live birth


Summary: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).

Top Publications

  1. Shohayeb A, El Khayat W. Does a single endometrial biopsy regimen (S-EBR) improve ICSI outcome in patients with repeated implantation failure? A randomised controlled trial. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;164:176-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate and live birth rate were compared between both groups. The number of retrieved oocytes in group A was 11...
  2. Zhao Q, Ma X, Jia B, Huang G. Prevalence of congenital heart disease at live birth: an accurate assessment by echocardiographic screening. Acta Paediatr. 2013;102:397-402 pubmed publisher
    To determine the true prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) at live birth using echocardiographic screening. A total of 5190 consecutive newborns from two secondary hospitals were included...
  3. Isachenko V, Isachenko E, Keck G, Dittrich R, Montag M, van der Ven H, et al. First live birth in germany after re-transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue: original device for initiation of ice formation. Clin Lab. 2012;58:933-8 pubmed
    ..The first live birth in Germany after re-transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue was noted...
  4. Polyzos N, Blockeel C, Verpoest W, De Vos M, Stoop D, Vloeberghs V, et al. Live birth rates following natural cycle IVF in women with poor ovarian response according to the Bologna criteria. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:3481-6 pubmed publisher
    ..m. hCG and oocyte retrieval was performed 32 h later. Live birth rates in poor responders according to the Bologna criteria were significantly lower compared with the control ..
  5. Azzarello A, Hoest T, Mikkelsen A. The impact of pronuclei morphology and dynamicity on live birth outcome after time-lapse culture. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:2649-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Can the pronuclei (PN) morphology and the time of PN breakdown (PNB) predict the potential of embryos to result in live birth? In comparison to embryos resulting in no live birth, PNB occurred significantly later in embryos resulting in ..
  6. Ochsenkuhn R, Arzberger A, von Schönfeldt V, Gallwas J, Rogenhofer N, Crispin A, et al. Subtle progesterone rise on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with lower live birth rates in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology: a retrospective study with 2,555 fresh embryo transfers. Fertil Steril. 2012;98:347-54 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 2,555 women undergoing fresh ET on day 5 in 2,062 GnRH agonist and 493 GnRH antagonist cycles. None. Live birth rate. Live birth rate in cycles with GnRH agonists was significantly lower in women with P levels ? 2...
  7. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Oestergaard M, Chou D, Moller A, Narwal R, et al. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic analysis and implications. Lancet. 2012;379:2162-72 pubmed publisher
  8. Li H, Lee V, Lau E, Yeung W, Ho P, Ng E. Role of baseline antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone in prediction of cumulative live birth in the first in vitro fertilisation cycle: a retrospective cohort analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61095 pubmed publisher
    ..anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level in the first in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycle in predicting cumulative live birth from one stimulation cycle. We studied 1,156 women (median age 35 years) undergoing the first IVF cycle...
  9. Spracklen C, Harland K, Stegmann B, Saftlas A. Cervical surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and prolonged time to conception of a live birth: a case-control study. BJOG. 2013;120:960-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether women with a history of surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are at an increased risk of subfertility, measured as a time to pregnancy of more than 12 months...

More Information


  1. Joseph K, Liu S, Rouleau J, Lisonkova S, Hutcheon J, Sauve R, et al. Influence of definition based versus pragmatic birth registration on international comparisons of perinatal and infant mortality: population based retrospective study. BMJ. 2012;344:e746 pubmed publisher
  2. Smith C, de Lacey S, Chapman M, Ratcliffe J, Norman R, Johnson N, et al. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2012;13:60 pubmed publisher
    ..There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment...
  3. Huang R, Fang C, Xu S, Yi Y, Liang X. Premature progesterone rise negatively correlated with live birth rate in IVF cycles with GnRH agonist: an analysis of 2,566 cycles. Fertil Steril. 2012;98:664-670.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..rise (PPR) in GnRH agonist long or short protocol, address the relationship between circulating P levels and live birth rates, and explore the possible mechanism through which PPR affects clinical outcomes and the possible factors ..
  4. Smith L, Draper E, Manktelow B, Pritchard C, Field D. Comparing regional infant death rates: the influence of preterm births <24 weeks of gestation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2013;98:F103-7 pubmed publisher
    ..preterm births <24 weeks of gestation compared with a median improvement of four ranks for those with higher live birth registration rates...
