Genomes and Genes
Summary: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
Publications229 found, 100 shown here
- Moderation of lactulose-induced diarrhea by psyllium: effects on motility and fermentationN Washington
Division of Gastroenterology and Department of Surgery, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, United Kingdom
Am J Clin Nutr 67:317-21. 1998..05). Psyllium delays gastric emptying, probably by increasing meal viscosity, and reduces the acceleration of colon transit, possibly by delaying the production of gaseous fermentation products...
- Prucalopride (Resolor) in the treatment of severe chronic constipation in patients dissatisfied with laxativesJ Tack
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Gut 58:357-65. 2009..To determine the efficacy, impact on quality of life (QOL) and safety of prucalopride, a selective, high-affinity 5-HT(4) receptor agonist, in patients with chronic constipation...
- Clinical trial: the efficacy, impact on quality of life, and safety and tolerability of prucalopride in severe chronic constipation--a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyE M M Quigley
Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 29:315-28. 2009..Chronic constipation may result in disabling symptoms, is often unsatisfactorily treated by laxatives and negatively impacts quality of life (QoL)...
- Clinical trial: the effects of a fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 on abdominal distension and gastrointestinal transit in irritable bowel syndrome with constipationA Agrawal
Neurogastroenterology Unit, Translational Medicine GI Sciences, University of Manchester, UK
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 29:104-14. 2009..A sensation of abdominal swelling (bloating) and actual increase in girth (distension) are troublesome features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is more common in patients with constipation, especially those with delayed transit...
- Etiology of portal hypertension may influence gastrointestinal transitR Sadik
Division of Gastroenterology, Institute of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Goteborg, Goteborg, Sweden
Scand J Gastroenterol 38:1039-44. 2003b>Gastrointestinal transit studies have shown contradictory results in patients with portal hypertension. We have studied gastric emptying. small-bowel transit and colonic transit in patients with portal hypertension...
- Evaluation of gastrointestinal transit in clinical practice: position paper of the American and European Neurogastroenterology and Motility SocietiesS S C Rao
Division of Gastroenterology Hepatology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 1009, USA
Neurogastroenterol Motil 23:8-23. 2011..Assessment of regional and/or whole gut transit times can provide direct measurements and diagnostic information to explain the cause of symptoms, and plan therapy...
- Prucalopride, a systemic enterokinetic, for the treatment of constipationA V Emmanuel
St Mark s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex, UK
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16:1347-56. 2002..Laxatives are frequently ineffective in treating constipation. An alternative therapeutic approach is to target serotonin-4 receptors, which are involved in initiating peristalsis...
- Review article: bifidobacteria as probiotic agents -- physiological effects and clinical benefitsC Picard
Danone Vitapole, Centre de Recherche Daniel Carasso, Nutrivaleur, Palaiseau, France
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 22:495-512. 2005..Bifidobacteria may exert protective intestinal actions through various mechanisms, and represent promising advances in the fields of prophylaxis and therapy...
- Utility of hydrogen breath tests in diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in malabsorption syndrome and its relationship with oro-cecal transit timeUday C Ghoshal
Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow
Indian J Gastroenterol 25:6-10. 2006..Quantitative culture of upper gut aspirate is used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO. Studies on diagnosis of SIBO using non-invasive hydrogen breath tests are contradictory...
- Agarwood induced laxative effects via acetylcholine receptors on loperamide-induced constipation in miceMamoru Kakino
Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Molecular Pharmacology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu, Japan
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74:1550-5. 2010..These findings indicate that EEAs exerted a laxative effect via acetylcholine receptors in the mouse constipation model...
- Ileal brake: neuropeptidergic control of intestinal transitGregg W Van Citters
Division of Gastroinestinal and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
Curr Gastroenterol Rep 8:367-73. 2006..Fat is the most potent trigger of these transit control mechanisms. The integrated circuitry of gut peptides and neurons involved in transit control in response to nutrients is described in this review...
- Bloating and distension in irritable bowel syndrome: the role of gastrointestinal transitAnurag Agrawal
Neurogastroenterology Unit, Gastrointestinal Sciences, School of Translational Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Am J Gastroenterol 104:1998-2004. 2009..Because constipation is often associated with delayed gastrointestinal transit, this study aimed at establishing whether patients with delayed transit show more distension and bloating ..
- Role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and delayed gastrointestinal transit time in cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathyAnkur Gupta
Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India
J Hepatol 53:849-55. 2010..This cross-sectional study was carried out to elucidate the role of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine and delayed intestinal transit among patients with MHE...
- Dose-response effect of a beta3-adrenergic receptor agonist, solabegron, on gastrointestinal transit, bowel function, and somatostatin levels in healthApril B M Grudell
Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 294:G1114-9. 2008..Our aim was to explore the effects of a beta(3)-AR agonist, solabegron, on gastrointestinal transit, safety, bowel function, plasma somatostatin, and solabegron pharmacokinetics (PK) following single and ..
