cortical synchronization

Summary

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Event-related synchronization (ERS) in the alpha band--an electrophysiological correlate of cortical idling: a review
    G Pfurtscheller
    Department of Medical Informatics, Graz University of Technology, Austria
    Int J Psychophysiol 24:39-46. 1996
  2. pmc Licking-induced synchrony in the taste-reward circuit improves cue discrimination during learning
    Ranier Gutierrez
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 30:287-303. 2010
  3. doi What does phase information of oscillatory brain activity tell us about cognitive processes?
    Paul Sauseng
    Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A 5020 Salzburg, Austria
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:1001-13. 2008
  4. ncbi Neural synchrony in brain disorders: relevance for cognitive dysfunctions and pathophysiology
    Peter J Uhlhaas
    Department of Neurophysiology, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Deutschordenstrasse 46, Frankfurt am Main, 60528, Germany
    Neuron 52:155-68. 2006
  5. pmc Sleep homeostasis and cortical synchronization: I. Modeling the effects of synaptic strength on sleep slow waves
    Steve K Esser
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53719, USA
    Sleep 30:1617-30. 2007
  6. pmc Neurophysiological and computational principles of cortical rhythms in cognition
    Xiao Jing Wang
    Department of Neurobiology and Kavli Institute of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Physiol Rev 90:1195-268. 2010
  7. ncbi Task-related changes in cortical synchronization are spatially coincident with the hemodynamic response
    Krish D Singh
    The Wellcome Trust Laboratory for MEG Studies, Neurosciences Research Institute, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Neuroimage 16:103-14. 2002
  8. doi A short review of slow phase synchronization and memory: evidence for control processes in different memory systems?
    Wolfgang Klimesch
    Department of Physiological Psychology, University of Salzburg, Austria
    Brain Res 1235:31-44. 2008
  9. ncbi Motor imagery and EEG-based control of spelling devices and neuroprostheses
    Christa Neuper
    Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2 III, A 8010 Graz, Austria
    Prog Brain Res 159:393-409. 2006
  10. doi Spectra-temporal patterns underlying mental addition: an ERP and ERD/ERS study
    Yixuan Ku
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical School, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084, China
    Neurosci Lett 472:5-10. 2010

Detail Information

Publications236 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Event-related synchronization (ERS) in the alpha band--an electrophysiological correlate of cortical idling: a review
    G Pfurtscheller
    Department of Medical Informatics, Graz University of Technology, Austria
    Int J Psychophysiol 24:39-46. 1996
    ..In both circumstances, the neurons in the hand area are not needed for visual processing or preparation for foot movement. As a result of this, an enhanced hand area mu rhythm can be observed...
  2. pmc Licking-induced synchrony in the taste-reward circuit improves cue discrimination during learning
    Ranier Gutierrez
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 30:287-303. 2010
    ....
  3. doi What does phase information of oscillatory brain activity tell us about cognitive processes?
    Paul Sauseng
    Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A 5020 Salzburg, Austria
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:1001-13. 2008
    ....
  4. ncbi Neural synchrony in brain disorders: relevance for cognitive dysfunctions and pathophysiology
    Peter J Uhlhaas
    Department of Neurophysiology, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Deutschordenstrasse 46, Frankfurt am Main, 60528, Germany
    Neuron 52:155-68. 2006
    ..Thus, focused search for abnormalities in temporal patterning may be of considerable clinical relevance...
  5. pmc Sleep homeostasis and cortical synchronization: I. Modeling the effects of synaptic strength on sleep slow waves
    Steve K Esser
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53719, USA
    Sleep 30:1617-30. 2007
    ..Based on a recent hypothesis, we sought to determine whether a decrease in cortical synaptic strength can account for changes in sleep SWA...
  6. pmc Neurophysiological and computational principles of cortical rhythms in cognition
    Xiao Jing Wang
    Department of Neurobiology and Kavli Institute of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Physiol Rev 90:1195-268. 2010
    ..Finally, implications of abnormal neural synchronization are discussed as they relate to mental disorders like schizophrenia and autism...
  7. ncbi Task-related changes in cortical synchronization are spatially coincident with the hemodynamic response
    Krish D Singh
    The Wellcome Trust Laboratory for MEG Studies, Neurosciences Research Institute, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Neuroimage 16:103-14. 2002
    ..The results show that frequency-specific, task-related changes in cortical synchronization, detected using MEG, match those areas of the brain showing an evoked cortical hemodynamic response with ..
  8. doi A short review of slow phase synchronization and memory: evidence for control processes in different memory systems?
    Wolfgang Klimesch
    Department of Physiological Psychology, University of Salzburg, Austria
    Brain Res 1235:31-44. 2008
    ..The hypothesis, suggested here is that theta and upper alpha reflect these processes which can be best studied when analyzing phase...
  9. ncbi Motor imagery and EEG-based control of spelling devices and neuroprostheses
    Christa Neuper
    Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2 III, A 8010 Graz, Austria
    Prog Brain Res 159:393-409. 2006
    ..The major frequency bands of cortical oscillations considered here are the 8-13 and 15-30 Hz bands. This chapter describes the basic methods used in Graz-BCI research and outlines possible clinical applications...