  5. Donnez J, Jadoul P, Pirard C, Hutchings G, Demylle D, Squifflet J, et al. Live birth after transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue after bilateral oophorectomy for benign disease. Fertil Steril. 2012;98:720-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the first pregnancy to occur after ovarian tissue cryopreservation for benign ovarian pathology after bilateral oophorectomy. ..
  6. Revelli A, Marchino G, Dolfin E, Molinari E, Delle Piane L, Salvagno F, et al. Live birth after orthotopic grafting of autologous cryopreserved ovarian tissue and spontaneous conception in Italy. Fertil Steril. 2013;99:227-30 pubmed publisher
    To describe a live birth obtained in Italy after autologous orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissue. Case report. University department of gynecology and obstetrics, reproductive medicine and IVF unit...
  7. Porcu G, Lehert P, Colella C, Giorgetti C. Predicting live birth chances for women with multiple consecutive failing IVF cycles: a simple and accurate prediction for routine medical practice. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Our model is adapted to this purpose: It is very simple, combines five easily collected variables in a short calculation; it is more accurate than existing models, with a fair discrimination and a well calibrated prediction. ..
  8. Roux C, Amiot C, Agnani G, Aubard Y, Rohrlich P, Piver P. Live birth after ovarian tissue autograft in a patient with sickle cell disease treated by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:2413.e15-9 pubmed publisher
    To report the first case of restoration of ovarian activity and live birth after cryopreserved ovarian tissue autograft in a patient without cancer treated by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Case report. University hospital...
  9. Arce J, Smitz J. Exogenous hCG activity, but not endogenous LH activity, is positively associated with live birth rates in anovulatory infertility. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2011;14:192-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate, retrospectively, the roles of endogenous and exogenous luteinising hormone (LH) activity on live birth rate in ovulation induction cycles...
  10. Sunkara S, Rittenberg V, Raine Fenning N, Bhattacharya S, Zamora J, Coomarasamy A. Association between the number of eggs and live birth in IVF treatment: an analysis of 400 135 treatment cycles. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:1768-74 pubmed publisher
    While live birth is the principal clinical outcome following in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, the number of eggs retrieved following ovarian stimulation is often used as a surrogate outcome in clinical practice and research...
  11. Weghofer A, Dietrich W, Barad D, Gleicher N. Live birth chances in women with extremely low-serum anti-Mullerian hormone levels. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:1905-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1-0.4 ng/ml) still demonstrate live birth potential with assisted reproduction and whether such potential is age dependent...
  12. Nelson S, Lawlor D. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1000386 pubmed publisher
    The extent to which baseline couple characteristics affect the probability of live birth and adverse perinatal outcomes after assisted conception is unknown...
  13. Savva G, Walker K, Morris J. The maternal age-specific live birth prevalence of trisomies 13 and 18 compared to trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Prenat Diagn. 2010;30:57-64 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the maternal age-specific live birth prevalence (in the absence of prenatal diagnosis and selective termination) of trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) and compare it with that of trisomy 21 (Down ..
  14. French D, Sabanegh E, Goldfarb J, Desai N. Does severe teratozoospermia affect blastocyst formation, live birth rate, and other clinical outcome parameters in ICSI cycles?. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1097-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The ICSI cycle outcome parameters included fertilization, clinical pregnancy, implantation, live birth, and blastulation rates and blastocyst quality...
  15. Meng Q, Polgar Z, Liu J, Dinnyes A. Live birth of somatic cell-cloned rabbits following trichostatin A treatment and cotransfer of parthenogenetic embryos. Cloning Stem Cells. 2009;11:203-208 pubmed publisher
  16. Brenner B, Bar J, Ellis M, Yarom I, Yohai D, Samueloff A. Effects of enoxaparin on late pregnancy complications and neonatal outcome in women with recurrent pregnancy loss and thrombophilia: results from the Live-Enox study. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:770-3 pubmed
    ..Women with thrombophilia and a history of recurrent pregnancy loss have poor pregnancy outcomes. Prophylaxis with enoxaparin 40 mg/day or 80 mg/day resulted in favorable gestational and neonatal outcomes. ..
  17. Kjellberg A, Carlsson P, Bergh C. Randomized single versus double embryo transfer: obstetric and paediatric outcome and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:210-6 pubmed
    ..demonstrated that a single embryo transfer (SET) strategy, including one fresh single embryo transfer and, if no live birth, one additional frozen-thawed SET, resulted in a live-birth rate that was not substantially lower than after ..
