saccades

Summary

Summary: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research
    K Rayner
    Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003, USA
    Psychol Bull 124:372-422. 1998
  2. ncbi Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices
    Timothy J Buschman
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center, and Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 315:1860-2. 2007
  3. ncbi Neural basis of a perceptual decision in the parietal cortex (area LIP) of the rhesus monkey
    M N Shadlen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, and Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7290, USA
    J Neurophysiol 86:1916-36. 2001
  4. ncbi Saccade target selection and object recognition: evidence for a common attentional mechanism
    H Deubel
    Max Planck Institut für Psychologische Forschung, Munchen, Germany
    Vision Res 36:1827-37. 1996
  5. ncbi Microsaccades uncover the orientation of covert attention
    Ralf Engbert
    Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, P O Box 601553, 14415, Potsdam, Germany
    Vision Res 43:1035-45. 2003
  6. ncbi Ultra-rapid object detection with saccadic eye movements: visual processing speed revisited
    Holle Kirchner
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition UMR 5549, CNRS Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Faculte de Medecine de Rangueil, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France
    Vision Res 46:1762-76. 2006
  7. ncbi Matching behavior and the representation of value in the parietal cortex
    Leo P Sugrue
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 304:1782-7. 2004
  8. ncbi The roles of vision and eye movements in the control of activities of daily living
    M Land
    Sussex Centre for Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK
    Perception 28:1311-28. 1999
  9. doi Transient induced gamma-band response in EEG as a manifestation of miniature saccades
    Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
    Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
    Neuron 58:429-41. 2008
  10. pmc A neural mechanism for microsaccade generation in the primate superior colliculus
    Ziad M Hafed
    Systems Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 323:940-3. 2009

Research Grants

  1. FUNCTION OF MIDBRAIN STRUCTURES IN EYE MOVEMENT CONTROL
    DAVID WAITZMAN; Fiscal Year: 2005
  2. OCULOMOTOR CONTROL AND GAIT IN PARKINSON DISEASE
    GAMMON EARHART; Fiscal Year: 2009
  3. CONTROL OF EYELIDS IN NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL STATES
    LESLIE EVINGER; Fiscal Year: 1993
  4. Coding of Auditory Space in the Avian Brain
    JOSE L PENA; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. Neural Integration of Eye and Head Movements
    Neeraj Gandhi; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. CEREBELLAR NUCLEI IN EYE MOVEMENT CONTROL AND ADAPTATION
    Farrel Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2003
  7. CORTICAL PLANNING AND CONTROL OF SMOOTH PURSUIT
    Stephen Heinen; Fiscal Year: 2001
  8. Eye Movement Control in Normal Elderly and MCI
    Adam L Boxer; Fiscal Year: 2010
  9. The Neurophysiology of Spatial Vision
    MICHAEL ELLIS GOLDBERG; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. DYNAMIC MACAQUE BASAL GANGLIA SACCADE NETWORKS
    ANN GRAYBIEL; Fiscal Year: 2004

Detail Information

Publications363 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research
    K Rayner
    Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003, USA
    Psychol Bull 124:372-422. 1998
    ..are (a) the characteristics of eye movements, (b) the perceptual span, (c) integration of information across saccades, (d) eye movement control, and (e) individual differences (including dyslexia)...
  2. ncbi Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices
    Timothy J Buschman
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center, and Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 315:1860-2. 2007
    ..This result indicates that top-down and bottom-up signals arise from the frontal and sensory cortex, respectively, and different modes of attention may emphasize synchrony at different frequencies...
  3. ncbi Neural basis of a perceptual decision in the parietal cortex (area LIP) of the rhesus monkey
    M N Shadlen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, and Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7290, USA
    J Neurophysiol 86:1916-36. 2001
    ..The time course of the neural response suggests that LIP accumulates sensory signals relevant to the selection of a target for an eye movement...
  4. ncbi Saccade target selection and object recognition: evidence for a common attentional mechanism
    H Deubel
    Max Planck Institut für Psychologische Forschung, Munchen, Germany
    Vision Res 36:1827-37. 1996
    ..The results favor a model in which a single attentional mechanism selects objects for perceptual processing and recognition, and also provides the information necessary for motor action...
  5. ncbi Microsaccades uncover the orientation of covert attention
    Ralf Engbert
    Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, P O Box 601553, 14415, Potsdam, Germany
    Vision Res 43:1035-45. 2003
    ..Furthermore, our results suggest that microsaccades can be used to map the orientation of visual attention in psychophysical experiments...
  6. ncbi Ultra-rapid object detection with saccadic eye movements: visual processing speed revisited
    Holle Kirchner
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition UMR 5549, CNRS Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Faculte de Medecine de Rangueil, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France
    Vision Res 46:1762-76. 2006
    ..when two scenes are simultaneously flashed in the left and right hemifields, human participants can reliably make saccades to the side containing an animal in as little as 120 ms...