- Gastrointestinal transit and mucoadhesion of colloidal suspensions of Lycopersicon esculentum L. and Lotus tetragonolobus lectin-PLA microsphere conjugates in ratsM J Montisci
Laboratoire de Pharmacotechnie et Biopharmacie, UMR 8612, , , , France
Pharm Res 18:829-37. 2001..These results could be attributed both to unfavorable physicochemical characteristics of the conjugates and to premature adsorption of soluble mucin glycoproteins, preventing any further specific adhesion...
- [Colonic transit time in patient with liver cirrhosis]Young Hoon Kim
Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, San 17, Haengdang dong, Seongdong Gu, Seoul 133 792, Korea
Korean J Gastroenterol 42:394-9. 2003..Thus, the authors investigated the differences of colonic transit time between cirrhotic patients and normal controls with attention to factors that affect this change...
- The pharmacological effects of Daikenchuto, a traditional herbal medicine, on delayed gastrointestinal transit in rat postoperative ileusYohei Tokita
Central Research Laboratory, Tsumura and Co, Ibaraki, Japan
J Pharmacol Sci 104:303-10. 2007..POI was induced by laparotomy with manipulation of the gastrointestine under anesthesia, and gastrointestinal transit was calculated by migration of Evans blue. Daikenchuto (270 - 2,700 mg/kg, p.o...
- Gastrointestinal transit, post-prandial lipaemia and satiety following 3 days high-fat diet in menM E Clegg
Faculty of Education and Health Sciences, University of Limerick, Castletroy, Limerick, Ireland, UK
Eur J Clin Nutr 65:240-6. 2011..To date, no studies have shown any alteration in GE following shorter HF diets. The aim of this study was to assess if an HF, high-energy diet of 3 days can adapt gastrointestinal (GI) transit, blood lipids and satiety...
- Prognosis of constipation: clinical factors and colonic transit timeF de Lorijn
Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Emma Children s Hospital Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Arch Dis Child 89:723-7. 2004..Measurement of colonic transit time (CTT) is sometimes used in the evaluation of patients with chronic constipation...
- Normal gastrointestinal transit after colonic resection using epidural analgesia, enforced oral nutrition and laxativeL Basse
Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark
Br J Surg 88:1498-500. 2001..The aim of this study was to assess the transit rate of the entire gastrointestinal tract after colonic resection with multimodal rehabilitation...
- Effect of mosapride on gastrointestinal transit time and diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopyWei Wei
Department of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Diseases, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 22:1605-8. 2007..The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral mosapride on gastrointestinal transit time and the diagnostic yield of CE.
- Modulation of gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in rats through intestinal cannabinoid CB(1) receptorsMarco Landi
Research Center Sanofi Midy, Sanofi Synthelabo, SPA, Via G B Piranesi 38, 20137 Milan, Italy
Eur J Pharmacol 450:77-83. 2002We studied the delay in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit induced by the cannabinoid receptor agonists (+)-WIN 55,212-2 (R(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-yl]-(1-naphthalenyl)..
- Development and application of an in vitro methodology to determine the transit tolerance of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in the upper human gastrointestinal tractW P Charteris
SET Consultants Ltd, Douglas, Cork, Ireland
J Appl Microbiol 84:759-68. 1998An in vitro methodology which mimics in vivo human upper gastrointestinal transit was developed...
- Characterization of two models of drug-induced constipation in mice and evaluation of mustard oil in these modelsRyosuke Kojima
Drug Discovery Research, Astellas Pharma Inc, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
Pharmacology 84:227-33. 2009..These results indicate that clonidine- and loperamide-induced delays in colonic transit are models of atonic and spastic constipation, respectively, and that mustard oil may be effective on both types of constipation...
- The relationship between symptoms, body mass index, gastrointestinal transit and stool frequency in patients with irritable bowel syndromeRiadh Sadik
Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg 41345, Sweden
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 22:102-8. 2010..The aim of this prospective study was to characterize the relationships between symptoms in IBS, GI transit, as a measure of GI motility, and BMI...
- Effects of Velusetrag (TD-5108) on gastrointestinal transit and bowel function in health and pharmacokinetics in health and constipationM L Manini
Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Neurogastroenterol Motil 22:42-9, e7-8. 2010..We assessed effects of Velusetrag on gastrointestinal transit and compared its pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers (HV) and chronic constipation (CC) patients...
- Central and peripheral cannabinoid modulation of gastrointestinal transit in physiological states or during the diarrhoea induced by croton oilA A Izzo
Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, via D Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
Br J Pharmacol 129:1627-32. 2000..p.) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on upper gastrointestinal transit in control and in croton oil-treated mice...
- The herbal medicine, Dai-Kenchu-to, accelerates delayed gastrointestinal transit after the operation in ratsHiroyuki Fukuda
Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA
J Surg Res 131:290-5. 2006..Dai-Kenchu-to (DKT), an herbal medicine, has been used for treating adhesive bowel obstruction in Japan. We studied whether DKT improves delayed GI transit after the operation, with or without morphine administration in rats...
- Double blind, placebo controlled trial of two probiotic strains in interleukin 10 knockout mice and mechanistic link with cytokine balanceJ McCarthy
Department of Medicine, University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland
Gut 52:975-80. 2003..Prophylactic efficacy against colitis following lactobacillus consumption in interleukin 10 (IL-10) knockout (KO) mice has been reported. Whether this applies equally to other probiotic strains is unknown, and the mechanism is unclear...