  10. doi Spectra-temporal patterns underlying mental addition: an ERP and ERD/ERS study
    Yixuan Ku
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical School, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084, China
    Neurosci Lett 472:5-10. 2010
    ..These results coincide with the theory of simple calculation relying on the visuospatial process and complex calculation depending on the phonological process...
  11. ncbi Phase synchrony among neuronal oscillations in the human cortex
    J Matias Palva
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    J Neurosci 25:3962-72. 2005
    ..The enhancement of cross-frequency phase synchrony among functionally and spatially distinct networks during mental arithmetic tasks posits it as a candidate mechanism for the integration of spectrally distributed processing...
  12. ncbi Changes in the alpha and beta amplitudes of the central EEG during the onset, continuation, and offset of long-duration repetitive hand movements
    Nurhan Erbil
    Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biophysics, Ankara, Turkey
    Brain Res 1169:44-56. 2007
    ..Modulation of the beta amplitude, rather than the changes in alpha amplitude, appeared to be more closely correlated with the execution of a continuous movement...
  13. ncbi Event-related beta desynchronization indicates timing of response selection in a delayed-response paradigm in humans
    J Kaiser
    MEG Center, Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tubingen, Gartenstrasse 29, 72074 Tubingen, Germany
    Neurosci Lett 312:149-52. 2001
    ..This suggests a close relationship between the latency of beta ERD onset and the duration of cognitive processes involved in selecting a motor response...
  14. ncbi Theta synchronization and alpha desynchronization in a memory task
    W Klimesch
    Department of Physiological Psychology, University of Salzburg, Austria
    Psychophysiology 34:169-76. 1997
    ..In contrast to the theta band, remembered and not remembered words revealed a complex pattern of desynchronization in the lower and upper alpha band that was different during encoding and recognition...
  15. ncbi The role of neuronal synchronization in selective attention
    Thilo Womelsdorf
    FC Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University Nijmegen, Kapittelweg 29, 6525 EN Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 17:154-60. 2007
    ..These results point to a general computational role for selective synchronization in dynamically controlling which neurons communicate information about sensory inputs effectively...
  16. doi Long-term modifications in motor cortical dynamics induced by intensive practice
    Bjørg E Kilavik
    Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives de la Méditerranée Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Aix Marseille, 13402 Marseille, France
    J Neurosci 29:12653-63. 2009
    ..Performance optimization through practice might therefore be achieved by boosting the computational contribution of spike synchrony, allowing an overall reduction in population activity...
  17. ncbi Decreased neuronal synchronization during experimental seizures
    Theoden I Netoff
    Krasnow Institute for Advanced Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030, USA
    J Neurosci 22:7297-307. 2002
    ....
  18. doi Greater frontal-parietal synchrony at low gamma-band frequencies for inefficient than efficient visual search in human EEG
    Steven Phillips
    Neuroscience Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Central 2, 1 1 1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8568 Japan
    Int J Psychophysiol 73:350-4. 2009
    ..The failure to observe a bottom-up effect may be due to stimulus familiarity - monkeys require weeks of training in contrast to the few minutes given to humans...
  19. doi A high performance sensorimotor beta rhythm-based brain-computer interface associated with human natural motor behavior
    Ou Bai
    Human Motor Control Section, Medical Neurological Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neural Eng 5:24-35. 2008
    ..Significance: The proposed new non-invasive BCI method highlights a practical BCI for clinical applications, where the user does not require extensive training...
  20. ncbi Nonlinear synchronization in EEG and whole-head MEG recordings of healthy subjects
    Cornelis J Stam
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Hum Brain Mapp 19:63-78. 2003
    ..The spatial scale and physical properties of MEG acquisition may increase the sensitivity of the data to underlying nonlinear structure...
  21. ncbi Defective cortical drive to muscle in Parkinson's disease and its improvement with levodopa
    Stephan Salenius
    Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
    Brain 125:491-500. 2002
    ..Abnormalities in this aspect of basal ganglia function may directly contribute to bradykinesia and weakness in Parkinson's disease...
  22. doi A role of beta oscillatory synchrony in biasing response competition?
    B C M van Wijk
    Research Institute MOVE, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cereb Cortex 19:1294-302. 2009
    ....
  23. ncbi Early onset of post-movement beta electroencephalogram synchronization in the supplementary motor area during self-paced finger movement in man
    G Pfurtscheller
    Department of Medical Informatics, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Technology Graz, Inffeldgasse 16a, A 8010, Graz, Austria
    Neurosci Lett 339:111-4. 2003
    ..This assumed resetting or inhibitory process within the SMA precedes that of the networks within the primary motor hand area...
  24. ncbi Global and local synchrony of coupled neurons in small-world networks
    Naoki Masuda
    Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan
    Biol Cybern 90:302-9. 2004
    ..Finally, cooperation of the global connections and the local clustering property, which is prominent in small-world networks, forces synchrony of distant neuronal groups receiving coherent inputs...
  25. ncbi Gamma-range corticomuscular coherence during dynamic force output
    Wolfgang Omlor
    Neurological Clinic, Albert Ludwigs University, Breisacher Strasse 64, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Neuroimage 34:1191-8. 2007
    ....