  7. ncbi Matching behavior and the representation of value in the parietal cortex
    Leo P Sugrue
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 304:1782-7. 2004
    ..We found that a simple model based on reward history can duplicate this behavior and that neurons in the parietal cortex represent the relative value of competing actions predicted by this model...
  8. ncbi The roles of vision and eye movements in the control of activities of daily living
    M Land
    Sussex Centre for Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK
    Perception 28:1311-28. 1999
    ..This type of unconscious attention must be a common phenomenon in everyday life...
  9. doi Transient induced gamma-band response in EEG as a manifestation of miniature saccades
    Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
    Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
    Neuron 58:429-41. 2008
    ..The time course of the iGBR is related to an increase in the rate of saccades following a period of poststimulus saccadic inhibition...
  10. pmc A neural mechanism for microsaccade generation in the primate superior colliculus
    Ziad M Hafed
    Systems Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 323:940-3. 2009
    ..These results, coupled with computational modeling of SC activity, demonstrate that microsaccades are controlled by the SC and explain the link between microsaccades and visual attention...
  11. ncbi Role of the basal ganglia in the control of purposive saccadic eye movements
    O Hikosaka
    Department of Physiology, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Physiol Rev 80:953-78. 2000
    In addition to their well-known role in skeletal movements, the basal ganglia control saccadic eye movements (saccades) by means of their connection to the superior colliculus (SC)...
  12. doi Fast saccades toward faces: face detection in just 100 ms
    Sébastien M Crouzet
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau and Cognition, UMR, CNRS, Universite Toulouse, Toulouse, France
    J Vis 10:16.1-17. 2010
    ..J. Thorpe (2006) found that when two images are simultaneously flashed in the left and right visual fields, saccades toward the side with an animal can be initiated in as little as 120-130 ms...
  13. ncbi Look away: the anti-saccade task and the voluntary control of eye movement
    Douglas P Munoz
    Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Department of Physiology, CIHR Group in Sensory Motor Systems, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:218-28. 2004
  14. doi Microsaccades: a neurophysiological analysis
    Susana Martinez-Conde
    Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Trends Neurosci 32:463-75. 2009
    ..We also point out the current gaps in our understanding of the neurobiology of microsaccades and identify the most promising lines of enquiry...
  15. doi Microsaccades: small steps on a long way
    Martin Rolfs
    Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, 75006 Paris, France
    Vision Res 49:2415-41. 2009
    ....
  16. ncbi Lateral habenula as a source of negative reward signals in dopamine neurons
    Masayuki Matsumoto
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4435, USA
    Nature 447:1111-5. 2007
    ..These results suggest that the inhibitory input from the lateral habenula plays an important role in determining the reward-related activity of dopamine neurons...
  17. pmc Control of visual cortical signals by prefrontal dopamine
    Behrad Noudoost
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Fairchild Building, 299 Campus Drive West, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 474:372-5. 2011
    ..Our results identify a role for D1 receptors in mediating the control of visual cortical signals by the prefrontal cortex and suggest how processing in sensory areas could be altered in mental disorders involving prefrontal dopamine...
  18. ncbi Microsaccade dynamics during covert attention
    Jochen Laubrock
    Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, P O Box 601553, 14415 Potsdam, Germany
    Vision Res 45:721-30. 2005
    ..e., early automatic triggering of saccade programs), followed by a shift in the opposite direction (i.e, controlled inhibition of cue-directed saccades, leading to a 'leakage' of microsaccades in the opposite direction).
  19. pmc Distinctive features of saccadic intrusions and microsaccades in progressive supranuclear palsy
    Jorge Otero-Millan
    Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona 85013, USA
    J Neurosci 31:4379-87. 2011
    ..Furthermore, the loss of a vertical component in fixational saccades and SWJs was the eye movement feature that best distinguished PSP patients from controls...
  20. ncbi Basal ganglia orient eyes to reward
    Okihide Hikosaka
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neurophysiol 95:567-84. 2006
    ..These data support a specific form of reinforcement learning theories, but also suggest further refinement of the theory...
  21. pmc Free choice activates a decision circuit between frontal and parietal cortex
    Bijan Pesaran
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nature 453:406-9. 2008
    ..Cells participating in this decision circuit may influence movement choices by providing a common bias to the selection of movement goals...
  22. ncbi Miglustat for treatment of Niemann-Pick C disease: a randomised controlled study
    Marc C Patterson
    Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Columbia University, NY, USA
    Lancet Neurol 6:765-72. 2007
    ..Miglustat is able to cross the blood-brain barrier, and is thus a potential therapy for neurological diseases. We aimed to establish the effect of miglustat on several markers of NPC severity...
  23. ncbi Eye-hand coordination in object manipulation
    R S Johansson
    Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Section for Physiology, Umea University, S 90187 Umea, Sweden
    J Neurosci 21:6917-32. 2001
    ..For both the obstacle and target, subjects directed saccades and fixations to sites that were offset from the physical extension of the objects...
  24. ncbi Neural control of voluntary movement initiation
    D P Hanes
    Department of Psychology, Wilson Hall, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, USA
    Science 274:427-30. 1996
    ..This finding elucidates a specific link between motor behavior and activation of neurons in the cerebral cortex...