  18. Morris J, Mutton D, Alberman E. Corrections to maternal age-specific live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome. J Med Screen. 2005;12:202 pubmed
  19. Kolibianakis E, Collins J, Tarlatzis B, Devroey P, Diedrich K, Griesinger G. Among patients treated for IVF with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues, is the probability of live birth dependent on the type of analogue used? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2006;12:651-71 pubmed
    ..clinical question: among patients treated for IVF with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues, is the probability of live birth per randomized patient dependent on the type of analogue used? Eligible studies were randomized controlled ..
  20. Meirow D, Levron J, Eldar Geva T, Hardan I, Fridman E, Yemini Z, et al. Monitoring the ovaries after autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue: endocrine studies, in vitro fertilization cycles, and live birth. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:418.e7-418.e15 pubmed
    ..Fertility preservation using ovarian tissue is effective also in cases when the ovaries are injured after chemotherapy. However, transplant life span is limited. ..
  21. Maier M, Andia I, Emenyonu N, Guzman D, Kaida A, Pepper L, et al. Antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased fertility desire, but not pregnancy or live birth, among HIV+ women in an early HIV treatment program in rural Uganda. AIDS Behav. 2009;13 Suppl 1:28-37 pubmed publisher
    ..99, 95% CI 1.38-6.28), and decreased odds of pregnancy (AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.33-0.95) and live birth (AOR 0.30, 95% CI 0.13-0.66)...
  22. Chien L, Liu W, Tzeng C, Au H. Effect of previous live birth and prior route of delivery on the outcome of early medical abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113:669-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Parous women are at increased risk for failed medical abortion in comparison with nulliparous women. Prior cesarean delivery is significantly associated with failed medical abortion. ..
  23. Chambers G, Ho M, Sullivan E. Assisted reproductive technology treatment costs of a live birth: an age-stratified cost-outcome study of treatment in Australia. Med J Aust. 2006;184:155-8 pubmed
    ..The cost per live birth for women aged > or = 42 years was 182,794 US dollars...
  24. Pont S, Robbins J, Bird T, Gibson J, Cleves M, Tilford J, et al. Congenital malformations among liveborn infants with trisomies 18 and 13. Am J Med Genet A. 2006;140:1749-56 pubmed
    ..More than half of the newborns with both conditions died prior to discharge. This updated information can be used to inform clinical decision-making and may help providers better prepare families for infants with trisomies. ..
  25. Soullier N, Bouyer J, Pouly J, Guibert J, De La Rochebrochard E. Estimating the success of an in vitro fertilization programme using multiple imputation. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:187-92 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to estimate the cumulative live birth rate after four IVF aspirations, using multiple imputation that takes into account treatment interruptions...
  26. Esfandiari N, Coogan Prewer J, Gotlieb L, Claessens E, Casper R. Successful pregnancy following double-frozen embryo transfer in a patient with repeated implantation failure. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:1199.e13-5 pubmed
    ..Successful pregnancy. Successful singleton pregnancy resulting in the delivery of healthy baby boy. To the best of our knowledge, the patient is the first to be treated successfully with double frozen-embryo transfer. ..
  27. Ahlstrom A, Westin C, Reismer E, Wikland M, Hardarson T. Trophectoderm morphology: an important parameter for predicting live birth after single blastocyst transfer. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:3289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is a retrospective analysis of 1117 fresh day 5 single blastocyst transfers and their live birth outcome related to each morphological parameter...
  28. Csokmay J, Hill M, Cioppettini F, Miller K, Scott R, Frattarelli J. Live birth sex ratios are not influenced by blastocyst-stage embryo transfer. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:913-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Four hundred ninety-eight normal embryos were transferred to 228 patients with an overall live birth rate of 41.7%. Transferred blastocysts were selected based upon morphologic assessment...
  29. Dowling Lacey D, Mayer J, Jones E, Bocca S, Stadtmauer L, Oehninger S. Live birth from a frozen-thawed pronuclear stage embryo almost 20 years after its cryopreservation. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1120.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    To report a live birth after transfer of cryopreserved pronuclear embryos in cryostorage for almost 20 years. Case report. Academic IVF center. A 42-year-old female patient with low ovarian reserve receiving donated embryos...
