Genomes and Genes
partial thromboplastin time
Summary: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
Publications235 found, 100 shown here
- Biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides from tropical seaweedsL S Costa
UFRN, Laboratório de Biotecnologia de Polímeros Naturais Biopol, Centro de Biociencias, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Av Sen Salgado Filho, 3000, 59072970 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
Biomed Pharmacother 64:21-8. 2010..In the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, which evaluates the intrinsic coagulation pathway, seven seaweeds presented anticoagulant ..
- Heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic TherapyJack Hirsh
Henderson Research Centre, 711 Concession St, Hamilton, ON L8V 1C3, Canada
Chest 126:188S-203S. 2004..Variability in activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) reagents necessitates site-specific validation of the aPTT therapeutic range in order to ..
- Interlaboratory agreement in the monitoring of unfractionated heparin using the anti-factor Xa-correlated activated partial thromboplastin timeA Cuker
Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
J Thromb Haemost 7:80-6. 2009..the College of American Pathologists (CAP) recommends that the therapeutic range of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) be defined in each laboratory through correlation with a direct measure of heparin activity such ..
- Thrombinography shows acquired resistance to activated protein C in patients with lupus anticoagulantsVeronique Regnault
Hematologie, EA 3452, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy, France
Thromb Haemost 89:208-12. 2003..The amount of thrombin activity generated in the presence of APC could be a better indicator of the thrombotic risk than the moment at which the thrombin burst starts...
- Partial characterization and anticoagulant activity of a heterofucan from the brown seaweed Padina gymnosporaT M A Silva
Laboratório de Glicobiologia, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brasil
Braz J Med Biol Res 38:523-33. 2005..5-fold lesser than low molecular weight heparin) estimated by activated partial thromboplastin time was completely abolished upon desulfation by solvolysis in dimethyl sulfoxide, indicating that 3-O-..
- Heterofucans from the brown seaweed Canistrocarpus cervicornis with anticoagulant and antioxidant activitiesRafael Barros Gomes Camara
Laboratory of Biotechnology of Natural Polymers, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal RN, Brazil
Mar Drugs 9:124-38. 2011..However, all polysaccharides prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Four sulfated polysaccharides (CC-0.3/CC-0.5/CC-0.7/CC-1.0) doubled aPTT with only 0...
- Thromboelastography as a better indicator of hypercoagulable state after injury than prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin timeMyung S Park
U S Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, USA
J Trauma 67:266-75; discussion 275-6. 2009..We hypothesized that a hypercoagulable state exists in patients early after severe injury and that the pattern of clotting and fibrinolysis are similar between burned and nonburn trauma patients...
- Common variants of large effect in F12, KNG1, and HRG are associated with activated partial thromboplastin timeLorna M Houlihan
Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
Am J Hum Genet 86:626-31. 2010Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is associated with risk of thrombosis and coagulation disorders...
- How to interpret and pursue an abnormal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and bleeding time in adultsArif H Kamal
Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Mayo Clin Proc 82:864-73. 2007The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) are among the most commonly ordered coagulation tests. In 2005, more than 140,000 PT and more than 95,000 APTT tests were performed at Mayo Clinic...
- A novel thromboelastographic score to identify overt disseminated intravascular coagulation resulting in a hypocoagulable statePrashant Sharma
Dept of Haematology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India
Am J Clin Pathol 134:97-102. 2010..Their combination into a cohesive TEM score possibly better captured the multiple hemostatic derangements occurring in DIC. The TEM score may bring objectivity to the analysis of TEM data...
- Genetic associations for activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time, their gene expression profiles, and risk of coronary artery diseaseWeihong Tang
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55454, USA
Am J Hum Genet 91:152-62. 2012Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) are clinical tests commonly used to screen for coagulation-factor deficiencies...
- Usefulness of synthetic phospholipid in measurement of activated partial thromboplastin time: a new preparation procedure to reduce batch differenceM Okuda
Product Development Division, Sysmex Corporation, Murotani, Nishi ku, Kobe, Japan
Clin Lab Haematol 26:215-23. 2004Commercial activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) reagents prepared with phospholipid extracted from animal or plant sources often differ in their response to heparin and coagulation factors and in their reference values...
- Usefulness of high-concentration calcium chloride solution for correction of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in patients with high-hematocrit valueMasaaki Kanahara
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kurume University Hospital, Kurume, Japan
Thromb Res 121:781-5. 2008Pseudoprolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a serious problem in anticoagulation therapy for patients with high hematocrit, such as cyanotic congenital heart diseases...
- Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of timosaponin B-II, an extract of Anemarrhena asphodeloidesWen Quan Lu
Department of Pharmacy, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai, China
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 38:430-4. 2011..Furthermore, 1, 3 and 6 mg/kg TB-II prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time by 9.29, 16.86 and 25.50%, respectively, but had no effect on the prothrombin time...
- Stability of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test under different storage conditionsMohammed A Awad
Hematology Unit, Clinical Pathology Department, Al Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Egypt
Hematology 11:311-5. 2006We designed this study to assess the effect of storage time and temperature on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test and plasma activity of factor VIII (FVIII)...