  25. ncbi Inhibitory control in mind and brain: an interactive race model of countermanding saccades
    Leanne Boucher
    Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37221, USA
    Psychol Rev 114:376-97. 2007
    ....
  26. pmc Eye movements: the past 25 years
    Eileen Kowler
    Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, United States
    Vision Res 51:1457-83. 2011
    ..Emphasis is on three oculomotor behaviors: gaze control, smooth pursuit and saccades, and on their interactions with vision...
  27. doi Microsaccadic efficacy and contribution to foveal and peripheral vision
    Michael B McCamy
    Department of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona 85013, USA
    J Neurosci 32:9194-204. 2012
    ....
  28. ncbi Target selection and the superior colliculus: goals, choices and hypotheses
    Richard J Krauzlis
    Systems Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Vision Res 44:1445-51. 2004
    ..However, recent studies have shown that the functions of the SC are not restricted to the motor control of saccades. The pattern of activity observed during multi-saccade movements, combined eye-head movements, and pursuit eye ..
  29. ncbi Selective gating of visual signals by microstimulation of frontal cortex
    Tirin Moore
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Nature 421:370-3. 2003
    ..brief stimulation of retinotopically corresponding sites within the FEF using currents below that needed to evoke saccades. The magnitude of the enhancement depended on the effectiveness of receptive field stimuli as well as on the ..
  30. ncbi Spatiotopic transfer of visual-form adaptation across saccadic eye movements
    David Melcher
    Faculty of Psychology, San Raffaele University, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
    Curr Biol 15:1745-8. 2005
    ..for visual stability is that internal maps of objects and their visual properties are remapped around the time of saccades, but numerous studies have demonstrated that visual patterns are not combined across saccades...
  31. ncbi Saccadic eye movements cause compression of time as well as space
    M Concetta Morrone
    Facolta di Psicologia, Universita Vita Salute San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 58, Milano 20132, Italy
    Nat Neurosci 8:950-4. 2005
    ..We were even more surprised that in a critical interval before saccades, perceived temporal order is consistently reversed...
  32. doi A microsaccadic rhythm modulates gamma-band synchronization and behavior
    Conrado A Bosman
    Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 EN Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci 29:9471-80. 2009
    ..We hypothesize that the 3.3 Hz rhythm structures the sampling and exploration of the environment through building and breaking neuronal ensembles synchronized in the gamma-frequency band to process sensory stimuli...
  33. ncbi Microsaccades: A microcosm for research on oculomotor control, attention, and visual perception
    Ralf Engbert
    Computational Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, PO Box 601553, 14415 Potsdam, Germany
    Prog Brain Res 154:177-92. 2006
    ..contribution to these fixational eye movements is generated by microsaccades, which are rapid small-amplitude saccades with a rate of about one per second...
  34. pmc Rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex make dissociable contributions during antisaccade error commission
    Frida E Polli
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:15700-5. 2005
    ..These results show that accurate performance involves deactivation of the rACC and other default mode regions and suggest that both rACC and dACC contribute to the evaluation of error responses...
  35. doi Two fixations suffice in face recognition
    Janet Hui wen Hsiao
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0404, USA
    Psychol Sci 19:998-1006. 2008
    ....
  36. pmc Cerebellar contributions to adaptive control of saccades in humans
    Minnan Xu-Wilson
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Neurosci 29:12930-9. 2009
    The cerebellum may monitor motor commands and through internal feedback correct for anticipated errors. Saccades provide a test of this idea because these movements are completed too quickly for sensory feedback to be useful...
  37. pmc Influence of environmental statistics on inhibition of saccadic return
    Simon Farrell
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TU, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:929-34. 2010
    ....
  38. pmc Changes in control of saccades during gain adaptation
    Vincent Ethier
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Neurosci 28:13929-37. 2008
    ..The adapted saccades had reduced peak velocities, reduced accelerations, shallower decelerations, and increased durations compared ..
  39. ncbi A visual salience map in the primate frontal eye field
    Kirk G Thompson
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Prog Brain Res 147:251-62. 2005
    ..In addition, it strengthens the emerging view that FEF is not only involved in producing overt gaze shifts, but is also important for directing covert spatial attention...
  40. ncbi A pathway in primate brain for internal monitoring of movements
    Marc A Sommer
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 296:1480-2. 2002
    ..These results identify a pathway in the brain of the primate Macaca mulatta that conveys corollary discharge signals...
  41. ncbi Functional neuroanatomy of anticipatory behavior: dissociation between sensory-driven and memory-driven systems
    Lucia S Simo
    Center for Cognitive Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Cereb Cortex 15:1982-91. 2005
    ..guided saccade (VGS) task using unpredictable targets matched for number, direction and amplitude of required saccades. Our results show greater activation during the PRED task in the prefrontal, pre-supplementary motor and anterior ..