- Effects of intravenous fructose on gastric emptying and antropyloroduodenal motility in healthy subjectsJulie E Stevens
University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA, Australia
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 297:G1274-80. 2009..003) compared with fructose and saline (P = NS for both) infusions. In conclusion, iv fructose slows GE and modulates gastric motility in healthy subjects, and the magnitude of slowing of GE is comparable to that induced by iv glucose...
- Gastrointestinal transit of solid radiopaque markers in large and giant breed growing dogsM Weber
Laboratory of Nutrition and Endocrinology, National Veterinary School of Nantes, BP 40706, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3, France
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 85:242-50. 2001..These could explained why digestive function and sensitivity could be different in dogs from different sizes and breeds...
- Assessment of the relationship between body weight and gastrointestinal transit times measured by use of a wireless motility capsule system in dogsCarol S Boillat
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Am J Vet Res 71:898-902. 2010To assess the relationship between body weight and gastrointestinal transit times measured by use of a wireless motility capsule (WMC) system in healthy dogs.
- Endothelin ETA receptor blockade potentiates morphine analgesia but does not affect gastrointestinal transit in miceGeorge A Matwyshyn
Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences M C 865, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 South Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Eur J Pharmacol 543:48-53. 2006..BMS182874, and endothelin ET(B) receptor agonist, IRL1620, on morphine analgesia and changes in gastrointestinal transit in male Swiss Webster mice. Results indicate that morphine (6 mg/kg, s.c...
- Gastro intestinal tracking and gastric emptying of solid dosage forms in rats using X-ray imagingSigal Saphier
The Department of Organic Chemistry, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, Israel
Int J Pharm 388:190-5. 2010The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal transit and gastric emptying of non-disintegrating solid dosage forms in rats using X-ray imaging...
- Abatement of morphine-induced slowing in gastrointestinal transit by Dai-kenchu-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicineTomonori Nakamura
Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Japan
Jpn J Pharmacol 88:217-21. 2002..relieve pain, effects of Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), on gastrointestinal transit in mice or on the isolated guinea pig ileum were studied in special reference to morphine...
- A randomized controlled trial of a probiotic, VSL#3, on gut transit and symptoms in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndromeH J Kim
Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research Program, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 17:895-904. 2003To investigate the effects of a probiotic formulation, VSL#3, on gastrointestinal transit and symptoms of patients with Rome II irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhoea.
- Characterizing gastrointestinal transit time in four lemur species using barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS)J L Campbell
Interdepartmental Nutrition Program, Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
Am J Primatol 64:309-21. 2004..The flow of BIPS did not differ for VV and EF. These data reveal new information in addition to the total tract transit time, and complement existing knowledge regarding anatomy and diet...
- Evaluation of absorption kinetics of orally administered theophylline in rats based on gastrointestinal transit monitoring by gamma scintigraphyS Haruta
Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Central Research Laboratories, Miyazaki Medical College, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake-cho, Miyazaki 889-1692, Japan
J Pharm Sci 90:464-73. 2001..Analysis using GI transit-absorption model and gamma scintigraphic technique made it possible to estimate the variable absorption kinetics regulated by GI transit with huge variability...
- Measurement of gastrointestinal transitHenry C Lin
Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90033, USA
Dig Dis Sci 50:989-1004. 2005..As we make progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of transit disorders, the clinical usefulness of these diagnostic tests will be further enhanced...
- Oral modified-release formulations in motion: the relationship between gastrointestinal transit and drug absorptionFelipe J O Varum
The School of Pharmacy, University of London, 29 39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, United Kingdom
Int J Pharm 395:26-36. 2010..This is an oversimplification and in this review we discuss the effect of the highly variable gastrointestinal transit on the bioperformance of multiple-unit dosage forms, relative to their single-unit counterparts...
- Gastrointestinal transit time of nondisintegrating radio-opaque pellets in suckling and recently weaned pigletsV Snoeck
Laboratory of Veterinary Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
J Control Release 94:143-53. 2004..These data are of crucial importance in the design of enteric-coated formulations for oral administration of vaccines and therapeutics to young piglets and for human research using the pig model...
- Effects of fasting on evaluation of gastrointestinal transit with charcoal mealS W Mittelstadt
Drug Safety Assessment, Procter and Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45252, USA
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 52:154-8. 2005At the present time, most studies investigating gastrointestinal transit time with charcoal are conducted in fasted rats...
- Model of rapid gastrointestinal transit in dogs: effects of muscarinic antagonists and a nitric oxide synthase inhibitorT Chiba
Division of Gastroenterology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MA 55905, USA
Neurogastroenterol Motil 14:535-41. 2002Our aims were to establish a canine model of rapid gastrointestinal transit, and to test the effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine, pirenzepine, AF-DX116, and darifenacin), and an NOS inhibitor, L-nitro-N-arginine (L-NNA) ..