  26. doi Postnatal differentiation of basket cells from slow to fast signaling devices
    Daniel Doischer
    Physiologisches Institut I, Universitat Freiburg, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 28:12956-68. 2008
    ..Thus, late postnatal maturation of BCs enhances coherence in neuronal networks and will thereby contribute to the development of cognitive brain functions...
  27. ncbi Phase synchronization measurements using electroencephalographic recordings: what can we really say about neuronal synchrony?
    Ramon Guevara
    Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34100, Miaramare, Trieste, Italy
    Neuroinformatics 3:301-14. 2005
    ....
  28. ncbi Visuomotor integration is associated with zero time-lag synchronization among cortical areas
    P R Roelfsema
    Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Frankfurt, Germany
    Nature 385:157-61. 1997
    ..During reward and inter-trial episodes, zero-time-lag synchrony was lost and replaced by interactions exhibiting large and unsystematic time lags...
  29. ncbi Impaired functional connectivity at EEG alpha and theta frequency bands in major depression
    Andrew A Fingelkurts
    BM Science Brain and Mind Technologies Research Centre, Espoo, Finland
    Hum Brain Mapp 28:247-61. 2007
    ..This finding was interpreted within the semantic framework, where different specialization of left (monosemantic context) and right (polysemantic context) hemispheres is functionally insufficient in patients with depression...
  30. pmc Cortical abnormalities in epilepsy revealed by local EEG synchrony
    C A Schevon
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, NY, USA
    Neuroimage 35:140-8. 2007
    ....
  31. ncbi Small-world networks and functional connectivity in Alzheimer's disease
    C J Stam
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, VU University Medical Center, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cereb Cortex 17:92-9. 2007
    ..Graph theoretical analysis may be a useful approach to study the complexity of patterns of interrelations between EEG channels...
  32. pmc Auditory steady state response in bipolar disorder: relation to clinical state, cognitive performance, medication status, and substance disorders
    Olga Rass
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 101 East 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Bipolar Disord 12:793-803. 2010
    ..We therefore evaluated the ASSR in bipolar disorder and examined its sensitivity to clinical symptoms, cognitive function, and pharmacological treatment...
  33. ncbi Alpha and beta oscillatory activity during a sequence of two movements
    Manuel Alegre
    Clinical Neurophysiolgy Section, Department of Neurology, Clinica Universitaria, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Navarra, Avda, Pio XII, 36, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
    Clin Neurophysiol 115:124-30. 2004
    ....
  34. pmc Synchronized activity between the ventral hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex during anxiety
    Avishek Adhikari
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 65:257-69. 2010
    ..They are consistent with the notion that such synchronization is a general mechanism by which the hippocampus communicates with downstream structures of behavioral relevance...
  35. ncbi Epileptic seizures are preceded by a decrease in synchronization
    Florian Mormann
    Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn, Germany
    Epilepsy Res 53:173-85. 2003
    ....
  36. doi Across-trial averaging of event-related EEG responses and beyond
    A Mouraux
    Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Magn Reson Imaging 26:1041-54. 2008
    ..In addition, we provide practical guidelines on the implementation of these methods and on the interpretation of the results they produce...
  37. doi Exploring intermediate phenotypes with EEG: working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia
    Corinna Haenschel
    Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Adeilad Brigantia, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2AS, UK
    Behav Brain Res 216:481-95. 2011
    ..These links have already resulted in the development of new remediation strategies, which have some translational potential...
  38. pmc Dangerous phase
    Steven J Schiff
    Krasnow Institute, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA
    Neuroinformatics 3:315-8. 2005
    ..The good news is that the fix to remove common reference artifacts is simple. The bad news is that the interpretation of reference- free synchronization results from brain signals requires considerable caution...
  39. ncbi Neural synchronization deficits to auditory stimulation in bipolar disorder
    BRIAN F O'DONNELL
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Neuroreport 15:1369-72. 2004
    ..Abnormal high frequency neural synchronization may contribute to cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder...
  40. doi Post-movement beta synchronization in subjects presenting with sensory deafferentation
    N Reyns
    Department of Functional Neurosurgery, EA 2683, University Hospital, Lille, France
    Clin Neurophysiol 119:1335-45. 2008
    ....
  41. pmc Impaired inhibitory control of cortical synchronization in fragile X syndrome
    Scott M Paluszkiewicz
    Children s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA
    J Neurophysiol 106:2264-72. 2011
    ..Together, these findings reveal a functional defect in a single subtype of cortical interneuron in Fmr1 KO mice. This defect is linked to altered activity of the cortical network in line with the FXS phenotype...
  42. ncbi Event-related beta synchronization after wrist, finger and thumb movement
    G Pfurtscheller
    Department of Medical Informatics, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Technology, Graz, Austria
    Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 109:154-60. 1998
    ..Summarizing, pre-movement desynchronization seems relatively independent of the forthcoming type of movement, whereas the post-movement beta synchronization might depend on the activated muscle mass...
  43. doi EEG synchrony during a perceptual-cognitive task: widespread phase synchrony at all frequencies
    Susan Pockett
    Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
    Clin Neurophysiol 120:695-708. 2009
    ..1) To examine the validity of comparing the phase of broad-band signals. (2) To measure phase synchrony over the whole head, at a variety of frequencies...