  42. ncbi The influence of visual landscape on the free flight behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster
    Lance F Tammero
    UCB UCSF Joint Bioengineering Graduate Group, 3060 Valley Life Science Building, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Exp Biol 205:327-43. 2002
    ..Flies move through their environment using a series of straight flight segments separated by rapid turns, termed saccades, during which the fly alters course by approximately 90 degrees in less than 100 ms...
  43. ncbi SWIFT: a dynamical model of saccade generation during reading
    Ralf Engbert
    Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
    Psychol Rev 112:777-813. 2005
    ..They also present a mathematical analysis of the dynamics of the SWIFT model. Finally, within this framework, they present an analysis of the transition from parallel to serial processing...
  44. pmc The mechanism underlying inhibition of saccadic return
    Casimir J H Ludwig
    University of Bristol, Department of Experimental Psychology, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK
    Cogn Psychol 59:180-202. 2009
    ..is integrated over time to a response threshold, ISR could reflect a reduction in the rate of accumulation for saccades to return locations or an increase in the effective criterion for response...
  45. ncbi A common network of functional areas for attention and eye movements
    M Corbetta
    Department of Neurology, McDonnell Center for Higher Brain Functions, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Neuron 21:761-73. 1998
    ..This anatomical overlap is consistent with the hypothesis that attentional and oculomotor processes are tightly integrated at the neural level...
  46. pmc Neuronal mechanisms of visual stability
    Robert H Wurtz
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 49, Rm 2A50, Bethesda, MD 20892 4435, USA
    Vision Res 48:2070-89. 2008
    ..For the second problem, saccadic suppression, visual masking and corollary discharge are well established mechanisms, and possible neuronal correlates have been identified for each...
  47. ncbi Impaired spatial working memory across saccades contributes to abnormal search in parietal neglect
    M Husain
    Division of Neuroscience and Psychological Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, London, UK
    Brain 124:941-52. 2001
    ..locations have already been examined during visual search: an impairment in retaining searched locations across saccades. Using a new paradigm, we monitored gaze during search, while simultaneously probing whether observers judged ..
  48. doi Toward a model of microsaccade generation: the case of microsaccadic inhibition
    Martin Rolfs
    Department of Psychology Cognitive Psychology, Universitat Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
    J Vis 8:5.1-23. 2008
    ..in which microsaccades result from fixation-related activity in a motor map coding for both fixation and saccades. In this map, fixation is represented at the central site...
  49. doi Triggering mechanisms in microsaccade and saccade generation: a novel proposal
    Jorge Otero-Millan
    Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona 85013, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1233:107-16. 2011
    b>Saccades are rapid eye movements that change the line of sight between successive points of fixation...
  50. ncbi Poor saccadic control correlates with dyslexia
    M Biscaldi
    Brain Research Unit, Institute of Biophysics, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Neuropsychologia 36:1189-202. 1998
    ..group, the mean values of the standard deviations of the saccadic reaction times (SRT) and the amount of late saccades (SRT > 700) were significantly increased in both dyslexic groups and especially in group D1 who also showed an ..
  51. ncbi Binocular coordination of saccades at far and at near in children and in adults
    Qing Yang
    Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l Action, CNRS College de France, Paris, France
    J Vis 3:554-61. 2003
    The goal of the study was to test the quality of binocular coordination of saccades in children and adults, and its dependency upon the viewing distance. Fourteen normal children (4...
  52. ncbi Saccadic dysmetria and adaptation after lesions of the cerebellar cortex
    S Barash
    Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    J Neurosci 19:10931-9. 1999
    ..For saccades in one horizontal direction, the lesions led to an initial gross hypometria and a permanent abolition of the ..
  53. doi An examination of binocular reading fixations based on sentence corpus data
    Antje Nuthmann
    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Vis 9:31.1-28. 2009
    ..Fixation disparity accumulates during the course of successive saccades and fixations within a line of text, but only to an extent that does not compromise single binocular vision...
  54. ncbi Visual correlates of fixation selection: effects of scale and time
    Benjamin W Tatler
    Sussex Centre for Neuroscience, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QG, United Kingdom
    Vision Res 45:643-59. 2005
    ..We propose that saccade target selection involves an unchanging intermediate level representation of the scene but that the high-level interpretation of this representation changes over time...
  55. ncbi Components of bottom-up gaze allocation in natural images
    Robert J Peters
    Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 139 74, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Vision Res 45:2397-416. 2005
    ..As models of these interactions become more accurate in predicting behaviorally-relevant salient locations, they become useful to a range of applications in computer vision and human-machine interface design...
  56. ncbi The control of voluntary eye movements: new perspectives
    Richard J Krauzlis
    Systems Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Neuroscientist 11:124-37. 2005
    Primates use two types of voluntary eye movements to track objects of interest: pursuit and saccades. Traditionally, these two eye movements have been viewed as distinct systems that are driven automatically by low-level visual inputs...