- Relative efficacy of some prokinetic drugs in morphine-induced gastrointestinal transit delay in miceA D Suchitra
Department of Pharmacology, JIPMER, Pondicherry 605006, India
World J Gastroenterol 9:779-83. 2003..To study the relative efficacy of cisapride, metoclopramide, domperidone, erythromycin and mosapride on gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal transit (SIT) in morphine treated mice...
- Gut transit is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and gut hormone profile in patients with cirrhosisEvangelos Kalaitzakis
Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:346-52. 2009....
- Gastric transit and small intestinal transit time and motility assessed by a magnet tracking systemJonas Worsøe
Department of Surgery P, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
BMC Gastroenterol 11:145. 2011..Tracking System MTS-1 (Motilis, Lausanne, Switzerland) is an easy and minimally-invasive method to assess gastrointestinal transit. The aim was to test the validity of MTS-1 for assessment of gastric transit time and small intestinal ..
- Response to a behavioural treatment, biofeedback, in constipated patients is associated with improved gut transit and autonomic innervationA V Emmanuel
St Mark's Hospital, Northwick Park, Watford Road, Harrow, Middlesex HA1 3UJ, UK
Gut 49:214-9. 2001..Successful outcome after biofeedback treatment is associated with improved activity of the direct cerebral innervation to the gut and improved gut transit. This effect is gut specific; cardiovascular autonomic reflexes were not altered...
- Effect of bowel cleansing on colonic transit in constipation due to slow transit or evacuation disorderC E J Sloots
Department of Gastroenterology of the Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Neurogastroenterol Motil 14:55-61. 2002..However, because in an infrequent defecation pattern, the influence of faecal impaction is considerable, CTT should be applied with care for critical clinical decisions in the treatment of constipation...
- Involvement of mu-opioid receptors in antinociception and inhibition of gastrointestinal transit induced by 7-hydroxymitragynine, isolated from Thai herbal medicine Mitragyna speciosaKenjiro Matsumoto
Laboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai International University, 1 Gumyo, Togane, Chiba 283 8555, Japan
Eur J Pharmacol 549:63-70. 2006..In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of antinociception and the inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal transit of 7-hydroxymitragynine, and compared its effects with those of morphine...
- Effect of centrally administered apelin-13 on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in miceShuang Yu Lv
Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, 222 Tian Shui South Road, Lanzhou 730000, PR China
Peptides 32:978-82. 2011..The present study was designed to investigate the effect of central apelin-13 on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in mice. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v...
- The effect of polyethylene glycol 400 on gastrointestinal transit: implications for the formulation of poorly-water soluble drugsA W Basit
Department of Pharmaceutics, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK
Pharm Res 18:1146-50. 2001..a pharmaceutical excipient frequently employed to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs, on the gastrointestinal transit of liquid and pellet preparations in human subjects using gamma scintigraphy.
- Pharmacodynamic effects of a novel prokinetic 5-HT receptor agonist, ATI-7505, in humansM Camilleri
Department of Health Sciences Research, Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Neurogastroenterol Motil 19:30-8. 2007..056) with the 10 and 20 mg t.i.d. doses. No safety issues were identified. ATI-7505 accelerates overall colonic transit and tends to accelerate GE and AC emptying and loosen stool consistency...
- Slow transit constipation: a disorder of pelvic autonomic nerves?C H Knowles
Academic Department of Surgery, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Whitechapel, UK
Dig Dis Sci 46:389-401. 2001..We further present evidence for possible pathogenetic mechanisms underlying pelvic autonomic neuropathy in chronic idiopathic STC...
- Omeprazole-induced slowing of gastrointestinal transit in mice can be countered with tegaserodAlan Cowan
Department of Pharmacology, Temple University School of Medicine, 3420 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
Eur J Pharmacol 517:127-31. 2005..These results show that omeprazole reduces aboral transit of luminal contents through the stomach and small bowel of mice and that this delay is reversed by tegaserod...
- The effect of different dosages of guar gum on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit of a consumed semisolid mealM A van Nieuwenhoven
Department of Gastroenterology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
J Am Coll Nutr 20:87-91. 2001There is no consensus about the effect of guar gum supplementation on gastrointestinal transit. It has been suggested that guar gum slows gastric emptying and intestinal transit, thus inducing an increased feeling of satiety.
- Tropical sprue is associated with contamination of small bowel with aerobic bacteria and reversible prolongation of orocecal transit timeUday C Ghoshal
Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18:540-7. 2003..In tropical sprue (TS), response to antibiotics may suggest a role for bacterial contamination of the small bowel, which is known in diseases with prolonged orocecal transit time (OCTT)...
- Summary of probiotic activities of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019Mary Ellen Sanders
Dairy and Food Culture Technologies, 7119 S Glencoe Ct, Centennial, CO 80122, USA
J Clin Gastroenterol 40:776-83. 2006..HN019 is a well-characterized probiotic strain with documented probiotic effects of meaningful magnitude especially in the area of immune system modulation...
- Do stool form and frequency correlate with whole-gut and colonic transit? Results from a multicenter study in constipated individuals and healthy controlsRichard J Saad
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
Am J Gastroenterol 105:403-11. 2010..The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between stool characteristics (form and frequency) and gut transit in constipated and healthy adults...
