2006
    ..803 and 0.655, respectively). This was confirmed by the analysis of the larger data set available from http://spyogenes.mlst.net and underscores the necessity of performing PFGE or MLST to unambiguously define clones in S. pyogenes...
  92. pmc Unexpectedly high proportion of ancestral Manu genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains cultured from tuberculosis patients in Egypt
    Zeinab H Helal
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2794-801. 2009
    ..tuberculosis genotype belonging to the ancestral Manu lineage which could be a missing link in the split between ancestral and modern tubercle bacilli during the evolution of M. tuberculosis...
  93. pmc Multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from humans, chickens, raw milk, and environmental water in Quebec, Canada
    Simon Levesque
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculté de Médecine de l Université de Sherbrooke, 3001, 12e Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 46:3404-11. 2008
    ..Although MLST is labor-intensive and expensive, it remains the single best method for the genotyping of C. jejuni isolates and deciphering the epidemiologic relationships among isolates...
  94. pmc First neisseria gonorrhoeae genotyping analysis in france: identification of a strain cluster with reduced susceptibility to Ceftriaxone
    Laura Monfort
    Institut Alfred Fournier, 25 boulevard Saint Jacques, 75014 Paris, France
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3540-5. 2009
    ..Of note, no predominant ST was identified among rectal isolates from men who have sex with men...
  95. pmc Predicting phenotype and emerging strains among Chlamydia trachomatis infections
    Deborah Dean
    Children s Global Health Initiativ, Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California 94609, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1385-94. 2009
    ..Multilocus and SNP typing can now be used to detect diverse and emerging C. trachomatis strains for epidemiologic and evolutionary studies of trachoma and STI populations worldwide...
  96. ncbi Mycobacterium tuberculosis Uganda genotype is the predominant cause of TB in Kampala, Uganda
    B B Asiimwe
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Makerere University Medical School, Kampala, Uganda
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 12:386-91. 2008
    ..Rubaga Division, Kampala, Uganda...
  97. ncbi Detection of salmonellae in different turtle species within a headwater spring ecosystem
    James P Gaertner
    Department of Biology, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666, USA
    J Wildl Dis 44:519-26. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate the presence of different strains of potentially human pathogenic salmonellae naturally occurring on several turtle species with different life histories even within supposedly pristine environments...
  98. pmc Automated high-throughput genotyping for study of global epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units
    P Supply
    Laboratoire des Mécanismes Moléculaires de la Pathogenèse Bactérienne, INSERM U447, Institut Pasteur de Lille, F 59019 Lille cedex, France
    J Clin Microbiol 39:3563-71. 2001
    ..tuberculosis MIRU-VNTR genotypes via the Internet. This opens the way for global epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis and should lead to novel insights into the evolutionary and population genetics of this major pathogen...
  99. doi Current understanding of the genetic diversity of Brucella, an expanding genus of zoonotic pathogens
    Adrian M Whatmore
    FAO WHO Collaborating Centre for Brucellosis, OIE Brucellosis Reference Centre, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom
    Infect Genet Evol 9:1168-84. 2009
    ....
  100. doi Recent and rapid emergence of W-Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa
    Donna Cowley
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 47:1252-9. 2008
    ..Our goal was to determine whether W-Beijing strains are expanding in a region of South Africa where rates of tuberculosis are among the highest in the world...
  101. doi Partial recN gene sequencing: a new tool for identification and phylogeny within the genus Streptococcus
    Olga O Glazunova
    Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Virologie, Hopital de la Timone, Marseille, Cedex 05, France
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:2140-8. 2010
    ..The results that were obtained confirmed the high genetic diversity within this group of streptococci...

Research Grants137 found, 100 shown here

  1. GOLD QUENCHED MOLECULAR BEACONS
    Richard Powell; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Resistant E.coli in Humans and Poultry
    James Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Does the research address a current and compelling problem of antimicrobial resistance that is of high public health importance and for which research is needed? [yes]. ..
  3. Infectious Disease Training in Clinical Investigation
    James Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  4. Intrabody Therapy in Drosophila for Huntington's Disease
    WILLIAM WOLFGANG; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..If successful this will provide validation of intrabodies as disease therapeutics and impetus to proceed to preclinical testing in vertebrate models of HD. ..
  5. Orgin of multidrug resistant uropathogenic E. coli
    Lee Riley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This knowledge should lead to the implementation of improved control of drug-resistant infectious diseases. ..
  6. Epidemiology of an uropathogenic E coli clonal group
    Lee Riley; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..coli can be spread by contaminated ingestible vehicles, and use the data generated from this project to design long-term studies to better characterize risk factors associated with CgA infection. ..
  7. ANTIOXIDANT GENES OF MYCOBACERIUM TUBERCULOSIS
    Lee Riley; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  8. In vivo regulation of M. tuberculosis cell wall lipids
    Lee W Riley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..tuberculosis and granulomas may contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of persistence of M. tuberculosis that could lead to new tests to differentiate active TB from latent TB infection. ..