  57. ncbi The role of saccades in exerting voluntary control in perceptual and binocular rivalry
    Loes C J van Dam
    Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vision Res 46:787-99. 2006
    We have investigated the role of saccades and fixation positions in two perceptual rivalry paradigms (slant rivalry and Necker cube) and in two binocular rivalry paradigms (grating and house-face rivalry), and we compared results obtained ..
  58. ncbi Retinal image shifts, but not eye movements per se, cause alternations in awareness during binocular rivalry
    Loes C J van Dam
    Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Vis 6:1172-9. 2006
    ..Subjects viewed repetitive line patterns, enabling a distinction of saccades that did produce foveal image changes from those that did not. Subjects reported binocular rivalry alternations...
  59. ncbi The antisaccade: a review of basic research and clinical studies
    S Everling
    MRC Group in Sensory Motor Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    Neuropsychologia 36:885-99. 1998
    ..These findings are discussed and the potential of the antisaccade task for diagnostic purposes is evaluated...
  60. ncbi The brainstem burst generator for saccadic eye movements: a modern synthesis
    Charles A Scudder
    Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Exp Brain Res 142:439-62. 2002
    In the 16 years since we last summarized the behavior of the premotor elements that control saccades, research has revealed shortcomings in previous formulations of the control mechanisms of the brainstem saccadic burst generator...
  61. ncbi Microstimulation of the frontal eye field and its effects on covert spatial attention
    Tirin Moore
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 1010, USA
    J Neurophysiol 91:152-62. 2004
    ..These results demonstrate that transient, but potent improvements in the deployment of covert spatial attention can be obtained by microstimulation of FEF sites from which saccadic eye movements are also evoked...
  62. ncbi Microsaccades keep the eyes' balance during fixation
    Ralf Engbert
    Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, PO Box 601553, 14415 Potsdam, Germany
    Psychol Sci 15:431-6. 2004
    ..Two types of these fixational eye movements are drift and microsaccades (small-amplitude saccades)...
  63. pmc The neural selection and control of saccades by the frontal eye field
    Jeffrey D Schall
    Center for Integrative and Cognitive Neuroscience, Vanderbilt Vision Research Center, Department of Psychology, 301 Wilson Hall, 111 21st Avenue South, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 357:1073-82. 2002
    ..Certain neurons in the FEF signal the location of conspicuous or meaningful stimuli that may be the targets for saccades. Other neurons control whether and when the gaze shifts...
  64. pmc Temporal discounting of reward and the cost of time in motor control
    Reza Shadmehr
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Neurosci 30:10507-16. 2010
    ..The hyperbolic cost of this delay not only accounts for kinematics of saccades in adults, it also accounts for the faster saccades of children, who temporally discount reward more steeply...
  65. pmc Neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of reflexive and volitional saccades: evidence from studies of humans
    Jennifer E McDowell
    Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience, Bio Imaging Research Center, Psychology Building, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Brain Cogn 68:255-70. 2008
    ..The generation of simple visually guided saccades (redirections of gaze to a visual stimulus or pro-saccades) and more complex volitional saccades require similar ..
  66. ncbi Role of dopamine in the primate caudate nucleus in reward modulation of saccades
    Kae Nakamura
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4435, USA
    J Neurosci 26:5360-9. 2006
    ..These results suggest that reward-dependent changes in saccadic eye movements depend partly on dopaminergic modulation of neuronal activity in the caudate nucleus...
  67. ncbi A model of saccade generation based on parallel processing and competitive inhibition
    J M Findlay
    Centre for Vision and Visual Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, England
    Behav Brain Sci 22:661-74; discussion 674-721. 1999
    ..The model accounts for a number of well-established phenomena in target-elicited saccades: the gap effect, express saccades, the remote distractor effect, and the global effect...
  68. ncbi Reward-predicting activity of dopamine and caudate neurons--a possible mechanism of motivational control of saccadic eye movement
    Reiko Kawagoe
    Department of Physiology, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, Tokyo 113 8421, Japan
    J Neurophysiol 91:1013-24. 2004
    ....
  69. ncbi Saccade target selection during visual search
    J M Findlay
    Department of Psychology, University of Durham, U K
    Vision Res 37:617-31. 1997
    ..Accurate saccades with short latencies were common but errors sometimes occurred and search for an "oddity" target, defined ..
  70. ncbi Controlled movement processing: superior colliculus activity associated with countermanded saccades
    Martin Paré
    Department of Physiology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6
    J Neurosci 23:6480-9. 2003
    ..contains neurons with activity patterns sufficient to control both the cancellation and the production of saccades. We used a countermanding task to manipulate the probability that, after the presentation of a stop signal, the ..
  71. ncbi Microsaccades counteract visual fading during fixation
    Susana Martinez-Conde
    Barrow Neurological Institute, 350 West Thomas Road, Phoenix, Arizona 85013, USA
    Neuron 49:297-305. 2006
    ..These results reveal a direct link between suppression of microsaccades and fading and suggest a causal relationship between microsaccade production and target visibility during fixation...