- Capsule endoscopy for the evaluation of patients with chronic abdominal painE Bardan
Department of Gastroenterology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center and Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Israel
Endoscopy 35:688-9. 2003..The aim of our study was to determine the role of capsule endoscopy in the evaluation of patients with unexplained chronic abdominal pain...
- Factor analysis identifies subgroups of constipationPhilip G Dinning
Department of Gastroenterology, St George Hospital, University of New South Wales, Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia
World J Gastroenterol 17:1468-74. 2011..To determine whether distinct symptom groupings exist in a constipated population and whether such grouping might correlate with quantifiable pathophysiological measures of colonic dysfunction...
- Functional defecation disorder as a clinical subgroup of chronic constipation: analysis of symptoms and physiological parametersMark T Eltringham
Wansbeck General Hospital, Ashington, Northumberland, UK
Scand J Gastroenterol 43:262-9. 2008..The aim of this study was to use cluster analysis and factor analysis of defecatory symptoms and physiological parameters to look for evidence of subgroups in patients with functional constipation...
- Error analysis of classic colonic transit time estimatesM Bouchoucha
Hopital Laennec, Laboratory of Digestive Physiology, 75007 Paris, France
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 279:G520-7. 2000..The relative error could easily reach 100% independent of the site of colonic transit delay. The normal values of total CTT are then 44.3+/-29.3 instead of 30.1+/-23.6 h for males and 68.2+/-54.4 instead of 47.1+/-28.2 h for females...
- A new tactic to treat postprandial hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats with gastroparesis by improving gastrointestinal transitWeidong Xie
Institute of Medicinal Plant, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100094, China
Eur J Pharmacol 510:113-20. 2005Improvement of gastrointestinal transit was thought to be a new tactic to treat postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetic individuals with gastroparesis...
- Prostanoid production via COX-2 as a causative mechanism of rodent postoperative ileusN T Schwarz
Department of Medicine Gastroenterology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 3550 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
Gastroenterology 121:1354-71. 2001..This study demonstrates a significant role for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and prostanoid production as mechanisms for surgically induced postoperative ileus...
- Prolonged gastrointestinal transit in a patient with a glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1- and -2-producing neuroendocrine tumorPatricia L Brubaker
Departments of Physiology, University of Toronto, Room 3366 Medical Sciences Building, 1 King s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:3078-83. 2002..two of the intestinal proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and -2, and delayed gastrointestinal transit, was characterized in a patient with a neuroendocrine proglucagon-derived peptide tumor...
- Influence of age and body size on gastrointestinal transit time of radiopaque markers in healthy dogsMickaël P Weber
Laboratory of Nutrition and Endocrinology, National Veterinary School of Nantes, France
Am J Vet Res 63:677-82. 2002....
- Selective jejunal manipulation causes postoperative pan-enteric inflammation and dysmotilityNicolas T Schwarz
Chirurgische Universitätsklinik der Friedrich Wilhelms Universität, Bonn, Germany
Gastroenterology 126:159-69. 2004..The current objective was to investigate pan-enteric inflammatory molecular and functional motility alterations of the muscularis from the unmanipulated stomach and colon initiated by selective jejunal manipulation...
- Effect of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockade on neuronal plasticity and gastrointestinal transit delay induced by ischemia/reperfusion in ratsF Calcina
CURE Digestive Diseases Research Center, Division of Digestive Diseases, Building 115, Room 224, Veterans Administration Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
Neuroscience 134:39-49. 2005..The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of intestinal ischemia on gastrointestinal transit and on the expression of enteric transmitters in the rat, and whether the glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate ..
- Capsule endoscopy: improving transit time and image viewZvi Fireman
Department of Gastroenterology, Hillel Yaffe, Hadera, Israel
World J Gastroenterol 11:5863-6. 2005..To evaluate the effect of various methods of small bowel preparation on the transit time and the quality of visualization of the entire small bowel mucosa...
- Effect of a selective chloride channel activator, lubiprostone, on gastrointestinal transit, gastric sensory, and motor functions in healthy volunteersMichael Camilleri
Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Charlton 8 110, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290:G942-7. 2006..Thus the ClC-2 activator lubiprostone accelerates small intestinal and colonic transit, which confers potential in the treatment of constipation...
- Colonic response to food in constipationMichel Bouchoucha
Laboratoire de Physiologie Digestive, Hopital Broussais, Universite Paris V, 96 rue Didot, 75014 Paris, France
Int J Colorectal Dis 21:826-33. 2006..Colonic response to food is possibly abnormal in constipation...
- Effect of oral erythromycin on gastric and small bowel transit time of capsule endoscopyWai K Leung
Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, 30 32 Ngan Shing Street, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
World J Gastroenterol 11:4865-8. 2005..To determine the effect of oral erythromycin on gastric and small bowel transit time of capsule endoscopy...
- Survival of lactococci during passage through mouse digestive tractHiromi Kimoto
Department of Animal Products, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, Tsukuba Norin Danchi, Ibaraki, Japan
Can J Microbiol 49:707-11. 2003..If administered daily, viable strain N7 may exist continuously in the intestine. The effect of strain N7 on intestinal microbial balance and on animal health will be the subject of a further study...