  44. doi When frequencies never synchronize: the golden mean and the resting EEG
    Belinda Pletzer
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
    Brain Res 1335:91-102. 2010
    ..These characteristics have already been discussed to lay the ground for a healthy interplay between various physiological processes (Buchmann, 2002)...
  45. pmc Reliability, synchrony and noise
    G Bard Ermentrout
    Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, Thackery Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Trends Neurosci 31:428-34. 2008
    ..These results raise fundamental questions about how noise can influence neural function and computation...
  46. doi Impaired extinction of fear and maintained amygdala-hippocampal theta synchrony in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy
    Jörg Lesting
    Institute for Physiology I, Muenster, Germany
    Epilepsia 52:337-46. 2011
    ..Therefore, this project was set up to characterize the neurophysiologic basis of seizure-related fear and the contribution of the amygdala-hippocampus system...
  47. doi Multiple origins of the cortical γ rhythm
    Miles A Whittington
    Institute of Neuroscience, The Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, United Kingdom
    Dev Neurobiol 71:92-106. 2011
    ..Finally, we suggest that developmental disruption of the endophenotype for certain subsets of gamma-generating interneuron may underlie cognitive deficit in psychiatric illness...
  48. ncbi Reduction in subthalamic 8-35 Hz oscillatory activity correlates with clinical improvement in Parkinson's disease
    Andrea A Kuhn
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WCIN 3BG, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 23:1956-60. 2006
    ..Our results support a link between levodopa-induced improvements in bradykinesia and rigidity and reductions in population synchrony at frequencies < 35 Hz in the region of the STN in patients with PD...
  49. ncbi GLM-beamformer method demonstrates stationary field, alpha ERD and gamma ERS co-localisation with fMRI BOLD response in visual cortex
    Matthew J Brookes
    Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, UK
    Neuroimage 26:302-8. 2005
    ....
  50. doi Detecting alpha rhythm phase reset by phase sorting: caveats to consider
    Petra Ritter
    Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Berlin, Germany
    Neuroimage 47:1-4. 2009
    ..We will discuss other criteria necessary for further confirmation of the phase reset theory...
  51. ncbi Asymmetric spatiotemporal patterns of event-related desynchronization preceding voluntary sequential finger movements: a high-resolution EEG study
    Ou Bai
    Human Motor Control Section, Medical Neurological Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1428, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 116:1213-21. 2005
    ..To study spatiotemporal patterns of event-related desynchronization (ERD) preceding voluntary sequential finger movements performed with dominant right hand and nondominant left hand...
  52. ncbi Tuning neocortical pyramidal neurons between integrators and coincidence detectors
    Michael Rudolph
    Unité de Neuroscience Intégratives et Computationnelles, CNRS, UPR 2191, Bat 32 33, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    J Comput Neurosci 14:239-51. 2003
    ..Thus, background activity not only sharpens cortical responses but it can also be used to tune an entire network between integration and coincidence detection modes...
  53. ncbi Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials carry synchronized frequency information in active cortical networks
    Andrea Hasenstaub
    Department of Neurobiology, Kavli Institute of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Neuron 47:423-35. 2005
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that inhibitory networks are largely responsible for the dissemination of higher-frequency activity in cortex...
  54. ncbi Does post-movement beta synchronization reflect an idling motor cortex?
    F Cassim
    Departments of Clinical Neurophysiology and 1Neurology, Hopital Salengro, CHU, F 59037 Lille, France
    Neuroreport 12:3859-63. 2001
    ..Post-movement beta synchronization can not solely be explained by an idling motor cortex. It may also, at least in part, reflect a movement-related somatosensory processing...
  55. ncbi Evoked gamma band synchronization and the liability for schizophrenia
    L Elliot Hong
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Schizophr Res 70:293-302. 2004
    ....
  56. pmc Dynamic links between theta executive functions and alpha storage buffers in auditory and visual working memory
    Masahiro Kawasaki
    Rhythm based Brain Computation Unit, RIKEN BSI TOYOTA Collaboration Center, Wako Shi, Saitama, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 31:1683-9. 2010
    ....
  57. doi Human frontal midline theta and its synchronization to gamma during a verbal delayed match to sample task
    Birgit Griesmayr
    Department of Physiological Psychology, University of Salzburg, Austria
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 93:208-15. 2010
    ....
  58. ncbi Beta electroencephalograph changes during passive movements: sensory afferences contribute to beta event-related desynchronization in humans
    M Alegre
    Neurophysiology Section, Department of Neurology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pio XII 36, 31008, Pamplona, Spain
    Neurosci Lett 331:29-32. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that afferent proprioceptive inputs may play a role in the final part of the beta ERD observed during voluntary movements...
  59. doi Impaired consciousness during temporal lobe seizures is related to increased long-distance cortical-subcortical synchronization
    Marie Arthuis
    INSERM, U751, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Marseille, F 13005, France
    Brain 132:2091-101. 2009
    ..We suggest that excessive synchronization overloads the structures involved in consciousness processing, preventing them from treating incoming information, thus resulting in LOC...
  60. ncbi Basic mechanisms of central rhythms reactivity to preparation and execution of a voluntary movement: a stereoelectroencephalographic study
    William Szurhaj
    EA HU6, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Hopital Salengro, CHRU, 59037, Lille Cedex, France
    Clin Neurophysiol 114:107-19. 2003
    ..To localize the sources of mu, beta and gamma rhythms and to explore the functional significance of their reactivity...