  72. doi Objects predict fixations better than early saliency
    Wolfgang Einhäuser
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
    J Vis 8:18.1-26. 2008
    ..Consequently, rather than treating attention as mere preprocessing step for object recognition, models of both need to be integrated...
  73. pmc Complex spike activity in the oculomotor vermis of the cerebellum: a vectorial error signal for saccade motor learning?
    Robijanto Soetedjo
    Department of Physiology, 1959 NE Pacific St, HSB I421, Washington National Primate Research Center, Box 357330, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7330, USA
    J Neurophysiol 100:1949-66. 2008
    ..They reach the pontine burst generator for horizontal saccades via short-latency pathways and a longer pathway through the oculomotor vermis (OMV) of the cerebellum...
  74. doi Head impulse test in unilateral vestibular loss: vestibulo-ocular reflex and catch-up saccades
    K P Weber
    Neurology Department, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown NSW 2050, Sydney, Australia
    Neurology 70:454-63. 2008
    ..Bedside HIT identifies subsequent catch-up saccades after the head rotation as indirect signs of VOR deficit.
  75. doi Figure tracking by flies is supported by parallel visual streams
    Jacob W Aptekar
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Curr Biol 22:482-7. 2012
    ..This analysis requires an extension of the model that fly motion vision is based on simple elementary motion detectors and provides a novel method to characterize the subsystems responsible for the pursuit of visual figures...
  76. doi Viewing task influences eye movement control during active scene perception
    Monica S Castelhano
    Department of Psychology, Queen s University, Kingston, ON, Canada
    J Vis 9:6.1-15. 2009
    ..The present study demonstrates that viewing task biases the selection of scene regions and aggregate measures of fixation time on those regions but does not influence other measures, such as the duration of individual fixations...
  77. pmc Adaptive control of saccades via internal feedback
    Haiyin Chen-Harris
    Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Neurosci 28:2804-13. 2008
    Ballistic movements like saccades require the brain to generate motor commands without the benefit of sensory feedback. Despite this, saccades are remarkably accurate...
  78. pmc Dyslexic children are confronted with unstable binocular fixation while reading
    Stephanie Jainta
    IRIS laboratory CNRS Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e18694. 2011
    Reading requires three-dimensional motor control: saccades bring the eyes from left to right, fixating word after word; and oblique saccades bring the eyes to the next line of the text...
  79. pmc Microsaccades are triggered by low retinal image slip
    Ralf Engbert
    Department of Psychology and Helmholtz Center for Mind and Brain Dynamics, University of Potsdam, P O Box 60 15 53, 14415 Potsdam, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7192-7. 2006
    ..As a result of the dynamic triggering mechanism, individual microsaccade rate can be predicted by the fractal dimension of trajectories. Finally, we propose a minimal computational model for the dynamic triggering of microsaccades...
  80. pmc Computational models of spatial updating in peri-saccadic perception
    Fred H Hamker
    Department of Psychology, Westfälische Wilhelms University Münster, Munster, Germany
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366:554-71. 2011
    ..Our analysis shows how different perceptual effects can coherently be brought together and linked back to neuronal mechanisms on the way to explaining vision across saccades.
  81. doi Fixational eye movements predict the perceived direction of ambiguous apparent motion
    Jochen Laubrock
    Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
    J Vis 8:13.1-17. 2008
    ..We conclude that microsaccades provide a signal on which perceptual judgments rely in the absence of objective disambiguating stimulus information...
  82. ncbi Eye-hand coordination during reaching. II. An analysis of the relationships between visuomanual signals in parietal cortex and parieto-frontal association projections
    A Battaglia-Mayer
    Dipartimento di Fisiologia Umana e Farmacologia, , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome
    Cereb Cortex 11:528-44. 2001
    ....
  83. doi Vergence deficits in patients with cerebellar lesions
    T Sander
    Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Schleswig Holstein, Campus Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany
    Brain 132:103-15. 2009
    ..Disconjugate fast and slow vergence, conjugate smooth pursuit and saccades were binocularly recorded by a scleral search coil system in 20 patients with acute cerebellar lesions (all ..
  84. ncbi Local morphology predicts functional organization of the dorsal premotor region in the human brain
    Céline Amiez
    Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B4, Canada
    J Neurosci 26:2724-31. 2006
    ....
  85. doi Cerebellar contributions to the processing of saccadic errors
    P C A van Broekhoven
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam 3000 CA, The Netherlands
    Cerebellum 8:403-15. 2009
    b>Saccades are fast eye movements that direct the point of regard to a target in the visual field. Repeated post-saccadic visual errors can induce modifications of the amplitude of these saccades, a process known as saccadic adaptation...
  86. ncbi Spatial processing in the monkey frontal eye field. II. Memory responses
    M M Umeno
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurophysiol 86:2344-52. 2001
    Monkeys and humans can easily make accurate saccades to stimuli that appear and disappear before an intervening saccade to a different location...