  30. Aflatoonian A, Mansoori Moghaddam F, Mashayekhy M, Mohamadian F. Comparison of early pregnancy and neonatal outcomes after frozen and fresh embryo transfer in ART cycles. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2010;27:695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) than fresh ET group (9%). Neonatal outcome was comparable between both groups except for lower live birth rate in FET (55%) versus fresh ET group (66%)...
  31. Afnan M. Identifying real differences in live birth rates between HMG and rFSH in IVF. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18 Suppl 2:25-30 pubmed
    Fertility treatment strives for the delivery of a healthy live birth. Human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) and recombinant FSH (rFSH) are the two types of gonadotrophin currently used for ovarian stimulation in assisted reproduction ..
  32. Gelbaya T, Tsoumpou I, Nardo L. The likelihood of live birth and multiple birth after single versus double embryo transfer at the cleavage stage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:936-45 pubmed publisher
    ..a policy of elective single-embryo transfer (e-SET) lowers the multiple birth rate without compromising the live birth rate. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Tertiary referral center for reproductive medicine and IVF unit. None...
  33. Shebl O, Ebner T, Sommergruber M, Sir A, Tews G. Cryopreserved blastocysts have a lower implantation but an equal live birth rate as compared to fresh blastocysts of the same quality - a case-control study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88:944-7 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this case-control study was to compare implantation, pregnancy, and live birth rate of cryopreserved embryos with that of fresh embryos...
  34. Baker V, Luke B, Brown M, Alvero R, Frattarelli J, Usadi R, et al. Multivariate analysis of factors affecting probability of pregnancy and live birth with in vitro fertilization: an analysis of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1410-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate factors predictive of clinical pregnancy and of pregnancy loss from assisted reproductive technology (ART) using data from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology database for 2004-2006...
  35. Connolly M, De Vrieze K, Ombelet W, Schneider D, Currie C. A cost per live birth comparison of HMG and rFSH randomized trials. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17:756-63 pubmed
    ..simulated decision tree model was constructed with four states: (i) fresh cycle, (ii) cryopreserved cycle, (iii) live birth and (iv) treatment withdrawal...
  36. Peñarrubia J, Peralta S, Fábregues F, Carmona F, Casamitjana R, Balasch J. Day-5 inhibin B serum concentrations and antral follicle count as predictors of ovarian response and live birth in assisted reproduction cycles stimulated with gonadotropin after pituitary suppression. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2590-5 pubmed publisher
    ..investigate the usefulness of day-5 inhibin B and antral follicle count (AFC) in predicting ovarian response and live birth in the first cycle of assisted reproduction. Prospective cohort study. University hospital...
  37. Roberts S, Hirst W, Brison D, Vail A. Embryo and uterine influences on IVF outcomes: an analysis of a UK multi-centre cohort. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:2792-802 pubmed publisher
    ..There were 16 096 (12 487 fresh and 3609 frozen) transfers, for 8775 couples, available for analysis. Live birth data were fitted to a model with separate sub-models for embryo and recipient effects [the 'Embryo-Uterus' (EU) ..
  38. da Silva C, Leite A, de Almeida N. [Linkage between live birth and infant death records in a municipality in Northeast Brazil: quality of the information system]. Cad Saude Publica. 2009;25:1552-8 pubmed
    ..SINASC contained 11,182 certificates of live birth (CLB) from Jan. 1, 2000, to Dec...
  39. Daponte A, Spyridakis M, Ioannou M, Vanakara P, Tzovaras G, Hatzitheofilou K, et al. Live birth after laparotomy for concurrent heterotopic pregnancy and appendicitis in a 6 weeks IVF pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;275:397-9 pubmed
    ..This is the second and earliest ever reported case of that resulted in live birth. It shows that explorative surgery must be performed timely in acute abdomen in pregnancy.
  40. Kaandorp S, Goddijn M, van Der Post J, Hutten B, Verhoeve H, Hamulyak K, et al. Aspirin plus heparin or aspirin alone in women with recurrent miscarriage. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1586-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither aspirin combined with nadroparin nor aspirin alone improved the live-birth rate, as compared with placebo, among women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN58496168.) ..
  41. De Klerk C, Hunfeld J, Heijnen E, Eijkemans M, Fauser B, Passchier J, et al. Low negative affect prior to treatment is associated with a decreased chance of live birth from a first IVF cycle. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:112-6 pubmed
    ..or procedural psychological variables in women undergoing a first IVF cycle affect the chance of achieving a live birth from that cycle...