- Dabigatran in clinical practice for atrial fibrillation with special reference to activated partial thromboplastin timeShinya Suzuki
Department of Cardiology, The Cardiovascular Institute, Tokyo, Japan
Circ J 76:755-7. 2012BACKGROUNd: The distribution of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients under dabigatran therapy remains to be clarified.
- Replacing the first epidermal growth factor-like domain of factor IX with that of factor VII enhances activity in vitro and in canine hemophilia BJ Y Chang
Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7035, USA
J Clin Invest 100:886-92. 1997....
- Biphasic activated partial thromboplastin time waveform and adverse events in non-intensive care unit patientsEve Y Smith
Department of Pathology, Division of Laboratory Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Am J Clin Pathol 121:138-41. 2004The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the presence of a biphasic activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) waveform (BPW) is associated with adverse clinical outcomes among patients not in an intensive care unit (..
- A diagnostic challenge: mild hemophilia B with normal activated partial thromboplastin timeChang Hun Park
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 21:368-71. 2010..The diagnosis of hemophilia B is typically suspected by significantly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) on screening tests, but aPTT may be normal or minimally prolonged in mild hemophilia B...
- Coagulopathy after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation following cardiac arrest: implication of the protein C anticoagulant pathwayChristophe Adrie
Intensive Care Unit, Delafontaine Hospital, Saint Denis, France
J Am Coll Cardiol 46:21-8. 2005..We investigated coagulation abnormalities in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients, with special attention to the protein C anticoagulant pathway...
- A shortened activated partial thromboplastin time is associated with the risk of venous thromboembolismArmando Tripodi
Angelo Bianchi Bonomi, Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Department of Internal Medicine, University and IRCCS Maggiore Hospital, Milano, Italy
Blood 104:3631-4. 2004..These factors are cumulatively explored by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)...
- Use of a fixed activated partial thromboplastin time ratio to establish a therapeutic range for unfractionated heparinS M Bates
Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Arch Intern Med 161:385-91. 2001..5 to 2.5 times the control activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is not universally applicable...
- Monitoring of unfractionated heparin with the activated partial thromboplastin time: determination of therapeutic rangesA M H P van den Besselaar
Department of Hematology, Leiden University Medical Center, P O Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands
Thromb Res 107:235-40. 2002..study was to determine therapeutic ranges for unfractionated heparin therapy using the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) by calibration against anti-Xa concentration. APTT assays were performed locally, i.e...
- Postpartum acquired hemophilia (factor VIII inhibitors): a case report and review of the literatureS A Shobeiri
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New Orleans 70112, USA
Obstet Gynecol Surv 55:729-37. 2000..The literature concerning acquired hemophilia is reviewed, and new therapeutic medical advances are emphasized...
- [Risk of hemorrhage after adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy. Value of the preoperative determination of partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and platelet count]K Scheckenbach
Klinik fur Hals, Nasen, Ohren Krankheiten, Medizinische Einrichtungen der Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225 Dusseldorf, Deutschland
HNO 56:312-20. 2008..Therefore, routine preoperative coagulation screening, including activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and platelet count (PLC), are regularly performed, also for medicolegal ..
- Global anticoagulant effects of a synthetic anti-factor Xa inhibitor (DX-9065a): implications for interventional useMahmut Tobu
Department of Pathology and Pharmacology, Loyola University, Maywood, Illinois, USA
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 9:1-17. 2003..time assay, thrombelastography, and global clotting tests, such as prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), diluted aPTT, Heptest, Heptest-HI, dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT), thrombin time, ..
- Prediction of recurrent venous thromboembolism by the activated partial thromboplastin timeG Hron
Department of Internal Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
J Thromb Haemost 4:752-6. 2006..Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multi-factorial disease. Extensive thrombophilia screening is costly and often inconclusive. Simple laboratory methods are required to predict the risk of recurrence...
- First experience with direct, selective factor Xa inhibition in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: results of the XaNADU-ACS TrialJ H Alexander
Duke University Center and Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC 27715, USA
J Thromb Haemost 3:439-47. 2005..Anticoagulants with predictable kinetics and anticoagulant effects, better efficacy, and greater safety are needed...
- Heterofucans from Dictyota menstrualis have anticoagulant activityI R L Albuquerque
Laboratório de Biotecnologia de Polímeros Naturais, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072 970 Natal, RN, Brazil
Braz J Med Biol Res 37:167-71. 2004..The anticoagulant activity of these heterofucans was determined by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) using citrate normal human plasma. Only the fucans F1.0v and F1.5v showed anticoagulant activity...
- Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ximelagatran, a novel oral direct thrombin inhibitor, in young healthy male subjectsUlf G Eriksson
AstraZeneca R and D, 431 83 Mölndal, Sweden
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 59:35-43. 2003..The primary objectives were to determine the dose linearity and reproducibility of melagatran exposure and the influence of food intake...