  87. ncbi Trajectories of the human binocular fixation point during conjugate and non-conjugate gaze-shifts
    H Collewijn
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Vision Res 37:1049-69. 1997
    ..of real, continuously visible LED targets that were either iso-vergent at 5-25 deg convergence (conjugate version saccades) or differed in vergence angle (by 5-20 deg) as well as in direction (by 5-60 deg; combined version and vergence)...
  88. ncbi The role of the cerebellum in voluntary eye movements
    F R Robinson
    Department of Biological Structure University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7420, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 24:981-1004. 2001
    ..the posterior vermis and the caudal fastigial nucleus, to which it projects, provide a signal during horizontal saccades to make them fast, accurate, and consistent...
  89. ncbi Attentional cues in real scenes, saccadic targeting, and Bayesian priors
    Miguel P Eckstein
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Psychol Sci 17:973-80. 2006
    ..in real scenes? Controlling for target detectability and retinal eccentricity, we recorded observers' first saccades during search for objects that appeared in expected and unexpected locations within real scenes...
  90. doi An adaptive algorithm for fixation, saccade, and glissade detection in eyetracking data
    Marcus Nyström
    Humanities Lab, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    Behav Res Methods 42:188-204. 2010
    ..Most important, the new algorithm identifies so-called glissades, a wobbling movement at the end of many saccades, as a separate class of eye movements...
  91. ncbi Memory of learning facilitates saccadic adaptation in the monkey
    Yoshiko Kojima
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8575, Japan
    J Neurosci 24:7531-9. 2004
    A motor learning mechanism called saccadic adaptation ensures accuracy of saccades throughout life despite growth, aging, and some pathologies of the oculomotor plant or nervous system...
  92. ncbi The eye movements of dyslexic children during reading and visual search: impact of the visual attention span
    Chloé Prado
    Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neuro Cognition UMR5105 CNRS, Université Pierre Mendès France, 1251 Avenue Centrale BP 47, 38040 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Vision Res 47:2521-30. 2007
    ..The atypical eye movements of some dyslexic readers in reading thus appear to reflect difficulties to increase their VA span according to the task request...
  93. doi Supplementary eye field encodes option and action value for saccades with variable reward
    Na Young So
    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Neurophysiol 104:2634-53. 2010
    We recorded neuronal activity in the supplementary eye field (SEF) while monkeys made saccades to targets that yielded rewards of variable amount and uncertainty of delivery...
  94. pmc Spatial remapping of the visual world across saccades
    Paul M Bays
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, UK
    Neuroreport 18:1207-13. 2007
    ..Instead, we consider a novel perspective in which the primary function of spatial remapping is to support three key nonperceptual processes: action control, sensorimotor adaptation and spatial memory...
  95. doi Neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of reflexive and voluntary saccades in non-human primates
    Kevin Johnston
    Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen s University, Kingston, Ont, Canada K7L 3N6
    Brain Cogn 68:271-83. 2008
    ..dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate (see glossary) cortex and lateral intraparietal area associated with the performance of visually guided saccades, anti-saccades and memory-guided saccades in awake behaving monkeys.
  96. ncbi Executive control of gaze by the frontal lobes
    Jeffrey D Schall
    Center for Integrative and Cognitive Neuroscience, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37240, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 7:396-412. 2007
    ..Neurons in the supplementary eye field do not control directly the initiation of saccades but, instead, signal the production of errors, the anticipation and delivery of reinforcement, and the presence ..
  97. ncbi Allocentric spatial referencing of neuronal activity in macaque posterior cingulate cortex
    Heather L Dean
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 26:1117-27. 2006
    Neuronal activity in posterior cingulate cortex (CGp) is modulated by visual stimulation, saccades, and eye position, suggesting a role for this area in visuospatial transformations...
  98. ncbi Congenital nystagmus: hypotheses for its genesis and complex waveforms within a behavioral ocular motor system model
    Jonathan B Jacobs
    Ocular Motor Neurophysiology Laboratory, Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    J Vis 4:604-25. 2004
    ..nystagmus (CN) appear to be quite complex, composed of a sustained sinusoidal oscillation punctuated by braking saccades and foveating saccades followed by periods of extended foveation...
  99. ncbi Binocular coordination of saccades in children with vertigo: dependency on the vergence state
    Maria Pia Bucci
    IRIS Group LPPA, UMR 7152 CNRS College de France, 11, Place M Berthelot, Paris, France
    Vision Res 46:3594-602. 2006
    The present study examines the quality of binocular coordination of saccades at far and near distance in 15 children with symptoms of vertigo headache and equilibrium disorders; these children show normal vestibular function but abnormal ..
  100. doi How the brain obeys Hering's law: a TMS study of the posterior parietal cortex
    Marine Vernet
    IRIS Group, CNRS College de France, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:230-7. 2008
    Human ocular saccades are not perfectly yoked; the origin of this disconjugacy (muscular versus central) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to test a cortical influence on the binocular coordination of saccades.
  101. doi Trans-saccadic perception
    David Melcher
    Center for Mind Brain Sciences and Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of Trento, Corso Bettini 31, Rovereto 38068, Italy
    Trends Cogn Sci 12:466-73. 2008
    ..We outline five principles of 'trans-saccadic perception' that could help to explain how it is possible - despite discrete sensory input and limited memory - that conscious perception across saccades seems smooth and predictable.

