radioisotope renography


Summary: Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.

Top Publications

  1. Coffey J. Flow rate models in renal obstruction. World J Urol. 2011;29:109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..45, SD 0.05 (P<0.05). Optimised modelling of TACs of obstructed renograms is feasible and may provide a more sensitive index of parenchymal dysfunction in early obstruction than comparing divided renal tracer uptake. ..
  2. Schlotmann A, Clorius J, Rohrschneider W, Clorius S, Amelung F, Becker K. Diuretic renography in hydronephrosis: delayed tissue tracer transit accompanies both functional decline and tissue reorganization. J Nucl Med. 2008;49:1196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..According to the literature, a delayed TTT is determined by the filtration fraction of the kidneys and appears to identify an obstruction-mediated upregulated renin-angiotensin system. ..
  3. Mustafa S, Elgazzar A, Essam H, Gopinath S, Mathew M. Hyperthermia alters kidney function and renal scintigraphy. Am J Nephrol. 2007;27:315-21 pubmed
  4. Esteves F, Taylor A, Manatunga A, Folks R, Krishnan M, Garcia E. 99mTc-MAG3 renography: normal values for MAG3 clearance and curve parameters, excretory parameters, and residual urine volume. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187:W610-7 pubmed
    ..Normal limits adjusted for age and sex have been established. Applying normal ranges to quantitative MAG3 parameters may assist in the interpretation of MAG3 scintigraphy and facilitate appropriate patient management. ..
  5. Forrer F, Valkema R, Bernard B, Schramm N, Hoppin J, Rolleman E, et al. In vivo radionuclide uptake quantification using a multi-pinhole SPECT system to predict renal function in small animals. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2006;33:1214-7 pubmed
    ..A very strong linear correlation was found between the determined activity in vivo and ex vivo (r2=0.946; slope m=1.059). Quantification in vivo using this multi-pinhole SPECT system is highly accurate. ..
  6. Yu J, Zhuang H, Xiu Y, El Haddad G, Kumar R, Alavi A. Small urine leak after renal transplantation: detection by delayed 99mTc-DTPA renography--a case report. J Nucl Med Technol. 2005;33:31-3 pubmed
    ..Delayed imaging was performed 2.5 h after injection of radiotracer, and activity was observed in the previously cold region. ..
  7. Fleming J, Zivanovic M, Blake G, Burniston M, Cosgriff P. Guidelines for the measurement of glomerular filtration rate using plasma sampling. Nucl Med Commun. 2004;25:759-69 pubmed
    ..These guidelines have been adopted by the British Nuclear Medicine Society. ..
  8. Eden C, Cahill D, Allen J. Laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty: 50 consecutive cases. BJU Int. 2001;88:526-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a loin wound is not necessary for a successful outcome after dismembered pyeloplasty, and that in expert hands laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty should now be considered the standard of care. ..
  9. Itoh K. 99mTc-MAG3: review of pharmacokinetics, clinical application to renal diseases and quantification of renal function. Ann Nucl Med. 2001;15:179-90 pubmed
    ..In this review, I focused on its pharmacokinetics, simplified quantitative methods and clinical application in renal diseases. ..

More Information


  1. Bhowal K, Bhattacharyya S, Majumdar A, Giri C, Vanaja R, Ramamoorthy N, et al. Technetium-99m DTPA dimethyl ester: a renal function imaging agent. Comparative studies in animals with technetium-99m mercaptoacetyl triglycine and 131I-ortho-iodohippurate. Nucl Med Commun. 2003;24:583-95 pubmed
  2. Kobayashi Y, Yasuyuki K, Usui Y, Yukio U, Shima M, Masanori S, et al. Evaluation of renal function after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with renal scintigraphy using 99mtechnetium-mercaptoacetyltriglycine. Int J Urol. 2006;13:1371-4 pubmed
    ..However, an easier renal cooling technique should be sought for regular use of cooling procedures in LPN. ..
  3. Wesolowski M, Conrad G, Šámal M, Watson G, Wanasundara S, Babyn P, et al. A simple method for determining split renal function from dynamic (99m)Tc-MAG3 scintigraphic data. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43:550-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, it adds a new reliable method for quality control of monitoring relative kidney function. ..