- Relationship of activated partial thromboplastin time to coronary events and bleeding in patients with acute coronary syndromes who receive heparinSonia S Anand
McMaster Clinic Population Health Section, 237 Barton St E, Hamilton, Ontario L8L 2X2, Canada
Circulation 107:2884-8. 2003..The need for a therapeutic range with the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) has not been validated in patients with arterial thrombosis who receive heparin...
- Transient acquired hemophilia associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumoniaMin Sun Kim
Department of Pediatrics and the Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea
J Korean Med Sci 23:138-41. 2008..Hematologic studies showed a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), partially corrected mixing test for aPTT, reduced levels of FVIII, and the presence of ..
- Synthetic selective inhibitors of coagulation factor Xa strongly inhibit thrombin generation without affecting initial thrombin forming time necessary for platelet activation in hemostasisM Ieko
Departments of Internal Medicine, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Ishikari Tobetsu, Hokkaido, Japan
J Thromb Haemost 2:612-8. 2004....
- The activated partial thromboplastin time in early diagnosis of myocardial infarctionA M Madi
Yale Prevention Research Center and The Department of Preventive Medicine, Griffin Hospital, Yale University School of Medicine, Derby, Connecticut 06418, USA
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 12:495-9. 2001..few studies have examined the diagnostic value of routine coagulability markers, such as the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), in patients with chest pain...
- Analysis of the activated partial thromboplastin time test using mathematical modelingA E Kogan
Biological Faculty, Department of Biochemistry, Room 129, Moscow State University, 119899, Moscow, Russia
Thromb Res 101:299-310. 2001Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a laboratory test for the diagnosis of blood coagulation disorders...
- A laboratory evaluation into the short activated partial thromboplastin timeAshraf Mina
Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW 1245, Australia
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 21:152-7. 2010....
- Further data on the structure of brown seaweed fucans: relationships with anticoagulant activityL Chevolot
Unité de Recherche Marine 2 et Laboratoire de Biochimie et Molécules Marines, IFREMER, Nantes, France
Carbohydr Res 319:154-65. 1999..Anticoagulant activity is apparently related not only to MW and sulfation content, as previously determined, but also (and more precisely) to 2-O-sulfation and 2,3-O-disulfation levels...
- Prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time assay considerationsValerie L Ng
Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Clin Lab Med 29:253-63. 2009..Thus, this article reviews laboratory issues and known variables influencing prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time results and international normalized ratio determinations.
- Shortened activated partial thromboplastin time: causes and managementGiuseppe Lippi
Dipartimento di Patologia e Medicina di Laboratorio, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Parma, Italy
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 21:459-63. 2010..hemostasis laboratory, and as an evaluation of the coagulation cascade, the results of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) have primarily been considered as an index of loss-of-function and rarely as an index of gain-of-..
- Epidemiological association between fasting plasma glucose and shortened APTTGiuseppe Lippi
Sezione di Chimica Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico Biomediche, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Ospedale Policlinico G B Rossi, Piazzale Scuro, 10, 37134 Verona, Italy
Clin Biochem 42:118-20. 2009To investigate the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and shortened activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), an independent risk factor for thrombosis.
- The multiple faces of the partial thromboplastin time APTTS I Rapaport
Department of Medicine and Pathology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
J Thromb Haemost 2:2250-9. 2004
- Abnormally short activated partial thromboplastin times are related to elevated plasma levels of TAT, F1+2, D-dimer and FVIII:CEdwin ten Boekel
Laboratory for Clinical Chemistry, Hematology and Immunology, Medical Center of Alkmaar, Alkmaar, The Netherlands
Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb 32:137-42. 2002..In conclusion, short APTTs are indicative of marked coagulation activity and elevated FVIII:C levels. Elevated FVIII:C levels may play a pathogenic role in the increased risk of thrombosis associated with abnormally short APTTs...
- Isolated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time in an asymptomatic patient: Fletcher factor deficiencyKadir Acar
Thromb Res 118:765-6. 2006
- Measurement of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) on canine citrated plasma samples following different storage conditionsF Rizzo
Small Animal Hospital, School of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK
Res Vet Sci 85:166-70. 2008....
- Effect of freezing method and storage at -20 degrees C and -70 degrees C on prothrombin time, aPTT and plasma fibrinogen levelsSonja Alesci
University Hospital of Frankfurt, Hemophilia Center, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
Thromb Res 124:121-6. 2009..Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and fibrinogen using a kinetic fibrinogen assay, PT-derived fibrinogen, and an immunoassay were ..
- Hemostatic profiles in 39 dogs with congenital portosystemic shuntsJ D Niles
Small Animal Teaching Hospital, The University of Liverpool, England
Vet Surg 30:97-104. 2001OBJECTIVES: To determine if there were significant changes in prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and fibrinogen levels in dogs with naturally occurring congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) and to determine if ..
- Coagulation profiles in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts before and after surgical attenuationAnne Kummeling
Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
J Vet Intern Med 20:1319-26. 2006..Serious postoperative hemorrhage has been reported in dogs after closure of congenital portosystemic shunts (CPS)...