  42. Jasper M, Liebelt J, Hussey N. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for BRCA1 exon 13 duplication mutation using linked polymorphic markers resulting in a live birth. Prenat Diagn. 2008;28:292-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Successful PGD for BRCA1 resulted in the delivery of a live-born male. PGD using linked polymorphic markers provides an alternate option for reproduction for couples with or at risk of having inherited a BRCA1 mutation. ..
  43. Nga N, Målqvist M, Eriksson L, Hoa D, Johansson A, Wallin L, et al. Perinatal services and outcomes in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99:1478-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A remaining small proportion of home deliveries generated a substantial part of mortality. ..
  44. Shu Y, Peng W, Zhang J. Pregnancy and live birth following the transfer of vitrified-warmed blastocysts derived from zona- and corona-cell-free oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online. 2010;21:527-32 pubmed publisher
    This study reports two clinical pregnancies and one live birth following the transfer of vitrified blastocysts developed from oocytes with neither zona pellucida nor corona cells...
  45. Chian R, Gilbert L, Huang J, Demirtas E, Holzer H, Benjamin A, et al. Live birth after vitrification of in vitro matured human oocytes. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:372-6 pubmed publisher
    To report the first healthy live birth from immature oocytes retrieved in a natural menstrual cycle, followed by in vitro maturation (IVM) and cryopreservation of the oocytes by vitrification. Case report...
  46. El Toukhy T, Sunkara S, Khairy M, Dyer R, Khalaf Y, Coomarasamy A. A systematic review and meta-analysis of acupuncture in in vitro fertilisation. BJOG. 2008;115:1203-13 pubmed publisher
    ..with meta-analysis of the trials of acupuncture during IVF treatment on the outcomes of clinical pregnancy and live birth rates. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, ISI Proceedings and SCISEARCH...
  47. Seifer D, Frazier L, Grainger D. Disparity in assisted reproductive technologies outcomes in black women compared with white women. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:1701-10 pubmed
    ..among blacks and other characteristics, black race was an independent risk factor for not achieving a live birth (adjusted relative risk, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.12-1.36 if no prior ART, and RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.20-1.57 if prior ART)...
  48. Papanikolaou E, Kolibianakis E, Tournaye H, Venetis C, Fatemi H, Tarlatzis B, et al. Live birth rates after transfer of equal number of blastocysts or cleavage-stage embryos in IVF. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:91-9 pubmed
    ..Primary outcome was the live birth rate and secondary outcomes were clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, cancellation rate and ..
  49. Nelson S, Yates R, Fleming R. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone and FSH: prediction of live birth and extremes of response in stimulated cycles--implications for individualization of therapy. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:2414-21 pubmed
    ..with oocyte yield in assisted reproduction treatment (ART) cycles, however, performance of AMH for prediction of live birth is unknown. A total of 340 first cycle IVF/ICSI patients (median age 34.0 years, inter-quartile range 31.0-37...
  50. Klipstein S, Regan M, Ryley D, Goldman M, Alper M, Reindollar R. One last chance for pregnancy: a review of 2,705 in vitro fertilization cycles initiated in women age 40 years and above. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:435-45 pubmed
    To describe live birth rates and predictors of success in 1-year age increments for women > or =40 years when initiating assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Retrospective database analysis...
  51. Zain M, Jamaluddin R, Ibrahim A, Norman R. Comparison of clomiphene citrate, metformin, or the combination of both for first-line ovulation induction, achievement of pregnancy, and live birth in Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:514-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Rates of ovulation, pregnancy (PR), and live birth. The ovulation rate was 23.7% in the metformin group, 59% in the CC group, and 68...
  52. Mohangoo A, Buitendijk S, Szamotulska K, Chalmers J, Irgens L, Bolumar F, et al. Gestational age patterns of fetal and neonatal mortality in Europe: results from the Euro-Peristat project. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24727 pubmed publisher
    ..These disparities raise questions for future research about the effectiveness of medical policies and care in European countries. ..
  53. Shuler A, Rodgers A, Budrys N, Holden A, Schenken R, Brzyski R. In vitro fertilization outcomes in Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2735-7 pubmed publisher
    The in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, including clinical intrauterine gestation rate and live birth rate, between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women were compared, and there were no differences...