  4. Brink A, Samal M, Mann M. The reproducibility of measurements of differential renal function in paediatric 99mTc-MAG3 renography. Nucl Med Commun. 2012;33:824-31 pubmed publisher
    ..It is essential that these studies be identified. This can be done by processing each renogram several times, ideally using different methods. Those with poorer reproducibility tended to be less than 6 months old or to have a low GFR. ..
  5. Ross S, Kardos S, Krill A, Bourland J, Sprague B, Majd M, et al. Observation of infants with SFU grades 3-4 hydronephrosis: worsening drainage with serial diuresis renography indicates surgical intervention and helps prevent loss of renal function. J Pediatr Urol. 2011;7:266-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with SFU Grade 4 hydronephosis are more likely to require surgery. Worsening drainage on serial DR is a useful indicator for surgical intervention which limits the number of pyeloplasties while preserving DRF. ..
  6. Wesolowski C, Babyn P, Puetter R. An improved method for determining renal sufficiency using volume of distribution and weight from bolus 99mTc-DTPA, two blood sample, paediatric data. Nucl Med Commun. 2006;27:963-70 pubmed
    ..To present the best estimator of normal, E(G1) = f(V, W)...
  7. Koh T, Zhang J, Ong C, Shuter B. A biphasic parameter estimation method for quantitative analysis of dynamic renal scintigraphic data. Phys Med Biol. 2006;51:2857-70 pubmed
    ..The renal plasma flow and extraction rate estimated by the proposed method were in good agreement with those previously obtained using dynamic computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. ..
  8. Drost W, McLoughlin M, Mattoon J, Lerche P, Samii V, DiBartola S, et al. Determination of extrarenal plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine in cats. Am J Vet Res. 2003;64:1076-80 pubmed
    ..Evaluation of renal function in cats may be more accurate via camera-based versus plasma clearance-based methods because camera-based studies can discriminate specific organs. ..
  9. Tripathi M, Das C, Agarwal K, Khangembam B, Dhull V. Spontaneously resolving lower polar ATN in a transplant kidney with dual vascular supply demonstrated on 99mTc EC renography. Clin Nucl Med. 2013;38:390-1 pubmed publisher
    ..This case reiterates the usefulness of retention of tubular tracers like 99mTc EC for detection of tubular necrosis. ..
  10. Kopecky M, Semecky V, Trejtnar F, Laznicek M, Laznickova A, Nachtigal P, et al. Analysis of accumulation of 99mTc-octreotide and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide in the rat kidneys. Nucl Med Biol. 2004;31:231-9 pubmed
    ..The presence of the somatostatin receptors, differences in the tonicity level within kidneys and other possible mechanisms could participate in their renal accumulation. ..
  11. Simpson D. Controversies in the estimation of glomerular filtration rate. Nucl Med Commun. 2006;27:407; author reply 407-8 pubmed
  12. Fleming J, Nunan T. The new BNMS guidelines for measurement of glomerular filtration rate. Nucl Med Commun. 2004;25:755-7 pubmed
  13. Thomsen F, Holm M. [Chronic monstrous urine retention]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2015;177:34-5 pubmed
    ..Hydronephrosis is seen, but in much smaller volume of retention. Infrequent voiding is easily diagnosed. Urinary retention should be suspected when finding median cystic processes. ..
  14. Chipde S, Lal H, Gambhir S, Kumar J, Srivastava A, Kapoor R, et al. Factors predicting improvement of renal function after pyeloplasty in pediatric patients: a prospective study. J Urol. 2012;188:262-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Pelvic anteroposterior diameter, pelvic cortical ratio and pelvic urine protein-to-creatinine ratio are the most useful parameters. ..
  15. Zuo L, Ying Chun -, Wang M, Zhang C, Wang R, Wang H. Prediction of two-sample (99m)Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid plasma clearance from single-sample method. Ann Nucl Med. 2005;19:399-405 pubmed
    ..sGFR becomes widely scattered when tGFR is less than 30 ml/min/1.73 m2. To obtain reliable reference GFR values, it is recommended that DPSM be used in clinical trials when aGFR is less than 45 ml/min/1.73 m2. ..
  16. Arslan D, Degirmenci B, Aslan G, Ozdogan O, Esen A, Durak H. A false-negative diuretic radionuclide renography in a patient with urinary ascites due to retroperitoneal fibrosis. Urol Int. 2003;71:233-4 pubmed
    ..Diuretic renography may lead to false-negative results and should be carefully evaluated in this group of patients. ..