- Escin: inhibiting inflammation and promoting gastrointestinal transit to attenuate formation of postoperative adhesionsFenghua Fu
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Yantai University, Yantai, P R, 264005, China
World J Surg 29:1614-20; discussion 1621-2. 2005..acid in a mouse model of acute inflammation, granuloma formation in a subchronic inflammatory rat model, gastrointestinal transit in rats with intestinal paralysis, intestinal motility in postoperative patients, and postoperative ..
- Comparative evaluation of gastrointestinal transit and immune response between laparoscopic and open gastrectomy in a porcine modelKazuki Ueda
Division of Laparoscopic and Bariatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York Presbyterian Hospital, NY 10021, USA
J Gastrointest Surg 10:39-45. 2006..Adhesion formation was significantly less in the lap group. We concluded that laparoscopic gastrectomy resulted in faster bowel recovery and less immune suppression...
- Gastrointestinal transit, release and plasma pharmacokinetics of a new oral budesonide formulationM Brunner
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Br J Clin Pharmacol 61:31-8. 2006The aims of the study were to: (1) evaluate the gastrointestinal transit, release and absorption of budesonide from tablets with a new multimatrix formulation (MMX) designed to release the drug throughout the whole colon, and (2) assess ..
- Nonadditive interactions between animal and plant diet items in an omnivorous freshwater turtle Trachemys scriptaSarah S Bouchard
Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 144:77-85. 2006..These apparent nonadditive interactions may be due to differences in transit time of duckweed and shrimp. We believe this is the first evidence of two diet items producing opposing nonadditive effects when fed in different ratios...
- Biofeedback is superior to laxatives for normal transit constipation due to pelvic floor dyssynergiaGiuseppe Chiarioni
Gastrointestinal Rehabilitation Division, Valeggio sul Mincio Hospital, Azienda Ospedaliera and University of Verona, Verona, Italy
Gastroenterology 130:657-64. 2006..The aim was to compare biofeedback to laxatives plus education...
- Effect of alvimopan and codeine on gastrointestinal transit: a randomized controlled studyJonathan Gonenne
Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research Program, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:784-91. 2005..Our aim was to evaluate the ability of a peripheral mu-opioid antagonist, alvimopan, to reverse the effect of codeine on gastric, small-bowel, and colonic transit time in healthy volunteers...
- Effects of cannabinoid receptor-2 activation on accelerated gastrointestinal transit in lipopolysaccharide-treated ratsRonald Mathison
Gastrointestinal Research Group, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Br J Pharmacol 142:1247-54. 2004..In this study, we examined whether CB(2) receptor activation is involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal transit in rats...
- Complete small-bowel transit in patients undergoing capsule endoscopy: determining factors and improvement with metoclopramideWarwick Selby
AW Morrow Gastroenterology and Liver Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Gastrointest Endosc 61:80-5. 2005..Passage of the capsule endoscope to the colon occurs in only approximately three quarters of patients. This study assessed factors that might influence the completeness of small-bowel transit, including orally administered metoclopramide...
- In vitro assessment of the upper gastrointestinal tolerance of potential probiotic dairy propionibacteriaYang Huang
School of Applied Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
Int J Food Microbiol 91:253-60. 2004....
- Oro-caecal transit time and intra-luminal pH in cystic fibrosis patients with distal intestinal obstruction syndromeA M Dalzell
Royal Liverpool Children s Hospital, Alder Hey, Liverpool, UK
Acta Univ Carol Med (Praha) 36:159-60. 1990..The prolonged oro-caecal transit time observed in cystic fibrosis patients with DIOS may contribute to the syndrome, however intraluminal pH is unlikely to be a factor in the aetiology of DIOS...
- The effect of mosapride citrate on proximal and distal colonic motor function in the guinea-pig in vitroH S Kim
Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Neurogastroenterol Motil 20:169-76. 2008..The different distribution of neuronal and muscular 5-HT(4) receptors may support these findings. Therefore, mosapride may be a useful alternative to tegaserod and cisapride for constipation...
- Tegaserod, a 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist, accelerates gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in healthy male subjectsL Degen
Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15:1745-51. 2001..Tegaserod can act as a promotile agent throughout the gastrointestinal tract...
- Ghrelin improves delayed gastrointestinal transit in alloxan-induced diabetic miceWen Cai Qiu
Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Sixth Hospital of Medical School, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200233, China
World J Gastroenterol 14:2572-7. 2008To investigate the effects of ghrelin on delayed gastrointestinal transit in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.
- Bifidobacterium animalis strain DN-173 010 shortens the colonic transit time in healthy women: a double-blind, randomized, controlled studyP Marteau
Gastroenterology Department, European Hospital Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16:587-93. 2002..A previous study has suggested that Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 shortens the colonic transit time in women...
- Clinical trial: effectiveness of chewing-gum in accelerating capsule endoscopy transit time--a prospective randomized, controlled pilot studyP Apostolopoulos
Department of Gastroenterology, NIMTS Hospital, Athens, Greece
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 28:405-11. 2008..Capsule endoscopy (CE) fails to reach the caecum in approximately 20% of patients. Data suggest that chewing-gum, simulating sham feeding, provokes the cephalic phase of gastrointestinal (GI) motor response and may increase GI motility...