  61. ncbi Cannabinoids reveal importance of spike timing coordination in hippocampal function
    David Robbe
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:1526-33. 2006
    ..We hypothesize that reduced spike timing coordination and the associated impairment of physiological oscillations are responsible for cannabinoid-induced memory deficits...
  62. ncbi Synchrony-dependent propagation of firing rate in iteratively constructed networks in vitro
    Alex D Reyes
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nat Neurosci 6:593-9. 2003
    ..The firing rate was represented by a classical rate code in the initial layers, but switched to a synchrony-based code in the deeper layers...
  63. ncbi Attention to a painful cutaneous laser stimulus modulates electrocorticographic event-related desynchronization in humans
    S Ohara
    Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287 7247, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 115:1641-52. 2004
    ..To test the hypothesis that attention to painful cutaneous laser stimuli enhances event-related desynchronization (ERD) in cortical regions receiving nociceptive input...
  64. doi Cross-regional cortical synchronization during affective image viewing
    Vladimir Miskovic
    McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1
    Brain Res 1362:102-11. 2010
    ..Our results suggest large-scale synchronization of cortical cells during affective viewing and emphasize the role of beta oscillations in mediating such binding...
  65. ncbi Synchronized oscillations at alpha and theta frequencies in the lateral geniculate nucleus
    Stuart W Hughes
    School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3US, United Kingdom
    Neuron 42:253-68. 2004
    ..We propose that mGluR1a-induced oscillations are a potential mechanism whereby the thalamus promotes EEG alpha and theta rhythms in the intact brain...
  66. ncbi Comparison of Hilbert transform and wavelet methods for the analysis of neuronal synchrony
    M Le Van Quyen
    laboratoire de neurosciences cognitives et imagerie cérébrale LENA, Hopital de la Salpetriere, CNRS UPR 640, 47 bd de l Hopital, 75651 Cedex 13, Paris, France
    J Neurosci Methods 111:83-98. 2001
    ..This offers a common language and framework that can be used for future research in the area of synchronization...
  67. doi Graph properties of synchronized cortical networks during visual working memory maintenance
    Satu Palva
    Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Neuroimage 49:3257-68. 2010
    ..These data further show that synchronized dynamic networks underlying a specific cognitive state can exhibit distinct frequency-dependent network structures that could support distinct functional roles...
  68. ncbi Frequency flows and the time-frequency dynamics of multivariate phase synchronization in brain signals
    David Rudrauf
    LENA, MEG EEG Center Pitié Salpêtrière, CNRS UPR 640, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 47 bd de l Hopital, 75651 Paris Cedex 13, France
    Neuroimage 31:209-27. 2006
    ....
  69. doi Disturbed post-movement beta synchronization in Wilson's disease with neurological manifestation
    Gertrúd Tamás
    Department of Neurology, Semmelweis University, Balassa u 6, 1083 Budapest, Hungary
    Neurosci Lett 494:240-4. 2011
    ..Since decreased power of PMBS was observed in Parkinson's disease and increased latency in essential tremor, the combined change of PMBS can indicate pathology of different neural circuits and may help the diagnosis in challenging cases...
  70. ncbi Beta 2-band synchronization during a visual oddball task
    M Kukleta
    Department of Physiology, Masaryk University, Komenskeho 2, 662 43 Brno, Czech Republic
    Physiol Res 58:725-32. 2009
    ....
  71. doi Synchronization of neuronal responses in primary visual cortex of monkeys viewing natural images
    Pedro Maldonado
    Centro de Neurociencias Integradas and Programa de Fisiología y Biofísica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    J Neurophysiol 100:1523-32. 2008
    ..The short latency of the stimulation-related synchronization phenomena suggests a fast-acting mechanism for the coordination of spike timing that may contribute to the basic operations of scene segmentation...
  72. ncbi Oscillatory nature of human basal ganglia activity: relationship to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease
    Peter Brown
    Sobell Department of Neurophysiology and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom
    Mov Disord 18:357-63. 2003
    ..The lower frequency oscillations facilitate slow idling rhythms in the motor areas of the cortex, whereas synchronisation at high frequency restores dynamic task-related cortical ensemble activity in the gamma band...
  73. doi Reduced movement-related β desynchronisation in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a MEG study of task specific cortical modulation
    Khalid Hamandi
    The Epilepsy Unit, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff CF14 4XW, UK
    Clin Neurophysiol 122:2128-38. 2011
    ..We investigated differences in task induced responses in occipital and sensorimotor cortex between patients with juvenile myclonic epilepsy (JME) and healthy controls ...
  74. ncbi Synchronization of neural oscillations as a possible mechanism underlying episodic memory: a study of theta rhythm in the hippocampus
    Yoko Yamaguchi
    Laboratory for Dynamics of Emergent Intelligence, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    J Integr Neurosci 3:143-57. 2004
    ..Further comparison with electrophysiological data from both rodents and primates suggests a possible role of theta oscillations in memory encoding and online processing of episodic events...