  17. Orsola A, Fraga Rodríguez G, Parra Roca J, Estorch Cabrera M, Monserrat Esplugas E, Garat Barredo J, et al. [Congenital renal abnormalities in neonates with fetal vesicoureteral reflux. Detection by 99m-technetium(m)-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2003;59:345-51 pubmed
    ..Moreover, renal parenchymal defects detected by DMSA renal scan are frequently not identified by postnatal renal ultrasound. Therefore, we recommend DMSA scanning in the initial evaluation of infants with VUR. ..
  18. Jørgensen B, Keller A, Radvanska E, Rittig S, Taagehøj Jensen F, Frøkiaer J, et al. Reproducibility of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance renography in adolescents. J Urol. 2006;176:1171-6 pubmed
    ..Further studies are required to elucidate whether similar measurements can be applied to a kidney with impaired function. ..
  19. Tondeur M, Sand A, Ham H. Interobserver reproducibility in the interpretation of captopril renograms from patients suspected of having renovascular hypertension. Clin Nucl Med. 2004;29:479-84 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the analysis by the Internet of interobserver agreement is an easy and rapid method allowing one to identify difficult to interpret pre- and postcaptopril renographic data. ..
  20. Garcia E, Folks R, Pak S, Taylor A. Totally automatic definition of renal regions of interest from 99mTc-MAG3 renograms: validation in patients with normal kidneys and in patients with suspected renal obstruction. Nucl Med Commun. 2010;31:366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..65+/-2.05 mm for the left and right kidney, respectively. This error difference between AUTOROI and the physician was not statistically significant. AUTOROI provides an objective and promising approach to automated renal ROI detection. ..
  21. Karanikas G, Schütz M, Szabo M, Becherer A, Wiesner K, Dudczak R, et al. Isotopic renal function studies in severe hypothyroidism and after thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Am J Nephrol. 2004;24:41-5 pubmed
    ..In general, the glomerular filtration rate reduction seems to be reversible after hormone substitution therapy; however, care has to be taken in patients with renal insufficiency. ..
  22. Yoneda A, Cascio S, Oue T, Chertin B, Puri P. Risk factors for the development of renal parenchymal damage in familial vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol. 2002;168:1704-7 pubmed
    ..ACE DD genotype is not associated with renal damage in familial vesicoureteral reflux. ..
  23. Frieske I, Pietrzak Stelmasiak E, Bienkiewicz M, Surma M, Kusmierek J. Conventional and parametric kidney scintigrams - reproducibility of semiquantitative image evaluation. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur. 2008;11:22-5 pubmed
    ..In observations by two physicians, a somewhat closer agreement was reached for conventional than for parametric images; the difference between the two series of image assessments was small. ..
  24. Jaksic E, Beatović S, Han R. [The role of nuclear medicine in renal transplantation]. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2004;61:291-7 pubmed
  25. Rennick G. Isolated minimal renal pelvic dilatation detected antenatally in a non-tertiary setting is an uncommon predictor of significant vesicoureteric reflux. J Paediatr Child Health. 2003;39:686-90 pubmed
    ..4% (5/93) of infants. It is concluded that isolated minimal renal pelvic dilatation detected antenatally is a poor screening test for clinically significant vesicoureteric reflux. ..
  26. Türkölmez S, Atasever T, Turkolmez K, Gogus O. Comparison of three different diuretic renal scintigraphy protocols in patients with dilated upper urinary tracts. Clin Nucl Med. 2004;29:154-60 pubmed
  27. Brolin G, Edenbrandt L, Granerus G, Olsson A, Afzelius D, Gustafsson A, et al. The accuracy of quantitative parameters in (99m) Tc-MAG3 dynamic renography: a national audit based on virtual image data. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2016;36:146-54 pubmed publisher
  28. Ajdinovic B, Jaukovic L, Peco Antic A, Dugonjić S. Renal scintigraphy in infants with antenatally diagnosed renal pelvis dilatation. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2008;65:299-302 pubmed
    ..A high percent of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings was obtained. Renal scintigraphy was useful in determination of underlying cause of antenatally detected hydronephrosis. ..