  9. Therapeutic vaccine against tuberculosis
    Lee Riley; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Therapeutic vaccines against TB is a major priority in TB control, and we have an opportunity to identify such products by a novel approach using a simple, inexpensive, and reproducible animal model. ..
  10. Forensic Detection of Salmonella Resistance and Subtype
    Lee Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..enterica and 2) molecular methods for rapid outbreak detection among S. enterica serovars. ..
  11. Shedding of HIV In Semen Despite Antiretroviral Therapy
    Lee Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. H pylori Induced DNA Damage and Immune Dysregulation
    Keith Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..pylori pathogenesis and associated inflammation and carcinogenesis, and may provide insight into other forms of mucosal inflammation. ..
  13. Epidemiology of Dental Caries and Immunity in Children
    Noel K Childers; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  14. Liposomal Recombinant Vaccine and Caries Immunity
    Noel Childers; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  15. Identifying Autism Susceptibility Genes By High-Throughput Chip Resequencing
    Michael Zwick; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Identifying the genetic basis of autism could enable more rapid diagnostic testing and provide insight into the root causes and eventually pave the way for better treatments of this increasingly common disorder. ..
  16. LIPOSOMAL S MUTANS DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR CARIES IMMUNITY
    Noel Childers; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  17. Social and biomedical risk factors for multi-drug resistant TB in rural China
    Biao Xu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is imperative to find not only biological factors but also social factors that more distally fuel this ongoing epidemic. Results of this study can contribute directly to improving TB control strategies aimed at reducing MDR-TB. ..
  18. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF INFECTION WITH M TUBERCULOSIS
    Lee Riley; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In addition, these studies may identify several potential targets for new chemotherapeutic agents or vaccine candidates. ..
  19. Epidemiology of Dental Caries and Immunity in Children
    Noel Childers; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  20. Copy Number Variation as a Cause of Congenital Heart Defects in Down Syndrome
    MICHAEL EDWARD ZWICK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Identifying the genetic basis of this disorder can provide insights into the origins of CHD and ultimately lead to improved methods of treatment and prevention. ..
  21. Extracrevicular Invasion by Periodontal Pathogens
    JOEL RUDNEY; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. Helicobacter induced hepatitis and tumorigenesis
    James Fox; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A more complete understanding of the etiopathogenesis of hepatobiliary disease and hepatocellular carcinoma is likely to result in new strategies for treatment and prevention of these important human diseases. ..
  23. Clinical Impact of Quinolone-Resistant E.coli carriage
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  24. Immunomodulatory effects of arginine supplementation in colitis and colon cancer
    Keith T Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  25. High-throughput Sequencing by Pyrosequencing
    Mostafa Ronaghi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The diverse array of research projects supported by the HTS facility will spark the development of new applications, accelerating the Center's technology development program and opening a new horizon in biomedical research at Stanford. ..
  26. Interactions Between Oral Biofilms and Dental Resin Composites
    JOEL D contact RUDNEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  27. Pyrosequencing Array for Genome Sequencing
    Ronald Davis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. VIRULENCE FACTORS OF GROUP B STREPTOCOCCI
    John Bohnsack; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This approach will ultimately contribute to understanding the molecular basis of disease caused by GBS, and help devise strategies for preventing and treating this important cause of serious human neonatal bacterial infection. ..
  29. Novel Application of Infection Control Strategies to Limit Transmission of ESBL'S
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  30. OmpR and acid regulation of Escherichia coli fim genes
    WILLIAM SCHWAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..By understanding how the fim genes are regulated, we may be able to treat urinary tract infections in the future through dietary changes or drugs that affect the regulatory cascade that leads to type 1 pilus expression. ..
  31. Analysis Of Group A Streptococcus-Saliva Interaction
    SAMUEL SHELBURNE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..GAS pharyngitis costs an estimated $15 billion/year in the US alone, and as the instigator of rheumatic fever, GAS remains, worldwide, the leading cause of preventable pediatric heart disease. ..
  32. New Pathogens for Childhood Caries
    Anne Tanner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..As a result, it is expected that many of the negative consequences of this disease will be avoided, with attendant reductions in the costs of dental and related medical care. ..
  33. Population genomics of Streptococcus pyogenes
    DEBRA BESSEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. Proline uptake in staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis
    WILLIAM SCHWAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The results of this study will help us understand the role of proline transport in S. aureus infections. ..
  35. IN VIVO STUDIES OF SALIVA ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEINS
    JOEL RUDNEY; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..By focusing on redundancy and complexing, this project also addresses the question of whether individual proteins exert unique and specific effects in the mouth. ..
  36. Quinolone resistant E coli in long term care facilities
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. IN VIVO STUDIES OF SALIVA ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEINS
    JOEL RUDNEY; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Results may clarify the interpretation of previous clinical studies. Approaches developed also will have broad applications for future studies of antimicrobial protein action in vivo...