  75. doi Electroencephalogram functional connectivity between rat hippocampus and cortex after pilocarpine treatment
    S Tejada
    Department of Biologia Fonamental i Ciències de la Salut, University of the Balearic Islands, IUNICS, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
    Neuroscience 165:621-31. 2010
    ..In conclusion, the present EEG study could suggest an effect of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist pilocarpine on the hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity...
  76. doi Functional neural networks underlying semantic encoding of associative memories
    M Crespo-Garcia
    Laboratory of Functional Neuroscience, Network for Biomedical Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases CIBERNED, University Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain
    Neuroimage 50:1258-70. 2010
    ....
  77. ncbi Evaluation of different measures of functional connectivity using a neural mass model
    Olivier David
    Functional Imaging Laboratory, Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 21:659-73. 2004
    ..We illustrate this using a single-subject MEG study of binocular rivalry and highlight the greater recovery of statistical dependencies among cortical areas in the beta band when mutual information is used...
  78. doi The neuronal basis of attention: rate versus synchronization modulation
    Andres Buehlmann
    Computational Neuroscience, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurosci 28:7679-86. 2008
    ..However, we show that there is an advantage in the processing of information if rate modulation is accompanied by gamma modulation, namely that reaction times are shorter, implying behavioral relevance for gamma synchronization...
  79. ncbi Oscillations in the basal ganglia under normal conditions and in movement disorders
    Plamen Gatev
    Yerkes National Primate Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Mov Disord 21:1566-77. 2006
    ..Although less firmly established than the role of oscillations in movement disorders, oscillatory activities at higher frequencies may also be a component of normal basal ganglia physiology...
  80. ncbi Dynamics of spiking neurons connected by both inhibitory and electrical coupling
    Timothy J Lewis
    Center for Neural Science and Courant Institute for Mathematical Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Rm 809, NY 10003, USA
    J Comput Neurosci 14:283-309. 2003
    ..We also show that these results extend to moderate coupling strengths...
  81. pmc The effects of visual stimulation and selective visual attention on rhythmic neuronal synchronization in macaque area V4
    Pascal Fries
    F C Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 EN Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci 28:4823-35. 2008
    ..These results lend further support for a functional role of rhythmic neuronal synchronization in attentional stimulus selection...
  82. ncbi Phase synchronization analysis of EEG during attentional blink
    Chie Nakatani
    Laboratory for Perceptual Dynamics, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako Shi, Saitama, 351 0198, Japan
    J Cogn Neurosci 17:1969-79. 2005
    ..Enhanced levels of anticipatory synchronization occur in response to the demands of the task in conditions where the system's limited capacity is under strain...
  83. pmc Synchronized brain activity and neurocognitive function in patients with low-grade glioma: a magnetoencephalography study
    Ingeborg Bosma
    Department of Neurology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neuro Oncol 10:734-44. 2008
    ....
  84. pmc Inhibitory synchrony as a mechanism for attentional gain modulation
    Paul H Tiesinga
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 27599 3255, USA
    J Physiol Paris 98:296-314. 2004
    ..Thus, the observed changes in firing rate and coherence of neurons in the visual cortex could be controlled by top-down inputs that regulated the coherence in the activity of a local inhibitory network discharging at gamma frequencies...
  85. ncbi Induced theta oscillations mediate large-scale synchrony with mediotemporal areas during recollection in humans
    Sebastian Guderian
    Department of Neurology II, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany
    Hippocampus 15:901-12. 2005
    ..These findings are compatible with the notion that theta oscillations are related to the binding of distributed cortical representations during recollection...
  86. pmc Sleep homeostasis and cortical synchronization: II. A local field potential study of sleep slow waves in the rat
    Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53719, USA
    Sleep 30:1631-42. 2007
    ..Here we tested the model predictions by obtaining LFP recordings from the rat cerebral cortex and comparing conditions of high homeostatic sleep pressure (early sleep) and low homeostatic sleep pressure (late sleep)...
  87. ncbi Does spatiotemporal synchronization of EEG change prior to absence seizures?
    Ardalan Aarabi
    GRAMFC, EFSN Péd, CHU Nord, Place V Pauchet, Amiens, France
    Brain Res 1188:207-21. 2008
    ..This study supports the hypothesis of having a focal susceptibility of the cerebral cortex prior to absence seizures and further underlines that this susceptibility is reproducible and patient-specific...
  88. ncbi Intermittent dynamics underlying the intrinsic fluctuations of the collective synchronization patterns in electrocortical activity
    Pulin Gong
    Laboratory for Perceptual Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako Shi, Saitama, 351 0198, Japan
    Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 76:011904. 2007
    ..We present a model study illustrating that the scaling property and the collective intermittent dynamics are emergent features of globally coupled phase oscillators near the critical point of entering global frequency locking...
  89. ncbi What do disturbances in neural synchrony tell us about autism?
    Peter J Uhlhaas
    Biol Psychiatry 62:190-1. 2007
  90. ncbi Human cortical circuits for central executive function emerge by theta phase synchronization
    Hiroaki Mizuhara
    Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3 1 1, Tsusima naka, Okayama Shi, Okayama 700 8530, Japan
    Neuroimage 36:232-44. 2007
    ..Here we report the first evidence that theta phase synchronization dynamically coordinates the central executive circuits, including the medial prefrontal cortex and relevant cortical regions...