  29. Knox M, Rivers Bowerman M, Bardgett H, Cowan N. Multidetector computed tomography with triple-bolus contrast medium administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of potential living renal donors. Eur Radiol. 2010;20:2590-9 pubmed publisher
    ..9) to 6.3% (95% CI 5.0-7.6). MDCT delivered a mean (SD, range) radiation dose of 9.5 (3.6, 3.6-17.3) mSv. MDCT with a triple-bolus contrast administration provides accurate anatomical and functional evaluation of living renal donors. ..
  30. Ramos E, Alonso J, Duran C, Gomez I, Martinez S, Almoguera I, et al. [Graft viability of patients with renal transplantation from non heart beating donors]. Rev Esp Med Nucl. 2005;24:32-7 pubmed
    ..Evolution went from ATN to normality. The NHBD are adequate for transplantation, significantly shortening the waiting time for RN. ..
  31. Caglar M, Gedik G, Karabulut E. Differential renal function estimation by dynamic renal scintigraphy: influence of background definition and radiopharmaceutical. Nucl Med Commun. 2008;29:1002-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the average counts in the perirenal BG more precisely represent nonrenal activity and recommend the use of semilunar-perirenal background region of interest to reduce the overlapping hepatic activity. ..
  32. Nimmon C, Fleming J, Samal M. Probable range for whole kidney mean transit time values determined by reexamination of UK audit studies. Nucl Med Commun. 2008;29:1006-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Visual display of both the renal retention function and the reconvolution curve are suggested as simple quality control measures for analysis software. ..
  33. Cascio S, Chertin B, Colhoun E, Puri P. Renal parenchymal damage in male infants with high grade vesicoureteral reflux diagnosed after the first urinary tract infection. J Urol. 2002;168:1708-10; discussion 1710 pubmed
    ..This high incidence of renal damage may be explained by the coexistence of the 3 risk factors of gender, urinary tract infection and high grade vesicoureteral reflux. ..
  34. Banzo I, Quirce R, Martinez Rodriguez I, Jimenez Bonilla J, Sainz A, Carril J. [Atlas of isotopic renography images in the renal transplant complications]. Rev Esp Med Nucl. 2006;25:329-48 pubmed
  35. Kiratli P, Orhan D, Gedik G, Tekgul S. Relation between radionuclide imaging and pathologic findings of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in neonatal hydronephrosis. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2008;42:249-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this will allow comparison of the types of histopathological alterations with the changes in differential renal function in order to predict the potential final improvement. ..
  36. Shokeir A, Gad H, El Diasty T. Role of radioisotope renal scans in the choice of nephrectomy side in live kidney donors. J Urol. 2003;170:373-6 pubmed
    ..Since this difference is expected in about 40% of healthy individuals, radioisotopic determination of split renal function should be an integral part of the preoperative evaluation of potential kidney donors. ..
  37. Zhao X, Shao Y, Wang Y, Tian J, Sun B, Ru Y, et al. New normal values not related to age and sex, of glomerular filtration rate by (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, for the evaluation of living kidney graft donors. Hell J Nucl Med. 2012;15:210-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Candidate donors with GFR between 70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and 80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) can be selected as kidney donors after strict screening. In living kidney donors GFR is not significantly correlated with age or sex. ..
  38. Feder M, Blitstein J, Mason B, Hoenig D. Predicting differential renal function using computerized tomography measurements of renal parenchymal area. J Urol. 2008;180:2110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Differential renal parenchymal area measured by computerized tomography strongly correlates with differential function on renal scintigraphy and it may obviate the need for nuclear renal scan in some circumstances. ..
  39. Bajpai M, Puri A, Tripathi M, Maini A. Prognostic significance of captopril renography for managing congenital unilateral hydronephrosis. J Urol. 2002;168:2158-61; discussion 2161 pubmed
    ..Renin-angiotensin system activation heralds the beginning of compensatory vasoactive response in the kidney. Identifying grades of such activation may help in determine the end points of nonoperative management...