- Stability of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time tests under different storage conditionsL V Rao
UTMB TDCJ Correctional Managed Care, Huntsville, TX, USA
Clin Chim Acta 300:13-21. 2000Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) are common laboratory tests that are useful in the diagnosis of coagulation disorders and monitoring anticoagulant therapy...
- Guidelines for the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in uncontrolled bleeding: a report by the Israeli Multidisciplinary rFVIIa Task ForceU Martinowitz
National Hemophilia Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
J Thromb Haemost 3:640-8. 2005....
- Recombinant activated factor VII for adjunctive hemorrhage control in traumaU Martinowitz
National Hemophilia Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
J Trauma 51:431-8; discussion 438-9. 2001..Therefore, use of the drug in trauma patients suffering uncontrolled hemorrhage appears to be rational...
- Functional effects of the ABO locus polymorphism on plasma levels of von Willebrand factor, factor VIII, and activated partial thromboplastin timeJ C Souto
Unitat d Hemostasia i Trombosi, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 20:2024-8. 2000..00075). In addition, factor VIII coagulant activity and activated partial thromboplastin time showed suggestive linkage with the ABO locus (P=0.10 and P=0.13)...
- The biphasic waveform in plasma: identifying the sepsis--coagulation crossroad? A rebuttalC H Toh
J Thromb Haemost 3:604-5; author reply 605-6. 2005
- Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on activated partial thromboplastin time waveform analysis, serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein concentrationsBertrand Delannoy
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Louis Pradel Hospital, 69500 Bron, France
Crit Care 13:R180. 2009..Biphasic waveform (BPW) analysis is a new biological test derived from activated partial thromboplastin time that has recently been proposed for sepsis diagnosis...
- Prothrombinase enhancement through quantitative and qualitative changes affecting very low density lipoprotein in complex with C-reactive proteinMichael W Dennis
Roald Dahl Haemostasis and Thrombosis Centre, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP, United Kingdom
Thromb Haemost 91:522-30. 2004..Using a modified activated partial thromboplastin time assay, the mean normal clot time decreased significantly when VLDL from patients with biphasic ..
- Plasma fibrinogen level, bleeding, and transfusion after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: a prospective observational studyMartin Karlsson
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
Transfusion 48:2152-8. 2008..We investigated the relationship between preoperative fibrinogen plasma concentration and postoperative bleeding and transfusion after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)...
- Inhibition of thrombin generation in plasma by inhibitors of factor XaD Prasa
Zentrum für Vaskuläre Biologie und Medizin, Klinikum der Friedrich Schiller Universitat Jena, Germany
Thromb Haemost 78:1215-20. 1997..In contrast, the highly potent FXa inhibitor r-TAP causes a stronger reduction of the thrombin activity in plasma than the most potent thrombin inhibitor hirudin...
- Disagreement between bedside and laboratory activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio for various novel anticoagulantsM J Kemme
Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 12:583-91. 2001..studies on warfarin, heparin and various anticoagulants with novel mechanisms of action, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and the (apparent) international normalized ratio (INR) from a bedside monitor (Coagucheck Plus(..
- Acquired anti-FVIII inhibitors in childrenR J Moraca
The Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA, USA
Haemophilia 8:28-32. 2002..The median baseline FVIII was 0.05 U mL(-1), and the median baseline activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was 79.8 s...
- Targeted deletion of murine coagulation factor XII gene-a model for contact phase activation in vivoHans Ulrich Pauer
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical School, University of Goettingen, Germany
Thromb Haemost 92:503-8. 2004..FXII knockout (FXII(-)/(-)) mice showed no FXII plasma activity and had a markedly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)...
- Abnormally short activated partial thromboplastin time values are associated with increased risk of recurrence of venous thromboembolism after oral anticoagulation withdrawalCristina Legnani
Department of Angiology and Blood Coagulation Marino Golinelli, University Hospital S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna, Italy
Br J Haematol 134:227-32. 2006This study prospectively evaluated the relationship between activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence after oral anticoagulant (OA) withdrawal in patients with a previous unprovoked ..
- Activated partial thromboplastin time waveform analysis: a new tool to detect infection?Nicolas Chopin
Service de Réanimation Chirurgicale and Laboratoire d Hémostase, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France
Crit Care Med 34:1654-60. 2006An abnormality of the optical transmission waveform obtained during measurement of the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) has been described to identify a high-risk intensive care unit population consisting of patients with ..
- Transition from argatroban to oral anticoagulation with phenprocoumon or acenocoumarol: effects on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and Ecarin Clotting TimeSebastian Harder
Pharmazentrum Frankfurt, Institute for Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Thromb Haemost 91:1137-45. 2004..A similar interference of the VKA on the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), a monitoring assay for direct thrombin inhibitors, can occur...
- Combined prednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for acquired factor VIII inhibitors: a 2-year reviewA C Dykes
Haemophilia Centre, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
Haemophilia 7:160-3. 2001..All patients were bleeding at the time of diagnosis with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. There were four complete responses, one partial response, one nonresponse and one with an inadequate ..