Research Grants90

  1. FUNCTION OF MIDBRAIN STRUCTURES IN EYE MOVEMENT CONTROL
    DAVID WAITZMAN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..the velocity to position integrator which is essential in oculomotor feedback control should generate hypermetric saccades. 3)Determine if the map of saccade amplitude in the intermediate and deep layers of the SC is modified following ..
  2. OCULOMOTOR CONTROL AND GAIT IN PARKINSON DISEASE
    GAMMON EARHART; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..H2a: Participants with PD will demonstrate slower, smaller saccades at turn initiation and will make many small saccades while controls will make a few large saccades during turns...
  3. CONTROL OF EYELIDS IN NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL STATES
    LESLIE EVINGER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Patients with abnormally slow saccadic eye movements can make normal velocity saccades when they combine the saccade with a voluntary blink...
  4. Coding of Auditory Space in the Avian Brain
    JOSE L PENA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..are processed in parallel in order to control two output variables (horizontal and vertical coordinates of head saccades)...
  5. Neural Integration of Eye and Head Movements
    Neeraj Gandhi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..neural discharge and extraocular motor neurons is demonstrated by recording activity during head-restrained saccades. In contrast, a relationship between spikes and neck motor neurons is only inferred by observing activity during ..
  6. CEREBELLAR NUCLEI IN EYE MOVEMENT CONTROL AND ADAPTATION
    Farrel Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    b>Saccades, smooth pursuit, and vergence need to be extremely accurate to provide clear vision...
  7. CORTICAL PLANNING AND CONTROL OF SMOOTH PURSUIT
    Stephen Heinen; Fiscal Year: 2001
    To maintain clear vision of an object at the fovea, the eyes must be moved to that object. Rapid eye movements, or saccades are used to acquire stationary objects, while smooth pursuit is used to stabilize moving objects...
  8. Eye Movement Control in Normal Elderly and MCI
    Adam L Boxer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Age-related changes occur in the brain network that controls saccades and covert shifts of attention, and the structure and function of this network are also highly sensitive to the ..
  9. The Neurophysiology of Spatial Vision
    MICHAEL ELLIS GOLDBERG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..before an intervening eye movement, but they also slightly mislocalize saccade targets flashed immediately around saccades. Aim 3 is to study the spatial and temporal courses of the remapping process and the effects of inactivation of ..
  10. DYNAMIC MACAQUE BASAL GANGLIA SACCADE NETWORKS
    ANN GRAYBIEL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Evidence suggests that this circuit is a release circuit for saccades. The oculomotor zone has been investigated intensively with conventional single unit recording methods in highly ..
  11. CORTICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CONTROL OF EYE MOVEMENTS
    Mark Segraves; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The FEF contains neurons whose firing is related to the generation of saccades, and projects to the superior colliculus as well as to other oculomotor regions of the brainstem...
  12. COORDINATION OF VOLUNTARY EYE MOVEMENTS
    Richard Krauzlis; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..data indicating that there is functional overlap between the neural mechanisms for pursuit and saccades. The objective of this application is to investigate the nature and degree of this functional overlap In ..
  13. NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF THE OCULOMOTOR SYSTEM
    Albert Fuchs; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The objective of this application is to investigate how the brain ensures that rapid eye movements, called saccades, land accurately on objects of interest...
  14. FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE FRONTAL EYE FIELD
    Charles Bruce; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..studies of neurons in the saccadic region of FEF (FEFsac) find different combinations of activity related to saccades, visual inputs, and eye position as well as to behavioral states including memory and anticipation; similar ..
  15. INVESTIGATION AND TREATMENT OF OCULAR MOTOR DISORDERS
    RICHARD JOHN LEIGH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..during the prior funding period: The first project concerns the beginning and ending of rapid eye movements (saccades)...
  16. COORDINATION OF VOLUNTARY EYE MOVEMENTS
    Richard Krauzlis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Although pursuit and saccades have long been viewed as distinct motor systems, there is growing evidence that certain crucial steps are shared...
  17. Dynamic Basal Ganglia Saccade Networks
    Ann M Graybiel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the substantia nigra pars reticulata which in turn projects to, and inhibits the superior colliculus and inhibits saccades thereby. This basal ganglia pathway is used as a prime example of the release functions of the basal ganglia...
  18. Dynamic Basal Ganglia Saccade Networks
    ANN GRAYBIEL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the substantia nigra pars reticulata which in turn projects to, and inhibits the superior colliculus and inhibits saccades thereby. This basal ganglia pathway is used as a prime example of the release functions of the basal ganglia...
  19. Eye Movements and Visual Perception
    Bart Krekelberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..is therefore invoked to blunt visual perception and hide imperfections in the coordinate transform during saccades. Our hypothesis is that both mechanisms are implemented in early visual cortical areas...