  91. ncbi Neuronal coherence during selective attentional processing and sensory-motor integration
    Thilo Womelsdorf
    F C Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University Nijmegen, Kapittelweg 29, 6525 EN Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Physiol Paris 100:182-93. 2006
    ....
  92. ncbi Attentional modulation of firing rate and synchrony in a model cortical network
    Calin Buia
    Computational Neurophysics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box 3255, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Comput Neurosci 20:247-64. 2006
    ..In addition, it predicts that attention increases the delay between the inhibitory and excitatory synchronous volleys produced by the network, allowing the stimulus to recruit more downstream neurons...
  93. ncbi Synchronization of neural activity across cortical areas correlates with conscious perception
    Lucia Melloni
    Laboratorio de Neurociencias, Escuela de Psicologia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, San Joaquin, 8940000 Santiago, Chile
    J Neurosci 27:2858-65. 2007
    ..We propose that the critical process mediating the access to conscious perception is the early transient global increase of phase synchrony of oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range...
  94. ncbi Investigating the human mirror neuron system by means of cortical synchronization during the imitation of biological movements
    Klaus Kessler
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, CCNi, University of Glasgow, UK
    Neuroimage 33:227-38. 2006
    ..Finally, we also found the basal ganglia to participate at an early stage in the processing of biological movement, possibly by selecting suitable motor programs that match the stimulus...
  95. ncbi Memory formation by neuronal synchronization
    Nikolai Axmacher
    Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Str 25, 53105 Bonn, Germany
    Brain Res Rev 52:170-82. 2006
    ..In summary, synchronization of neural assemblies in different frequency ranges induces specific forms of cellular plasticity during subsequent stages of memory formation...
  96. ncbi Contextual modulation of synchronization to random dots in the cat visual cortex
    S Shumikhina
    Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succ Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada
    Exp Brain Res 158:223-32. 2004
    ....
  97. ncbi Aperiodic phase re-setting in scalp EEG of beta-gamma oscillations by state transitions at alpha-theta rates
    Walter J Freeman
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3200, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 19:248-72. 2003
    ..Cortex functions by serial changes in state. The Hilbert transform of EEG from high-density arrays can visualize these state transitions with high temporal and spatial resolution and should be useful in relating EEG to cognition...
  98. ncbi Local field potential oscillations in primate cerebellar cortex: synchronization with cerebral cortex during active and passive expectancy
    Richard Courtemanche
    Department of Exercise Science amd Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University, 7141, Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal Qc H4B 1R6, Canada
    J Neurophysiol 93:2039-52. 2005
    ....
  99. ncbi Synchronization in monkey motor cortex during a precision grip task. II. effect of oscillatory activity on corticospinal output
    Stuart N Baker
    Sobell Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurophysiol 89:1941-53. 2003
    ..The oscillations will therefore be effectively transmitted to spinal motoneurons, and this has important consequences for the possible role of oscillations in motor control of the hand...
  100. ncbi Spatial and temporal structure of phase synchronization of spontaneous alpha EEG activity
    Junji Ito
    Laboratory for Perceptual Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama, 351 0198, Japan
    Biol Cybern 92:54-60. 2005
    ..The duration distributions of these patterns have similar forms within a subject, which suggests that they share the same mechanism for their generation...
  101. ncbi Disturbed fluctuations of resting state EEG synchronization in Alzheimer's disease
    C J Stam
    Alzheimer Centre, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, VU University Medical Centre, P O Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Clin Neurophysiol 116:708-15. 2005
    ..We examined the hypothesis that cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease is associated with abnormal spontaneous fluctuations of EEG synchronization levels during an eyes-closed resting state...

Research Grants129 found, 100 shown here

  1. Neural synchronydysfunction of gamma oscillations in autism
    Donald C Rojas; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Using a whole-head MEG system, we will assess patterns of auditory cortical synchronization with high precision in both time and frequency...
  2. Neural synchronydysfunction of gamma oscillations in autism
    Donald C Rojas; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Using a whole-head MEG system, we will assess patterns of auditory cortical synchronization with high precision in both time and frequency...
  3. Distributed Cortical Processing in Visual Working Memory
    CHARLES M contact GRAY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Analyses of disturbances in cortico-cortical synchronization hold the promise of providing critical diagnostic measures for a wide variety of cognitive disturbances...
  4. NEUROPEPTIDE CORTISTATIN AND SLEEP
    Luis de Lecea; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These features and others make cortistatin a sleep factor that may have a major role in cortical synchronization and the maintenance of slow wave sleep...
  5. Neurobiology of Response Failure in Schizophrenia
    Judith Ford; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  6. Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: ERPs & fMRI
    Handan Gunduz Bruce; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. CRCNS-Attentional Selection and Perceptual Organization
    Ernst Niebur; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  8. Neural Temporal Coding Mechanisms of Tactile Attention
    Ernst Niebur; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aim 3 is to study the mechanisms underlying the generation of synchrony. One hypothesis that will be tested is phase locking of action potentials to a periodic function (oscillations). ..
  9. PERCEPTION AND PRODUCTION OF EXPRESSIVE MICROSTRUCTURE
    Bruno Repp; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This research is expected to provide new insights into the largely subconscious psychological processes underlying the flexible control of timing in both musical and nonmusical contexts. ..