- The effect of low-dose erythromycin on whole gastrointestinal transit time of preterm infantsC Costalos
Department of Neonatal Medicine, Alexandra General Hospital Athens, 130 Artemidos Str, Paleo Faliro 17562, Greece
Early Hum Dev 65:91-6. 2001The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a low oral dose of erythromycin on whole gastrointestinal transit time [WGTT]. Erythromycin [EM] [1...
- Effect of vanilloid drugs on gastrointestinal transit in miceA A Izzo
Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
Br J Pharmacol 132:1411-6. 2001..The effect of piperine involves capsaicin-sensitive neurones, but not vanilloid receptors, while the effect of anandamide involves cannabinoid CB(1), but not vanilloid receptors...
- Hydrolysed protein accelerates the gastrointestinal transport of formula in preterm infantsW A Mihatsch
Department of Pediatrics, University of Ulm, Germany
Acta Paediatr 90:196-8. 2001..The present trial investigated whether a protein hydrolysate formula reduces the gastrointestinal transit time in preterm infants...
- Glucagon-like peptide 2 improves nutrient absorption and nutritional status in short-bowel patients with no colonP B Jeppesen
Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark
Gastroenterology 120:806-15. 2001..5 kg/day) and energy (>2.3 MJ/day) and no postprandial secretion of GLP-2...
- Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins with acceleration of gastrointestinal transit and inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase from flower buds of chinese tea plant (Camellia sinensis)Masayuki Yoshikawa
Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi, Yamashina ku, Kyoto 607 8412, Japan
Chem Biodivers 6:903-15. 2009..O. KUNTZE; Fujian Province) were found to exhibit accelerating effects on gastrointestinal transit in mice and inhibitory effects against pancreatic lipase...
- Actions of prolonged ghrelin infusion on gastrointestinal transit and glucose homeostasis in humansY Falkén
Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institute, SE 182 88 Stockholm, Sweden
Neurogastroenterol Motil 22:e192-200. 2010..The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of intravenous ghrelin on gastrointestinal motility and glucose homeostasis during a 6-h infusion in humans...
- Role of progesterone signaling in the regulation of G-protein levels in female chronic constipationZuo Liang Xiao
Department of Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital and Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA
Gastroenterology 128:667-75. 2005..The cause and mechanisms responsible for this syndrome are unknown. Progesterone has been suggested as a possible contributing factor. Our aim was to investigate the site and mechanisms responsible for this colonic motility disorder...
- Altered transit and bacterial overgrowth in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestineRobert C De Lisle
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293:G104-11. 2007..In conclusion, small intestinal transit was significantly slower in CF mice, and this is likely a major factor in SIBO in CF...
- mu-Opioid receptor-knockout mice: the role of mu-opioid receptor in gastrointestinal transitS Roy
Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Brain Res Mol Brain Res 56:281-3. 1998The role of mu-opioid receptor in gastrointestinal transit was investigated using mu-opioid receptor knockout mice (MOR-KO)...
- Development of tolerance to the inhibitory effect of loperamide on gastrointestinal transit in miceKoichi Tan-No
Department of Pharmacology, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4 4 1 Komatsushima Aoba ku, Sendai 981 8558, Japan
Eur J Pharm Sci 20:357-63. 2003..loperamide, a peripheral mu-opioid receptor agonist and well-recognized antidiarrheal agent, on mouse gastrointestinal transit was compared with that of morphine in order to examine the development of tolerance to mu-opioid receptor ..
- Effects of laxative and N-acetylcysteine on mucus accumulation, bacterial load, transit, and inflammation in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestineRobert C De Lisle
Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293:G577-84. 2007..These results suggest that both mucus accumulation and slowed interdigestive small intestinal transit contribute to SIBO in the CF intestine...
- Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction: pathophysiology and potential new therapiesAndrea Kurz
Department of Anesthesiology, Outcomes Research Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
Drugs 63:649-71. 2003..In addition, recent clinical studies with alvimopan suggest that it may normalise bowel function without blocking opioid analgesia in abdominal laparotomy patients with opioid-related postoperative ileus...
- Ghrelin improves burn-induced delayed gastrointestinal transit in ratsH S Sallam
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine and Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 292:R253-7. 2007Delayed gastrointestinal transit is common in patients with severe burn. Ghrelin is a potent prokinetic peptide. We aimed at testing the effect of ghrelin on burn-induced delayed gastrointestinal transit in rats...
- Food Rheology and Exercise in Aging HumansWAYNE CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2005..e., insulin, leptin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide, apolipoprotein A-IV, ghrelin, glucose, and gastrointestinal transit time). Study 3 will assess the clinical implications of the chronic intake of liquid vs...
- Gastrointestinal Transit Measurement SystemDAVID KYNOR; Fiscal Year: 2006..In many patients, measurement of gastrointestinal transit can provide important diagnostic information...
- Optimization of HPMPA and CDV Analogs for Treatment of SmallpoxKarl Y Hostetler; Fiscal Year: 2010..to evaluate the effects of chemical structure on their metabolic stability in monkey liver S9 fractions, gastrointestinal transit and toxicity and test them in lethal animal models of poxvirus disease including, ectromelia, cowpox and ..