- Combination of biphasic transmittance waveform with blood procalcitonin levels for diagnosis of sepsis in acutely ill patientsAhmed N Zakariah
Department of Intensive Care, Erasme Hospital, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Crit Care Med 36:1507-12. 2008..of combining measurement of blood procalcitonin (PCT) concentrations with the presence of a biphasic transmittance waveform (BPW) from the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) to identify sepsis in critically ill patients.
- Biphasic transmittance waveform in the APTT coagulation assay is due to the formation of a Ca(++)-dependent complex of C-reactive protein with very-low-density lipoprotein and is a novel marker of impending disseminated intravascular coagulationCheng Hock Toh
Departments of Biochemistry and Pathology, Queen s University, Kingston, ON, Canada
Blood 100:2522-9. 2002..The complex has been designated lipoprotein complexed C-reactive protein...
- Effect of argatroban on the activated partial thromboplastin time: a comparison of 21 commercial reagentsJohn L Francis
Florida Hospital Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 2501 North Orange Avenue, Orlando, FL 32804, USA
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 16:251-7. 2005..We conclude that most aPTT reagents are similarly sensitive to argatroban, and reagent choice is unlikely to significantly affect argatroban monitoring in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia...
- Utility of activated partial thromboplastin time waveform analysis for identification of sepsis and overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unitCarl Erik H Dempfle
Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Mannheim, Germany
Crit Care Med 32:520-4. 2004An abnormality of the optical transmission waveform obtained during measurement of the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) has been described in association with overt disseminated intravascular coagulation...
- In vitro factor XI activation mechanism according to an optimized model of activated partial thromboplastin time testA Kramoroff
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 12:289-99. 2001..In this context, we have simulated theoretical activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) by means of a program based on a body of 22 essential elementary reactions implemented with rate ..
- Characterization of a myeloma patient with a life-threatening hemorrhagic diathesis: presence of a lambda dimer protein inhibiting shear-induced platelet aggregation by binding to the A1 domain of von Willebrand factorAtsushi Shinagawa
Division of Hematology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
Thromb Haemost 93:889-96. 2005..Both the bleeding time (>25 min) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were prolonged...
- Effect of specimen collection on routine coagulation assays and D-dimer measurementGiuseppe Lippi
Istituto di Chimica Microscopia Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico Biomediche, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Verona, Italy
Clin Chem 50:2150-2. 2004
- Results of a survey of hospital coagulation laboratories in the United States, 2001Shahram Shahangian
Division of Laboratory Services, Coordinating Center for Health Information and Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
Arch Pathol Lab Med 129:47-60. 2005..Coagulation and bleeding problems are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, and inappropriate testing practices may lead to bleeding or thrombotic complications...
- Mitigation of coagulation by removing clotting factors part 1: in vitro feasibility studyJared T Parker
Chemical Engineering Department, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA
ASAIO J 53:415-20. 2007..II (prothrombin), VIII, and X, and proteins C and S, and for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and total protein concentration...
- Preparation and anticoagulation activity of sodium cellulose sulfateZhao Mei Wang
Research Institute of Light Industry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, PR China
Int J Biol Macromol 41:376-82. 2007..Results indicated that Na-MCS exhibited higher anticoagulation activity based on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay and prolonged the thrombin time (TT) to a lesser extent than heparin...
- Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin when coadministered with pentosan polysulfate sodiumNishit B Modi
ALZA Corp, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, 1900 Charleston Road, PO Box 7210, Mountain View, CA 94039 7210, USA
J Clin Pharmacol 45:919-26. 2005..Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and the international normalized ratio for warfarin + placebo and warfarin + pentosan polysulfate ..
- Differences in the clinically effective molar concentrations of four direct thrombin inhibitors explain their variable prothrombin time prolongationTheodore E Warkentin
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Thromb Haemost 94:958-64. 2005..On a mole-for-mole basis, lepirudin was most able to prolong the PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin clotting time (TCT), whereas argatroban had the least effect...
- Anticoagulant property of a semi-synthesized sodium beta-1,4-glucan sulfateZhao Mei Wang
Institute of Light Industry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou
Yao Xue Xue Bao 41:323-7. 2006..To investigate the anticoagulant efficacy and mechanism of a semi-synthesized sodium beta-1,4-glucan sulfate (Na-MCS)...
- Overuse of prothrombin and partial thromboplastin coagulation tests in medical inpatientsFlorian H Pilsczek
Division of Infectious Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Belfer 610, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Heart Lung 34:402-5. 2005..of anticoagulant therapy, prothrombin time (PT) is used to measure the effect of warfarin, whereas the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) measures the therapeutic effect of unfractionated heparin...
- Effect on routine and special coagulation testing values of citrate anticoagulant adjustment in patients with high hematocrit valuesRichard A Marlar
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service, Oklahoma, City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
Am J Clin Pathol 126:400-5. 2006..55-0.72]). Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) results from nonadjusted and adjusted samples were statistically different and exponentially ..