  10. PERCEPTION AND PRODUCTION OF EXPRESSIVE MICROSTRUCTURE
    Bruno Repp; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  11. PERCEPTION AND PRODUCTION OF RHYTHMIC MICROSTRUCTURE
    Bruno Repp; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..In the long run, this research may suggest ways of improving music education and increasing music appreciation, with positive consequences for mental health and quality of life...
  12. CRCNS: Attentional Selection and Perceptional Organization
    Ernst Niebur; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g. hemineglect, and elucidating how selective attention works with image understanding will be important for understanding the mechanisms underlying these diseases. ..
  13. Spatiotemporal ERP Modeling & Brain Development
    Joseph Isler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. Infant Temperament and Cognitive Development
    MARTHA BELL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Likewise, they have the potential to generate hypotheses about foundations for the development of extremes in self-regulation (i.e., attention deficit disorder, depression) and associated complexities in cognition. ..
  15. COMPUTATIONAL ASPECTS OF PRIMATE MEMORY
    JOAQUIN FUSTER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..A better understanding of the neural dynamics of memory may help us better understand the pathogenesis of memory disorders in the mentally ill and thus lead to better treatments. ..
  16. Pathway(s) From Genes to Functional Deficits of Schizophrenia Patients
    Gregory A Light; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  17. INTEGRATIVE APPROACH TO CORTICAL COGNITIVE NETWORKS
    JOAQUIN FUSTER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These correlations are expected to provide crucial information on the neuronal basis of functional imaging signals, such as those obtained by BOLD fMRI, in human cognition. ..
  18. Epigenetic modulation of epileptogenesis.
    PEYMAN GOLSHANI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  19. Reverse Engineering Cortical Circuitry
    WILLIAM LYTTON; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This will set the stage for use of the subiculum slice and subiculum computer model as an epilepsy model. ..
  20. PHYSIOLOGY OF VISUAL DYSFUNCTION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Charles Schroeder; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..3-To identify cortical regions, and physiological processes generating object-related ERPs shown to be abnormal in schizophrenic patients. ..
  21. Sensory Processing Deficits in Cannabis Use
    PATRICK SKOSNIK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Taken together, this data may serve to elucidate whether the known cognitive dysfunction observed in cannabis use is in part related to disturbances in early sensory information processing and/or neural synchronization. ..
  22. METHAMPHETAMINE ABUSE AND CORTICAL CELL INJURY
    John Marshall; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  23. Research Education for Future Physician-Scientists in Child Psychiatry
    James Leckman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Funds are also requested to support the national independent evaluation of both the KGT Foundation Medical Student Fellowship (at six sites) and the Integrated Research Pathway Program (at two sites). ..
  24. BDNF AND HIPPOCAMPAL HYPEREXCITABILITY
    Helen Scharfman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies will establish how an endogenous neurotrophin, considered to be neuroprotective primarily, can influence normal and abnormal activity in the limbic system. ..
  25. VOLATILE ANESTHETICS AND CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW REGULATION
    ANTHONY HUDETZ; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..They will determine if regional and agent-specific differences in microvascular vasodilation in response to volatile anesthetics are due to the effects of these agents on the GABA and NO neuronal systems. ..
  26. CONCEPTUAL PROCESSING IN ALZHEIMERS DISEASE
    Murray Grossman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  27. FAST ELECTRICAL OSCILLATIONS IN SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
    DANIEL BARTH; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..These experiments will also provide a starting point for conduction similar more limited studies in humans, the long range goal of our research program. ..
  28. Neurophysiology and Anatomy of Multisensory Processing
    Troy A Hackett; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..impairment specific to hearing disorders, and in a spectrum of disorders including ADHD, autism and schizophrenia, where defects in normal connectivity, disruptions of neuronal synchrony and attentional impairments are prominent ..
  29. Conceptual Processing in Alzheimer's Disease
    Murray Grossman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  30. Alcohol and Tobacco CNS Effects in Binge Drinkers
    JOHN M POLICH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  31. STRIATAL ORGANIZATION AND DOPAMINE RECEPTOR LOCALIZATION
    John Marshall; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..These experiments are intended to elucidate the processes underlying the supersensitivity to dopamine and its agonists that occurs after dopaminergic denervation. ..
  32. Neuroelectric Assessment of Ecstasy Use in Young Adults
    John Polich; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Equal numbers of female and male subjects will be assessed in all phases. The proposed methods will characterize CNS differences from MDMA use to provide assessment of drug effects on cognition. ..
  33. In vivo measurement of dopamine transmission in schizophrenia
    WILLIAM G FRANKLE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this proposal we seek to better understand the neurobiology underlying the cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia;with the hope that, in turn, this will advance the development of novel treatments for these cognitive impairments. ..
  34. Neuroelectric Assessment of MDMA (Ecstasy) Use in Adults
    John Polich; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These results will provide fundamental data on how MDMA use may alter CNS function. ..
  35. Brain Lateralization in Adolescent Psychosis
    Donald Rojas; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  36. ACTIVITY-DEPENDENT PLASTICITY IN SENSORY CORTEX
    Edward Jones; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....