- mu Opioid Receptor Function in the Enteric Nervous SystemCatia Sternini; Fiscal Year: 2007..N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs) are likely to be involved in the Â¿OR-mediated impairment of gastrointestinal transit induced by prolonged Â¿OR activation...
- Food Rheology and Exercise in Aging HumansWAYNE CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2009..e., glucose, insulin, leptin, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin and gastrointestinal transit time)...
- GDNF in the Enteric Nervous SystemYun Xia; Fiscal Year: 2007..Human trials showed evidence of a prokinetic action on gastrointestinal transit. The general scientific aim of the proposed work is to understand how GDNF works in the "brain-in-the-gut"..
- BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF OPIOID BINDING SITESGavril Pasternak; Fiscal Year: 1993..Furthermore, mu2 receptors mediate morphine's respiratory depression and inhibition of gastrointestinal transit. More recent work has suggested multiple kappa subtypes as well...
- Morphine Tolerance in Barrestin-2 KO Mice: Beyond PainLaura Bohn; Fiscal Year: 2006..questions: AIM I: To test whether morphine tolerance occurs in the suppression of respiration or gastrointestinal transit in mice that lack morphine antinociceptive tolerance...
- Triggering Mechanisms of Post-Operative IleusAnthony Bauer; Fiscal Year: 2007..Together these events succeed in delaying gastrointestinal transit, decrease local neuromuscular function, and activate neurogenic inhibitory pathways that suppress ..
- OPIATE RECEPTOR PHARMACOLOGYGavril Pasternak; Fiscal Year: 2007..Sigma1 receptors have been implicated in the modulation of opioid analgesia, but not gastrointestinal transit. Sigma1 receptor antagonists potentiate opioid analgesia and eliminate many of the differences in ..
- PHARMACOLOGY OF OPIOID RECEPTOR SUBTYPESGavril Pasternak; Fiscal Year: 1993..of opiate receptors in other opioid actions, particularly respiratory depression and inhibition of gastrointestinal transit. Finally, we hope to examine the interactions of nonopioid drugs upon opioid analgesia and other actions...
- Pharmacogenomics of Gastric Function & Weight in ObesityMichael Camilleri; Fiscal Year: 2007..It will also identify physiological and genetic factors that predict therapeutic success in the treatment of obesity with sibutramine. ..
- ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC CONTROL OF COLONIC FUNCTION IN IBSMichael Camilleri; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- ALPHA 2 ADRENERGIC CONTROL OF COLONIC FUNCTION IN IBSMichael Camilleri; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- ALPHA 2 ADRENERGIC CONTROL IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROMEMichael Camilleri; Fiscal Year: 2007..Significance: This project will characterize pharmacogenetic mechanisms determining the response to clonidine through studies of candidate genes that control alpha2-adrenoreceptor function and norepinephrine transport in IBS. ..
- Pharmacogenomics of Gastric Function & Weight in ObesityMICHAEL L CAMILLERI; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Cannabinoid Mechanisms in Human Gastrointestinal Motor and Sensory FunctionsMichael Camilleri; Fiscal Year: 2009..to determine whether CB receptor modulation influences the antral motor response to a standard meal and gastrointestinal transit and to evaluate the interaction of muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms with CB modulation; second, to ..
- Cannabinoid Mechanisms in Human Gastrointestinal Motor and Sensory FunctionsMICHAEL L CAMILLERI; Fiscal Year: 2010..to determine whether CB receptor modulation influences the antral motor response to a standard meal and gastrointestinal transit and to evaluate the interaction of muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms with CB modulation;second, to ..
- Pathophysiology of Anorectal DisordersAdil E Bharucha; Fiscal Year: 2010..This proposal will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms and assess novel approaches to manage FI. ..
- Novel Treatment Strategies for Constipation and Role of Brain-Gut axisSATISH SC RAO; Fiscal Year: 2010..These studies aim to define the mechanisms of, and evaluate new therapies for dyssynergia, rectal hyposensitivity and rectal hypersensitivity, and could significantly impact constipation treatments. ..
- Novel Treatment Strategies for Constipation and Role of Brain-Gut axisSatish Rao; Fiscal Year: 2009..These studies aim to define the mechanisms of, and evaluate new therapies for dyssynergia, rectal hyposensitivity and rectal hypersensitivity, and could significantly impact constipation treatments. ..
- Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Fecal IncontinenceAdil Bharucha; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- ANORECTAL MANIFESTATIONS OF FEMALE PELVIC FLOOR DISORDERAdil Bharucha; Fiscal Year: 2002..abstract_text> ..
- Novel Treatment Strategies for Constipation and Role of Brain-Gut axisSatish Rao; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies aim to define the mechanisms of, and evaluate new therapies for dyssynergia, rectal hyposensitivity and rectal hypersensitivity, and could significantly impact constipation treatments. ..
- NEUROMUSCULAR CONDITION THERAPY-DYSSYNERGIC DEFECATIONSatish Rao; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..