- Predilution versus postdilution during continuous venovenous hemofiltration: a comparison of circuit thrombogenesisAnne Cornelie J M de Pont
Departments of Intensive Care, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
ASAIO J 52:416-22. 2006..In summary, predilution and postdilution did not differ with respect to extracorporeal circuit thrombogenesis. During postdilution, baseline platelet count and maximal prefilter pressure were inversely related with circuit survival time...
- Effects of antithrombin and heparin cofactor II levels on anticoagulation with IntimatanKenichi A Tanaka
Department of Anesthesiology, The Emory Healthcare, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Thromb Haemost 94:808-13. 2005..With the absence of both cofactors, neither agent alone or in combination had any effect on thrombin generation. We conclude that Intimatan may be an effective adjunct to heparin therapy under low AT conditions...
- Effects of a protease inhibitor, ulinastatin, on coagulation and fibrinolysis in abdominal surgeryTomoki Nishiyama
Department of Anesthesiology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
J Anesth 20:179-82. 2006..The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of ulinastatin, a protease inhibitor, on coagulation and fibrinolysis in abdominal surgery...
- Molecular characterization and anticoagulant activity of a novel annexin derived from the Taenia soliumKaiHui Wang
Department of Medical Genetics, The Second Military Medical University, Xiang Yin Road 800, Shanghai 200433, PR China
Acta Trop 99:165-72. 2006..Nevertheless, the mutant protein deleting the consensus coagulation-related KGD motif of Tso ANXB2 showed significant decreasing platelet binding and anticoagulation activity...
- Clinically applicable laboratory end-points for treating snakebite coagulopathyGeoffrey K Isbister
Tropical Toxinology Unit, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
Pathology 38:568-72. 2006..To determine which coagulation tests best reflect the return of clotting function after snakebite venom induced consumptive coagulopathy (VICC)...
- Design, synthesis and molecular modelling of 1-amidinopiperidine thrombin inhibitorsI Smolnikar
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, University Medical Centre, Slovenia
Pharmazie 62:243-54. 2007..The binding conformation of inhibitors in the active site of thrombin was revealed by molecular modelling studies...
- Presence of direct thrombin inhibitors can affect the results and interpretation of lupus anticoagulant testingJonathan R Genzen
Department of Pathology, Pritzker School of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Am J Clin Pathol 124:586-93. 2005..curves were generated to calculate the concentration of anticoagulant that prolongs the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) to 75 seconds (2.5 times the baseline average)...
- Utility of routine coagulation studies in emergency department patients with suspected acute coronary syndromesDagan Schwartz
Department of Emergency Medicine, Mt Sinai Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA
Isr Med Assoc J 7:502-6. 2005..Many emergency departments use coagulation studies in the evaluation of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes...
- Experimental study on anticoagulant and antiplatelet aggregation activity of a chemically sulfated marine polysaccharide YCPFang Han
School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, PR China
Int J Biol Macromol 36:201-7. 2005..activity and antiplatelet aggregation activity of these sulfated derivates were evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and platelet aggregation assay...
- Routine coagulation tests in newborn and young infantsGiuseppe Lippi
Sezione di Chimica Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico Biomediche, Ospedale Policlinico G B Rossi, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Piazzale Scuro, 10, 37134 Verona, Italy
J Thromb Thrombolysis 24:153-5. 2007..The diagnostic approach to haemostatic defects in the newborn is challenging and requires appropriate interpretation of coagulation tests according to reference values dependent on the postnatal age...
- Coagulation assaysShannon M Bates
Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Henderson Research Centre, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Circulation 112:e53-60. 2005
- The anticoagulant fraction from the leaves of Diospyros kaki L. has an antithrombotic activityYou Seon Sa
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680 749, Korea
Arch Pharm Res 28:667-74. 2005..It delayed thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT) using human plasma...
- Recombinant human antithrombin inhibits thrombin formation and interleukin 6 release in human endotoxemiaJudith M Leitner
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Immunohaematology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria
Clin Pharmacol Ther 79:23-34. 2006..Effects on leukocytes and inhibition of interleukin-6 release seem to represent specific pharmacodynamic properties of recombinant human antithrombin...
- Improved coagulation and blood conservation in the golden hours after cardiopulmonary bypassScott R Beckmann
Salem Hospital, Salem, Oregon, USA
J Extra Corpor Technol 39:103-8. 2007..Hematocrit, platelet count, fibrinogen concentration ([Fib]), prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and international normalized ratio (INR) were compared between two prospective convenience ..
- Anticoagulant from Taraxacum platycarpumSoo In Yun
Department of Biological Sciences and Immunomodulation Research Center, University of Ulsan, Korea
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66:1859-64. 2002..255, and 873 nM, respectively, the protein doubled the thrombin time, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time. It inhibited thrombin and kallikrein, but did not hydrolyze fibrinogen...