  40. Seixas Mikelus S, Jenkins L, Williot P, Greenfield S. Pediatric pyeloplasty: comparison of literature meta-analysis of laparoscopic and open techniques with open surgery at a single institution. J Urol. 2009;182:2428-32 pubmed publisher
  41. Montero M, Fontanillo M, del Campo V, Pais E, Vela D, Outomuro J, et al. [Prognostic value of the ultrasound and diuretic renogram in the evolution of ureteropelvic junction obstruction]. Cir Pediatr. 2008;21:62-9 pubmed
    ..The supranormal function exists, but in most cases it is an artefact. ..
  42. Kozlova L, Baltaeva T, Gaĭnutdinova E. [Renal hemodynamics in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus as shown by renal scintigraphy]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2002;80:48-53 pubmed
    ..Angionephroscintigraphy findings were worse in patients with APS than in those with renal lesion and arterial hypertension but free of APS. ..
  43. Huang A, Lee V, Rusinek H. Functional renal MR imaging. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2004;12:469-86, vi pubmed
    ..The article concludes with an overview of technical problems and challenges facing MR renography. ..
  44. Arena S, Magno C, Montalto A, Russo T, Mamì C, Baldari S, et al. Long-term follow-up of neonatally diagnosed primary megaureter: rate and predictors of spontaneous resolution. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2012;46:201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0 mm were statistically significant and independent predictive factors for surgery. The time to spontaneous resolution in neonatally diagnosed PM may exceed 3.6 years, after which recovery is rare. ..
  45. Hayashida M, Watanabe N, Imamura H, Kumazaki S, Kitabayashi H, Takahashi W, et al. Congenital solitary kidney with renovascular hypertension diagnosed by means of captopril-enhanced renography and magnetic resonance angiography. Int Heart J. 2005;46:347-53 pubmed
    ..These findings were confirmed by renal angiography. After successful percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty, her blood pressure and the pattern of captopril renography normalized. ..
  46. Grewal G, Blake G. Reference data for 51Cr-EDTA measurements of the glomerular filtration rate derived from live kidney donors. Nucl Med Commun. 2005;26:61-5 pubmed
    ..4 ml x min(-1) x (1.73 m2)(-1) until the age of 40 years and then declines at a rate of 9.1 ml x min(-1) x (1.73 m2)(-1) per decade. The data can be used to report the results of adult 51Cr-EDTA GFR investigations. ..
  47. Dopuda M, Ajdinovic B, Jaukovic L, Petrović M, Janković Z. [Influence of the background activity region selection on the measurement of glomerular filtration rate using the Gates method]. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2008;65:729-32 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different background sites on GFR rate assessment using the Gates method...
  48. Shulkin B, Mandell G, Cooper J, Leonard J, Majd M, Parisi M, et al. Procedure guideline for diuretic renography in children 3.0. J Nucl Med Technol. 2008;36:162-8 pubmed publisher
  49. Simforoosh N, Tabibi A, Nouralizadeh A, Nouri Mahdavi K, Shayaninasab H. Laparoscopic management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction by division of anterior crossing vein and cephalad relocation of anterior crossing artery. J Endourol. 2005;19:827-30 pubmed
    ..We report our experience with laparoscopic management of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction by division of the anterior crossing vein and cephalad relocation of the anterior crossing artery...
  50. Prigent A. Monitoring renal function and limitations of renal function tests. Semin Nucl Med. 2008;38:32-46 pubmed
    ..In that context, it should be recalled that radiolabeled-tracer plasma or urinary clearance methods, are safe, simple, accurate and reproducible. ..
  51. Di Renzo D, Aguiar L, Cascini V, Di Nicola M, McCarten K, Ellsworth P, et al. Long-term followup of primary nonrefluxing megaureter. J Urol. 2013;190:1021-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term followup is recommended because symptoms can develop years later. Washout pattern and age at presentation are statistically significant predictors of spontaneous resolution. ..
  52. Krijnen P, van Jaarsveld B, Deinum J, Steyerberg E, Habbema J. Which patients with hypertension and atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis benefit from immediate intervention?. J Hum Hypertens. 2004;18:91-6 pubmed
    ..Other hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic renal artery disease could initially well be treated by aggressive multidrug therapy alone unless hypertension persists or renal function deteriorates...
  53. Piepsz A, Tondeur M, Ham H. Revisiting normal (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance values in children. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2006;33:1477-82 pubmed
    ..73 m(2), respectively), compared with 117 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in the first group. The data of the second group are probably more representative of the true normal GFR values and can be applied to the entire paediatric population. ..