- Heparanase modulates heparinoids anticoagulant activities via non-enzymatic mechanismsBen Zion Katz
The Hematology Institute, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv 64239, Israel
Thromb Haemost 98:1193-9. 2007..Altogether, heparanase pro-coagulant activities that were also demonstrated in plasma samples from patients under LMWH treatment, point to a possible use of this molecule as antagonist for heparinoid treatment...
- [Study of anticoagulant activity of ethanol extracts from leech in vitro]Guang jun Feng
Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
Zhong Yao Cai 30:909-11. 2007..To study the anticoagulant activity of different portions of leech ethanol extracts (LEEs)...
- Thrombelastography in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia treated with argatrobanEmily A Zayac
Anesth Analg 106:351-2. 2008
- Anticoagulant activity of captoprilArthur S Brecher
Department of Chemistry, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403, USA
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 51:99-105. 2008..exerted an anticoagulant effect upon clotting time as followed by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), with prolongation of clotting observed at 4...
- Decreased concentrations of heparinoids are required to inhibit thrombin generation in plasma from newborns and children compared to plasma from adults due to reduced thrombin potentialAnthony K C Chan
Hamilton Civic Hospitals Research Centre, Ontario, Canada
Thromb Haemost 87:606-13. 2002..Cord plasma was the most sensitive to inhibition, with ATH being more effective than UFH or LMWH...
- Significant increase of activated partial thromboplastin time by heparinization of the radial artery catheter flush solution with a closed arterial catheter systemEric A J Hoste
Intensive Care Unit, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
Crit Care Med 30:1030-4. 2002..Evaluate whether the use of a heparinized flush for an arterial catheter with a closed-loop blood sampling system leads to erroneous coagulation studies...
- Measurement of blood and plasma coagulation time using free oscillating rheometryJ S Ungerstedt
Department of Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Scand J Clin Lab Invest 62:135-40. 2002..in recalcified blood and plasma covariated with prothrombin time (PT) according to Owren, and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)...
- Effects of human soluble thrombomodulin on experimental glomerulonephritisHiroshi Ikeguchi
Internal Medicine III, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
Kidney Int 61:490-501. 2002..The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (RHS-TM) in a lethal model of thrombotic glomerulonephritis and to investigate the possible mechanisms...
- Dual Direct Inhibitors of Thrombin and Factor XaUmesh Desai; Fiscal Year: 2009..at concentrations 2-6-fold below that of the clinically used LMWH enoxaparin, while in the activated partial thromboplastin time assay they required 2-6-fold higher concentration...
- Dual Direct Inhibitors of Thrombin and Factor XaUMESH RAMANLAL DESAI; Fiscal Year: 2010..at concentrations 2-6-fold below that of the clinically used LMWH enoxaparin, while in the activated partial thromboplastin time assay they required 2-6-fold higher concentration...
- EFFECTS OF TF/FVIIa INHIBITION IN CRP TRANSGENIC MICEChristopher Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2004..at different doses and efficacy will be determined by the effects on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet aggregation, and cyclic flow variations measured by Doppler flow...
- Vascular Mechanisms in Homocysteinemia and AtherosclerosisSTEVEN LENTZ; Fiscal Year: 2009..The goals of this project are to define the molecular mechanisms by which hyperhomocysteinemia and hypercholesterolemia, alone or in combination, lead to adverse vascular events, and to identify new targets for therapy. ..
- MECHANISMS OF VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION IN HOMOCYSTEINEMIASTEVEN LENTZ; Fiscal Year: 2007..This project has the potential to suggest novel therapeutic approaches to the prevention and treatment of vascular disease associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. ..
- Vascular Mechanisms in Homocysteinemia and AtherosclerosisSteven R Lentz; Fiscal Year: 2010..The goals of this project are to define the molecular mechanisms by which hyperhomocysteinemia and hypercholesterolemia, alone or in combination, lead to adverse vascular events, and to identify new targets for therapy. ..
- MECHANISMS OF VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION IN HOMOCYSTEINEMIASTEVEN LENTZ; Fiscal Year: 2003..Aim 2, will test the hypothesis that vascular dysfunction in hyperhomocysteinemic mice is caused by increased oxidative stress in vivo. Aim 3 will attempt to determine the mechanisms of elevation of ADMA in hyperhomocysteinemia. ..
- Program in Hematology:& Cell Biology Blood CellsSTEVEN LENTZ; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- Assessing Circulating Progenitor Cells in Heart DiseaseThomas Povsic; Fiscal Year: 2007..This study will look at two methods of measuring these stem cells in the blood of heart patients. These methods may someday be used to predict who will or will not develop heart disease or other complications. ..
- Stabilized factor VIIIa as improved therapy for hemophilia AANDREW GALE; Fiscal Year: 2007..This treatment could improve the quality of life and overall health of the hemophilia A sufferers. ..
- Reduction of Annexin A5 in Antiphospholipid Pregnancy LossJACOB RAND; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- REDUCTION OF ANNEXIN IN ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID PREGNANCY LOSSJACOB RAND; Fiscal Year: 2002..This innovative project opens a new path toward elucidating the mechanism of pregnancy loss in the antiphospholipid syndrome and is likely to lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. ..
- Genetic Epidemiological Study of Venous Thromboembolism and Hemostatic FactorsWeihong Tang; Fiscal Year: 2010..The intermediate phenotypes include plasma levels of factor VIIIc, von Willebrand factor, and activated partial thromboplastin time. 3) To test for replication of significant genetic associations with VTE using a Mayo Clinic VTE study (..
- PROTEINS OF COAGULATION PATHWAYSJohn Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007..The proposed studies will increase our insights into the pathophysiology of thrombosis and are likely to improve diagnosis and treatment of thrombosis. ..
- Chemical Modulation of Orphan Nuclear Receptor FunctionSridhar Mani; Fiscal Year: 2010..These studies will be vital for the generation on non-toxic compounds that antagonize PXR function - a tool necessary to probe PXR function in cells. ..
- STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PROTEIN CJohn H Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2011..The findings may well be translatable into future clinical advances. ..
- STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PROTEIN CJohn H Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2010..The findings may well be translatable into future clinical advances. ..
- The role of hypoxia in venous neointimal hyperplasia in hemodialysis graftsSanjay Misra; Fiscal Year: 2010..The long term goal of this current proposal and research program is to improve the care of patients with ESRD, the vast majority of who use long-term hemodialysis as their mode of renal replacement therapy. ..
- Voices of children and adolescents with incurable cancer on Phase I or II TrialsPamela S Hinds; Fiscal Year: 2010..This study will allow us to measure direct symptom and quality of life reports of children and adolescents with incurable cancer who are receiving experimental drugs. ..
- Chemical Modulation of Orphan Nuclear Receptor FunctionSridhar Mani; Fiscal Year: 2009..These studies will be vital for the generation on non-toxic compounds that antagonize PXR function - a tool necessary to probe PXR function in cells. ..
- FONDAPARINUM IN CHILDREN WITH THROMBOSISGuy Young; Fiscal Year: 2007..Pharmacokinetic analyses as well as safety and efficacy determinations will be made which will provide valuable information on this new anticoagulant for pediatric patients. ..
- STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PROTEIN CJohn Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2009..These studies will improve our ability to understand, diagnose and treat thrombotic diseases. ..
- Pharmacologic Prevention of Arteriovenous Graft ThrombosisStephanie Perry; Fiscal Year: 2007..Relevance: Patients must have vascular access for hemodialysis. Access complications account for 16- 25% of the hospital admissions for these patients, therefore contributing to both morbidity and health costs. ..
- MECHANISMS OF HORMONE THERAPY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMENL Newby; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- PATHOGENIC MECHANISMS AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES IN HUSRichard Siegler; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- PROTEINS OF COAGULATION PATHWAYSJohn Griffin; Fiscal Year: 1999..The proposed structure-function studies of protein S and of factor Va will contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of thrombosis and thereby eventually to the improved treatment of patients with thrombosis. ..
- PROTEINS OF COAGULATION PATHWAYSJohn Griffin; Fiscal Year: 1993..These studies will provide new knowledge about natural anticoagulant mechanisms and will be potentially useful for developing new approaches to regulate thrombosis...
- PROTEINS OF COAGULATION PATHWAYSJohn Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2003..The proposed studies of HDL, GlcCer, protein S and factor Va will increase our insights into the regulation of blood coagulation and thrombosis. ..
- Immune Thrombocytopenia and Low-Level Mercury ExposureJodi Segal; Fiscal Year: 2006..Segal with the necessary support for successful completion ..
- Novel targets and agents to treat thrombotic disordersJohn Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Enriched IVIG for the treatment of West Nile VirusIsrael Nur; Fiscal Year: 2005..In the absence of sufficient WN antibodies in convalescent donors, hyper-immune donors treated with an attenuated vaccine may be explored as an alternative source of plasma. ..
- PROTEINS OF COAGULATION PATHWAYSJohn H Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2010..This project will increase insights into the pathophysiology of thrombosis and may improve diagnosis and treatment of thrombosis. ..
- STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PROTEIN CJohn Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies will improve our ability to understand, diagnose and treat thrombotic diseases. ..
- Role of Inter-alpha Inhibitors in Anthrax IntoxicationSteven Opal; Fiscal Year: 2007..Our research is focused on the development of a new and safe treatment based on the ability of inter-alpha proteins to prevent the fatal consequences of anthrax infection. ..
- Dose-finding, pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy of bivalirudin in childrenGuy Young; Fiscal Year: 2009..125 mg/kg/hour). Dose adjustments will be based on the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) which will be the pharmacodynamic (PD) parameter measured...
- Nanoparticle targeting of cathepsin-L inhibitor and doxorubicin in breast cancerShaker Mousa; Fiscal Year: 2007..A novel technology, the use of nanoparticles to encapsulate the test drugs, will be tested to determine whether these nanoparticles can improve the delivery of drugs and minimize the associated toxicities. ..